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Atmaram Kayastha1, Young-Ho LEE2a, Hari Prasad Neopane3 and Bhola Thapa4

1, 3 & 4

Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Korea

a

Corresponding author (lyh@kmou.ac.kr)

Abstract:

Hydro cyclones are one of the efficient devices for solid liquid separation and are in use for centuries. They are

known to be used for separation of particles as small as 5 m. The rise in concentration of sediment particles

during monsoon season, in most of the Nepalese rivers, reach as high as 25000 PPM and 6000 PPM on average.

Similarly, the mineral composition analysis of the sediment particles shows high concentration hard materials like

Quartz, Feldspar etc. These minerals cause erosion in the hydraulic turbines by erosive or abrasive behavior when

they pass through them.

But they have not been used or rarely been studied to be applied for preventing sediment particles from entering the

hydraulic turbines and reduce sediment erosion. So, this study has been focused on numerical analysis of these

devices to stretch forward the feasibility of their application to tackle the sediment erosion problem. The results of

the analysis showed excellent performance of hydro cyclones in separating sediment particles of different sizes and

concentration. Under relatively low pressure drop across the hydro cyclone, it showed separation efficiency of

about 100 % for critical particle size of 125 m and above 87 % for the particle size of 50 m. The loss of water

through underflow is also less than 5% of the total discharge at inlet.

2

Keywords: sediment erosion, hydraulic turbines, hydrocyclone separator, critical particle size

1. Introduction:

1.1 Sediment

Sediments are small organic and mineral particles in

water, in the form of clay, silt, sand and gravels [1]

made of fragmentation of rock due to chemical and

mechanical weathering. The topsoil on earth

comprises of more than 80% silt which large rivers,

originating from Himalayas, carry to the seas each

year that account to billions of tons. The factors

responsible for such extensive soil erosion in the

Himalayas are tropical climate, young geology,

glacial sediment unleashed from melting glaciers and

degradation of catchment area [2].

The sediment induced wear in hydraulic turbine is a

function of many parameters which include sediment

particle properties, water flow and turbine properties.

The sediment properties like size, shape, friability,

concentration, impact energy, mineral type and

hardness are jointly responsible for the intensity and

HPP

Panauti

Sunkoshi

Jhimrukh

Arunkhola

Sundarijal

Bhotekoshi

1 mm

0.40

0.19

0.00

0.06

3.85

0.27

0.6 mm

2.05

0.29

0.00

0.11

15.27

2.84

turbine properties like pressure differences, relative

velocity, angle of attack, wear resistance of turbine

material and operation regimes are mutually

responsible for the subjecting sediment wear on

hydraulic turbines [1]. Several forces like drag, lift,

centrifugal, Coriolis and buoyancy, generated from

the flow and turbine parameters and affected by

sediment properties, act on the sediment particles to

stabilize and destabilize its positions. Laboratory

experiments can be carried out with few variations in

sediment properties while numerical and empirical

models are limited to specific assumptions. This

makes it impossible to derive general models for the

sediment movement and wear on turbine

components. The parameters like nature of the

suspended particles, velocity, nature of erodent

particles and mass concentration are difficult to

control and assess, and compare to each other during

0.3 mm

0.2 mm

0.125 mm

0.075 mm

2.40

3.00

81.12

5.58

7.54

16.54

69.26

3.62

0.76

1.36

84.53

6.22

8.30

37.23

51.15

1.37

63.64

5.88

8.33

0.87

45.58

32.26

18.19

0.64

0.065 mm

4.42

1.37

6.14

1.18

0.58

0.16

changed, the influence of the change on other

parameters is hard to assess and hence to quantify the

erosion on the basis of comparable circumstances,

nature of erosion and location of erosive wear.

1.2 Sediment characterization in Nepalese Rivers

In order to reduce the sediment induced problems in

hydraulic turbines, it is therefore necessary to assess

the sediment particles present in the water and a

sediment exclusion study [6].The study specifically

should include

the particle

characteristics

determination such as density, shape and size. All this

population of particles with diverse sizes and shapes

needs to be identified and characterized. The

frequency of occurrence of particles of every size

present arranged and presented in a statistical manner

which is known as the particle size distribution

(PSD).

