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CHAPTER 1

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER


1.1 Definition
Programmable logic controllers, also called programmable controllers or PLCs, are solid-state
members of the computer family, using integrated circuits instead of electromechanical devices
to implement control functions. They are capable of storing instructions, such as
sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic, data manipulation, and communication, to control
industrial machines and processes. Fig.1.1,illustrates a conceptual diagram of a PLC
application.

Fig. 1.1. Conceptual Diagram Of a PLC Application

Programmable Controllers have many definitions. However, PLCs can be thought of


in simple terms as industrial computers with specially designed architecture in both their central
units (the PLC itself) and their interfacing circuitry to field devices (input/output connections
to the real world).

1.2 A Historical Background


The Hydramatic Division of the General Motors Corporation specified the design criteria for
the first programmable controller in 1968. Their primary goal was to eliminate the high costs
associated with inflexible, relay-controlled systems. The specifications required a solidstate system with computer flexibility able to
(1) survive in an industrial environment,
(2) be easily programmed and maintained by plant engineers and technicians,
(3) be reusable.
Such a control system would reduce machine downtime and provide expandability for
the future. Some of the initial specifications included the following:
The new control system had to be price competitive with the use of relay systems.
The system had to be capable of sustaining an industrial environment.
The input and output interfaces had to be easily replaceable.
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The controller had to be designed in modular form, so that subassemblies could be removed
easily for replacement or repair.
The control system needed the capability to pass data collection to a central system.
The system had to be reusable.
The method used to program the controller had to be simple, so that it could be easily
understood by plant personnel.

1.3 Block Diagram Of PLC


A programmable controller, as illustrated in Fig.1.2, consists of two basic sections:
the central processing unit
the input/output interface system

Fig. 1. 2. Block Diagram Of PLC

1.3.1 Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU) governs all PLC activities. The following three components,
shown in Fig. 1.3, form the CPU:
the processor
the memory system
the system power supply

Fig. 1.3. Block Diagram Of major CPU components of PLC.

Integral relationships exist between the components of the CPU, resulting in


constant interaction among them. Fig. 1.4, illustrates the functional interaction between a
PLCs basic components. In general, the processor executes the control program stored in the
memory system in the form of ladder diagrams, while the system power supply provides all of
the necessary voltage levels to ensure proper operation of the processor and memory
components.

Fig. 1.4.Functional Interaction Of A PLC System

Processors

Very small microprocessors (or micros)integrated circuits with tremendous computing and
control capabilityprovide the intelligence of todays programmable controllers. They
perform mathematical operations, data handling, and diagnostic routines that were not possible
with relays or their predecessor, the hardwired logic processor. Fig. 1.5, illustrates a processor
module that contains a microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and a memory system.
The principal function of the processor is to command and govern the activities
of the entire system. It performs this function by interpreting and executing a collection of
system programs known as the executive. The executive, a group of supervisory programs,
is permanently stored in the processor and is considered part of the controller itself. By
executing the executive, the processor can perform all of its control, processing,
communication, and other housekeeping functions.

Fig. 1.5. Allen Bradleys PLC processorsmodels 5/12, 5/15, and 5/25.

The executive performs the communication between the PLC system and the user via
the programming device. It also supports other peripheral communication, such as monitoring
field devices; reading diagnostic data from the power supply, I/O modules, and memory; and
communicating with an operator interface.
The CPU of a PLC system may contain more than one processor (or micro) to execute
the systems duties and/or communications, because extra processors increase the speed of
these operations. This approach of using several microprocessors to divide control and
communication tasks is known as multiprocessing. Fig. 1.6, illustrates a multiprocessor
configuration.

Fig. 1. 6. A multiprocessor configuration

The Processor Scan


The basic function of a programmable controller is to read all of the field input devices and then
execute the control program, which according to the logic programmed, will turn the field
output devices ON or OFF. In reality, this last process of turning the output devices ON or OFF
occurs in two steps. First, as the processor executes the internal programmed logic, it will turn
each of its programmed internal output coils ON or OFF. The energizing or de- energizing of
these internal outputs will not, however, turn the output devices ON or OFF. Next, when the
processor has finished evaluating all of the control logic program that turns the internal coils
ON or OFF, it will perform an update to the output interface modules, thereby turning the field
devices connected to each interface terminal ON or OFF. This process of reading the inputs,
executing the program, and updating the outputs is known as the scan. Fig. 1.7 shows a graphic
representation of the scan. The scanning process is repeated over and over in the same fashion,
making the operation sequential from top to bottom.

Fig. 1. 7.PLC total scan representation.

Sometimes, for the sake of simplicity, PLC manufacturers call the solving of the control
program the program scan and the reading of inputs and updating of outputs the I/O update
scan. Nevertheless, the total system scan includes both. The internal processor signal, which
indicates that the program scan has ended, is called the end-of-scan (EOS) signal.
The time it takes to implement a scan is called the scan time. The scan time is the total time the
PLC takes to complete the program and I/O update scans. The program scan time generally
depends on two factors:
(1) The amount of memory taken by the control program and
(2) The type of instructions used in the program (which affects the time needed to execute the
instructions).
The time required to make a single scan can vary from a few tenths of a millisecond to 50
milliseconds.

Memory
Memory in the system is generally of two types; ROM and RAM.
1. The ROM memory contains the program information that allows the CPU to
interpret and act on the Ladder Logic program stored in the RAM memory.
2. RAM memory is generally kept alive with an on-board battery so that ladder
programming is not lost when the system power is removed.
3. This battery can be a standard dry cell or rechargeable nickel-cadmium type.
4. Newer PLC units are now available with Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory (EEPROM) which does not require a battery.
5. Memory is also housed in the processor module in modular systems.

The System Power Supply


The system power supply plays a major role in the total system operation. In fact, it can be
considered the first-line manager of system reliability and integrity. Its responsibility is
not only to provide internal DC voltages to the system components (i.e., processor, memory,
and input/output interfaces), but also to monitor and regulate the supplied voltages and warn
the CPU if something is wrong. The power supply, then, has the function of supplying wellregulated power and protection for other system components. Usually, PLC power supplies
require input from an AC power source; however, some PLCs will accept a DC power
source. Those that will accept a DC source are quite appealing for applications such as
offshore drilling operations, where DC sources are commonly used. Most PLCs, however,
require a 120 VAC or 220 VAC power source, while a few controllers will accept 24 VDC.
Since industrial facilities normally experience fluctuations in line voltage and frequency, a
PLC power supply must be able to tolerate a 10 to 15% variation in line voltage conditions.
For example, when connected to a 120 VAC source, a power supply with a line voltage
tolerance of 10% will continue to function properly as long as the voltage remains
between 108 and 132 VAC. A 220 VAC power supply with 10% line tolerance will
function properly as long as the voltage remains between 198 and 242 VAC. When the line
voltage exceeds the upper or lower tolerance limits for a specified duration (usually
one to three AC cycles), most power supplies will issue a shutdown command to the
processor. Line voltage variations in some plants can eventually become disruptive and may
result in frequent loss of production. Normally, in such a case, a constant voltage transformer
is installed to stabilize line conditions.

1.3.2 Inputs
Input units can be any of several different types depending on input signals.
1. The input section can accept discrete or analog signals of various voltage and current
levels.
2. Present day controllers offer discrete signal inputs of both AC and DC voltages from TTL
to 250 VDC and from 5 to 250 VAC.
3. Analog input units can accept input levels such as 10 VDC, 5 VDC and 4-20 ma.
current loop values.
4. Discrete input units present each input to the CPU as a single 1 or 0 while analog input
units contain analog to digital conversion circuitry and present the input voltage to the
CPU as binary number normalized to the maximum count available from the unit.
5. The number of bits representing the input voltage or current depends upon the resolution
of the unit.
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6. This number generally contains a defined number of magnitude bits and a sign bit.
7. Register input units present the word input to the CPU as it is received (Binary or BCD).
1.3.3 Outputs
Output units operate much the same as the input units with the exception that the unit is either
sinking (supplying a ground) or sourcing (providing a voltage) discrete voltages or
sourcing analog voltage or current.
1. These output signals are presented as directed by the CPU. The output circuit of discrete
units can be transistors for TTL and higher DC voltage or Triacs for AC voltage outputs.
2. For higher current applications and situations where a physical contact closure is
required, mechanical relay contacts are available.
3. These higher currents, however, are generally limited to about 2-3 amperes.
4. The analog output units have internal circuitry which performs the digital to analog
conversion and generates the variable voltage or current output.

1.4 Principle Of Operation


The operation of a programmable controller is relatively simple. The input/ output (I/O) system
is physically connected to the field devices that are encountered in the machine or that are
used in the control of a process. These field devices may be discrete or analog input/output
devices, such as limit switches, pressure transducers, push buttons, motor starters, solenoids,
etc. The I/O interfaces provide the connection between the CPU and the information providers
(inputs) and controllable devices (outputs).
During its operation, the CPU completes three processes:
(1) It reads, or accepts, the input data from the field devices via the input interfaces,
(2) It executes, or performs, the control program stored in the memory system, and
(3) It writes, or updates, the output devices via the output interfaces.
This process of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and
updating he outputs is known as scanning. Fig. 1.8, illustrates a graphic representation of a
scan.

Fig. 1. 8. Illustration of a Scan

1.5 Architecture Of PLC

Fig. 1.9. Architecture Of PLC

Input pins :- It gets signal from real world input devices (switch or sensors) and provides the
signal to the controller.
Output Pins :- It gets signal from controller and provide it to real world output devices (
motor , lamp, valve ).
Communication Port :- It acts as data source.
Communication Cable :- It acts as medium.
Indicator or Monitor :- With the help of these monitor or indicator we come to know about
the status of input and output and also the different modes of PLC.
Controller :- It is a combination of processor and memory.
Processor :- Which let a programme run.
Memory :- Data storage is known as memory .

1.6 Advantages Of PLC

1.7 Disadvantages of PLC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There's too much work required in connecting wires.


There's difficulty with changes or replacements.
It's always difficult to find errors; and require skillful work force.
When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long.
In contrast to microcontroller systems that have what is called an open architecture, most
PLCs manufacturers offer only closed architectures for their products.
PLC devices are proprietary, which means that parts and software from One manufacturer
cant easily be used in combination with parts of another manufacturer, which limits the
design and cost options.

