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(An Analysis of Types and Reasons of Code Mixing Written By the Students of English Study
Program Academic Year 2016-2017)
Vunnice Isgayadilla
University of Bengkulu
Bengkulu city, Indonesia
Abstract The code mixing can also found in written

and Education who are multilingual. Students at English Study

language, such as in social media. Related to this paper, almost all

Program master at least three languages such as Indonesian as

of English Study Program students are having facebook. Most of

their national language, Bengkulunese as their native

them connected one to each other by using facebook. As far as

language, and English or Japanese as their foreign language.

code mixing is concerned, the writer is going to analyze code

mixing used by the students of English Study Program in social
media, especially on facebook. The writer wants to describe a
code mixing written by the students of FKIP Bahasa Inggris to

The fact that people can use more than one language
encourages them to mix code whenever they speak. The
condition where people use more than one language or code in

know the reasons why they use code mixing in updating status on

the same topic, context, or people in communication is called

facebook and find the types of code mixing they used.

code mixing. The code mixing can also found in in written

In collecting the code mixing data, the writer uses

language, such as in social media.

documentation method by screenshooting the status on facebook

Social media is the social interaction among people in

and spreading the questionnaires to the 40 students to know the

which they treat, share information and ideas in virtual

reasons for doing code mixing. This paper is expected to be used

communities and networks. Nowadays social media have been

as one of the sources of information about the code mixing on

social networking facebook. This can be used as alternative for
learning the development of language and its phenomenon. The
writer will describe the language and phenomenon, especially the
code mixing through the sociolinguistics theory.

developed rapidly. Some of social media that is most used

such as facebook, twitter, path, instagram, blackberry
messenger (bbm), line, wechat, ask.fm, and many more. Each
of them tries to increase their quality and quantity. One of
social media features that are updated any time by users is

Keywords: code mixing, facebook status, types and reasons of code

status. Through status, the user can inform all activity, news,


opinions, exchange ideas, business, and so on. In addition,



Hundreds of millions people in the world routinely

use two or more languages in their daily lives (multilingual).
This also happens to students in Universitas Bengkulu
especially English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training

they also are able to comment or respond to the latest status of

their fellow social media users.
In this social media, especially the writer found much
code mixing used by the seventh semester students of English
Study Program. The user of the social media sometimes mixes
and uses several languages to update their status or comment

to their friends status, for example when they chat with other


people at facebook or line.

Facebook, 08/12/2015)

To give a little description of what the researcher






(Wanna cry. It feels from last in ignorance (not responding)

intends to do, the researcher gives some examples as follow:

when you've repeated time I tried ... but I would never give up.

1. Berawal dari kebersamaan maka seyogyanya ini akan

I believe that I will have a deal with you ...

diakhiri dengan kebersamaan pula. Kita satu bukan A bukan

* MOVIEMK #chocolate)

B..Kita adalah EDSA 2013. Kita memulai dengan mimpi maka

These examples above show the use of code mixing in

harus kita akhiri dengan perwujudan harapan tersebut. Kita

social media. There are some insertions of English vocabulary

mengawalinya sebagai keluarga maka sampai akhirpun tetap

in these sentences. It happens to almost all the status and

keluarga. Last year performance dan kita akhiri dengan begitu

comment of social media. The mixture of the language is

luar biasa. Semoga semua doa yg kita haturkan akan terkabul.

being used to suit into users style. It has a mean to be easily

Once a family will always be a family -EDSA 2013. (Alheru

accepted by their friends, especialy young people because it is

Akbars status on Facebook, 20/12/2015)

closely related to their daily lifestyle.

(Starting from togetherness then this should be terminated

As far as code mixing is concerned, the writer is going

with togetherness. We are not A nor B... We are the EDSA

to analyze code mixing used by the sixth students of English

2013. We started with a dream then we should end with the

Study Program in social media. Since there are only fewer

embodiment of hope. We are as a family at the first till last

detailed studies about how code mixing is used in social

remains as the family. Last year performance and we end with

media, it is interesting for the writer to make an analysis

so remarkable. We wish all our prays will extend this prayer


answered. Once a family will always be a family-EDSA



and Reasons of Code Mixing Written By the Students of

2. Kata-kata yang hilang saat rindu menengadah, seperti lupa

English Study Program Academic Year 2016-2017)

tak terjamah... Apakah mencapainya? Once again... And I will

keep it. Terlalu banyak harapan yang mengambang di awan



menggumpal menjadi hujan. Lalu menghubungkan... Katakata yang terbisik lemah; senyum dan tawa. Dua puluh dua
satu, sembilan empat sembilan lima; black and white.. (Eva
Destriantis status on Facebook, 01/12/2015)
(Words that are missing when Miss looking up, like forget the
unspoiled ... If achieve it? Once again ... And I will keep it.
Too much hope that float in the clouds rotate into the rain.
Then connect ... Whispered words are weak; smiles and
laughter. Twenty-two one nine nine four, five; black and
white ...).
3. pengen nanggis rasanya dari tadi di cuekin (not responding)
padahal udah berulang-ulang kali aku mencoba... but I would
never give up.. I believe that I will have a deal with you..