Most recently, a technical survey was conducted by

Turbine Testing Lab (TTL), Kathmandu University to

analyze sediment erosion potentials of major river

basins of Nepal as a part of NORAD Feasibility

study project. This study mainly focused on

identifying the concentration of different mineral

types and particles sizes in those river waters. For the

study, different sediment samples were collected

from headwork, settling basin and downstream of the

existing as well as proposed hydropower plants with

different turbine types.

Amongst the samples collected from different

locations of Hydro-Power Plant (HPP), the PSD in

downstream side actually provide more specific

information on particle sizes that have been through

the turbine and majorly responsible for the erosive

wear in the turbine components. So, in order to get a

clear insight to the PSD of the collected samples,

sieving analysis method was used and the results

were tabulated. The PSD in different HPPs of Nepal

can be seen in Table. 4.

in most of the Hydropower Plants, is 0.125 mm. The

sieving analysis of sample collected from Jhimrukh

Hydroelectric center, which is one of the sites with

the worst case of sediment erosion, also shows the

highest concentration of particle with 0.125 mm

diameter [8, 6].

Similarly, the mineral content of the sediment was

also analyzed in this study. The average distribution

of mineral content, in percentage, in different HydroPower Plants of Nepal can be seen in Table. 5.

Table 2 Mineral content analysis in different HPP of Nepal

[7]

HPP

Quartz

Feldspar

Muscovite

Biotite

65.69

8.28

12.46

6.18

59.34

5.61

18.18

7.49

67.37

8.45

9.15

11.03

61.70

11.94

8.31

8.60

Panauti

Sunkoshi

Jhimrukh

Arunkhola

Sundarijal

Bhotekoshi

Physical

Properties

Mohs

Hardness

Structure

Crystal

Structure

Quartz

Feldspar

Muscovite

Biotite

6-6.5

2.5-3

2.5-3

Crystalline,

Sharp and

absence of

cleavage

Hexa-gonal

Cleavage

of 2 to 3

Perfect

Cleavage

Basal,

Perfect

Cleavage

P

C

Triclinic

or Monoclinic

2.5 - 2.7

Monoclinic

Monoclinic

Specific

2.65

2.8 - 3

2.76 - 3.3

Gravity

1.3 Hydro Cyclone Separator

The separation of solid and liquid phases is usually

the most common phase separation requirement in

industrial application and the common methods to do

are depicted in figure 1. The selection of proper

device for separation purpose also depends on the

required output product like particle free liquid,

concentrated solid or degree of dryness of solid.

different Hydro-Power Plants in Nepal [7]

decreases as the sediment flows from headwork to

downstream. It was also concluded from the analysis

that the most common PSD of sediment that reached

turbine was in the range of 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm. In the

table given above, we can clearly see that the

in figure 1 also depends on the separation efficiency

of the device on the basis of particle size diameter

and concentration. Operating range of different

devices as shown in figure 2 work on the specific

limit of particle size and concentration. And the

device like hydrocyclone is most efficient in

separating fine particles with concentration lower

than 20 % which is well suited for purifying sediment

flooded river waters.

according to particle size and feed concentration

(left) [10] and performance of sedimentation

equipment (right) [11]

A hydro cyclone is a device to classify, separate or

sort particles in a liquid suspension based on the ratio

of their centripetal force to fluid resistance

[12].Figure 3 (left) shows a typical hydro cyclone

setup for solid liquid separation.

The principle of operation of the hydro cyclone is

based on the concept of the terminal settling velocity

of a solid particle in a centrifugal field. It has no

moving parts and consists of a conical section joined

to a cylindrical portion, which is fitted with a

axially mounted overflow pipe [12-15]. The end of

the cone terminates in a circular apex opening. Hydro

cyclones are used for solid liquid separations; as well

as for solids classification and liquid-liquid

separation [16-19]. Hydro cyclones have been in use

for more than 100 years but its first industrial

applications date from late 1940s [13].They are

simple and robust separating devices, which can be

used over the particle size range from 4 to 500

micron [9].