1.8 Programmable Logic Controller And Its Future Scope


The future of programmable controllers relies not only on the continuation of new product
developments, but also on the integration of PLCs with other control and factory management
equipment. PLCs are being incorporated, through networks, into computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM) systems, combining their power and resources with numerical controls,
robots, CAD/ CAM systems, personal computers, management information systems, and
hierarchical computer-based systems. There is no doubt that programmable controllers will play
a substantial role in the factory of the future.
New advances in PLC technology include features such as better operator interfaces,
graphic user interfaces (GUIs), and more human-oriented man/ machine interfaces (such as
voice modules). They also include the development of interfaces that allow communication
with equipment, hardware, and software that supports artificial intelligence, such as fuzzy
logic I/O systems.
Software advances provide better connections between different types of equipment,
using communication standards through widely used networks. New PLC instructions are
developed out of the need to add intelligence to a controller. Knowledge-based and process
learningtype instructions may be introduced to enhance the capabilities of a system.
The users concept of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) will deter- mine the
control philosophy of the future. The future will almost certainly continue to cast
programmable controllers as an important player in the factory. Control strategies will be
distributed with intelligence instead of being centralized. Super PLCs will be used in
applications requiring complex calculations, network communication, and supervision of
smaller PLCs and machine controllers.

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1.9 Typical Areas Of PLCs Application


Since its inception, the PLC has been successfully applied in virtually every segment of
industry, including steel mills, paper plants, food-process- ing plants, chemical plants, and
power plants. PLCs perform a great variety of control tasks, from repetitive ON/OFF control
of simple machines to sophisticated manufacturing and process control. Fig1.10 lists a few of
the major industries that use programmable controllers, as well as some of their typical
applications.

Fig. 1. 10. Typical areas of PLCs application

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CHAPTER 2
PLC Programming
2.1 Introduction
As PLCs have developed and expanded, programming languages have developed with them.
Programming languages allow the user to enter a control program into a PLC using an
established syntax. Todays advanced languages have new, more versatile instructions, which
initiate control program actions. These new instructions provide more computing power for
single operations performed by the instruction itself. For instance, PLCs can now transfer
blocks of data from one memory location to another while, at the same time, performing a logic
or arithmetic operation on another block. As a result of these new, expanded instructions,
control programs can now handle data more easily.
In addition to new programming instructions, the development of powerful I/O modules
has also changed existing instructions. These changes include the ability to send data to and
obtain data from modules by addressing the modules locations. For example, PLCs can now
read and write data to and from analog modules. All of these advances, in conjunction with
projected industry needs, have created a demand for more powerful instructions that allow
easier, more compact, function-oriented PLC programs.
Five types of programming languages are used in PLCs are:
Ladder Diagram(LD)
Sequential Function Charts(SFC)
Functional Block Diagram(FBD)
Structured Text(ST)
Instruction List(IL)

2.2 Ladder Language


The programmable controller was developed for ease of programming using existing relay
ladder symbols and expressions to represent the program logic needed to control the machine
or process. The resulting programming language, which used these original basic relay ladder
symbols, was given the name ladder language. Fig. 2.1, illustrates a relay ladder logic circuit
and the PLC ladder language representation of the same circuit.
The evolution of the original ladder language has turned ladder programming into a
more powerful instruction set. New functions have been added to the basic relay, timing, and
counting operations. The term function is used to describe instructions that, as the name implies,
perform a function on data that is, handle and transfer data within the programmable
controller. These instructions are still based on the simple principles of basic relay logic,
although they allow complex operations to be implemented and performed.

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Fig. 2.1.Hardwired logic circuit and its PLC ladder language implementation.

New additions to the basic ladder logic also include function blocks, which use a set of
instructions to operate on a block of data. The use of function blocks increases the power of
the basic ladder language, forming what is known as enhanced ladder language. Fig. 2.2,
shows enhanced functions driven by basic relay ladder instructions. As shown in the Fig., a
block or a functional instruction between two contact symbols represents an enhanced
functional diagram.

Fig. 2.2.Enhanced functional block format.

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The format representation of an enhanced ladder function depends on the programmable


controller manufacturer; however, regardless of their format, all similar enhanced and basic
ladder functions operate the same way. Throughout this chapter, we will refer to enhanced
ladder instructions as block format instructions.
2.2.1 Ladder Diagram Format
The ladder diagram language is a symbolic instruction set that is used to create PLC programs.
The ladder instruction symbols can be formatted to obtain the desired control logic, which is
then entered into memory. Since this type of instruction set consists of contact symbols, it is
also referred to as contact symbology.
The main functions of a ladder diagram program are to control outputs and perform
functional operations based on input conditions. Ladder diagrams use rungs to accomplish this
control. Fig. 2.3, shows the basic structure of a ladder rung. In general, a rung consists of a
set of input conditions (represented by contact instructions) and an output instruction at the
end of the rung (represented by a coil symbol). The contact instructions for a rung may be
referred to as input conditions, rung conditions, or the control logic.

Fig. 2.3.Ladder rung structure.

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2.2.2 Ladder Program Execution Sequence


Ladder rung is TRUE (i.e., energizing an output or functional instruction block) when it has
logic continuity.
Logic continuity exists when power flows through the rung from left to right.
The execution of logic events that enable the output provide this continuity. In a ladder rung,
the left-most side (left power line) simulates the L1 line of a relay ladder diagram, while the
right-most side (right power line) simulates the L2 line of the electromechanical
representation.
Continuity occurs when a path between these two lines contains contact elements in a
closed condition, allowing power to flow from left to right.
These contact elements either close or remain closed according to the status of their reference
inputs. Fig. 2.4, illustrates several continuous paths that provide continuity and energize
the output of the rung.

Fig. 2. 4.Illustration of several different continuity paths in a ladder rung.

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2.3 Generally Used Instructions & symbol For PLC Programming


Input Instruction
--[ ]-- This Instruction is Called IXC or Examine If Closed.
ie; If a NO switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is
actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated.
--[\]-- This Instruction is Called IXO or Examine If Open.
ie; If a NC switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is
actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated.
Output Instruction
--( )-- This Instruction Shows the States of Output.
ie; If any instruction either XIO or XIC is true then output will be high. Due to high
output a 24 volt signal is generated from PLC processor.
Rung
Rung is a simple line on which instruction are placed and logics are created
E.g.; --------------------------------------------Here is an example of what one rung in a ladder logic program might look like. In
real life, there may be hundreds or thousands of rungs.

2.4 Counters
Counters count rung transitions. The CTU runs the accumulated value of the counter up on the
false to true rung transition, and the CTD instruction runs the accumulated value down. The
CTU and CTD can be used in conjunction with each other.
Counters consist of the following components:
ACC Accumulated Value
PRE Preset Value
CD Count Down Bit
CU Count Up bit
OV Overflow Bit
UN Underflow bit
By default, data file C5 stores counters, however, other counter files can be added as well.
Below is how the C5 Data file would appear:

Fig. 2.5. Counter Input In Plc

For the CTU instruction: The CU bit is high when the CTU instruction is true. The ACC value
increments by the value of 1 each time the CU bit goes high. When the ACC reaches the PRE,
the DN bit will be set. The CTU will continue to increment the accumulated value until it
reaches the maximum possible value for a 16 bit signed integer (32767). If the CU bit goes high
one more time, the OV bit will be set, and the ACC value will go to -32768. Each time the CU
bit goes high, the ACC value will still continue to increment (become less negative).
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For the CTD instruction: The CD bit is high when the CTD instruction is true. The ACC value
decrements by the value of 1 each time the CD bit goes high. Any time the ACC is above or
equal to the PRE, the DN bit will remain set. The DN bit is reset if the ACC falls below the
PRE at any time. The CTD will continue to decrement the accumulated value until it reaches
the minimum possible value for a 16 bit signed integer (-32768). If the CD bit goes high one
more time, the UN bit will be set, and the ACC value will go to 32767. Each time the CD bit
goes high, the ACC value will still continueto decrement (become less positive).
PLC Ladder Programming Description For Counter:
The latching counter is demanded for the situation of retaining data when power-off.
When a product is completed, C120 will count for one time. When the number reaches
500, target completed indicator Y0 will be ON.
For different series of PLC, the setup range of 16-bit latching counter is different

Fig. 2. 6. Ladder programming description for counter

2.5 Timers
Timers are generally used for delaying an event from taking place, or to delay a device from
shutting off either on an on transition or an off transition. There are three types of timers:

The Timer ON delay (TON),


Timer Off delay (TOF), and
The Retentative Timer

By default, timers are stored in the T4 Data file, however other time files can be created..
A timer consists of the following components: Preset word (PRE), Accumulate word (ACC),
Done bit (DN), Timer Timing bit (TT), and Enable bit (EN). For Timers, the Enable bit follows
the rung condition.

Fig. 2.7. Input for Timer

The entire timer is addressed by it's element (example: T4:0) Pieces of the timer can be
used in logic however such as the DN bit on an XIC (T4:0/DN), or the Accumulated value in a
MOV statement (T4:0.ACC)
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2.5.1 Timer On Delay (TON)


The Timer On delay delays an event from taking place. Once the timer becomes true, the enable
bit becomes true instantly. The timer will also start timing instantly, so the TT bit becomes high.
Since the timer is timing, the accumulated value will increment. Once the Accumulated value
reaches the preset, the done bit (DN) will go high, and the timer will stop timing. The
accumulated value remains at (or near) the preset until the rung goes false again. Here is what
a typical timer might look like in logic:

Fig. 2. 8. TON Delay

When the switch is energized, the timer will begin timing. When the ACC value reaches
the PRE value, the DN bit goes high, and the main motor will start. Since the Time Base is .01,
therefore 500 (preset) times .01 (time base) = 5 second delay.
2.5.2 Timer Off Delay (TOF)
The Off Delay Timer is generally used to delay an event from shutting off. Image a lube system
on a large motor. As long as the main motor is turning, the lube pump should be running. When
the main motor shuts off, you wouldn't want to shut off the lube pump immediately because the
main motor needs time to coast down to zero RPM's. The Main motor could run off the EN bit,
and the Lube motor could run off the DN bit.
On the Off delay timer, as soon as the rung goes true, The EN bit goes true as it does
for all timers. Since the Off delay timer does not delay the DN bit from shutting off, the DN bit
goes high immediately. Remember, the TOF instruction delays the DN bit from shutting off,
not turning on. (Plus if we are delaying the DN bit from shutting off, it needs to be high to begin
with). While the rung is true, the timer is not timing, and the ACC value is at zero. When the
rung is shut off, the EN bit shuts off immediately. The ACC value will start timing until it
reaches PRE then the DN bit will shut off.

