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Abstract................................................................................................................. 3
Introduction........................................................................................................... 3
Results................................................................................................................... 4
Discussion............................................................................................................ 11
Conclusions.......................................................................................................... 12
References........................................................................................................... 12
Appendix A: Sample Calculations........................................................................12
Conversion of manometer reading to pressure drop........................................12
Area of cross section........................................................................................ 13
Calculation of superficial velocity from volumetric flow rate............................13
Calculation of fluidised bed density..................................................................13
Calculation of bed voidage............................................................................... 15
Calculation of bed voidage (sand)....................................................................16
Calculation of velocity of sand through orifice..................................................16
Calculation of weight per unit area of the bed..................................................16
Analysis Question 1.......................................................................................... 17
Analysis Question 2.......................................................................................... 17
Analysis Question 3.......................................................................................... 17
Analysis Question 4.......................................................................................... 19
Appendix B: Error analysis................................................................................... 19
Calculation of uncertainty in pressure drop (fat bed).......................................19
Uncertainty in pressure drop (narrow bed).......................................................20
Calculation of uncertainty in gas velocity (fat bed)..........................................20
Calculation of uncertainty in gas velocity (narrow bed)....................................20
Calculation of uncertainty in k1 values.............................................................20
Calculation of uncertainty in k2 values.............................................................21
Appendix C: Data sheet....................................................................................... 21
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Abstract
The aims of the experiment were to observe and comment on the relationships between
superficial velocity and the pressure drop and the relationship and between the minimum
fluidisation velocity and the bed height. These have both been achieved and are detailed
below in the results section.
The experiment involved passing increasing air flow rates through different materials and
investigating, the change in bed height and pressure drop with the superficial velocity of
the air. From this graphs could be drawn that allowed for the achievement of the aims.
Values for Umf were 0.030+0.001m/s, 0.1680.008m/s and 0.397+0.022m/s for sand,
Ballotini red and Ballotini 8 respectively.
Values obtained for k1 were 0.00230.0004, 0.00220.0009 and 0.00180.0008 for sand,
Ballotini red and Ballotini 8 respectively.
Both of these sets of values agree with theory.
Relationships between Usf and P, and Umf and bed height were obtained and are shown on
figures 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 in the results section.
Values obtained graphically for Uv were 0.5691m/s, 0.6305m/s and 0.0494m/s for sand
Ballotini red and Ballotini 8 respectively. Values for Ub/Us obtained empirically were
0.42m/s for sand and 0.0928m/s for both Ballotini.
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Introduction
Fluidisation is a technique used in chemical Engineering for solids transport  as well as to
increase rates of reaction for solids and to aid in separation. Finding the minimum
fluidisation velocity allows for energy saving (and therefore cost saving) as there is no
gain in increasing the fluid velocity to greater than this value. Studies have been
conducted similar to this in the past, examples of previous research include the study done
by The National institute of technology, Rourkela (D. Ram, 2013)
The experiment involved passing air through sand, Ballotini Red and Ballotini 8 in order
for fluidisation to occur, and using values obtained from this to plot graphs that allowed
for various values to be obtained.
As well as the minimum fluidisation velocity, k1 and k2 values will also be found for each
material. As an aside, Torricellis Law was also investigated when emptying the fat bed
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Results
FIGURE 1: GRAPH USED TO DETERMINE MINIMUM FLUIDISATION VELOCITY
0.360
0.350
0.340
0.330
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
Velocity (m/s)
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4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0.010
1000
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
Velocity (m/s)
0.400
0.350
0.250
0.200
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
Velocity (m/s)
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4000.0
3000.0
2000.0
1000.0
0.0
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.400
0.450
Velocity (m/s)
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
Velocity (m/s)
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5000.0
4000.0
3000.0
2000.0
1000.0
0.0
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800
Velocity (m/s)
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0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.700
0.800
Velocity (m/s)
140
120
H/(HHmf)
100
80
60
40
20
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1/(U  Umf)
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12
10
H/(HHmf)
8
6
4
2
0
10
15
20
25
1/(U  Umf)
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2.000
f(x) = 0.05x + 0.79
1.500
H/(HHmf)
1.000
0.500
0.000
0.000
5.000
10.000
15.000
20.000
25.000
2.5
1/(U  Umf)
1
0.8
Velocity (m/s)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.5
1.5
(2gh)0.5
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TABLE
Material
Diameter (m)
K1
Sand
15025*
0.00230.0004
Red Ballotini
25050
0.00220.0009
Ballotini 8 (grey)
42872
0.00180.0008
*(Rufford Knowledge Base  Glossary of Terms, 2014)
TABLE 2: VALUES FOR MINIMUM FLUIDISATION VELOCITY AND CORRESPONDING PRESSURE DROP & W/A
Material
Umf (m/s)
P (Pa)
Sand
Red Ballotini
Ballotini 8 (grey)
0.030+0.001
0.1680.008
0.397+0.022
4510290
4550150
6170150
TABLE 3: CALCULATED VALUES FOR SLUGGING AND BUBBLE VELOCITIES COMPARED WITH THOSE IN Q3
Material
Sand
Red Ballotini
Ballotini 8
(grey)
K2 (Figs 911)
4.50
0.093
0.792
Uv
0.5691
0.6305
0.0494
Us
0.0928
0.0928
Ub
0.42

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Discussion
The aims of the experiment were to observe and comment on the relationships between
superficial velocity and the pressure drop and the relationship and between the minimum
fluidisation velocity and the bed height. These have both been achieved and are detailed
above in the results section.
