The worldwide demand for production of clean energy through hydro power has been a major issue of concern. Most of the hydropower resources from the developing countries of Asia like Nepal are yet to be harnessed. The technology regarding design of hydromechanical components in Nepal is still in the prenatal phase where the traditional design attempts and processes are being followed. These trends in the design process lack the virtual analysis part which has been causing the modification of design after construction, failure of the system etc. Implementation of Computer Aided Simulations with penstock pipes and similar other civil structures can be an effective approach for pr-estimation. A hydraulically optimized and structurally stable design ascertains sustainability of plants. More advanced design attempts with incorporation of Computational Simulations increases the reliability along with cost efficiency by optimizing the factor of safety. A case study of Daraudi Khola Hydropower of 6 MW, an under construction power plant in Nepal is used, in which hydraulic and mechanical design for a bifurcation has been performed using Computational analysis. The design is currently under the fabrication stage in the site.

© All Rights Reserved

29 visualizações

The worldwide demand for production of clean energy through hydro power has been a major issue of concern. Most of the hydropower resources from the developing countries of Asia like Nepal are yet to be harnessed. The technology regarding design of hydromechanical components in Nepal is still in the prenatal phase where the traditional design attempts and processes are being followed. These trends in the design process lack the virtual analysis part which has been causing the modification of design after construction, failure of the system etc. Implementation of Computer Aided Simulations with penstock pipes and similar other civil structures can be an effective approach for pr-estimation. A hydraulically optimized and structurally stable design ascertains sustainability of plants. More advanced design attempts with incorporation of Computational Simulations increases the reliability along with cost efficiency by optimizing the factor of safety. A case study of Daraudi Khola Hydropower of 6 MW, an under construction power plant in Nepal is used, in which hydraulic and mechanical design for a bifurcation has been performed using Computational analysis. The design is currently under the fabrication stage in the site.

© All Rights Reserved

- Well Tubing
- How to design a Gravity Flow Water System
- 14 years GATE Questions 1997-2014
- Sdgcover Arup Handbook
- SAB2513 Hydraulic Chapter 7
- Reinforced Concrete
- Beam Design IS800 2007
- Design of Reinforced Slab & Deck Girder Bridge-AASHTO
- Subsurface WW Distribution Calculations-S.I.
- Fluid Mechanics-I Lab Manual
- 12004 Calculations Reduced
- Constant Head Test
- Introduction 9024
- Chapter 4 PART 2
- UB254 to UB457
- not rc beam
- 43.pdf
- 08r050210201 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery
- Pertemuan Ke 5
- lab1

Você está na página 1de 10

Project, Nepal

Ravi Koirala1*, Sailesh Chitrakar1, Hari Prasad Neopane1, Balendra Chettri2

1

Turbine Testing Lab, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

2

Nirvana Tech Pvt. Ltd., Kathmandu, Nepal

* ravikoirala@ku.edu.np

Abstract

The worldwide demand for production of clean energy through hydro power has been a major issue of concern.

Most of the hydropower resources from the developing countries of Asia like Nepal are yet to be harnessed. The

technology regarding design of hydromechanical components in Nepal is still in the prenatal phase where the

traditional design attempts and processes are being followed. These trends in the design process lack the virtual

analysis part which has been causing the modification of design after construction, failure of the system etc.

Implementation of Computer Aided Simulations with penstock pipes and similar other civil structures can be an

effective approach for pr-estimation. A hydraulically optimized and structurally stable design ascertains

sustainability of plants. More advanced design attempts with incorporation of Computational Simulations increases

the reliability along with cost efficiency by optimizing the factor of safety. A case study of Daraudi Khola

Hydropower of 6 MW, an under construction power plant in Nepal is used, in which hydraulic and mechanical

design for a bifurcation has been performed using Computational analysis. The design is currently under the

fabrication stage in the site.