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Fig. 2. 9. TOFF Delay

When the motor switch is energized, both the main motor and the lube motor will
energize immediately. When the main motor switch is shut off, the main motor shuts off
immediately, but since the TOF delays the DN bit from shutting off, the Lube motor will shut
off 30 seconds later. Warning: Using the RES instruction on a TOF instruction could cause
unpredictable operation.
2.5.3 Retentative On Delay Timer (RTO)
The RTO instruction works a lot like the TON instruction with one main exception: When the
rung goes false on the RTO instruction, it will retain the ACC value. When the rung becomes
true again, the ACC value will pick up from where it left off. One good application for the RTO
would be an hour meter to indicate total runtime for machinery. Since the RTO does not reset
itself when the rung goes false, the RES instruction must be used to reset a timer. Here is a
practical application:

Fig. 2. 10. RTO Delay

In this example, once the machine accumulates 1 hour of run time, a light might come
on indicating that a lubrication needs to be engaged. Once the operator lubricates the machine,
he can reset the hour meter.
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2.5.4 PLC Ladder Program Description:


When X1 = ON, TMR instruction will be executed. Timer T1 will be ON and start counting for
3 sec. When T1 reaches its set value, the NO (Normally Open) contact T1 will be activated and
indicator YI will be ON.
When X1 = OFF, TMR instruction will not be executed. Timer T1 will be OFF and so
will NO contact T1. Therefore, the indicator Y1 will be OFF.

Fig. 2. 11. Ladder programming description for counter

2.6 PROCEDURE TO DEVELOP LOGIC PROGRAM


A. Design functional specification: Prepare a general description of how you want your automated process to operate.
B.

Perform detailed analysis:Identify the hardware requirements


Match inputs & outputs of plc with action of the process (make a assignment list)
Add these actions to the functional specification

C. Create a logic program: Draw the electrical drawing if necessary to create logic program.
D. Enter/edit the logic program: Edit the logic program using the software & programmer as per functional specification
/electrical drawings.
E. Check for complement: Preview your functional specification &detailed analysis and logic program for missing
or incomplete information.
F. Monitor/ troubleshoot the logic program: Monitor the entered logic program with the help of simulator (if possible) & if
necessary, troubleshoot the program.
G. Accept program: If program is matching with functional specification than run the program to operate
the process.

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CHAPTER 3
ALLEN BRADLEY PLC
3.1 Allen Bradley Micrologix1000 Plc
The MicroLogix 1000 family provides small, economical programmable controllers. They are
available in configurations of 10 digital I/O (6 inputs and 4 outputs), 16 digital I/O (10 inputs
and 6 outputs), 25 I/O (12 digital inputs, 4 analog inputs, 8 digital outputs, and 1 analog output),
or 32 digital I/O (20 inputs and 12 outputs) in multiple electrical configurations of digital I/O.
The I/O options and electrical configurations make them ideal for many applications.
MicroLogix controllers can monitor and control I/O across the 1794 backplane, as well
as over I/O links. MicroLogix controllers can communicate with computers or other processors
across RS-232-C (DF1/DH-485 protocol), DeviceNet, ControlNet, and EtherNet/IP networks.
To provide communication for a MicroLogix controller, install the appropriate communication
interface module into the controller.
The multi-tasking operating system supports 8 configurable tasks that can be prioritized.
One task can be continuous. The others must be periodic or event tasks. Each task can have as
many as 32 programs, each with its own local data and logic, allowing virtual machines to
operate independently within the same controllers.
MicroLogix 1000 brings high speed, powerful instructions and flexible communications
to applications that demand compact, cost-effective solutions. The MicroLogix 1000
programmable controller is available in 10-point, 16-point or 32-point digital I/O versions.
Analog versions are also available with 20 digital I/O points, with 4 analog inputs (two voltage
and two current) and 1 analog output (configurable for either voltage or current). This little
powerhouse is both inexpensive and compact, with footprints as small as 120mm x 80 mm x
40 mm (4.72" x 3.15" x 1.57"). The analog I/O circuitry is embedded into the base controller,
not accomplished through add-on modules, providing compact and cost-effective analog
performance. Preconfigured 1K programming and data memory help ease configuration (bit,
integer, timers, counters, etc).
3.1.1 Features of Allen Bradley Micrologix1000 Plc
Fast Processing
Allows for typical throughput time of 1.5 ms for a 500-instruction program.
Built-In Eeprom Memory
Retains all of your ladder logic and data if the controller loses power, eliminating the need for
battery back-up or separate memory module.
Rs-232 Communication Channel
Allows for simple connectivity to a personal computer for program upload, download and
monitoring using multiple protocols, including DF1 Full Duplex.
RTU Slave Protocol Support
Use DF1 Half-Duplex Slave, which allows up to 254 notes to communicate with a single master
using radio modems, leased-line modems or satellite uplinks.

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Simple Programming With Your Choice Of Programming Device


You can program these controllers in familiar ladder logic with MicroLogix 1000 A.I. Series
Software, PLC 500 A. I. Series Programming Software, RSLogix 500 Windows
Programming Software, or the MicroLogix Hand-Held Programmer (1761-HHP-B30). This
symbolic programming language is based on relay ladder wiring diagrams that simplify the
creation and troubleshooting of your control program.
Comprehensive Instruction Set
Over 65 instructions including simple bit, timer, and counter instructions, as well as instructions
for powerful applications like sequencers, high-speed counter, and shift registers.
Fast
Execution time for a typical 500-instruction program is only 1.56 ms.
Choice Of Languages
Software and documentation are available in 5 languages. The hand-held programmer has 6
languages built-in. The MicroLogix 1000 controller contains the power supply, processor, and
all its I/O circuits packaged in a single unit. Four I/O sizes (10, 16, 25, and 32) cover many
applications.
Various electrical configurations of digital I/O offer you a controller that meets your
electrical requirements:24V DC inputs and relay outputs with a 24V DC power supply.
24V DC inputs and 24V DC FET and relay outputs with a 24V DC power supply.
24V DC inputs and relay outputs with a 120/240V AC power supply.
24V AC inputs and relay outputs with a 120/240V AC power supply.
120V AC inputs and relay outputs with a 120/240V AC power supply.
120V AC inputs and TRAI-AC and relay outputs with a 120/240V AC power supply.

Fig. 3. 1. Allen Bradley Micro Logix 1000 plc.

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3.2 Communication
The MicroLogix 1000 controllers provide an RS-232C port. MicroLogix 1200R controllers
provide an second RS-232C port that supports DF1 full-duplex protocol only. This second port
lets you connect the controller to a computer running RSLogix 500 programming software or
connect to an HMI device, such as a PanelView display, without removing the existing
connection or requiring a network connection.

3.3 USB TO RS-232 CONVERTER


The USB to RS-232 converter provides the conversion of USB data from PC into RS- 232
format and vice versa. The USB to RS-232 converter plays a vital role in replacing the legacy
RS-232 based communication with USB communication. The laptop or PC treats the USB to
RS-232 converter as virtual comport (VCP) device and assigns com port number. This device
finds applications in USB modems, MCU based designs, hand held gadgets ,etc.

Fig. 3. 2. USB TO RS-232 CONVERTER

3.3.1 Features:
USB 2.0 compatible
USB powered
Rx and Tx indicator LEDs
Achievable data rates: 2400 -115200bps
Compatible with existing GUI(RS -232based)
PDA driver support
Low power consumption
USB cable included

23

CHAPTER 4
PLC PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE
4.1 Software Used
For PLC we use software
1. RS Linx classic

2. RSlogix 500 English

4.2 Steps to use PLC software to run on PLC


STEP 1: Click on the icon

Then a window shown below would be open. And then connect your PLC serial Port with PC
serial port and give power supply to the PLC.

24

STEP 2: Then click on the communication. A window shown below would appear.

25

STEP 3: Click on config. drivers. A window shown below would appear.

STEP 4: Then click on the list of the available driver types. And select RS-232 DF1 devices. As
shown in window below.

26

STEP 5: Then click on the configuration. As shown in window below.

STEP 6: Then a window shown below would appear .And then click on the auto configuration
and then press ok.

27

STEP 7: Then close the conFig. driver window, as shown below.

STEP 8: Then close the window shown below.

28

STEP 9: Then click on the icon shown as

Then a window shown below would appear.

29

STEP 10: Then go to the File and click on the New file or Open file if files are already
saved.

STEP 11: Then a window shown below would appear. Give any name to the processor name.

30

STEP 12: Then select the processor as shown in window below, and press ok.
Processor Name :- Micrologix 1000

STEP 13: Then a window shown below would appear and you can make your program here.

31

STEP 14: A simple program of AND gate is shown below.

STEP 15: After making program, then click on the list as shown and click on download.

32

Step16: Then a window shown below would appear. Press Yes.

Step17 : Then a window shown below would appear. Click on yes.

33

STEP 18: Then a window shown below would appear and down loading of program will begin.

STEP 19: Then a window shown below would appear. Click on Yes.

34

STEP 20: Then a window shown below would appear. Click on yes.

STEP 21: Now you are online and you can control your PLC through PC and you can also
see the response of the switches pressed on the PLC on your PC monitor.

35

CHAPTER 5
MOTOR FORWARD/REVERSE CONTROL BASED ON PLC

5.1 Introduction
Motor is one of the essential component of industrial environment. To perform different
industrial operations the control of motor direction is essential. To change the direction a
three phase induction machine rotation, two of its phases needs to be exchanged, thus
changing the phase sequence form, say RYB to RBY . This can be accomplished by using two
contactors, one for the forward or CW rotation and one for the reverse or CCW rotation. The
forward and reverse contactors are mechanically interlocked i.e., if one of them is closed the
other cannot close. This is done to avoid dead short circuit in case both the contactors
closing simultaneously. Also electrical interlocking could be provided using the contactors
control contacts.
As per the mimic of our project we have used 3 Light Emitting Diodes for showing the
control action of motor i.e. forward and reverse direction of motor. The LED glows one after
the another in sequence wise which shows the forward and reverse direction of motor.