The values obtained for minimum fluidisation velocity from the graphs all follow the
expected trend they agree with theory and literature, (LaProm, 2011).
Before readings were taken, the flow rate was first increased to approximately 3035litres/min, this was done in order to make sure the sand particles were arranged with the
lowest voidage possible. The flow rate was then reduced to 0 and readings were now
taken as normal. This was done to make sure the voidage present in the sand was at a
minimum, thereby stopping a dip occurring in the height as the particles rearrange to a
lower voidage just before the minimum fluidisation velocity (when frictional forces are far
lower.
The minimum fluidisation velocity appeared to increase very significantly with size, with
it increasing 5 fold between 150m and 250m, and then by almost 3 between 250m and
428m. This is very significant and clearly shows the large increases of energy required
when fluidising larger particles. It would be useful in future experiments to conduct the
experiment with perhaps 3 or 4 more materials (of varying diameters), to perhaps obtain a
more insightful relationship between particle size and the minimum fluidisation velocity.
The large uncertainties in k1 values is something that unfortunately nothing could be done
about, they occurred due to the large uncertainty in the size of the error in particle size
(which then had to be doubled due to being squared in the calculation of k1. In future if
possible materials with smaller size ranges should be used.
Uncertainties at low flow rates for figures 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 can be seen to be almost
completely negligible. Even at higher flow rates the uncertainties are not massive the
curve can be seen to be well within the bounds of the highest uncertainty values. Reading
values from the manometer was difficult at higher flow rates however, as the height would
fluctuate quite significantly. This problem could be countered by perhaps using a denser
liquid. Although this will lead to increase costs and the only immediately obvious one is
mercury (MANOMETERS: FLUIDS FOR MANOMETERS, 2008).
To investigate the accuracy of calculated k2 values, they should be compared to values in
literature. Unfortunately, these have proved exceedingly difficult to find, so know overall
conclusion on their accuracy can be drawn.
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Conclusions
The aims of the experiment were to observe and comment on the relationships between
superficial velocity and the pressure drop and the relationship and between the minimum
fluidisation velocity and the bed height. These have both been achieved and the results
obtained appear to be reliable although cannot be confirmed as literature values were
unable to be obtained. Minimum fluidisation velocities of 0.030+0.001m/s,
0.1680.008m/s and 0.397+0.022m/s were obtained for sand, Ballotini red and Ballotini 8
respectively.
One of the drawbacks of the experiment was the lack of different materials examined,
which would have allowed for stronger conclusions to be drawn about the correlation
between Umf and particle size. Another was the lack of available literature values that
would have allowed for the comparison of results giving a far clearer indication as to the
overall success of the experiment.
Errors in the experiment, although sometimes significant, did not appear to have a drastic
affect on the results all graphs behaved as expected (agreeing with literature and theory).
The most significant source of error in the experiment was the uncertainty in particle size.
References
LaProm, (2016) LaProm  Fluidization Technology, Fluidizacao.com.br. Available at:
http://www.fluidizacao.com.br/ing/home.php?pgi=Teoria/Velmf2.html (Accessed: 24
March 2016).
MANOMETERS: FLUIDS FOR MANOMETERS (2008)
Manometersbalancing.blogspot.co.uk. Available at:
http://manometersbalancing.blogspot.co.uk/2008/10/fluidsformanometers.html
(Accessed: 24 March 2016).