More over water during the dividing phenomena shows irrelevant behavior hence special care and attention is

required during the hydraulic and mechanical design of bifurcation. Determining the angle of bifurcation and

sectional dimensions for the minimum head loss and identification of structural members for the rigidity are the

major issue of concern. Implementation of computational methods for more reliable design process with visual aids

to estimate the phenomena is the prime need in these kinds of complex cases. Primarily traditional analytical

methods were used to estimate the basic dimensions and CFD simulations were performed for analysis and

optimization. Analytical design with computational analysis is an essential design methodology for critical

structures.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Computational Analysis, Design

1.

Introduction

Hydropower stands as the green solution to global energy demand. Most of the countries in Asian continent like

Nepal have recently entered into the pool of investment in hydropower sector. In fact hydropower development

requires long construction period, large investment and intense Research and Development. In case of compromise

in any of the variables may result into inefficient power development system. Moreover, here in this paper we are

focused on need of proper design and design analysis of Hydromechanical components whose failure may result into

catastrophic disasters like failure of 9/10 units at Sayano Shushenskaya Power Station, Russia in 2009, penstock

rupture in 2000 at Bieudron Power Station, Switzerland because of inability to resist the internal pressure, Penstock

rupture at Lapino Power Plant, Poland due to mechanical failure under water hammer, etc. (1).

Design attempts at current state are more focused on analytical approach, where calculation processes has been

simplified for results. The hydraulic behavior of water at different phases of operation shows irrelevant behaviors

hence examination with finite element analysis and identification of flow nature with finite volume analysis is an

important perspective to be included.

This paper forwards a design attempt of bifurcation implemented for an under construction hydropower which

implements synergy of both the analytical and computational approaches. Bifurcation refers to the penstock segment

with for flow division to two plant units as shown in figure

2.

Particularly, there can be many important reasons behind the need and use of bifurcation in the hydropower plant (2)

(3). These reasons are discussed below:

i.

Flow variation

There can be significant amount of flow variation in the water bodies in an Annual Seasonal Cycle [ASC]. Since the

part flow and part load operation of turbine results into efficiency deterioration along with the maintenance issues on

continuous operation in off design condition, a number of units are installed. Hence, instead of operating a turbine in

20% flow with single unit, one of the two units will be closed and more efficiency can be attained.

ii.

Economical perspective of penstock

An alternative for installation of two units without bifurcation is using two penstocks but this doubles the cost of

penstock installation, hence bifurcation is preferred.

iii.

Maintenance perspective

If bifurcation is included in a plant, then cyclic operation of plant on the basis of priority can be done without

completely shutting down the entire system for maintenance activities.

iv.

Geographical perspective

The topography of the area and the gradient in the site may not allow the installation of larger penstock or multiple

penstocks hence a bifurcation would be required to install multiple units.

v.

Technical specifications

Although it is rare but in some cases, the capacity of the turbine and the potentiality of the site may be different in

such case installation of multiple units may be assisted by it. In other cases there may be effect of the size of

penstock or material used in the penstock to select the branching in them.

3.

Daraudi Khola Hydropower Project is a run-of-river type hydropower project developed over Daraudi river situated

in Gorkha district of Western Nepal. This project is currently under construction phase.

Table 1 Specification of Daraudi Khola Project

Specification

Head

Main Flow

Each Flow

Penstock diameter

Length

Description

63.8

11.32

5.66

2.1

298.77 + 16

Unit

m

m3/s

m3/s

m

m

Wyes branches must be designed for smooth hydraulic flow to avoid excessive head loss, vibration, and cavitation.

They must be geometrically detailed for proportional flow distribution, eliminate acceleration or deceleration of

flow in the adjoining branches, and thus minimize head loss. Head loss in the penstock, including losses in wyes and

branches, contribute to inefficiencies in the power generation system and may result in lost generating revenue or in

the case of pumped storage projects, additional pumping costs.