(left) [13] andBradley's Hydro cyclone proportions

(right)

2.1 Empirical Relations

The nomographs illustrated by Zanker [20] can be

used to make a preliminary estimate of the size of the

cyclone needed. The best arrangement and design for

guidelines provided by manufacturers.

The empirical relation for reduced cut size d 50

developed by Bradley in 1960is as follows:

D3c

d 50=4.5

L1.2 ( s L )

Where,

(2.1)

Dc

is the

d50 particle diameter is the diameter of the particle, 50

% of which will pass through the overflow and 50

percent in the underflow.

Figure 3 (right) shows the empirical relations of

different components of hydro cyclone separator

corresponding to the characteristic diameter.

The nomenclatures of hydro cyclone separator

components with their empirical relations are as

follows:

Inlet pipe diameter,

DI =

Dc

7

(d50) and characteristic diameter (Dc)

With the major parameters i.e. actual particle size to

be separated and the amount of separation efficiency

required, known, the reduced cut size of the particles

can be calculated by referring to figure 4 (left);

developed from the empirical relation in equation

(2.1) provided by Bradley.

The figure represents the values of cut size (d 50),

particle size (d) and separation efficiency () on

respective scales corresponding to equation (2.1).

The value of "d50"can be obtained from the figure by

drawing and extending a line connecting values of

"d" and "" to the "d50" scale. The values of "d" and

"" taken in this study are 20 m and 95%

respectively for which the corresponding value of

"d50" is 12.75 m.

(2.2)

D u=

Dc

10

(2.3)

Dv=

Dc

3

(2.4)

l=

Dc

3

(2.5)

l 1=

Dc

7

(2.6)

Cone angle,

=912 deg

Total length of separator,

Lc

particle separation (left) [20] and Characteristic

diameter (Dc) calculated from flow rate, physical

properties and d 50 particle size (right) [20]

Similar to the previous case, the value of

characteristic diameter of the cyclone separator can

be determined from figure 4 (right).

calculation of characteristic diameter of the hydro

cyclone separator are as follows:

1. Dynamic viscosity of liquid, = 1.0 mNs/m2

2. Density of liquid, l = 1 gm/cm3

3. Density of solid, w = 2.65 gm/ cm3

4. Flow rate, L = 720 Liters/min

The value of characteristic diameter of the hydro

cyclone separator obtained by referring to the values

of different parameters mentioned above is 35 cm

which exhibits 50% separation efficiency for particle

size of 12.75 m.

By substituting the value of characteristic diameter of

separator in equation (2.2) to (2.6), the dimension of

the respective components can be calculated; the

calculated dimensions are listed in table 4.

Table 4.Dimensions of hydro cyclone separator in

cm

Dc

Di

Do

Du

l

L1

Lc

35

5

11.67 3.5

11.67 17.5

12

74.1

by Bennett.

d

0.115

(

)]

d

[

=100 1e

3

50

(2.7)

Where,

and d is the selected particle diameter in m.

Figure 6 shows the calculated separation efficiency

of sediment particle sizes from 10 m to 125 m. For

the particle size of 12.75 m which is the cut size of

the hydro cyclone separator, 50% separation

efficiency is obtained. Meanwhile, for the particle

size below the cut size, separation efficiency is lower

than 50 %; in this case 25 %. For the particle size in

the range of 20 m to 125 m, separation efficiency

obtained should be higher than 90%.

hydro cyclone separator with sedimentation tank

developed for the specific separating operation. The

separator is modeled in CREO 2.0 Parametric

Student Version, according to the dimensions

obtained from the previous calculation.

Overflow

Outlet

pipe

Inlet Pipe

obtained from eq. (2.7) for different particle sizes

3. Numerical Analysis

3.1 Mesh Generation

Separator

Sedimentation

Tank

cyclone separator with sedimentation tank

The theoretical separation efficiency of different

particle sizes processed through the hydro cyclone

Body

The

separator is accomplished in CREO Parametric 2.0

(Student Version) and mesh in ANSYS ICEM CFD

for the numerical analysis. Tetrahedral elements are

used for the mesh generation. To capture the

boundary layer separation on the walls, 12 layers of

inflation are added with initial thickness of 10 -5m at a

growth rate of 1.25. The maximum value of y plus

obtained in the analysis with the above settings of

boundary layer is 5.15. The total number of nodes

obtained for the analysis is2 million and total number

generated for the separator in ICEM CFD.