5.2 Equipment Used


S. No.

Equipment

Quantity

1.

Allen Bradley PLC (MicroLogix1000)

2.

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

3.

Resistor

4.

Toggle Switch

5.

Banana Socket and Connectors

6.

Male and Female Connector

7.

Acrylic Sheet

36

5.3 Basic Diagram For Forward and Reverse Direction Control:

Fig. 5. 1. Basic Diagram of Motor Control

5.4 Circuit Diagram


We have a 24V D.C supply which give power to the PLC . The positive terminal of
power supply is connected to the positive D.C IN 24 V indicated terminal/slot of PLC
and the negative terminal of power supply is connected to the negative D.C IN 24 V
indicated terminal/slot of PLC.
From the positive terminal of the PLC we connect the Vac-Vdc and D.C 24 V+
terminals.
Ground port from the side of output terminals is connected to DC COM port in the
side of input terminals.
Now we have use two toggle switch for the start/stop of motor and direction control of
motor as an input. The middle main terminal of both toggle switch is connected to the
positive terminal DC IN 24V of PLC.
One of the terminal of Start/Stop toggle switch is connected to I/0 input port of PLC via
male female connector. Similarly for the Forward/Reverse toggle switch is connected
to I/1 input port of PLC via male female connector.
For the movement of rotation of motor rotor we have used 3 LED to show the Clockwise
and Anticlockwise direction movement. All the negative terminals of each LED are
connected to the negative terminal of 24V DC power supply or 24V DC IN port of PLC.
The positive terminal of each 3 LEDs are connected to 2k ohm resistor to limit the
current which is further connected to O/0, O/1, & O/2 of output port of PLC via male
female connector.
37

Fig. 5. 2. Wiring Diagram Of Motor Direction Control.

38

5.5 Ladder Logic Program For Motor Forward/Reverse control

39

5.6 Input Output Addressing


S.No.

Addressing

Function

Socket For PLC


Connection Used

1.

I:0/0

Start/Stop

I/0

2.

I:0/1

Forward/Reverse

I/1

3.

O:0/0

LED 1

O/0

4.

O:0/1

LED 2

O/1

5.

O:0/2

LED 3

O/2

5.7 Programming Description of Motor Forward and Reverse Control


1st Rung: In this rung when our first input I:0/0 is ON then it will store a binary output B:3/0.
2nd Rung: When 2nd input is ON and binary output is on i.e. 1st input is ON then 1st timer is on
i.e. T4:0 is ON because there is two normally closed switches are used in the programming in
which 1st switch has addressing of done bit of timer 1 and second switch has addressing of
binary output stored in 4th rung B3:2.
3rd Rung: Now if 1st input is ON and second input is OFF then 2nd timer is ON i.e. T4:2 is ON
because there are also two normally closed switches are used in the programming in which 1 st
switch has addressing of done bit of timer 2 and second switch has addressing of binary output
sored in 3rd rung B3:1.
4th Rung: In this rung if 2nd input is ON and binary output stored in 4th rung i.e. B3:2 is OFF
and 1st input is also ON then it will store a binary output B3:1 and once it will ON then it will
remains ON till the binary output B3:0 is ON.
5th Rung: In this rung if 2nd input is OFF and binary output stored in 3rd rung i.e. B3:1 is OFF
and binary output B3:0 is ON then it will store a binary output B3:2 and once it will ON then it
remains ON till the binary output B3:0 is ON.
In the above 4th and 5th rung the condition obtained is that when motor is in forward direction.
Now we change the input from forward to reverse direction then first we have to stop the motor
and then we can change the direction and vice versa.
6th Rung: In this rung when timer 1 i.e. T4:0 is ON then limit is set for 1st timer in which lower
limit is 1sec. and higher limit is 3sec. for the 1st output and there is another parallel input in
which if timer 2 i.e. T4:2 is ON then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 7 sec. and
higher limit is 9 sec. for 1st output.
7th Rung: When timer 1 is ON then the limit is set for 1st timer in which lower limit is 4 sec.
and higher limit is 6 sec. for second output and there is also a parallel input in which timer 2 is
ON then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 4 sec. and higher limit is 6 sec. for 2nd
output.
40

8th Rung: When timer 1 is ON then the limit is set for 1st timer in which lower limit is 7 sec.
and higher limit is 9 sec. for 3rd output and there is also a parallel input in which timer 2 is on
then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 1 sec. and higher limit is 3 sec. for 3rd
output.

5.8 Procedure
1. Switch ON the 24V DC supply source and give power to PLC.
2. Do the ladder programming in RsLogix 500 software as shown above and upload it to
the PLC
3. Switch the Forward/Reverse toggle switch to Forward Position to blink the LEDs in
clockwise sequence which indicates the forward movement of motor.
4. Switch the Start/Stop toggle switch to Start position to turn ON LEDs ( in practical,
motor).
5. Now we observe that the LEDs are blinking in clockwise sequence i.e. motor is running
in forward direction.
6. To run the motor in reverse direction we have to first stop the motor.
7. To stop the motor, switch the Start/Stop toggle switch to stop position to turn OFF
LEDs.
8. Switch the Forward/Reverse toggle switch to Reverse Position to blink the LEDs in
anticlockwise sequence which indicates the reverse movement of motor.
9. Now we observe that the LEDs are blinking in anticlockwise sequence i.e. motor is
running in reverse direction.

5.9 Applications of Forward/Reverse Motor Control


Forward and backward lateral movement of an overhead crane driven by motor
.

Fig. 5. 3. Lateral movement of an overhead crane driven by a motor

41

Vertical movement of a lift by a motor.

Fig. 5. 4. Vertical movement of a lift by a motor.

In gate Shutter
Used to open and close doors and valves.
Used on metal cutting machines in fabricating workshops.
To drive battery powered fork-lifts.
Used in conveyor belt.
Used in escalator in malls.
In several industrial manufacturing process.

42

CHAPTER 6
LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM (CONVEYOR BELT) BASED ON PLC
6.1 Introduction
Many control applications do not involve analog process variables, that is, the ones
which can assume a continuous range of values, but instead variables that are set valued, that
is they only assume values belonging to a finite set. The simplest examples of such
variables are binary variables, that can have either of two possible values, (such as 1 or 0, on
or off, open or closed etc.). These control systems operate by turning on and off switches,
motors, valves, and other devices in response to operating conditions and as a function of
time. Such systems are referred to as sequence/logic control systems. For example, in the
operation of conveyor belt and automated assembly machines, logic control is used to
coordinate the various actions of the production system (e.g., transfer of parts, feeding of the
metal cutting tool, etc.).
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves
materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications
involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and
efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in
the material handling and packaging industries.
A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys (sometimes referred to as
drums), with an endless loop of carrying mediumthe conveyor beltthat rotates about them.
One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.
The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler
pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material
handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as
those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such
as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more

6.2 Equipment Used


S. No.

Equipment

Quantity

1.

Allen Bradley PLC (MicroLogix1000)

2.

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

3.

Resistor 2k ohm

4.

Toggle Switch

5.

Banana Socket and Connectors

6.

Male and Female Connector

7.

Acrylic Sheet

43

6.3 Basic Diagram For Logic Control System (Conveyor Belt):

Fig.6. 1. Basic Diagram Logic control system

6.4 Circuit Diagram


We have a 24V D.C supply which give power to the PLC . The positive terminal of
power supply is connected to the positive D.C IN 24 V indicated terminal/port of PLC
and the negative terminal of power supply is connected to the negative D.C IN 24 V
indicated terminal/port of PLC.
From the positive terminal of the PLC we connect the Vac-Vdc and D.C 24 V+
terminals.
Ground port from the side of output terminals is connected to DC COM port in the
side of input terminals.
Now we have use two toggle switch for the start/stop of motor and direction control of
motor as an input. The middle main terminal of both toggle switch is connected to the
positive terminal DC IN 24V of PLC.
One of the terminal of Start/Stop toggle switch is connected to I/0 input port of PLC via
male female connector. Similarly for the Forward/Reverse toggle switch is connected
to I/1 input port of PLC via male female connector.
44

Fig.6. 2. Wiring Diagram of Logic Control System.

45

We have used 7 LEDs to show different action performing in our mimic project named
Start, Forward, Reverse, Q0, Q1, Q2, and Q3.
To show the power supply is ON , start named LED will glow untill the start/stop toggle
switch is set on start position. The positive terminal of Start LED is connected to one
of the pin of start/stop toggle switch through a resistance of 2k ohm.
To show the movement of rotation of motor rotor we have used 2 LED named Forward
and Reverse to show the Clockwise and Anticlockwise direction movement. The
positive terminal of both forward and reverse LED are connected to 2k ohm resistance
to limit the current for protection of LED being damaged, which is further connected to
both ends of forward/reverse toggle switch.
All the negative terminals of 7 LEDs are connected to the negative terminal of 24V DC
power supply or 24V DC IN port of PLC.
The positive terminal of each Q0, Q1, Q2, and Q3 are connected to 2k ohm resistor to
limit the current which is further connected to O/0, O/1, O/2 and O/3 of output port of
PLC via male female connector. The LED Q1, Q2,and Q3 show the different position
of material reached.

6.5 Programming Description of Logic Control System


1st Rung: In this rung when our first input I:0/0 is ON then it will store a binary output B:3/0.
2nd Rung: In this rung when binary output i.e. B:3/0 is ON Then Ist Output is ON which shows
the motor is ON.
3rd Rung: When 2nd input is ON and binary output is on i.e. 1st input is ON then 1st timer is on
i.e. T4:0 is ON because there is two normally closed switches are used in the programming in
which 1st switch has addressing of done bit of timer 1 and second switch has addressing of
binary output stored in 5th rung B3:2.
4th Rung: Now if 1st input is ON and second input is OFF then 2nd timer is ON i.e. T4:2 is ON
because there are also two normally closed switches are used in the programming in which 1 st
switch has addressing of done bit of timer 2 and second switch has addressing of binary output
stored in 4th rung B3:1.
5th Rung: In this rung if 2nd input is ON and binary output stored in 5th rung i.e. B3:2 is OFF
and 1st input is also ON then it will store a binary output B3:1 and once it will ON then it will
remains ON till the binary output B3:0 is ON.
6th Rung: In this rung if 2nd input is OFF and binary output stored in 4th rung i.e. B3:1 is OFF
and binary output B3:0 is ON then it will store a binary output B3:2 and once it will ON then it
remains ON till the binary output B3:0 is ON.
In the above 5th and 6th rung the condition obtained is that when motor is in forward direction.
Now we change the input from forward to reverse direction then first we have to stop the motor
and then we can change the direction and vice versa.
7th Rung: In this rung when timer 1 i.e. T4:0 is ON then limit is set for 1st timer in which lower
limit is 1sec. and higher limit is 3sec. for the 1st output and there is another parallel input in
which if timer 2 i.e. T4:2 is ON then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 7 sec. and
higher limit is 9 sec. for 2nd output.
8th Rung: When timer 1 is ON then the limit is set for 1st timer in which lower limit is 4 sec.
and higher limit is 6 sec. for second output and there is also a parallel input in which timer 2 is
46

ON then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 4 sec. and higher limit is 6 sec. for 3rd
output.
9th Rung: When timer 1 is ON then the limit is set for 1st timer in which lower limit is 7 sec.
and higher limit is 9 sec. for 3rd output and there is also a parallel input in which timer 2 is on
then limit is set for 2nd timer in which lower limit is 1 sec. and higher limit is 3 sec. for 4th
output.