Angle of bifurcation, ratio of cross sectional area, type and shape of bifurcation, flow, velocity and reynolds

number are some of the major factors governing head losses. Approximation of these parameters using set of

equations at two dimension, may not be relevant to determine the effectiveness.

So far the practices are concerned, often hydraulic design (angle) of bifurcation are prepared based on the flow ratio

referencing the graphs resulted from various researches. In some cases the graph may give a valid bifurcation angle

(but its rare the cases match) but many others were designed on larger hydraulic losses. Based upon the series of

experiments, graphical representation of the losses has been prepared.

Graphical representation from the Miller experiments and Munich test are some of the major representations. (4) (5)

(6).

Figure 3 Miller's Plot for Head Loss Coefficient in Symmetric Bifurcation (5)

Geometry development and Computational analysis attempts

The branching sections were only considered during the modeling and the mesh was prepared. Primarily, Mesh

Independent Test with the predefined convergence criteria of 1% on the Design was performed and on that size i.e.

2,018,417 nodes, rest of the analysis was done. An important consideration during the analysis should be maintained

during the selection of the length for computational analysis to obtain steady developed flow.

After the predetermination of the size of computational model, mesh on the geometry of each angle from 45 o to 70o

was performed to determine the point of minimum head loss with the domain definition, boundary conditions and

solver parameters defined in Table 2. (7)

Table 2 Boundary conditions and fluid features for CFD analysis

Fluid

Density

Morphology

Domain motion

Turbulence Model

Inlet

Pressure

Outlet1

Mass flow rate

Outlet2

Mass flow rate

Mass & Momentum

Wall roughness

Analysis type

Min Iteration

Max Iteration

Domain Definition

Water

1000 kg /m3

Continuous fluid

Stationary

Shear Stress Transport

Boundary Conditions

624000.366 Pa

5682.9 kg/sec

5682.9 kg/sec

Wall Features

No slip wall

Smooth wall

Steady State Analysis

Convergence control

1

200

Convergence Criteria

RMS

10e-5

Residual type

Residual target

The head loss was determined by the Equation 1and described graphically as in the Figure 2.

=

[Equation 1]

35

34

33

32

31

30

29

28

27

26

45 47 49

51 53 55 57

59 61 63

65 67 69

From figure 2, it has been found that the angle of bifurcation for the minimum head loss is at 51o.

Figure 6 Pressure distributin in the central plane and the point of maximum pressure

5. Mechanical Design of Bifurcation

5.1. Identification of basic mechanical features

The backgrounds like material properties and fluid properties are identified prior to the analysis. The Indian

Standard guide lines for the selection of the material, its allowable stress and corrosion allowance has been

allocated. Table 3 shows the background for the analysis.

Particular

Dimensions

Description

ID

Angle

Design Head

Flow

Units

Max. Static Head

Max. Surge Head

Total Head

Buried Pressure [8 m buried]

Mild steel of the standard

Density

Youngs Modulus

Poissons Ratio

Ultimate Tensile Strength

Yield Strength

allowable

Hydraulic Parameters

Internal Pressure

External Pressure

Material Properties

[IS Standard]

Allowable Stress

(8)

Thickness

IS code 2825:

(Clause 3.2.2)

1969

Corrosion Allowance

Minimum standard thickness

2100 mm

51o

63.8 m

11.32 m3/s

2

63.8 m

26.2 m

90 m

435.8465 N/mm

MS IS-2062

7850 kg/m3

210 GPa

0.3

410 MPa

250 MPa

102.5 MPa

18.03 mm

1.5 mm

20 mm

The structural members are designed incorporating both the analytical method and the finite element method.

Analytical calculations are used for pre-estimation while the finite element was used for optimized solution.

5.2.1.

A penstock wye or branch connection usually has several stiffening beams to resist the loads applied by the shell of

the pipe. The method incorporated rib shortening, shear deformation of the stiffener beams, and variable flange

width. Although valid, this systematic design process is not efficient considering available modern computing

methods. However, a spreadsheet can be used to drastically cut down the time involved with this design method.

