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CHAPTER

1.1

RESPIRATION

Human Breathing Mechanism

(e) Ribs
(f) Diaphragm
(g) Intercostal muscles
2 Structure of the lungs:
(a) Inside the lungs, each bronchus divides into
small branches called bronchioles.
(b) Each bronchiole ends in a group of small air
sacs called alveoli. Each air sac is called an
alveolus.
3 The pathway of air from the nasal cavity to the
alveolus:

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Nasal cavity

Trachea

Bronchus

Ribs
Lung
Bronchiole
Intercostal
muscles

Nasal
Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole
cavity

Alveolus
4 Breathing is a process in which air is drawn in and
pushed out of the lungs. The breathing mechanism
is as follows.

Diaphragm

The parts of the human respiratory system:


(a) Nasal cavity
(b) Trachea
(c) Bronchi (singular: bronchus) and bronchioles
(d) Lungs
Inhalation

Exhalation

Air drawn in

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2
3
4
5

Air expelled

Rib cage moves


upwards and
outwards

Rib cage moves


downwards and
inwards

Lungs expand

Lungs deflate

Diaphragm
flattens
downwards

Diaphragm curves
upwards

The outer intercostal muscles contract.


The rib cage moves upwards and outwards.
At the same time, the diaphragm contracts and
flattens.
The volume of the thoracic cavity increases.
The increase in volume causes the air pressure in
the thoracic cavity to fall and become lower than
the atmospheric pressure outside.
The air outside is sucked into the lungs.

1
2
3
4
5

The outer intercostal muscles relax.


The rib cage moves downwards and inwards.
At the same time, the diaphragm relaxes and
curves upwards.
The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
The decrease in volume causes the air pressure in
the thoracic cavity to increase and become higher
than the atmospheric pressure outside.
The air in the lungs is pushed out.

1 Chapter 1

1.2

capillaries into the cells to be used for respiration.


5 Carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the
blood capillaries and is carried by the blood to the
lungs.
6 The efficiency of alveoli in gaseous exchange is
increased by the following characteristics:
(a) Large surface area millions of alveoli provide
a large total surface area for gaseous exchange
to take place.
(b) Thin walls one-cell thick for gases to diffuse
through the walls more easily.
(c) Moist surface allows gases to dissolve in the
moisture for diffusion to occur.
(d) Surrounded by many blood capillaries more
oxygen can diffuse into the blood and more
carbon dioxide can be removed from the
blood.
7 In the lungs, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood
capillaries into the alveolus and is expelled from the
lungs during exhalation.
8 Cell respiration is the oxidation of food in the cell
to release energy, carbon dioxide and water.

Transport of Oxygen in the Human Body

1 Oxygen diffuses from the alveolus into the blood


capillaries surrounding the alveolus.
Deoxygenated blood
(lacks oxygen) from
heart
Oxygenated blood
(oxygen-rich)
to heart
Alveolus

Blood
capillaries

2 In the blood, the oxygen combines with


haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form
oxyhaemoglobin.
Oxygen + haemoglobin oxyhaemoglobin
3 The blood flows from the lungs to the heart. The
blood is then pumped to all parts of the body by the
heart.
4 In the tissues, oxyhaemoglobin decomposes to
release oxygen which diffuses from the blood

1.3

Glucose + oxygen
carbon dioxide + water + energy

Importance of a Healthy Respiratory System

1 Some substances with harmful effects on the respiratory system are listed as follows.
Source of harmful
substances
Cigarette smoke

Harmful
substances

Effects

Nicotine

Addiction to smoking
Narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure

Tobacco tar

Blackens lungs
Lung cancer
Damages lung cells

Acidic substances

Corrode lung cells and lining of air passages

Carcinogenic substances

Lung cancer
Irritate air passages
Damage lung cells

Smoke from factories

Sulphur dioxide

Irritates and damages air passages and lungs

Vehicle exhaust

Carbon monoxide

Reduces amount of oxygen carried by the blood


and causes death in severe cases

Haze (causes include forest


fires and open burning)

Smoke, dust, other


air pollutants

Irritates and damages air passages and lungs

2 Chapter 1

2 Diseases of the respiratory system include the


following.
(a) Bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of
the bronchi. It can be caused by smoking,
excessive dust in the air or chemicals.
(b) Emphysema is a lung disease in which the
alveoli are damaged and destroyed. Most cases
are caused by smoking.
(c) Lung cancer. Smoking is a major cause.
Cigarette smoke contains many carcinogens
(substances which cause cancer), including
tobacco tar.
(d) Asthma is a disease in which the air passages
are inflamed and sensitive to various
substances which can trigger asthma attacks.
During an asthma attack, air passages narrow

suddenly, causing breathing difficulties.


Cigarette smoke can initiate an asthma attack,
make the symptoms worse, or cause the asthma
attacks to happen more frequently.
3 Ways to improve air quality:
(a) Prohibit smoking in public places such as
restaurants and office buildings.
(b) Install catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust
systems to convert poisonous substances such
as carbon monoxide into harmless substances.
(c) Install electrostatic precipitators in factory
chimneys to reduce pollutants in the smoke.
(d) Carpool or use public transport.
(e) Prohibit open burning.
(f) Strictly enforce laws to prohibit vehicles that
release excessive exhaust smoke.

KNOW YOUR WORDS


asthma asma
breathing mechanism mekanisme
pernafasan
diffuse meresap

exhalation hembusan nafas


inhalation tarikan nafas
intercostal muscles otot
interkosta

3 Chapter 1

nasal cavity rongga nasal


respiratory system sistem respirasi
rib tulang rusuk
thoracic cavity rongga toraks