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ENGLISH TOPIC: FEMINISM

To begin with, before talking about feminism we must know


the definition of it. Feminism is a social doctrine and a
politic movement that promotes the liberation of women
from the economic, politic and social submission that the
patriarchal system imposes to them. The patriarchy is a
social system in which males hold primary power,
predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority,
social privilege and control of property.
The history of feminism can be divided into three waves
FIRST WAVE
The first wave of feminism took place at the same time as
the Enlightenment and the French revolution. In August of
1789, the National Constituent Assembly proclaimed
"Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizen" A woman
called Olimpia de Gouges wrote "Declaration of the rights of
woman and the female citizen" as a replica two years later
but she was executed by guillotine in 1793. The previous
year Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (mother of Frankenstein's
writer Mary Shelley), who used to be called a "Hyena in
petticoats", also wrote "A vindication of the Rights of
Woman" where she explains certain women behaviors that
are not made because their nature but by the oppression
they suffer. Nevertheless, men act rough against this
feelings of disagreement with the system breaking up
women clubs, forbidding meetings in the streets between
more than 5 women, as well as imprisoning those with
political intentions or even executing them by guillotine or
exile.
SECOND WAVE
We cannot explain the second wave of feminism without
explaining the role of suffragists. At the beginning the
suffragists were American women from the 19 century who
could learn to read thanks to the new influences like the

Protestantism. The very first injustice the suffragist wanted


to fight with was the slavery, instead of her own rights. But
the reason that made them stand for their own rights was
being excluded of The World Antislavery Convention
reunited at London in 1840 just because they were women.
It was in 1848 when Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
was made, with the agreement of 68 women and 32 men,
except the part wanting to let women vote. After all the
work of suffragists to get slaves and themselves the rights
they deserved, republicans in 1866 allowed slaves to vote
but denied it to women. But the worst part of this was that
even the anti-slavery movement didn't want to support
their right to vote, thinking they were going to loose the
privilege they just got. After that, suffragist convinced
themselves that the fight for the rights of women only
belonged to women, the only ones capable to put
everything into it. Elizabeth Cady Stanton y Susan B
Anthony founded in 1868 the National woman's suffrage
association but there were women who found it excessive
so they also founded the American Woman Suffrage
Association which was a little more conservative. In 1869,
Wyoming became the first state recognizing the right of
women to vote (21 years later of the Seneca Falls
Declaration of Sentiments). With the beginning of the new
century, suffragists became more radical and the
progresses and the conservative ones joined forces, getting
at 1918 the support of the president Wilson, who allowed
women vote in the United States at 1920. At 1949, the
philosopher Simone de Beauvoir publish "The second sex"
where she tries to explain the reason of
women's
oppression and will open a new chapter in the history of
feminism: the third wave.
THIRD WAVE
After Hitler's death, the ideas of the Nazism referred to
women were still in the air, the woman seemed to belong in
the house once again and they get fired from the jobs they

used to have. Against this ideas appears the Radical


Feminism, a perspective within feminism that calls for a
radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is
eliminated in all social and economic contexts. Radical
feminists seek to abolish patriarchy by challenging
perceived existing social norms and institutions. This
includes challenging the notion of traditional gender roles,
opposing the sexual objectification of women, and raising
public awareness about rape and violence against women.
There are other types of feminism such as ecofeminism
(who also are ecologist) and ciberfeminism who use the
internet to spread the ideas they have and try to educate
other people to be a part of their fight and it's an actual
thing nowadays especially in the social media.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF FEMINISM IN THE PAST AND
OBJECTIFS FOR THE FUTURE
The most important achievements of the feminist revolution
are Women's suffrage, abortion legalization and divorce law.
In addition, we are now allowed to be autonomic persons,
not a property of a father or a husband, to participate in
politics, to have economic independence, to use anti
conceptive products in order not to get pregnant (maternity
is voluntary), access to secondary education (including
superior education) and access to jobs "made for men".
We have to thank a lot of women who died and some others
who were imprisoned or assaulted because if it wasn't for
them, we wouldn't have progressed as much as we did.
The achievements of feminism not only benefit women but
also men, for example, they don't have the obligation to
maintain only of their own the income a family gets
because women can contribute too and not depend on
others salary.
However, there still are thing that we have to fight for. In
the world, the majority of women who work have double

workday because on top of it they also have to do


homework. Women keep being murdered by gender
violence almost every day, the genital mutilation of little
girls it's still a thing in some places, and girls keep being
kidnapped and raped because of white slave traffic.