To analyze the wye and branch connections using beams, many simplifications and approximations are used (10).

The localized effect of structural discontinuities, restraints of the stiffening beams, foundation support, and dead

load of the water filled pipe are neglected. End load effects and conicity of the outlet pipes are also neglected and

considered to be small in comparison to the vertical load on the beams. Here a finite certain sections are considered

and computation is prepared based on this approach. This analysis also includes this approach of approximation.

The prime design processes include the deflection of the members AO and BO at point O is equal from figure 5.

This computation was performed considering the uniformly distributed load on symmetric section as shown in figure

6.

5.2.2.

The finite element analysis design method provides a more complete representation of the penstock shell stiffener

system. It is becoming the standard design tool for penstock wye design in the hydropower industry (2) (3). The

main aim in this analysis will be fulfilled by this method. Where the detail analysis will be explained and performed

based on this process.

The minimum shell thickness was determined using the analytical methodology for pre-setting the computational

limit. based upon which 3D CAD was developed to perform the unstiffened structural analysis for locating the

critical locations with maximum stress and deflection.

The primary dimensions are then modified to counter act on the resultant deflections and stresses. The result was

obtained with iterative computation of the stiffer and girdle rings. The main constraint for the selection of the size of

the support is the site consideration.

Figure 7 shows the result of the finite element analysis. After an iterative computation for the sizes, 20 mm thickness

at the point of division, 26 mm girdle thickness and 16 mm pipe thickness in the branched segments has been

identified. Both the manufacturability and the performance were considered during the analysis.

6.

Conclusion

The paper discusses over the design of bifurcation for a hydropower plant. The hydraulic design of the bifurcation

was performed considering the standard design guidelines and further computational analysis regarding selection of

angle.

This selected angle was applied with mechanical features and iterative analysis for thickness of pipe and stiffeners

was performed. All the analysis was focused on developing optimum geometry of the bifurcation with minimum

head losses for reliability.

Based upon this design experience, it can be seen that the hydraulic and mechanical structures are either operating in

risk or in high safety factor. A proper engineered structure should be hydraulically, structurally and economically

optimum for sustainability of the plant and it is the recommendation to uplift the existing standard with modern days

design and developmental tools.

7.

Bibliography

1. Case Study: Lapino Power Plant Penstock Failure . Adamkowski, A. 2001, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ,

Vol. 7, pp. 547 - 555.

2. Bambei, John H. Steel Penstocks, Second Edition. s.l. : ASCE Publications, 2012.

3. Staff, AWWA. Steel Pipe: A Guide for Design and Installation, 4th Edition. s.l. : American Water Works

Association .

4. Divatia, E, Chelvaraj, A.S. and Murthy, G.N. Manual on Design Fabrication Erection and Maintenance of Steel.

New Delhi : Central Water Commission, 1974.