Ram, D. (2013) "The Determination of Minimum Bubbling Velocity, Minimum
Fluidization Velocity and Fluidization Index of Fine Powders (Hematite) using GasSolid
Tapered Beds", nternational Journal of Science and Research, 2(2), pp. 287293.
Rufford Knowledge Base  Glossary of Terms (2014) Rufford.co.uk. Available at:
http://rufford.co.uk/technical/glossary.html (Accessed: 21 March 2016).
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Density of water ()
Gravitational force
(g)
Height difference
(h)
1000kg/m3 (source)
9.8N/kg
0.426m
P= g h
P=10009.80. 426
P=4174.8 Pa
Where,
P is the Pressure drop in across the bed (Pa)
is the density of water (kg/m3)
g is the gravitational force (N/kg)
h is the height difference (m)
A=
D
4
A=
0.188
4
A=0.0278 m2
Where,
A is the area of the crosssection (m2)
D is the diameter of the bed (m)
U sf =
Q
A
U sf =
35106
600.0278
U sf =0.021 m/ s
Where,
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T air =W s W a
T air =s V s g a V s g
T air =V s g ( s a )
Where,
Tair is the tension in the Hydrometer (N)
Ws is the weight of the s.s. weight (N)
Wa is the weight of air displaced by the s.s. weight (N)
s is the density of the s.s. weight (kg/m3)
a is the density of the air (kg/m3)
Vs is the volume occupied by the s.s. weight (m3)
g is the gravitational force (N/kg)
EQUATION 5: FORCE BALANCE IN BED AROUND HYDROMETER
T bed=W sW b
T bed=( s V s gb V b g )
T bed=V s g ( sb )
Where,
Tbed is the tension in the Hydrometer (N)
Wb is the weight of the bed displaced by the s.s. weight (N)
b is the density of the bed (kg/m3)
The tension of the hydrometer in air and water is calculated by simply multiplying the mass
reading by the gravitational force. This is shown in equation 6 below. Table 2 below shows
the values used in these calculations.
TABLE 5: VALUES USED TO CALCULATE TENSIONS IN HYDROMETER
T air =0.0979.8
T bed=0.0619.8
97g
61g
9.8N/kg
T air =0.951 N
T bed=0. 598 N
Now, we simply do Eq. 4 minus Eq. 5 and rearrange to solve for b. Tair and Tbed are known
from multiplying the mass reading on the hydrometer by the gravitational force. The
calculation of b is shown below. Table 6 shows the values used in the calculation.
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0.951N
0.598N
34ml
1.2kg/m3
9.8N/kg
T air T bed =V s g ( s a ) V s g ( s b )
b=
( 9761 )1039.8
+1.2
341069.8
T air T bed =V s g ( b a )
b=1060 kg/m
b=
T air T bed
+ a
Vs g
0.284kg
2500kg/m3
V specific =
m
m
V specific =
0.284
2500
Where,
Vspecific is the volume occupied by the Ballotini beads (m3)
m is the measured mass of beads (kg)
m is the specific density of the beads (kg/m3)
The volume occupied by the bed can be simply calculated from equation 8 shown below.
Table 8 shows the values used in this calculation.
TABLE 8: VALUES USED TO OBTAIN VOLUME OF BED
4.95 x 104m2
0.307m
V = Ah
V =4.9510 0.307
V =1.5210 m
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Where,
V is the volume occupied by the bed (m3)
A is the crosssectional area of packing (m2)
h is the height of packing (m)
With both the volume and the specific volume known, the voidage fraction can be found from
equation 9. This is shown below using the values obtained above (for red Ballotini). Table 9
shows the values used in this calculation.
TABLE 9: VALUES USED TO CALCULATE VOIDAGE FRACTION
1.14 x 104m3
1.52 x 104m3
=1
V specific
V
=1
1.14104
1.52104
=10.75
=0.25
V
At
u=
420106
5.031058.47
420ml
8.47s
5.03 x 105m2
u=0.98 m/ s
1060kg/m3
9.8N/kg
0.357m
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W b Vg
=
A
A
W
=b gh
A
W
=10609.80. 357
A
W
=3709 Pa
A
Analysis Question 1
At the point of minimum fluidisation, the centre of the fat bed appears to be fully fluidised
but the outer edges do not. At higher air flow rates the whole bed appears fluidised. The
weight per unit area at the minimum fluidisation velocity was calculated in Equation 11
above to be 3709Pa. The pressure drop across the bed at this height is 4508Pa. This suggests
that the point of minimum fluidisation should perhaps be slightly before this however it
also confirms that the bed is fully fluidised.