6.6 Ladder Logic Program For Logic control System

47

6.7 Input Output Addressing:


S.No.

Addressing

Function

Socket For PLC


Connection Used

1.

I:0/0

Start/Stop

I/0

2.

I:0/1

Forward/Reverse

I/1

3.

O:0/0

LED 1

O/0

4.

O:0/1

LED 2

O/1

5.

O:0/2

LED 3

O/2

6.

O:0/3

LED 4

O/3

48

6.8 Procedure
1. Switch ON the 24V DC supply source and give power to PLC.
2. Do the ladder programming in RsLogix 500 software as shown above and upload it to
the PLC.
3. Switch the Start/Stop toggle switch to Start position to turn ON start LED which shows
that power supply is going to the system and it also turn ON the Q0 LED which show
that power supply is going to the system motor and it is started.
4. Switch the Forward/Reverse toggle switch to Forward Position, indication is then
showed in LED which means motor is running in forward direction
5. Now we observe that the LED Q1, Q2 and Q3 are blinking in clockwise sequence that
shows the different position of object reached.
6. To run the motor in reverse direction we have to first stop the motor.
7. To stop the motor, switch the Start/Stop toggle switch to stop position to turn OFF
LEDs.
8. Switch the Forward/Reverse toggle switch to Reverse Position to blink the LEDs in
anticlockwise sequence which the different position of object reached.
9. Now we observe that the LEDs are blinking in anticlockwise sequence that shows the
different position of object reached.

6.9 Applications of Conveyor Belt System

Food production
Packaging
Pharmaceuticals
Manufacturing
Machine tool chip removal
Whole plant chip and scrap removal
Die cast operations
Parts handling
Inspection
Stamping operation
Washing
Baking

49

CHAPTER 7
SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 PLC
7.1. About Siemens
Siemens AG is a German company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest
engineering company in Europe with branch offices abroad. Siemens offers a wide range of
electrical engineering- and electronics-related products and services. Its products can be
broadly divided into the following categories: buildings-related products; drives, automation
and industrial plant-related products; energy-related products; lighting; medical products; and
transportation and logistics-related products. Siemens offers the optimal control solution for
every application area - whether PLC or PC-based.
Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 12
October 1847. Joe Kaeser is the President & CEO and Gerhard Cromme Chairman of the
Supervisory Board

7.2. Siemens Modular PLCs


Siemens SIMATIC PLCs are the foundation upon which our Totally Integrated Automation
(TIA) concept is based. Because the needs of end users and machine builders vary widely,
SIMATIC PLCs are available as conventional modular controllers, embedded automation
products, or as PC-based controllers.
Modular SIMATIC controllers are optimized for control tasks and can be adapted to
meet application requirements using plug-in modules for input/output (I/O), special functions,
and communications. Examples of products in this category include: LOGO! and S7-200 micro
automation products, S7-300 and S7-400 modular system PLCs, C7 combination controller and
panel, and ET 200 distributed I/O system with local intelligence.

7.3. SIMATIC software


SIMATIC software is the universal configuring and programming environment for SIMATIC
controllers, human machine interface systems, and process control systems. SIMATIC software
with STEP 7 and numerous engineering tools supports all phases of product deployment, from
hardware configuration of the system and parameterization of modules to service of the
installed system. A variety of programming options are available. This includes basic
programming languages (Instruction List, Ladder Diagram, and Function Block Diagram),
high-level languages (Structured Text and Sequential Function Chart), and engineering tools
(S7 Structured Control Language, S7-Graph, S7-PLCSIM, S7- HiGraph, and Continuous
Function Chart).

7.5. S7-200 Micro PLCs


The S7-200 Micro PLC is the smallest member of the SIMATIC S7 family of programmable
controllers. Each S7-200 central processing unit (CPU) model also includes input and output
points in the same housing as the CPU. Inputs and outputs (I/O) are the system control points.
Inputs monitor field devices, such as switches and analog sensors. Outputs control other
devices, such as motors and control valves.

50

The programming port is the connection to the programming device and also provides
a means for connecting the PLC to other devices, such as display panels.
The S7-200 CPU combines a microprocessor, an integrated power supply, input circuits,
and output circuits in a compact housing to create a powerful Micro PLC. After you have
downloaded your program, the S7-200 contains the logic required to monitor and control the
input and output devices in your application.

Fig.7. 1. S7-200 Micro PLC

7.6. S7-200 Models


The S7-200 family includes a range of CPUs which provide a variety of features to aid in
designing a cost-effective automation solution. The accompanying table provides a summary
of the major features, many of which are covered in this course. Note that the CPU 224XPsi
has 10 current sinking digital outputs, but its other features are the same as for the CPU 224XP.
There are six S7-200 CPU types (CPU 221, CPU 222, CPU 224, CPU 224XP, CPU
224XPsi, and CPU 226) and two power supply configurations for each type.

51

Fig.7. 2. Different S7-200 CPU Model

7.7. Power Sources


Depending on the CPU model, an S7-200 CPU is powered from either a 24 VDC or a 120 to
240 VAC power supply. For example, an CPU 221 DC/DC/DC model is powered from a 24
VDC power supply and a CPU 222 AC/DC/Relay model is powered from a 120 or 240 VAC
power supply.

7.8. Programming a S7-200 PLCs


STEP 7-Micro/WIN is the software used with the S7-200 PLC to create a user program. STEP
7-Micro/WIN programs consist of a number of instructions that must be arranged in a logical
order to obtain the desired PLC operation. STEP 7-MicroWIN programming software can be
run off line or online. Off-line programming allows the user to edit the program and perform a
number of maintenance tasks. The PLC does not need to be connected to the programming
device in this mode.
Online programming requires the PLC to be connected to the programming device. In
this mode, program changes are downloaded to the PLC. In addition, status of the input/output
elements can be monitored. The CPU can be started, stopped, or reset.

52

Fig.7. 3. STEP 7--Micro/WIN

S7-200 PLCs have two instruction sets, SIMATIC and IEC 11313. The SIMATIC
instruction set was developed by Siemens prior to the adoption of the IEC 11 31-3 standard.
The IEC 11 31-3 instruction set was adopted by the International Electro technical Commission
(IEC) to provide a common approach for PLC programming. The IEC 11 31-3 instruction set
is often preferred by users who work with PLCs from multiple suppliers.
STEP 7-Micro/WIN has three editors for program development, one for each of the types of
programming available,
ladder logic (LAD),
statement list (STL), and
function block diagram (FBD).
The STL editor is often preferred by experienced programmers because of the similarity
of STL programs to assembly language computer programs. However, the STL editor can only
be used with the SIMATIC instruction set. Both the LAD and FBD editors can be used with
either instruction set.
7.8.1. Communication with PLC S7-200
Connecting the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master Cable
Figure 7.4. shows an RS-232/PPI Multi-Master cable connecting the S7-200 to the
programming device. To connect the cable:
1. Connect the RS-232 connector (marked PC) of the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master cable
to the communications port of the programming device. (For this example, connect to
COM 1
2. Connect the RS-485 connector (marked PPI) of the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master cable
to Port 0 or Port 1 of the S7-200.
3. Ensure that the DIP switches of the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master cable
53

Fig.7. 4.Connecting the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master Cable

Starting STEP 7--Micro/WIN

Click on the STEP 7--Micro/WIN icon to open a new project. Figure 2-3 shows a new
project. Notice the navigation bar. You can use the icons on the navigation bar to open
elements of the STEP 7--Micro/WIN project. Click on the Communications icon in the
navigation bar to display the Communications dialog box. You use this dialog box to
set up the communications for STEP 7--Micro/WIN.

Fig.7. 5. New STEP 7--Micro/WIN Project

54

Verifying the Communications Parameters for STEP 7--Micro/WIN


The example project uses the default settings for STEP 7--Micro/WIN and the RS232/PPI Multi-Master cable. To verify these settings:
1. Verify that the address of the PC/PPI cable in the Communications dialog box is set
to 0.
2. Verify that the interface for the network parameter is set for PC/PPI cable(COM1).
3. Verify that the transmission rate is set to 9.6 kbps.

Fig.7. 6. Verifying the Communications Parameters

Establishing Communications with the S7-200

Use the Communications dialog box to connect with your S7-200 CPU:
1. Double-click the refresh icon in the Communications dialog box. STEP 7-Micro/WIN searches for the S7-200 station and displays a CPU icon for the connected
S7-200 station.
2. Select the S7-200 and click OK.
If STEP 7--Micro/WIN does not find your S7-200 CPU, check the settings for
the communications parameters and repeat these steps. After you have established
communications with the S7-200, you are ready to create and download the example
program.

55

Fig.7. 7. Establishing Communications to the S7-200

7.8.2. Opening the Program Editor


Click on the Program Block icon to open the program editor. Notice the instruction tree and the
program editor. You use the instruction tree to insert the LAD instructions into the networks of
the program editor by dragging and dropping the instructions from the instruction tree to the
networks. The toolbar icons provide shortcuts to the menu commands. After you enter and save
the program, you can download the program to the S7-200.

