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PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL DRAWING

COURSE CODE: MEC 112

YEAR I- SE MESTER I

THEORY/PRACTICAL

Version 1: December 2008

TECHNICAL DRAWING (MEC 112)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

WEEK 1

1.0 :

INTRODUCTION

1.1:

1.1.1:

T-SQUARE

1.1.2:

SET SQUARE

1.1.3:

COMPASS

1.1.4:

DRAWING TABLE

1.1.5:

1.1.6:

PROTRACTOR

1.1.7:

DRAWING PENCIL:

1.1.8:

ERASER:

1.2:

LINES

1.2.1:

1.2.2:

LINE THICKNESS

1.2.3:

LINE STYLES

1.2.4:

BREAK LINES

1.2.5:

LEADERS

1.2.6:

DATUM LINES

1.2.7:

PHANTOM LINES

1.2.8:

STITCH LINES

1.2.9:

CENTER LINES

1.2.10:

EXTENSION LINES

1.2.11:

1.2.12:

CUTTING-PLANE/VIEWING-PLANE LINES

1.2.13:

HIDDEN LINES

1.2.14:

SECTIONING LINES

1.2.15:

DIMENSION LINES

1.3:

DIMENSIONING - AN OVERVIEW

1.3.1:

PARALLEL DIMENSIONING

1.3.2:

1.3.3:

CHAIN DIMENSIONING

1.3.4:

COMBINED DIMENSIONS

1.3.5:

DIMENSIONING BY CO-ORDINATES

1.3.6:

1.3.7:

1.3.8:

DIMENSIONING CIRCLES

1.3.9:

DIMENSIONING HOLES

1.3.10:

DIMENSIONING RADII

1.3.11:

SPHERICAL DIMENSIONS

1.3.12:

TOLERANCE

1.4 :

LINE STYLES

1.5 :

TASK SHEET 1

2.1:

2.2:

2.3:

2.4.

2.5:

DRAWING SHEETS/PAPERS

2.6 :

DRAWING SCALES

2.7:

LETTERING METHOD

2.8:

TASK SHEET 2

3.1:

GEOMETRICAL DRAWINGS

3.2:

3.3:

TRIANGLE

3.4:

TASK SHEET 3

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

WEEK 4

3.5:

QUADRILATERALS

3.5.1.

SQUARE

3.5.2.

RECTANGLE

3.5.3.

PARALLELOGRAM

3.5.4.

RHOMBUS

3.5.5

TRAPEZIUM

3.5.6.

TRAPEZOID

3.6:

CONSTRUCTION OF QUADRILATERALS

3.7:

CIRCLES

3.7.1:

TYPES OF CIRCLES

3.7.2:

PROPERTIES OF A CIRCLE

3.7.3:

3.8:

TASK SHEET 4

3.7.3:

4.0:

TANGENCY

4.1:

CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENT

5.0:

POLYGONS

5.1:

CONSTRUCTION OF POLYGONS

5.2:

TASK SHEET 5

6.0

ELLIPSE:

6.1

PROPERTIES OF AN ELLIPSE

WEEK 5

WEEK 6

6.2

METHOD

6.3

CONSTRUCTION

OF

ELLIPSE

USING

RECTANGULAR

METHOD

6.4

6.5

ELLIPSE, AND TO FIND THE FOCI.

6.7

TASK SHEET 6

7.0

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION:

7.1

7.2

TASK SHEET 7

8.0

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

8.1

WEEK 7

WEEK 8

PROJECTIONS

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

WEEK 9

PROJECTION

8.7.1

8.8

THE

DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN

1ST

&

3RD

ANGLE

OF

PROJECTION

8.8.1

FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTION

8.8.2

THIRD-ANGLE PROJECTION

8.9

WEEK 10

9.0

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS.

9.1

INTRODUCTION

9.2

9.3

MECHANICAL CONVENTIONS

9.4

ELECTRICAL CONVENTIONS

9.5

9.5.1

9.5.2

9.6

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

9.7

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

9.8

PNEUMATIC SYMBOLS

9.9

TASK 10

10.0

10.1

10.2

10.3

TASK SHEET 11

11.0

11.1

INTRODUCTION:

WEEK 11

WEEK 12

11.2

11.3

TASK SHEET 12

12.0

12.1

OBLIQUE SKETCHING

12.2

TASK SHEET 13

13.0

13.1

13.2

WEEK 13

WEEK 14

ANGLES.

13.3

13.4

ANGLE.

13.5

13.6

13.7

TASK SHEET 14

14.0

DEVELOPMENT

14.1

TASK SHEET 15

WEEK 15

WEEK1:

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Technical drawing is concerned mainly with using lines, circles, arcs etc., to illustrate

general configuration of an object, however, it is very important that the drawing

produced to be accurate and clear.

The ability to read and understand drawings is a skill that is very crucial for technical

education students; this text aims at helping students to gain this skill in a simple and

realistic way, and gradually progressed through drawing and interpreting different

level of engineering drawings.

Some basic equipments are necessary in order to learn drawing, here are the main

ones.

