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# Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
1.0

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INTRODUCTION
The capacity of a street is related primarily to the signal timing and the geometric
characteristics of the facility as well as to the composition of traffic on the facility.
Geometrics are a fixed characteristic of a facility. Thus, while traffic composition may
vary somewhat over time, the capacity of a facility is generally a stable value that can be
significantly improved only by initiating geometric improvements.
At signalised intersections, the additional element of time allocation is introduced
into the concept of capacity. A traffic signal essentially allocates time among conflicting
traffic movements that seek to use the same space. The way in which time is allocated
significantly affects the operation and the capacity of the intersection and its approaches.
In analysing a signalised intersection, the physical unit of analysis is the lane group.
A lane group consists of one or more lanes on an intersection approach. The outputs
from application of the method in this manual are reported on the basis of each lane
group.
Capacity at intersections is defined for each lane group. The lane group capacity is
the maximum hourly rate at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to pass through
the intersection under prevailing traffic, roadway, and signalization conditions. Capacity
is stated in vehicles per hour (veh/h).
The level of service (LOS) at signalised intersections is expressed in terms of delay,
which relate to control, geometrics, traffic and incidents.
Stopped delay may be used to determine the LOS. It is defined as the time a vehicle waits
at a traffic light. Stopped delay stated in seconds per vehicle (sec/veh).

2.0

OBJECTIVE
The objective is to determine the capacity and level of service of the UTHM signalised
intersection using JKR Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13/87 procedure.

Prepared by:
Name: Dr Basil David Daniel
Date: 1 September 2014

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
3.0

2/19

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APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

4.0

Page

## Odometer / Measuring Wheel

Stopwatch
Analog Counter
Safety Vest
Safety Cones (optional)
Flags (optional)

PROCEDURE
1. At the UTHM Signalised Intersection, conduct a traffic movement count on all
approaches (each lane separately) for one hour in four segments of 15 minutes.
Record the data in Tables 1 10.
2. Measure the lane widths, W (in meter) for all approaches and record the data in
Table 11.
3. For each phase, measure the green time, g (sec) and cycle time, C (sec). Record
the data in Table 12.
4. Convert traffic volumes recorded in Tables 1 10 to passenger car unit (p.c.u.).
This is taken as the design flow, q (pcu/hr) which will then be used in Table 11.
5. Determine the adjusted saturation flow, S (pcu/hr) for each approach and transfer
the values to Table 11.
6. Using Table 11, compute y, which is the ratio of design flow to adjusted
saturation flow and determine the Y value, which is the total value of y for each
approach.
7. Then, calculate the intergreen time, I (sec) and total lost time per cycle L (sec),
8. Determine the practical capacity, Yprac and reserve capacity, RC of the
intersection.
9. Determine the average stopped delay per vehicle, d (sec) and level of service for
each approach.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
5.0

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DATA ANALYSIS
Table 1
Approach (Movement): PARIT RAJA (RIGHT-TURN)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 1
Weather: ____________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (PR1)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 2
Approach (Movement): PARIT RAJA (THROUGH)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 2
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (PT2)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 3
Approach (Movement): PARIT RAJA (THROUGH)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 3
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (PT3)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 4
Approach (Movement): PARIT RAJA (THROUGH)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 4
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (PT4)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 5
Approach (Movement): UTHM (RIGHT TURN)
Lane: 1
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Weather: ___________
Time

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (UR1)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 6
Approach (Movement): UTHM (RIGHT / LEFT TURN)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 2
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (URL2)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 7
Approach (Movement): BATU PAHAT (U-TURN)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 1
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (BU1)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 8
Approach (Movement): BATU PAHAT (THROUGH)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 2
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (BT2)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 9
Approach (Movement): BATU PAHAT (THROUGH)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 3
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (BT3)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 10
Approach (Movement): BATU PAHAT (LEFT-TURN)
Day/Date: __________________ Time: _____________
Time

Lane: 4
Weather: ___________

Traffic Count
Vehicle Class
1

Vehicle Class

Traffic Volume
(veh/hour)

Class 1 (Motorcycles)
Class 2 (Cars)
Class 3 (Vans & Medium Trucks)
Class 4 (Heavy Trucks & Buses)
Total (BL4)
Note: p.c.u. = passenger car unit

p.c.u.
Factor
0.33
1.00
1.75
2.25

p.c.u.

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 11
Phase
Movement
W (m)
S (pcu/hr)
q (pcu/hr)
y = q/S
y

I
PT2

PT3

PT4

II
BT2

BT3

PT2

PT3

III
PT4

PR1

PR1

IV
BU1

Key:
P = Parit Raja Approach; B = Batu Pahat Approach; U = UTHM Approach
T = Through; R = Right-turn; L = Left-turn
1 = Lane 1; 2 = Lane 2; 3 = Lane 3; 4 = Lane 4
Example Calculation of Adjusted Saturation Flow, S

Y = y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 =
Amber time, a =
All-red period, R = 2 sec
Intergreen time, I = a + R =
Drivers reaction time, l = 2 sec
Number of phases, n = 4
Total lost time, L = n(I a) + nl =

UR1

URL2

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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Table 12
Phase
Movement
C (sec)
g (sec)

= g/C
S (pcu/hr)
q (pcu/hr)
qs(pcu/sec)
x = q/S
d (sec)
LOS

I
PT2

PT3

PT4

II
BT2

BT3

PT2

PT3

III
PT4

PR1

PR1

IV
BU1

UR1

URL2

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
6.0

DISCUSSION
Comment on the LOS of UTHM intersection.

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## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
7.0

CONCLUSION

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## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE
8.0

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APPENDICES
(A) Saturation Flow Estimation
If W < 5.5 m, use the following table:
W (m)
S (pcu/hr)

3.0
1845

3.25
1860

3.5
1885

3.75
1915

4.0
1965

4.25
2075

4.5
2210

4.75
2375

5.0
2560

## If W 5.5 m, use the equation S = 525W

S = S Fg Fr Fl Ft
Correction factor for the effect of gradient, Fg is taken as 1.00 for 0% gradient.
Correction factor for the effect of turning radius, Ft
Correction Factor, Ft
0.85
0.90
0.96

Description
for turning radius R < 10 m
for turning radius where 10 m < R < 15 m
for turning radius where 15 m < R < 30 m

## Correction factors for turning traffic, Fr and Fl

% Turning Traffic
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

0.96
0.93
0.90
0.87
0.84
0.82
0.79
0.77
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.69

1.00
1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.91
0.90
0.89

5.25
2760

## Faculty: Faculty of Civil and Environmental

Engineering
Department : Department of Infrastructure and
Geomatic Engineering
Title:
SIGNALISED INTERSECTION
CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

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## (C) Average Stopped Delay per Vehicle

Average delay per vehicle, d on a particular intersection arm is given by the formula:

9 C (1 )2
x2
d

10 2(1 x ) 2qs (1 x )
where
C = cycle time (sec)
= proportion of the cycle that is effectively green for the phase = g/C
qs = flow in pcu/sec
x = degree of saturation = q/S

LEVEL OF SERVICE
A
B
C
D
E
F

## DELAY PER VEHICLE

< 5.0 seconds
5.1 to 15.0 seconds
15.1 to 25.0 seconds
25.1 to 40.0 seconds
40.1 to 60.0 seconds
> 60.0 seconds