Fig.7. 8. Program editor

56

7.8.3. Ladder Logic Programming


Ladder logic incorporates programming functions that are graphically displayed to resemble
symbols used in hard-wired control diagrams. The left vertical line of a ladder logic diagram

represents the power or energized conductor. The output coil instruction represents the neutral
or return path of the circuit. The right vertical line, which represents the return path on a hardwired control line diagram, is omitted. Ladder logic diagrams are read from left-to-right and
top-to-bottom. Rungs are sometimes referred to as networks. A network may have several
control elements, but only one output coil.

While ladder logic programs are still common, there are many Function Block Diagrams other
ways to program PLCs. Two other common examples are statement list and function block
diagrams.
Statement list (STL) instructions include an operation and an operand. The operation to
be performed is shown on the left. The operand, the item to be operated on, is shown on
the right.
Function block diagrams (FBD) include rectangular functions with inputs shown on the
left side of the rectangle and outputs shown on the right side.
AND Operation
Each rung or network on a ladder represents a logic operation . The following programming
example demonstrates an AND operation . Two contact closures and one output coil are placed
on network 1 . They are assigned addresses I0.0, I0.1, and Q0.0 . Note that in the statement list
a new logic operation always begins with a load instruction (LD) . In this example I0.0 (input
1) and (A in the statement list) I0.1 (input 2) must be true in order for output Q0.0 (output 1) to
be true . This same logic is also shown in a function block diagram
Ladder diagram representation
Network 1
I0.0

10.1

QO.O

57

Input

Output

Binary memory

I0.0, I0.1................I0.7 etc.


Q0.0, Q0.1..Q0.7 etc.

MB0 (M0.0,M0.1....M0.7)
MB1 (M1.0, M1.1M1.7) etc.

TONR
Timer
1ms

32.767S

T0,T64

10ms

327.67S

T1-T4,T65-T68

100ms 3276.7S

T5-T31,T69-T95

TON,TOFF
1ms

32.767S

T0,T64

10ms

327.67S

T1-T4,T65-T68

100ms

3276.7S

T5-T31,T69-T95

counter

C0, C1C255.

integer

MW0 (MB0 AND MB1).


MW2 (MB2 AND MB4) Etc.

Real or double word

MD0 (MW0 AND MW2)


MD4 (MW4 AND MW6)
Fig.7. 9. Siemens S7-200 Addressing Format

58

7.8.4. Downloading the Sample Program


1. Click the Download icon
on the toolbar or select the File > Download menu command
to download the program.
2. Click OK to download the elements of the program to the S7-200.
If your S7-200 is in RUN mode, a dialog box prompts you to place the S7-200 in STOP
mode. Click Yes to place the S7-200 into STOP mode.

Fig.7. 10. Downloading the Program

7.8.5. Placing the S7-200 in RUN Mode


For STEP 7--Micro/WIN to place the S7-200 CPU in RUN mode, the mode switch of the S7200 must be set to TERM or RUN. When you place the S7-200 in RUN mode, the S7-200
executes the program:
1. Click the RUN icon on the toolbar or select the PLC > RUN menu command.
2. Click OK to change the operating mode of the S7-200.
When the S7-200 goes to RUN mode, the output LED for Q0.0 turns on and off as the
S7-200 executes the program.
You can monitor the program by selecting the Debug > Program Status menu command.
STEP 7--Micro/WIN displays the values for the instructions. To stop the program, place the
S7-200 in STOP mode by clicking the STOP icon or by selecting the PLC > STOP menu
command.

59

CHAPTER 8
SCADA
8.1. Introduction
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. As the name indicates, it is not
a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely software
package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, in general via
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), or other commercial hardware modules.
SCADA systems are used not only in industrial processes: e.g. steel making, power
generation (conventional and nuclear) and distribution, chemistry, but also in some
experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. The size of such plants range from a few 1000 to
several 10 thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA systems evolve rapidly
and are now penetrating the market of plants with a number of I/O channels of several 100 K:
we know of two cases of near to 1 M I/O channels currently under development.
SCADA systems used to run on DOS, VMS and UNIX; in recent years all SCADA
vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux.
Types of SCADA
1. D+R+N ( Development +Run + Networking)
2. R+N ( Run +Networking )
3. Factory focus
Features of SCADA
1. Dynamic process Graphic
2. Alarm summery
3. Alarm history
4. Real time trend
5. Historical time trend
6. Security (Application Security)
7. Data base connectivity
8. Device connectivity
9. Scripts
10. Recipe management

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Some Manufacturer of SCADA


Modicon (Telemecanique) Visual look
Allen Bradly : RS View
Siemens: win cc
Gefanc:
KPIT : ASTRA
Intelution : Aspic
Wonderware : Intouch

60

8.2. Architecture
8.2.1. Hardware Architecture
One distinguishes two basic layers in a SCADA system: the "client layer" which caters for the
man machine interaction and the "data server layer" which handles most of the process data
control activities. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through process
controllers. Process controllers, e.g. PLCs, are connected to the data servers either directly or
via networks or field buses that are proprietary (e.g. Siemens H1), or non-proprietary (e.g.
Profibus). Data servers are connected to each other and to client stations via an Ethernet LAN.
The data servers and client stations are NT platforms but for many products the client stations
may also be W95 machines.

Fig.8. 1. Typical SCADA Hardwire structure layout

8.2.2. Software Architecture


The products are multi-tasking and are based upon a real-time database (RTDB)
located in one or more servers. Servers are responsible for data acquisition and
handling (e.g. polling controllers, alarm checking, calculations, logging and archiving)
on a set of parameters, typically those they are connected to. However, it is possible
to have dedicated servers for particular tasks, e.g. historian, data logger, alarm
handler. Fig.8.2. shows a SCADA architecture that is generic for the products that were
evaluated.

61

Fig.8. 2. Generic Software Architecture of SCADA

8.3. Communications
8.3.1. Internal Communication
Server-client and server-server communication is in general on a publish-subscribe and eventdriven basis and uses a TCP/IP protocol, i.e., a client application subscribes to a parameter
which is owned by a particular server application and only changes to that parameter are then
communicated to the client application.
8.3.2. Access to Devices
The data servers poll the controllers at a user defined polling rate. The polling rate may be
different for different parameters. The controllers pass the requested parameters to the data
servers. Time stamping of the process parameters is typically performed in the controllers and
this time-stamp is taken over by the data server. If the controller and communication protocol
used support unsolicited data transfer then the products will support this too. The products
provide communication drivers for most of the common PLCs and widely used field-buses,
e.g., Modbus. Of the three fieldbuses that are recommended at CERN, both Profibus and World
flip are supported but CANbus often not. Some of the drivers are based on third party products
(e.g., Applicom cards) and therefore have additional cost associated with them. VME on the
other hand is generally not supported. A single data server can support multiple
communications protocols: it can generally support as many such protocols as it has slots for
interface cards. The effort required to develop new drivers is typically in the range of 2-6 weeks
depending on the complexity and similarity with existing drivers, and a driver development
toolkit is provided for this.

62

8.3.3. Interfacing
The provision of OPC client functionality for SCADA to access devices in an open and standard
manner is developing. There still seems to be a lack of devices/controllers, which provide OPC
server software, but this improves rapidly as most of the producers of controllers are actively
involved in the development of this standard. OPC has been evaluated by the CERN-IT-CO
group. The products also provide An Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) interface to the
data in the archive/logs, but not to the configuration database, An ASCII import/export facility
for configuration data, A library of APIs supporting C, C++, and Visual Basic (VB) to access
data in the RTDB, logs and archive. The API often does not provide access to the product's
internal features such as alarm handling, reporting, trending, etc. The PC products provide
support for the Microsoft standards such as Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) which allows e.g.
to visualize data dynamically in an EXCEL spreadsheet, Dynamic Link Library (DLL) and
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). The configuration data are stored in a database that is
logically centralized but physically distributed and that is generally of a proprietary format. For
performance reasons, the RTDB resides in the memory of the servers and is also of proprietary
format. The archive and logging format is usually also proprietary for performance reasons, but
some products do support logging to a Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) at
a slower rate either directly or via an ODBC interface.
8.3.4. Scalability
Scalability is understood as the possibility to extend the SCADA based control system by
adding more process variables, more specialized servers (e.g. for alarm handling) or more
clients. The products achieve scalability by having multiple data servers connected to multiple
controllers. Each data server has its own configuration database and RTDB and is responsible
for the handling of a sub-set of the process variables (acquisition, alarm handling, archiving).
8.3.5. Redundancy
Scalability is understood as the possibility to extend the SCADA based control system by
adding more process variables, more specialized servers (e.g. for alarm handling) or more
clients. The products achieve scalability by having multiple data servers connected to multiple
controllers. Each data server has its own configuration database and RTDB and is responsible
for the handling of a sub-set of the process variables (acquisition, alarm handling, archiving).

8.4. Functionality
8.4.1. Access Control
Users are allocated to groups, which have defined read/write access privileges to the process
parameters in the system and often also to specific product functionality.
8.4.2. MMI
The products support multiple screens, which can contain combinations of synoptic diagrams
and text. They also support the concept of a "generic" graphical object with links to process
variables. These objects can be "dragged and dropped" from a library and included into a
synoptic diagram.
Most of the SCADA products that were evaluated decompose the process in "atomic"
parameters (e.g. a power supply current, its maximum value, its on/off status, etc.) to which a
Tag-name is associated. The Tag-names used to link graphical objects to devices can be edited
as required. The products include a library of standard graphical symbols, many of which would
however not be applicable to the type of applications encountered in the experimental physics
community. Standard windows editing facilities are provided: zooming, re-sizing, scrolling...
On-line configuration and customization of the MMI is possible for users with the appropriate
63