Overflow

outlet wall

Inflation

Layer

Avg.

Static

Pressur

e Outlet

Mass

Flow

Inlet wall

Inflation

Layer

Figure 7.Mesh of Hydro Cyclone Separator with

sedimentation tank

3.2.1 Boundary Conditions

The boundary conditions used at the inlet and outlets

of the hydro cyclone separator are "Mass Flow Rate"

ranging from Q 0.8 to Q 1.2 and "Average Static

Pressure" of 0 Pa, respectively. The Q 0.8 stands for

flow rate into the separator at 80% load condition of

the designed flow rate, 12 Kg/s. The total 5 cases of

flow rates are taken in the analysis i.e. Q 0.8, Q 0.9, Q

1.0, Q 1.1 and Q 1.2. The walls of the separator were

modeled with sand grain roughness of 0.046mmand

no slip condition. The interaction of solid particles

with wall was to equation dependent and the

restitution coefficients i.e. perpendicular and parallel,

both, were set to 0.905. The minimum impact angle

of solid particles on the separator wall was set to 10.0

deg.Figure 8 shows the hydro cyclone separator setup

in ANSYS CFX 13.0 with inlet and outlet conditions.

The analysis consisted of two different phases, which

are water (liquid) and sediment particles (solid) with

densities 1gm/cm3 and 2.65 gm/cm3 respectively.

Amongst them water was used as Continuous Fluid

and the sediment particle was treated as Particle

Transport Solid. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD)

in the analysis included 8 different sizes of sediment

particle ranging from 10 to 125 m with shape and

surface area factors set to 1.0. The reference pressure

in the analysis was set to 1 atm. As buoyancy is also

an important factor in analysis considering phases

with densities, so it was set active with a value of

9.81 m/s2 along z direction. The concentration of

sediment particles was chosen to 6000 PPM which is

the average concentration of particle found in the

Nepalese rivers during the monsoon period. The mass

flow rate of sediment particles was varied

corresponding to the flow rate of water at different

load condition.

Turbulence consists of fluctuations in the flow field

in time and space. It is a complex process, mainly

because it is three dimensional, unsteady and consists

of many scales. It can have a significant effect on the

characteristics of the flow. Turbulence occurs when

the inertia forces in the fluid become significant

compared to viscous forces, and is characterized by a

high Reynolds number.

both laminar and turbulent flows without the need for

additional information. However, turbulent flows at

realistic Reynolds numbers span a large range of

turbulent length and time scales, and would generally

involve length scales much smaller than the smallest

finite volume mesh, which can be practically used in

the numerical analysis. The Direct Numerical

Simulation (DNS) of these flows would require

computing power which is many orders of magnitude

higher than available in the foreseeable future.

Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) Turbulence Model

These models are based on the transport equations

for all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and

the dissipation rate. These models do not use the

eddy viscosity hypothesis, but solve an equation for

the transport of Reynolds stress in the fluid. The

Reynolds stress model transport equations are solved

for the individual stress components.

Algebraic Reynolds Stress models solve algebraic

equations for the Reynolds stresses, whereas

differential Reynolds stress models solve differential

transport equations individually for each Reynolds

Stress component.