The purposes of the research on code mixing in social media

that used by students of Language and Art Faculty are to find
out the types of code mixing that are used by students of
Language and Art Faculty on Facebook status, to find out the
lexical item are mixed by students of Language and Art
Faculty in Facebook status, and also to describe the reasons
why the students of Language and Art Faculty use code
mixing when update Facebook status or comment at their
friends status.


In this mini research the writer will analyze code mixing that
occurred in blackberry messenger which is used by the sixth
semester students of English Study Program, Faculty of
Teacher Training and Education, University of Bengkulu.The
writer also describes about types of code mixing and the

lexical items used on Facebook status. In order to have an

understandable research, the writer will give an underlying
theory that explains the types of code mixing based on what is
proposed by Soewito (1983) and Muysken (2000). In
addition, the writer also uses Hymess theory (1975) that
explains several reasons why students mix their languages,
and add the theory that shows code mixing in a magazine by
Sofiyana (2009).
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insertion, alteration, and congruent lexical code mixing. The

result of his research also show that there were seven reason
why this family use code mixing.
This research has the same approach as that Sofiyana.
What make this research different are the data and data source.
Sofiyana took Indonesian- English code mixing as the data
and using Kawanku magazine as data source, while the data
source of this research is facebook and taking the code mixing
personal status or comment in it as the data.
C. Bilingualism
Indonesian people are at least bilinguals. We have seen that
almost Indonesian people master Indonesian Language and
vernacular language. When we meet someone speaking two
languages in the conversation with other people, then he/she
become bilingual. Also, foreign language acquisition will add
the language they master, so they are not only be as bilingual,
but also multilingual. In bilingual community, the switch of

The writer finds that many of graduated students have

language that they mastered is influenced by many factors. In

done some researches in the topic of code mixing that help the

sociolinguistics study about code mixing. It closely related

writer in doing research paper but in different objects and

with bilingualism. Bilingualism is included in this related

ways in applying the theories. The previous research was

theory since it underlies the occurrence of code mixing and

written by Sofiyana (2009) her research A Descriptive Study

code switching phenomenon or it also define as having some

of Indonesian-English Code Mixing Used in Kawanku

ability to use two or more languages.

Magazine. She discussed the form, the type and the reason to
analyze the Indonesian English code mixing in written
language. Another previous research was written by Henny
Widhi Astuti (2010), the student of State Islamic Studies
Institute of Salatiga in her paper entitled A Descriptive Study
of Code Mixing and Code Switching Used in Andrea Hiratas
Novel Entitled Maryamah Karpov. In her research, she
focused on the types of code mixing and code switching in this
The last research that the writer used for helping the
writer doing this research is from Jonathan Gysbert
Katiandagho (2013). His research entitled The Identification
of Code Mixings Used in an East Javanese Family. This
research study about the type of code mixing used by Sonnys
family and describe the reason of Sonnys family using code
mixing in their everyday conversation. This family use
Identify applicable sponsor/s here. (sponsors)

D. Code Mixing
Code-mixing is similar to what we call language
interference in code-mixing; the speaker takes components
from another language while he is speaking a certain language
(Panca Javandalasta Putra, 2010). Code mixing is usually
occurs in the middle of a sentence. According to Suwito
(1985:78) in Maulidini (2007:23), code mixing is usually
occurs in the middle of a sentence. Code mixing divided into
two kinds. They are inner code mixing and outer code mixing.
Based on the unsure of language that involve in it, there are
some forms of code mixing, they are the insertion of words,
insertion of phrases, insertion of hybrids, insertion of word
reduplication, insertion of idioms, and insertion of clause.
Muysken (2000) also defines three types of code mixing:
insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization. In his view,

insertion occurs when lexical items from one language are



The methods used by the author in this paper, for the

incorporated into another.

According to Hymes (1974:58) outlined eight

writers research will be a qualitative, descriptive methods. A

elements which influenced of using code mixing. It called as

Chaedar Alwasilah, according to (2008:26), "qualitative

Component of Speech. In short, all the elements are being

Research is research that is used as a wrapper that includes a

abbreviated into : situation ( Setting and Scene), Participants,

number of research strategies are both taken from a series of

Ends, Act Sequences, Instruments, Norms, Genres, and Keys.

interrelated assumptions which are typical of the qualitative

E. Social Media
Social media is a websites and applications that
enable users to create and share content or to participate in







(2006:75), "research that intends to make description

concerning situations or events."