privileges. Links can be created between display pages to navigate from one view to another.
8.4.3. Trending
The products all provide trending facilities and one can summarize the common capabilities as
follows:
the parameters to be trended in a specific chart can be predefined or defined on-line
a chart may contain more than 8 trended parameters or pens and an unlimited
number of charts can be displayed (restricted only by the readability) real-time and
historical trending are possible, although generally not in the same chart.
8.4.4 Alarm Handling
Alarm handling is based on limit and status checking and performed in the data servers. More
complicated expressions (using arithmetic or logical expressions) can be developed by creating
derived parameters on which status or limit checking is then performed. The alarms are
logically handled centrally, i.e., the information only exists in one place and all users see the
same status (e.g., the acknowledgement), and multiple alarm priority levels (in general many
more than 3 such levels) are supported.
It is generally possible to group alarms and to handle these as an entity (typically
filtering on group or acknowledgement of all alarms in a group). Furthermore, it is possible to
suppress alarms either individually or as a complete group. The filtering of alarms seen on the
alarm page or when viewing the alarm log is also possible at least on priority, time and group.
However, relationships between alarms cannot generally be defined in a straightforward
manner. E-mails can be generated or predefined actions automatically executed in response to
alarm conditions.
8.4.5. Logging/Archiving
The terms logging and archiving are often used to describe the same facility. However, logging
can be thought of as medium-term storage of data on disk, whereas archiving is long-term
storage of data either on disk or on another permanent storage medium. Logging is typically
performed on a cyclic basis, i.e., once a certain file size, time period or number of points is
reached the data is overwritten. Logging of data can be performed at a set frequency, or only
initiated if the value changes or when a specific predefined event occurs. Logged data can be
transferred to an archive once the log is full. The logged data is time-stamped and can be filtered
when viewed by a user. The logging of user actions is in general performed together with either
a user ID or station ID. There is often also a VCR facility to play back archived data.
8.4.6. Report Generation
One can produce reports using SQL type queries to the archive, RTDB or logs. Although it is
sometimes possible to embed EXCEL charts in the report, a "cut and paste" capability is in
general not provided. Facilities exist to be able to automatically generate, print and archive
reports.
8.4.7 Automation
The majority of the products allow actions to be automatically triggered by events. A scripting
language provided by the SCADA products allows these actions to be defined. In general, one
can load a particular display, send an Email, run a user defined application or script and write
to the RTDB. The concept of recipes is supported, whereby a particular system configuration
can be saved to a file and then re-loaded at a later date.

64

8.5. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT


8.5.1. Configuration
The development of the applications is typically done in two stages. First the process parameters
and associated information (e.g. relating to alarm conditions) are defined through some sort of
parameter definition template and then the graphics, including trending and alarm displays are
developed, and linked where appropriate to the process parameters. The products also provide
an ASCII Export/Import facility for the configuration data (parameter definitions), which
enables large numbers of parameters to be configured in a more efficient manner using an
external editor such as Excel and then importing the data into the configuration database.
However, many of the PC tools now have a Windows Explorer type development studio. The
developer then works with a number of folders, which each contains a different aspect of the
configuration, including the graphics. The facilities provided by the products for configuring
very large numbers of parameters are not very strong. However, this has not really been an issue
so far for most of the products to-date, as large applications are typically about 50K I/O points
and database population from within an ASCII editor such as Excel is still a workable option.
On-line modifications to the configuration database and the graphics are generally possible with
the appropriate level of privileges.
8.5.2. Development Tools
The following development tools are provided as standard:
A graphics editor, with standard drawing facilities including freehand, lines, squares
circles, etc. It is possible to import pictures in many formats as well as using predefined
symbols including e.g. trending charts, etc. A library of generic symbols is provided
that can be linked dynamically to variables and animated as they change. It is also
possible to create links between views so as to ease navigation at run-time.
A data base configuration tool (usually through parameter templates). It is in general
possible to export data in ASCII files so as to be edited through an ASCII editor or
Excel.
A scripting language
An Application Program Interface (API) supporting C, C++, VB

8.6. Evolution
SCADA vendors release one major version and one to two additional minor versions once per
year. These products evolve thus very rapidly so as to take advantage of new market
opportunities, to meet new requirements of their customers and to take advantage of new
technologies. As was already mentioned, most of the SCADA products that were evaluated
decompose the process in "atomic" parameters to which a Tag-name is associated. This is
impractical in the case of very large processes when very large sets of Tags need to be
configured. As the industrial applications are increasing in size, new SCADA versions are now
being designed to handle devices and even entire systems as full entities (classes) that
encapsulate all their specific attributes and functionality. In addition, they will also support
multi-team development. As far as new technologies are concerned, the SCADA products are
now adopting:
Web technology, ActiveX, Java, etc.
OPC as a means for communicating internally between the client and server modules.
It should thus be possible to connect OPC compliant third party modules to that SCADA
product.

65

8.7. Engineering
Whilst one should rightly anticipate significant development and maintenance savings by
adopting a SCADA product for the implementation of a control system, it does not mean a "no
effort" operation. The need for proper engineering cannot be sufficiently emphasized to reduce
development effort and to reach a system that complies with the requirements, that is
economical in development and maintenance and that is reliable and robust. Examples of
engineering activities specific to the use of a SCADA system are the definition of:
a library of objects (PLC, device, subsystem) complete with standard object behavior
(script, sequences, ...), graphical interface and associated scripts for animation,
templates for different types of "panels", e.g. alarms
instructions on how to control e.g. a device.
a mechanism to prevent conflicting controls (if not provided with the SCADA), alarm
levels, behavior to be adopted in case of specific alarms.

8.8. Usage of SCADA


SCADA can be used to manage any kind of equipment. Typically, SCADA systems are used
to automate complex industrial processes where human control is difficult. For example in
systems where there are more control factors unable to be managed by operators in a control
centre. SCADA systems are widely used for control in the following domains
1. Electric power generation, transmission and distribution: Electric utilities use SCADA
systems to detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit
breakers, and to take sections of the power grid online or offline.
2. Water and sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and
regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other factors.
3. Buildings, facilities and environments: Facility managers use SCADA to control
HVAC, refrigeration units, lighting and entry systems.
4. Manufacturing: SCADA systems manage parts inventories for just-in-time
manufacturing, regulate industrial automation and robots, and monitor process and
quality control.
5. Mass transit: Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways, trams
and trolley buses; to automate traffic signals for rail systems; to track and locate trains
and buses; and to control railroad crossing gates.
6. Traffic signals: SCADA regulates traffic lights, controls traffic flow and detects out-oforder signals.

8.9. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF SCADA


The benefits one can expect from adopting a SCADA system for the control of experimental
physics facilities can be summarized as follows:
A rich functionality and extensive development facilities. The amount of effort invested
in SCADA product amounts to 50 to 100 p-years!
The amount of specific development that needs to be performed by the end-user is
limited, especially with suitable engineering.
Reliability and robustness. These systems are used for mission critical industrial
processes where reliability and performance are paramount. In addition, specific
development is performed within a well-established framework that enhances reliability
and robustness.
Technical support and maintenance by the vendor.

66

8.10. Wonderware InTouch


Wonderware is a brand of industrial software sold by Schneider Electric. Wonderware was part
of Invensys plc, and Invensys plc was acquired in January 2014 by Schneider Electric.
Wonderware InTouch human machine interface (HMI) software was introduced in
1987. In 2011, industry research firm ARC Advisory Group identified Wonderware HMI
software and services as having the #1 market share position globally.
By using InTouch, you can create powerful, full-featured applications that exploit the
key features of Microsoft Windows, including ActiveX controls, OLE, graphics, networking
and more. InTouch can also be extended by adding custom ActiveX controls, wizards, generic
objects, and creating InTouch QuickScript extensions. InTouch consists of three major
programs :
InTouch Application Manager,
Window Maker and
Window Viewer.
8.10.1. InTouch Application Manager
The InTouch Application Manager organizes the applications you create. It also is used to
configure Window Viewer as an NT service, to configure Network Application Development
(NAD) for client-based and server-based architectures, to configure Dynamic Resolution
Conversion (DRC) and/or distributed alarming. The DBDump and DBLoad database utilities
are also launched from the Application Manager.

Fig.8. 3. InTouch Application Manager

67

8.10.2. Window Maker GUI


WindowMaker is the development environment, where object-oriented graphics are used to
create animated, touch-sensitive display windows. These display windows can be connected to
industrial I/O systems and other Microsoft Windows applications.
WindowMaker supports Windows 2000and Windows XP operating systems graphic
user interface (GUI) standards including, right-click mouse support, floating and docking
toolbars, pull down menus, context-sensitive help and so on.
The WindowMaker development environment is configurable. By default when you
initially open WindowMaker, most of the available elements are automatically displayed
including, all toolbars, the Application Explorer and the status bar. However, you can show or
hide any or all of these elements and, you can move the toolbars and the Application Explorer
to any location that you desire within the WindowMaker window. You can also display the
optional ruler and you can turn on and off the visible grid in your windows

Fig.8. 4. Windows Maker GUI

68

8.10.3. Window Viewer GUI


WindowViewer is the runtime environment used to display the graphic windows created in
WindowMaker. WindowViewer executes InTouch QuickScripts, performs historical data
logging and reporting, processes alarm logging and reporting, and can function as a client and
a server for both DDE and SuiteLink communication protocols.

Fig.8. 5. Windows Maker GUI

69

CONCLUSION

Industrial Training being an integral part of engineering curriculum provides not only easier
understanding but also helps acquaint an individual with technologies. It exposes an individual
to practical aspect of all things which differ considerably from theoretical models. I gained a
lot of practical knowledge from this training, which otherwise could have been exclusive to us.
The practical exposure required here will pay rich dividends to us when we will set my foot as
an engineer.
Through this training I learnt a lot of knowledge about Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC), its interfacing with real world application such like motor forward/reverse direction
control and conveyor belt, and SCADA. Through this training I also learnt about ladder logic
programming which is very new, interesting and knowledgeable. As well as working on
SCADA, like making the small layout of working of industrial control process, car parking
system, conveyor belts, conveyor belt system, etc.
I really enjoyed while working during this training. I will thanks to our college SBSSTC,
Ferozepur and PTU who provide such a great curriculum activity to enhance our practical skill
and learn about new technology. I will also thanks to Ms. Maninder Kaur (Assistant Professor,
and Training and Placement Incharge, Electrical Engineering Department) who grant me to take
training at CETPA Infotech Pvt. Ltd., Noida, U.P. I will also thanks to our mentor Mr. Imran
Saify at CETPA Infotech Pvt. Ltd. who guided us very well throughout this training.

70

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Page No.