Analysis Question 2
The minimum fluidisation velocity for the narrow bed materials (Ballotini Red and Ballotini
8) was found by looking for the point on figures when the bed height rises with increased air
velocity this is the point when there should be a more or less constant pressure drop and the
bed is becoming fluidised. The two values are stated below.
Red Ballotini: Umf = 0.148m/s
Ballotini 8: Umf = 0.397m/s
Analysis Question 3
The equation given in the lab manual relating H and U is shown in the first line below. This is
rearranged so that it can be used to plot a linear function of H against U, in a way that the
unknowns Us and k2 can be measured from the gradient and the intercept of the best straight
fit line.
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Values obtained from plotting this equation for the 3 different materials is shown in the
results section.
Analysis Question 4
This question as to calculate k1 using the results found in this experiment. The formula to be
used is shown below in equation 12. Table 12 below shows the values used in this calculation
for the fat bed.
TABLE 12: VALUES USED TO CALCULATE K1
d
U mf =k 1 g p s f
k 1=
U mf
2
p
0.027m/s
9.8N/kg
150m
1060kg/m3
1.2kg/m3
(1.98 x 105 Pa s)
0.027
6 2
gd
sf
k 1=
1.9810
9.8( 15010 )
10601.2
k 1=0.0023
err ( P ) =
0.2
4978.4
50.8
err ( P ) =19.6 P a
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err ( U sf )=
2
0.036
60
0.008 2 250 2
+
0.0022
0.168
250
)(
err ( k 1 )=0.400.0022
err ( k 1 )= 0.0009
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1000
Acceleration due to
gravity (m/s2)
9.8
0.174
0.188
0.0278
Narrow Diameter
(m)
0.0251
0.000494
808
0.03
0.008
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H/(HHmf)
180
120
90
60
1/(U  Umf)
333
167
111
83
41
27
67
56
18
16
48
42
Packed
Bed
Flow Rate
(litres/mi
Bed
n)
Height (m)
20
0.350
25
0.350
30
0.350
35
40
45
50
0.350
0.350
0.350
0.350
U Bed
Height
0.001
0.001
0.001
Pressure
Drop (Pa)
2998.8
3851.4
4292.4
Superficial
Gas
Velocity
(m/s)
0.012
0.015
0.018
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
5576.2
6370.0
7526.4
8300.6
0.021
0.024
0.027
0.030
U Superficial
Gas Velocity
(m/s)
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0012
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H/(HHmf)
14
10
7
5
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
1/(U  Umf)
23
15
11
9
8
6
6
5
4
4
4
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Bed Height
(m)
0.348
0.348
0.348
u bed hight
0.005
0.005
0.005
Pressure
Drop (Pa)
1646.4
1832.6
2263.8
U Pressure
Drop (Pa)
147.0
147.0
147.0
Superficial
Gas Velocity
(m/s)
0.088
0.108
0.128
4.4
5.0
5.7
6.4
7.0
7.7
8.3
9.0
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.348
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
2783.2
3351.6
3880.8
4331.6
4870.6
5615.4
6281.8
6703.2
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
0.148
0.168
0.192
0.216
0.236
0.259
0.280
0.303
9.7
10.4
0.348
0.372
0.005
0.005
7232.4
6174.0
147.0
147.0
0.327
0.350
11.2
11.8
12.6
13.3
0.379
0.398
0.421
0.440
0.005
0.010
0.020
0.035
6007.4
6144.6
6389.6
6683.6
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
0.377
0.397
0.424
0.448
14.0
14.8
15.6
16.4
17.3
18.2
18.9
19.8
0.471
0.503
0.530
0.535
0.550
0.557
0.581
0.584
0.065
0.070
0.100
0.110
0.100
0.130
0.140
0.150
6820.8
7026.6
7369.6
7585.2
7889.0
8124.2
8575.0
8604.4
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
147.0
0.472
0.499
0.525
0.552
0.583
0.613
0.637
0.667
H/(HHmf)
2.000
1/(U  Umf)
21.206
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1.333
1.167
13.495
10.237
1.083
1.077
1.053
1.048
1.053
1.040
1.037
1.034
8.247
6.747
5.709
4.948
4.303
3.806
3.493
3.158
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