The Reynolds averaged momentum equations for the

mean velocity is:

} =p+ {2} over {3} { {U} rsub {k}} over { {x} rsub {

( uiu j )

is made

equation must be solved for each of the six Reynolds

stress components of

( uiu j )

. The differential

uiu j

u

k

+

U k u iu j )

kl + C s u kui

(

t

xk

xk

((

Where

Pij

Pij, b

and

respectively,

ij

Pij = uiuk

U k

Ui

u juk

xk

xk

(3.4)

The

to {i}

buoyancy

is {j}} right ) + {S} rsub {{M

}} over { {x} rsub {i}} - {} over { {x} rsub {j}} left

( production

acute {{u}due

rsub

{u} rsub

1

Pij, b=Bij C buo B ij B kk ij

U i

U i U j 3

+

U i U j )

+

=

(

t

xj

xj

x j xi

[(

is a modified pressure,

SM

is the

B ij is given by

B ij =g i b j + g j b i

stress

)]

(3.5)

Where, the second term represents the buoyancy

contribution from the pressure-strain term, and

(3.1)

Where

contribution

is

( uiu j )

Unlike

eddy

turbulence contribution and is related to the static

(thermodynamic) pressure by:

(3.6)

Buoyancy turbulence terms

Pij, b

account and are controlled in the same way as for

k and k model.

ij . It acts

redistributing the Reynolds stresses.

The pressure strain term can be split into two parts:

ij =ij, 1+ij , 2

ij, 1

Where,

ij, 2

is called the

rapid term.

There are three varieties of the standard Reynolds

stress models based on the -equation available.

These are known as LRR-IP, LRR-QI and SSG. The

LRR-IP and LRR-QI models were developed by

Launder, Reece and Rodi. In both models, the

pressure-strain correlation is linear.

IP stands for Isotropization of Production and is the

simplest of the 3 models. The two terms are given by:

2

u iu j ij k

k

3

2

ij, 2=C2 Pij P ij

3

S ij

and

1

ij, 1= C s 1 aij + C s 2 aik a kj amn amn ij

3

)]

(3.12)

(3.13)

Where,

(3.8)

aij =

uiu j 2

ij

k

3

(3.14)

(3.9)

The values of the two coefficients are

and

aij

(3.7)

ij, 1=C1

and Gatski and uses a quadratic relation for the

pressure-strain correlation.

In order to compare the pressure-strain correlations

for the three models, a general form can be derived

C1

S ij =

= 1.8

1 Ui U j

+

2 x j xi

(3.15)

ij =

model in the formulation of the rapid term:

1 U i U j

2 x j xi

(3.16)

C 2+ 8

30 C 28

U i UThis

8general

C 2 form can

2

2 be used to model linear and

j

ij, 2=

Pij P ij

k

+

2

Dij ij P

11

3

55

x j xquadratic

11correlations

3 by appropriate values for the

i

(3.10)

Where

D ij is given by:

D ij = u iuk

(3.11)

U k

Uk

u juk

xj

xi

for each model.

Model

LRR-IP

LRR-QI

SSG

Cs1

1.8

1.8

1.7

Cs2

0.0

0.0

-1.05

Cr 1

0.0

0.0

0.9

Cr 2

0.8

0.8

0.8

Cr 3

0.0

0.0

0.65

of stress anisotropies theoretically make Reynolds

stress models more suited to complex flows.

Cr 4

0.6

0.873

0.625

particle was used as the volume fraction of solid

particle was less than 10-2 and no collision between

the solid particles was considered. Schiller

Naumann's drag force model was selected to model

the momentum transfer between solid and liquid

particles with linearization blend factor of 1.0.

The numerical analysis of the hydro cyclone

separator was accomplished at different load

conditions. The sediment particles comprising of

sizes varying from 10 to 125 m were analyzed in

the numerical simulation. The results of the analysis

showed separation efficiency to be directly

proportional to increasing value of pressure drop

corresponding to the increment in load condition. The

separation efficiency for particle sizes below 20

micron was found less than 20%, similar in all

Reynolds stress turbulence models. The separation

efficiency of particle size 50 micron obtained with

SSG, LRR-IP and LRR-IQ turbulence models Q 1.0

were 87.5, 88.5 and 89.3 respectively. Similarly, the

separation efficiency of particle 100 micron and

above in all turbulence model was 100%. The plot of

separation efficiency versus particle size at different

value of load condition and different turbulence

models can be seen in figure 9, 10 and 11.

The pressure drop across the separator at different

load conditions was also monitored in the analysis.

The pressure drop in the separator was found to

increase proportionally to increasing load condition.