6. Institute, American Iron and Steel. Buried Steel Penstocks. 1998.

7. Dobler, W., Knoblauch, H. and Zenz, G. Hydraulic investigation of a Y-bifurcator . University of Garz. 1995.

8. Bureau of Indian Standards. IS 11639 - 2 India, 1995.

9. Standards, Bureau of Indian. IS 11639 (Part 3) India, 1996.

10. Reclamation, Bureau of. Stress Analysis of Wye Branches . s.l. : United States Department of the Interior , 1964.

- Well TubingEnviado porRagu Navya Sree
- How to design a Gravity Flow Water SystemEnviado porArnalich - water and habitat
- 14 years GATE Questions 1997-2014Enviado porEnoch Arden
- Sdgcover Arup HandbookEnviado pormhan
- SAB2513 Hydraulic Chapter 7Enviado porTuan Jalai
- Reinforced ConcreteEnviado porShabbir Osmani
- Beam Design IS800 2007Enviado porvishalnalwar
- Design of Reinforced Slab & Deck Girder Bridge-AASHTOEnviado porWaqas Anjum
- Subsurface WW Distribution Calculations-S.I.Enviado porHRK65
- Fluid Mechanics-I Lab ManualEnviado porउमेश गावंडे
- 12004 Calculations ReducedEnviado porMihnea Costache
- Constant Head TestEnviado porTutor_KL
- Introduction 9024Enviado porCool Irfan
- Chapter 4 PART 2Enviado porFetene Nigussie
- UB254 to UB457Enviado porihpeter
- not rc beamEnviado porMohammad Yunus Salehi
- 43.pdfEnviado pordruwid6
- 08r050210201 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic MachineryEnviado porandhracolleges
- Pertemuan Ke 5Enviado porJun Nainggolan
- lab1Enviado porKenan Jeph Dela Torre
- PIPE Examples.pdfEnviado porMatt Stroud
- CEX_5231_Assignment_hints_2015_-_2016Enviado porUditha Muthumala
- Laboratorio_9-_Permeabilidad_ASTM_2434.PDFEnviado porEdward
- SEM33823CEnviado pormgrubisic
- 02-14cpermeabilityEnviado porgeop74
- WCEE2012_0480Enviado porkapola
- 48049Enviado porObaidUrRehman
- Fluid Power With Applications_A. Esposito.pdfEnviado porhachan
- influencesEnviado porJun Jun
- Hydro Electric SystemEnviado porAbdul Muqeeth

- Pumped storage concept and its potential application in Nepalese Hydropower Context - A case study of Chilime Hydropower Plant, Rasuwa, NepalEnviado porRaviKoirala
- AnSys Rotational Fatigue PresentationEnviado porPeio Gil
- Factors Affecting SNEnviado porRameez Anwar
- FY Operation 2Enviado porRaviKoirala
- 12_Fatigue of MetalsEnviado porvoldemorts
- Future Prospects of Hydropower Development in Nepal through Enhancement in R&D Activities of Turbine Testing LabEnviado porRaviKoirala
- Development of Test Rig for RPT in Turbine ModeEnviado porRaviKoirala

- English PolicyEnviado porRyan Bustillo
- 6 31 Cobb DouglasEnviado poredysutiarso
- 2nd order derivation Schrodinger eqn.docxEnviado porAlokesh Mondal
- Sieve Analysis Methods and Interpretations_ReavisEnviado porsindalisindi
- 2 Intelligent AgentsEnviado porAldrin Rimong
- yyuuiEnviado porakshay patri
- Compiled Lecture JavaEnviado porSharmini Gopinathan
- densitasEnviado porAlkhil Wijanarko
- 0000-30G-011Enviado porJoeri Dieltjens
- learning express booksEnviado porAdel Omar
- Manager of Continuous Improvement (Lean Sigma) or ManufacturingEnviado porapi-78853270
- fractions lessonEnviado porapi-299379997
- Tacheometry FinalEnviado porUsman Ghani
- CSC 123 Syllabus - Fall 2018Enviado pordinh son
- 105 lesson planEnviado porapi-273542496
- multiplication and divisionEnviado porapi-207317283
- PC AT Technical Reference Mar84 3 of 3Enviado porkgrhoads
- MD5Enviado porkshv195
- Linear AlgebraEnviado porЦогтгэрэл Гантөмөр
- Kolkata Municipal Corporation ReportEnviado porSwami Vedatitananda
- mml-book.pdfEnviado porYash Saxena
- Complex numbers in electrical engineering.docxEnviado porRaahish Kalaria
- AATCC ReviewEnviado porGurumurthy B R
- Calculus iEnviado porDrQ
- Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing ProtocolsEnviado porDinesh Kumar
- 10412Enviado porSaidakhror Mukhtorov
- Cap 2aEnviado pormukua
- Nord Gold Analytical Note NewEnviado pormrgaisar
- Axonometric & Oblique Projection With ExampleEnviado porBahar Aktuna
- 2008 Technical PapersEnviado porbodiemcd