social networking. It also define as the collective of online

In this research, the researcher will describe the

communications channels dedicated to community-based

linguistic form of code mixing and the reasons of using code

input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Websites

mixing by The SixTH Semester Students of English Study

and applications dedicated to forums, microblogging, social

Program users which are friend with the researcher. The

networking, social bookmarking, social curation, and wikis are

subject of the study is fifty Indonesian Facebook users which

among the different types of social media. The example of

are friend with the researcher. The object of this research is the

social media such as; facebook, twitter, wikipedia, blogger,

use of code mixing which is used by all of Faculty of


Language and Art students post in their social media






instagram, etc. Considering the statement above the researcher

networking especially Facebook.

concluded that social media is an action that can affect the

The data of the research are the statuses and the chats

people use code mixing. It could be found as a seemingly

of which are taken from Indonesian Facebook users. The data

unlimited potential for creative meaning.

source of the research are the post expressions in the forms of

sentences in youngster Facebook between the researcher and


Created in February 2004, facebook is a social










correspondences. In collecting data the researcher employed

networking site in that helps people communicate more

observation and documentations. The observation is seeking

efficiently with their friends, their family. The company

the data which contain code mixing selected by the researcher.

develops technologies that facilitate the sharing of information

The documentation is saving and documenting the data which

through the social graph, community, digital mapping from

is taken from the observation.

real-world social connections. A person can sign up for

In analyzing the data, the writer will analyze based on

Facebook and interact with the people they know in a trusted

the theory of Suwito about the form of code mixing and the

environment. Users can add friends and send messages, and

theory of Charles Hockett about the reasons of using code

update their personal profiles to notify friends about

mixing. The steps are (1) describing the forms of code mixing,

themselves. Facebook is also an interactive electronic

the writer uses the theory of code mixing form which was

newsletter, you create an account (which is free). Now it is the

stated by Suwito. Based on the language element involves,

number one social networking and twitter both behind it. They

code mixing can be divided into word, blending, affixation,

have more than 175 million active users worldwide currently

hybrid, word reduplication, phrase, and clause. (2) Analyzing

and growing every day.

the reasons of using code mixing, the writer uses the theory of
Charles Hockett in classifying motives of using code mixing.

According to Hockett (1958: 404) the motive of using code

analyze the personal message or chat screenshoot of facebook

mixing is classified into two; need filling motive and prestige

users to find out the code mixing. Every code mixing selected

filling motive. Need filling motive is a motive when the

and then find the kind of form of each code mixing. After the

speaker cannot find words that have similar meaning in their

writer got all the code mixing in the facebook, the writer put it

language. Prestige filling motive is a motive when the speaker

all into a table. The writer use one tables in the process of

want to appear their educational status.

analyzing the screenshoot. The table could be seen as follows:

In this paper the writer used the analization of code

mixing that used on facebook status. The writer choose this



Kind of code


subject because the personal message of facebook users show

varieties of code mixing in updating or chatting in this media.
The writer will analyze code mixing viewed from the forms
and the factors of using code mixing on facebook status. The

The table in example I is the tables for collecting all the code

writer did an observation because it made the data obtained.

mixing that have been screenshooted and the analysis based on

During the observation the writer use internet media to access

Muyskens theories about code mixing. There were two kinds

facebook in the phone. Internet is important in this study, since

of code mxing name inner code mixing and outer code mixing.

without it the writer can not get the data from facebook. The

There were five kinds of form of code mixing subtituded in

data that the writer got in this study formulated into

the sentence (Soewito, 1985:78). Example I analyze the code

screenshoot. The writer analyzed code mixing in facebook

mixing that found in facebook status that has been

status by screenshooting the data into picture. After that the


writer will export the data in the table for identifying the text


contained code mixing in facebook status.



In collecting the data, the writer will use the method

that had been used by the previous study. In previous study
Noviyani (2013) used documentation method. Documentation
method that will be used by the writer is a method which used
to obtain the data source from written text on selected personal
message or chatting in facebook by screenshooting the object
research. Documentation is a method used to get data about
some variables like magazine, recording, book and letter
(Kuntjoroningrat, 1985: 64). Beside that, the writer also

Hidayat, TA. 2014. The Identification of Code Mixings Used in An East

Javanese Family
Noviyani, Siti Rohmah. 2013. A Descriptive Analysis of Indonesian-English
code mixing used in JSYK Rubric publised on May-July 2012 Edition of
Cosmogirl Magazine
Sofiyana. 2009. A Descriptive Study of Indonesian-English Code Mixing
Used in Kawanku Magazine. Unpublished Thesis. Salatiga: English
Department of Education Faculty State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN)
Hoffman, C. (1991). An introduction to bilingualism. New York: Longman
Gardner, Penelope. 2009. Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Muyskeen, P. 2000. Bilingual speech: A Typology of Code-Mixing.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Astuti, Henny Widhi. 2010. A Descriptive Study of Code Mixing and Code
Switching Used in Andrea Hiratas Novel Entitled Maryamah Karpov