Certificate.i
Declaration..ii
Acknowledgement......iii
Abstract...iv
CHAPTER 1: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
1.1 Definition .......................................................................................................................................1
1.2 A Historical Background................................................................................................................1
1.3 Block Diagram Of PLC..................................................................................................................2
1.3.1 Central Processing Unit...........................................................................................................2
1.3.2 Inputs .......................................................................................................................................6
1.3.3 Outputs ....................................................................................................................................7
1.4 Principle Of Operation ...................................................................................................................7
1.5 Architecture Of PLC ......................................................................................................................8
1.6 Advantages Of PLC .......................................................................................................................9
1.8 Programmable Logic Controller And Its Future Scope ..............................................................10
1.9 Typical Areas Of PLCs Application ............................................................................................11

CHAPTER 2 : PLC Programming


2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................12
2.2 Ladder Language..........................................................................................................................12
2.2.1 Ladder Diagram Format ........................................................................................................14
2.2.2 Ladder Program Execution Sequence ...................................................................................15
2.3 Generally Used Instructions & symbol For PLC Programming ..................................................16
2.4 Counters .......................................................................................................................................16
2.5 Timers ..........................................................................................................................................17
2.5.1 Timer On Delay (TON ..........................................................................................................18
2.5.2 Timer Off Delay (TOF) .........................................................................................................18
2.5.3 Retentative On Delay Timer (RTO) ......................................................................................19
2.5.4 PLC Ladder Program Description: ........................................................................................20

CHAPTER 3 : ALLEN BRADLEY PLC


3.1 Allen Bradley Micrologix1000 Plc ..............................................................................................21
3.1.1 Features of Allen Bradley Micrologix1000 Plc ....................................................................21

3.2 Communication ............................................................................................................................23


3.3 USB TO RS-232 CONVERTER .................................................................................................23
3.3.1 Features: ................................................................................................................................23

CHAPTER 4 : PLC PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE


4.1 Software Used ..............................................................................................................................24
4.2 Steps to use PLC software to run on PLC ....................................................................................24

CHAPTER 5 : MOTOR FORWARD/REVERSE CONTROL BASED ON


PLC
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................36
5.2 Equipment Used ...........................................................................................................................36
5.3 Basic Diagram For Forward and Reverse Direction Control: ......................................................37
5.4 Circuit Diagram............................................................................................................................37
5.5 Ladder Logic Program For Motor Forward/Reverse control .......................................................39
5.6 Input Output Addressing ..............................................................................................................40
5.7 Programming Description of Motor Forward and Reverse Control.............................................40
5.8 Procedure .....................................................................................................................................41
5.9 Applications of Forward/Reverse Motor Control ........................................................................41

CHAPTER 6 : LOGIC CONTROL SYSTEM (CONVEYOR BELT)


BASED ON PLC
6.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................43
6.2 Equipment Used ...........................................................................................................................43
6.3 Basic Diagram For Logic Control System (Conveyor Belt): .......................................................44
6.4 Circuit Diagram............................................................................................................................44
6.5 Programming Description of Logic Control System....................................................................46
6.6 Ladder Logic Program For Logic control System .......................................................................47
6.7 Input Output Addressing: .............................................................................................................48
6.8 Procedure .....................................................................................................................................49
6.9 Applications of Conveyor Belt System ........................................................................................49

CHAPTER 7 : SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 PLC


7.1. About Siemens ............................................................................................................................50
7.2. Siemens Modular PLCs ..............................................................................................................50
7.3. SIMATIC software .....................................................................................................................50
7.5. S7-200 Micro PLCs ....................................................................................................................50
7.6. S7-200 Models ............................................................................................................................51
7.7. Power Sources .............................................................................................................................52
7.8. Programming a S7-200 PLCs......................................................................................................52

7.8.1. Communication with PLC S7-200 .......................................................................................53


7.8.3. Ladder Logic Programming .................................................................................................57
7.8.4. Downloading the Sample Program ......................................................................................59
7.8.5. Placing the S7-200 in RUN Mode........................................................................................59

CHAPTER 8 : SCADA
8.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................60
8.2. Architecture.................................................................................................................................61
8.2.1. Hardware Architecture .........................................................................................................61
8.2.2. Software Architecture ..........................................................................................................61
8.3. Communications .........................................................................................................................62
8.3.1. Internal Communication.......................................................................................................62
8.3.2. Access to Devices ................................................................................................................62
8.3.3. Interfacing ............................................................................................................................63
8.3.4. Scalability.............................................................................................................................63
8.3.5. Redundancy ..........................................................................................................................63
8.4. Functionality ...............................................................................................................................63
8.4.1. Access Control .....................................................................................................................63
8.4.2. MMI .....................................................................................................................................63
8.4.3. Trending ...............................................................................................................................64
8.4.4 Alarm Handling.....................................................................................................................64
8.4.5. Logging/Archiving ...............................................................................................................64
8.4.6. Report Generation ................................................................................................................64
8.4.7 Automation............................................................................................................................64
8.5. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................65
8.5.1. Configuration .......................................................................................................................65
8.5.2. Development Tools ..............................................................................................................65
8.6. Evolution .....................................................................................................................................65
8.7. Engineering .................................................................................................................................66
8.8. Usage of SCADA ........................................................................................................................66
8.9. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF SCADA ......................................................................................66
8.10. Wonderware InTouch................................................................................................................67
8.10.1. InTouch Application Manager ...........................................................................................67
8.10.2. Window Maker GUI ..........................................................................................................68
8.10.3. Window Viewer GUI .........................................................................................................69

CONCLUSION..70

TABLE OF FIGURE
Figure Content.....Page No.
Fig. 1.1. Conceptual Diagram Of a PLC Application..................................................................................1
Fig. 1. 2. Block Diagram Of PLC ................................................................................................................2
Fig. 1.3. Block Diagram Of major CPU components of PLC. .....................................................................2
Fig. 1.4.Functional Interaction Of A PLC System ......................................................................................3
Fig. 1.5. Allen Bradleys PLC processorsmodels 5/12, 5/15, and 5/25. ................................................4
Fig. 1. 6. A multiprocessor configuration .................................................................................................4
Fig. 1. 7.PLC total scan representation.....................................................................................................5
Fig. 1. 8. Illustration of a Scan ..................................................................................................................7
Fig. 1.9. Architecture Of PLC ....................................................................................................................8
Fig. 1. 10. Typical areas of PLCs application ...........................................................................................11
Fig. 2.1.Hardwired logic circuit and its PLC ladder language implementation. .....................................13
Fig. 2.2.Enhanced functional block format. ...........................................................................................13
Fig. 2.3.Ladder rung structure. ...............................................................................................................14
Fig. 2. 4.Illustration of several different continuity paths in a ladder rung. ..........................................15
Fig. 2.5. Counter Input In Plc ..................................................................................................................16
Fig. 2. 6. Ladder programming description for counter .........................................................................17
Fig. 2.7. Input for Timer..........................................................................................................................17
Fig. 2. 8. TON Delay ................................................................................................................................18
Fig. 2. 9. TOFF Delay ...............................................................................................................................19
Fig. 2. 10. RTO Delay ..............................................................................................................................19
Fig. 2. 11. Ladder programming description for counter .......................................................................20
Fig. 3. 1. Allen Bradley Micro Logix 1000 plc..........................................................................................22
Fig. 3. 2. USB TO RS-232 CONVERTER ....................................................................................................23
Fig. 5. 1. Basic Diagram of Motor Control .............................................................................................37
Fig. 5. 2. Wiring Diagram Of Motor Direction Control. ..........................................................................38
Fig. 5. 3. Lateral movement of an overhead crane driven by a motor ..................................................41
Fig. 5. 4. Vertical movement of a lift by a motor. ..................................................................................42
Fig.6. 1. Basic Diagram Logic control system .........................................................................................44
Fig.6. 2. Wiring Diagram of Logic Control System. .................................................................................45
Fig.7. 1. S7-200 Micro PLC ......................................................................................................................51
Fig.7. 2. Different S7-200 CPU Model ....................................................................................................52
Fig.7. 3. STEP 7--Micro/WIN ...................................................................................................................53
Fig.7. 4.Connecting the RS-232/PPI Multi-Master Cable .......................................................................54
Fig.7. 5. New STEP 7--Micro/WIN Project ..............................................................................................54
Fig.7. 6. Verifying the Communications Parameters..............................................................................55
Fig.7. 7. Establishing Communications to the S7-200 ............................................................................56
Fig.7. 8. Program editor .........................................................................................................................56
Fig.7. 9. Siemens S7-200 Addressing Format .........................................................................................58
Fig.7. 10. Downloading the Program......................................................................................................59
Fig.8. 1. Typical Scada Hardwire structure layout ..................................................................................61
Fig.8. 2. Generic Software Architecture of SCADA .................................................................................62
Fig.8. 3. InTouch Application Manager ..................................................................................................67
Fig.8. 4. Windows Maker GUI.................................................................................................................68
Fig.8. 5. Windows Maker GUI.................................................................................................................69

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am highly indebted to Mr. Imran Saify my training guide for his guidance and constant
supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the training.
I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to all the Staff of Company for
their kind cooperation, encouragement & for giving me such attention and time which help me
in completion of this training with full satisfaction.

RAJU KUMAR YADAV


1250521
B.tech ( Electrical Engg.)
SBSSTC, Ferozepur

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ABSTRACT
Programmable logic controllers, also called programmable controllers or PLCs, are solid-state
members of the computer family, using integrated circuits instead of electromechanical devices
to implement control functions. They are capable of storing instructions, such as
sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic, data manipulation, and communication, to control
industrial machines and processes
Motor is one of the essential component of industrial environment. To perform different
industrial operations the control of motor direction is essential. One of the application of control
of motor is in conveyor belt movement. This project throughout describes the direction control
of motor and its application in conveyor belt. PLC is a strong modern controller which contains
input module, output module, processor, memory and power unit. It provides facilities of motor
direction control. To achieve motor forward and reverse direction control PLC makes use of
toggle switches as input and LED indicators to show the rotation of direction of motor.
Programs are stored in the memory by external programming device which are used by PLC
processor to perform the control actions on direction of motor.

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DECLARATION

I, Raju Kumar Yadav, Roll no. 1250521, student of B.Tech Electrical Engg. ,S.B.S.S.T.C
Ferozepur (Punjab) solemnly declare that I have completed my three months industrial training
from 7st January,2016 to 7th April,2016 at CETPA INFO TECH PRIVATE LIMITED. The
report of the training submitted to the Electrical department, S.B.S.S.T.C Ferozepur is based on
my own experience carried out during the course of my industrial training.

The information and data given in the report is authentic to the best of my knowledge.
The details of training and experience contain in this report describe my involvement as
a trainee in the field of Electrical Engineering.

Signature :
Name

RAJU KUMAR YADAV

Roll No

: 1250521

Date

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