The pressure drop in the separator at designed load

condition, Q 1.0, was 3 m. The values of pressure drop

at different load conditions with the RSM turbulence

models were found fairly similar. The plot of

pressure drop versus load conditions with different

turbulence models can be seen figure 12 (left). The

pressure drop was obtained maximum for load

condition of Q1.2 which corresponds to flow rate of

120

100

condition was 4.5 m.

Similarly, the mass flow rates of water at underflow

and overflow of the hydro cyclone separator were

monitored. The flow rate obtained from overflow of

the separator is discharge recovered. While, the flow

rate obtained from underflow of the separator is

discharge. The loss in discharge or flow rate from the

underflow increased gradually with increment in load

condition. The values of discharge loss, however,

were fairly small. The maximum loss in discharge

was obtained at the load condition of Q 1.2 which is

0.75 kg/s. The losses were fairly similar in all

turbulence models; also shown in figure 12 (right).

80

60

Q0.8

40

Q0.9

Q1.0

20

Q1.1

Q1.2

0

10

100

1000

size with SSG RSM turbulence model at different

values of load condition

LLR-IP RSM Turbulence Model

120

100

curvature correction was used and for the final value,

the Reynolds Stress turbulence models were used.

The numerical simulation of the separator was done

for all three types of Reynolds stress models for

comparison of results with the experimental analysis.

80

60

Q0.8

40

Q0.9

Q1.0

20

Q1.1

Q1.2

0

10

100

1000

particle size with LRR-IP RSM turbulence model at

different values of load condition

120

100

80

60

40

Q0.8

Q0.9

Q1.0

20

Q1.1

Q1.2

0

10

100

1000

particle size with LRR-IQ turbulence model at

different values of load condition

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

SSG RSM

LLR RSM

QI RSM

2.0

1.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

16

14

12

10

SSG Overflow

SSG Underflow

LRR-IP Overflow

LRR-IP Underflow

LRR-IQ Overflow

LRR-IQ Underflow

8

6

4

2

0

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

for different RSM turbulence models (left) and Mass

flow rate of water at underflow and overflow of

hydro cyclone separator (right)

One of the major concerns in operation of the hydro

cyclone is the pressure drop. Hydro cyclone

separators operate at certain amount of pressure drop

and the separation efficiency increases with increase

with higher amount of pressure drop. However,

increase of pressure drop requires higher input

energy and thus compromises the cost effectiveness.

Thus, it is important to find the proper operating

range for pressure drop for which the best

compromise

between

efficiency

and

cost

effectiveness can be achieved.

Figure 13 and 14 shows the pressure distribution and

velocity streamlines inside the hydro cyclone at

respectively at different load conditions.

Figure 15 shows the circumferential velocity of water

inside the hydro cyclone. The circumferential

velocity near the wall is almost zero which sharply

increases when moved towards the center and slowly

resides. The figure shows the circumferential velocity

at different locations of the hydro cyclone along z

axis, where 0.0 m represents the reference location.

cyclone at Q0.8 (top) and Q1.1(bottom) of load

condition

distribution inside the hydro cyclone separator at Q0.9

(left), Q1.0 (mid) and Q1.1 (right) of load condition

Q0.9 (left), Q1.0 (mid) and Q1.1 (right) of load condition

at Q0.8 (left) and Q1.1 (right) of load condition

The solid particles in the hydro cyclone move in a

helical path from the inlet to the underflow due to

centrifugal force acting on the particle. Figure 16

shows the density of solid particles at different

locations of the hydro cyclone along z axis. The x

axis in the figure represents the z values of the hydro

cyclone. The irregular spikes have been observed in

the figure rather than a gradual increase since the

density of solid particles was measured on a sectional

plane. The density of the particles has been

represented by the number of particles tracked during

the analysis.

5. Conclusion

The mineral and PSD analysis of the sediment

samples collected from different rivers of Nepal

helped to identify the mineral composition

(Quartz, Feldspar) and critical particle (125

micron) of the sediment responsible for

maximum erosion. The literature review

revealed the possibility of hydro cyclone to be

used a method to eradicate the erosion problem

hydro cyclone separator was designed for a 1

kW turbine with discharge of 0.012 Kg/s and net

head of 10 m. The characteristic diameter of the

hydro cyclone separator so designed was 35 cm.

