In this paper, the numerical simulation of both the classical Lid Driven Cavity Flow and the Lid Driven Cavity Flow with a block in the flow field are present. They are simulated through pressure correction method within collocated mesh. The pressure field is solved through Poisson equation with the application of Gauss-Seidel iteration, and the velocity is updated from momentum equation.

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In this paper, the numerical simulation of both the classical Lid Driven Cavity Flow and the Lid Driven Cavity Flow with a block in the flow field are present. They are simulated through pressure correction method within collocated mesh. The pressure field is solved through Poisson equation with the application of Gauss-Seidel iteration, and the velocity is updated from momentum equation.

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OE 4628 CFD for Dredging & Offshore Engineering

Team 12

Yang Liu

4384954

Ang Li

4415671

Abstract: In this paper, the numerical simulation of both the classical Lid Driven Cavity Flow

and the Lid Driven Cavity Flow with a block in the flow field are present. They are simulated

through pressure correction method within collocated mesh. Pressure field is solved through

Poisson equation with application of Gauss-Seidel iteration, and velocity is updated from

momentum equation.

Keywords: Lid Driven Cavity; Pressure Correction Method; Poisson Solver; Block in flow field.

1. Learning Objects

In order to look into the behavior of the fluid in viscous flow, we will simulate Lid Driven Cavity

Flow though numerical methods. By adding a block in the flow field, compared with classical

Lid Driven Cavity flow in square control volume, we can inspect the influence of the boundary

on both the numerical discretization and the behavior of fluid. Through these two simulation

we can achieve better understanding about the application of numerical methods in flow

simulation problems and the use of stencil method regarding discretization at boundary.

The Lid Driven Cavity (LDC) flow is a well-known benchmark

problem for viscous incompressible fluid flow. In this paper,

we are dealing with a square area consisting of three rigid

walls and a lid moving with a tangential unit velocity, which

is illustrated in Figure 1. We are interested in the velocity and

pressure of the entire flow field under a Reynolds number of

100. Boundary conditions are shown in Table 1. Both the noslip boundary condition and Neumann boundary condition

are applied in this case. No-slip condition is applied at the

solid walls, whereby the two velocity components are zero at

the body surface. Neumann boundary condition is applied

during the computation of pressure from Poisson equation.

North

South

East

West

Velocity[m/s]

U=UN=1; v=0

u=0; v=0

u=0; v=0

u=0; v=0

Interface

du

0

dx

du

0

dx

du

0

dx

du

0

dy

du

0

dy

du

0

dx

du

0

dy

du

0

dy

dv

0

dx

dv

0

dy

dv

0

dx

dv

0

dy

dv

0

dx

dv

0

dy

dv

0

dx

dv

0

dy

P

=0

y

P

=0

y

P

=0

x

P

=0

x

derivatives

Pressure gradients

3. Space Discretization

With the implementation of pressure correction method, we consider the application of the

fractional step method to the simulation of incompressible flows. The method is described for

a Cartesian mesh, with all flow variables defined in the same points at the centers of the

computational cells, although the staggered grid approach is applied to connect the values at

the cell centers with face defined values. In this case, a cell-centered second order finite

volume discretization is selected. The two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation

are discretized on the uniform Cartesian grid, which is illustrated in Figure 2. The uniform

Cartesian mesh has 41X41 nodes, dividing the domain into 40x40 square cells. The notations

and coordinates are also shown in Figure 2.

(Ghost nodes in this figure only make sense when applying Poisson equation for pressure.)

The velocities are updated from the momentum equations and pressures are obtained by

solving the Poisson equation using Gauss-Seidel method. The procedure includes three phases.

This process is shown in Figure 3.

Initial parameters

Next step

(Ux,y)i+1/2,j (Vx,y)i,j+1/2

(Ux,y)i,j+1/2 (Vx,y)i+1/2,j

Pi+1/2,j

Pi,j+1/2

Pi,j

phase 1:

Intermedia

velociy

phase 3:

Velocity

phase 2: Poisson

equation

Intermedia

velocity

U*i,j V*i,j

3

When applying the numerical discretization at the boundary, there will be some problems.

Take the velocity gradient as an example. From the formula below, we can see if i reach the

max value at boundary, there will be no points at (i+1, j+1), (i-1, j+1), as illustrated in Figure 4.

Herewith, we will use stencil method to solve the problem. In this case, we use the points at

the boundary, instead of the ghost point outside the boundary. This is shown in Figure 4.

The same solution will be applied to the different situations at all the four boundary walls. The

Gauss-Seidel method is applied to approach the result of Poisson equation, where ghost nodes

are in use.

The total simulation time is 15 second, with time step of 0.01 second. The numerical

simulation process is finished in Matlab. Here are the results. The streamlines and velocity

quiver are shown in Figure 5, at t=15s. The velocity and pressure contour are shown

respectively in Figure 6, at t=15s.

4

In order to inspect the behavior of LDC flow, a block is

placed in the flow field. The size of the block is 10x10 grid

cells. It locates at the middle of lateral wall, which is

shown in Figure 7.

With the presence of the block, the space discretization is

somewhat changed. In order to use loops in codes to

simplify the coding, it is in need to divide the control

volume into several parts to customize the presence of

the block. This is shown in Figure 8. Though this way we

can easily code with efficient loops. Considering the

difference between the calculation for the point driven by x momentum

and y momentum, the separation should be different.

Figure 7 Location of the block in flow fields

There are four special points around the corner of the block at the edge close to the center of

the flow field. At these points, when applying numerical discretization, there will be some

missing points from which we cant obtain a certain value. This problem is shown in Figure 9,

for instance, at left side. This problem can be solved though stencil method, with reference to

the numerical discretization near boundaries. The stencil method applied at the corners is also

shown in Figure 9, at right side.

Apart from all these problems, the simulation process is just similar to LDC flow simulation

with square flow field, which is shown in chapters above.

7. Simulation result of LDC Flow with the Presence of a Block in Flow Field

The total simulation time is 15 second, with time step of 0.01 second. The numerical

simulation process is still finished in Matlab. Here are the results. The streamlines and velocity

quiver are shown in Figure 10, at t=15s. The velocity and pressure contour, with respect to

different times (t=0.2, 0.5, 5, 15) are shown respectively in Figure 11 & 12.

Figure 10 Streamlines and velocity quiver of LCD flow with a block at t=15s

8. Conclusion

From the results of the simulations, it can be seen that changes of the boundary walls (the

presence of a block) have great effect not only on the behavior of fluid, but also on the

complexity of numerical discretization. With the presence of the block, more boundary walls

need to be taken into account. Besides, the corner points around the block behaves very

different from normal boundary walls when applying numerical discretization. As a result, they

should be worked on separately from normal boundary walls. Stencil method is still highly

recommended in use to deal with such points.

9. Recommendation

There are still some problems in the block present case.

For instance, at the end of the simulation, in the plot of

streamlines there are some strange tails drawn by

Matlab, which is shown in Figure 13. Most likely this is due

to the parameter of the plot, which makes Matlab

thinking the missing parts are too small to plot.

Hence, in further study, it is highly recommended to look

into the parameter and configuration of the simulation,

like size of the grid, complexity of boundary, velocity of

inflow and outflow, setting of the plot, etc.

tails

Reference

[1] Charles Hirsch. Numerical Computation of Internal & External Flows.

[2] Benjamin Seibold. A compact and fast Matlab code solving the incompressible NavierStokes equations on rectangular domains.

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