The numerical analysis of the hydro cyclone

separator was accomplished for different values

of load condition. The parameters monitored and

measured in the analysis were pressure drop

across the separator, discharge through the

underflow and overflow and separation

efficiency for different particle sizes. The result

of the analysis showed separation efficiency of

100 % for critical particle size diameter i.e. 125

micron at all load conditions. The pressure drop

across the hydro cyclone at designed load

condition was around 3 m or 30 KPa. The

recovered discharge through overflow of the

hydro cyclone separator was around 95% while

5% of the discharge was lost through the

underflow.

So, as we get the results into perspective, the

hydro cyclone separator can be a reasonable

solution to the sediment erosion problem. The

operation of the turbines can be limited to wet

seasons only when the sediment concentration in

the rivers is very high. And the suitable

compromise can be made to reduce erosion

potential and obtain optimal power capacity.

5. References

[1] Thapa, B., Hermod, B., Effect of sand particle

size and surface curvature in erosion of hydraulic

machinery and systems 2004.

[2] Bhusal, J. K., Sediment management in some

catchment of Nepal, Proceeding of the India

Hydro 2005 International workshop on sediment

management in Hydro project.

[3] Thapa, B., Sand Erosion in Hydraulic Machinery,

Ph.D Thesis, NTNU, Norway, 2004.

[4] Pradhan, P.M.S., Dahlhaug, O.G., Joshi, P.N,

Stle, H., Sediment and Efficiency Measurements

at Jhimruk Hydropower Plant Monsoon,

Technical report from Hydro Lab, 2004.

[5] Clark, H.M., Hartwich, R.B., A re-examination of

the particle size effect in slurry erosion, Wear

2000.

[6] Ruud, J.J., Sediment handling problems Jhimrukh

hydroelectric center Nepal, Master's Thesis,

NTNU, Norway, 2004.

[7] Feasibility Study for Francis Turbine

Manufacturing and Testing Facility in Nepal:

Technical Survey Report, Turbine Testing lab,

Kathmandu University, Nepal, 2012: 84.

[8] Neopane, H.P., Sujakhu, S., Particle size

distribution and mineral analysis of sediments in

Nepalese hydropower plant: A case study of

Jhimrukh hydropower plant, Kathmandu

University Journal of Science, Engineering and

Technology 2013; 1:29-36.

[9] Sinnott, R.K., Chemical Engineering Design,

2005; 6(4).

[10] Svarovsky, L., Efficiency of separation of

particles from fluids in solid-liquid separation,

1990; (3): 43-73.

Engineering, 1971: 63.

[12] Castilho, L.R., Medronho, R.A., A simple

procedure for design and performance

prediction

of

Bradley

and

Rietema

hydrocyclones, Minerals Engineering 2000;

13:183-191.

[13] Rivas, E.O., Hydrocyclones, food and chemical

engineering program, UACH, Mexico, 2007.

[14] Nemeth, J., Verdes, S., Flow pattern within

hydrocyclone, Hungarian Journal of Industrial

Chemistry 2011; 39(3): 437-445

[15] Bagdi, P., Bhardwaj, P., Analysis and Simulation

of a Micro Hydrocyclone Device for Particle

Liquid Separation, Journal of Fluid

Engineering 2012; 134: 1-9.

[16] Martignoni, W.P., Bernardo, S., Quintani., C.L.,

Evaluation of cyclone geometry and its

influence on performance parameters by

Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD),

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering

2007; 24(1): 83-94

[17] Al-Fatlawi, A.H.W., Al-Hashimi, O.A.H.,

Improve water quality by cyclone separator as a

pre-treatment technique, International Journal

of Chemical, Environmental and Biological

Sciences 2013; 1(4): 576-583.

[18] Trawinski, H. F., Chemical Engineering

Technology, 1958; 30(85).

[19] Moir, D. N., The Chemical Engineer, 1985; 20:

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