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO DRAWING EQUIPMENTS

1.1.1:T-SQUARE

A T-square is a technical drawing instrument

primarily guides for drawing horizontal lines on

a drafting table, it also used to guide the triangle

that is used to draw vertical lines. The name Tsquare comes from the general shape of the

instrument where the horizontal member of the

T slides on the side of the drafting table.

(Fig.1.1)

(Fig.1.1)

A set square or triangle is a tool used to draw

straight vertical lines at a particular planar angle to

a baseline. The most common form of Set Square is

a triangular piece of transparent plastic with the

centre removed. The outer edges are typically

beveled. These set squares come in two forms, both

right triangles: one with 90-45-45 degree angles,

and the other with 90-60-30 degree angles. (Fig.1.2)

(Fig.1.2)

1.1.3: COMPASS

Compasses are usually made of metal, and consist of

two parts connected by a hinge which can be adjusted.

Typically one part has a spike at its end, and the other

part a pencil. Circles can be made by pressing one leg

of the compasses into the paper with the spike, putting

the pencil on the paper, and moving the pencil around

while keeping the hinge on the same angle. The radius

of the circle can be adjusted by changing the angle of

the hinge. (Fig.1.3)

(Fig.1.3)

It is a multi-angle desk which can be used in different

angle according to the user requisite. The size suites

most paper sizes, and are used

for making and

modifying drawings on paper with ink or pencil.

Different drawing instruments such as set of squares,

protractor, etc. are used on it to draw parallel,

perpendicular or oblique lines. (Fig.1.4)

(Fig.1.4)

CURVES)

French curves are used to draw oblique curves other

than circles or circular arc; they are irregular set of

templates. Many different forms and sizes of curve are

available. (Fig.1.5)

(Fig.1.5)

1.1.6: PROTRACTOR

Protractor is a circular or semi-circular tool for

measuring angles. The units of measurement used are

degrees. Some protractors are simple half-discs. More

advanced protractors usually have one or two swinging

arms, which can be used to help measuring angles.

(Fig.1.6)

(Fig.1.6)

Is a hand-held instrument containing an interior strip of

solid material that produces marks used to write and

draw, usually on paper. The marking material is most

commonly graphite, typically contained inside a

wooden sheath. Mechanical pencils are nowadays more

commonly used, especially 0.5mm thick (Fig.1.7a/

Fig.1.7b)

(Fig.1.7a)

Fig 7.1b

1.1.8: ERASER

Erasers are article of stationery that is used for removing pencil

writings. Erasers have made of rubbery material, and they are

often white. Typical erasers are made of rubber, but more

expensive or specialized erasers can also contain vinyl, plastic,

or gum-like materials. (Fig.1.8)

(Fig.1.8)

1.2: LINES

1.2.1: LINES AND LINE STYLES

1.2.2: LINE THICKNESS

For most engineering drawings you will require two thicknesses, a thick and

thin line. The general recommendations are that thick lines are twice as thick

as thin lines.

A thick continuous line is used for visible edges and

outlines.

A thin line is used for hatching, leader lines, short centre

lines, dimensions and projections.

Other line styles used to clarify important features on drawings are:

Short breaks shall be indicated by solid freehand lines. For long breaks, full ruled

lines with freehand zigzags shall be used. Shafts, rods, tubes, etc.,

1.2.5: LEADERS

Leaders shall be used to indicate a part or portion to which a number, note, or other

reference applies and shall be an unbroken line terminating in an arrowhead, dot, or

wavy line. Arrowheads should always terminate at a line; dots should be within the

outline of an object.

Datum lines shall be used to indicate the position of a datum plane and shall consist of

one long dash and two short dashes, evenly spaced.

Phantom lines shall be used to indicate the alternate position of parts of the item

delineated, repeated detail, or the relative position of an absent part and shall be

composed of alternating one long and two short dashes, evenly spaced, with a long

dash at each end.

Stitch lines shall be used to indicate the stitching or sewing lines on an article and

shall consist of a series of very short dashes, approximately half the length of dash or

hidden lines, evenly spaced. Long lines of stitching may be indicated by a series of

stitch lines connected by phantom lines.

Center lines shall be composed of long and short dashes, alternately and evenly

spaced, with a long dash at each end. Center lines shall cross without voids. See

Figure below, Very short center lines may be unbroken if there is no confusion with

other lines. Center lines shall also be used to indicate the travel of a center.

Extension lines are used to indicate the extension of a surface or to point to a location

outside the part outline. They start with a short, visible gap from the outline of the part

and are usually perpendicular to their associated dimension lines.

The outline or visible line shall be used for all lines on the drawing representing

visible lines on the object;

1.2.12:CUTTING-PLANE/VIEWING-PLANE LINES

The cutting-plane lines shall be used to indicate a plane or planes in which a section is

taken. The viewing-plane lines shall be used to indicate the plane or planes from

which a surface or surfaces are viewed. On simple views, the cutting planes shall be

indicated as shown below

Hidden lines shall consist of short dashes, evenly spaced. These lines are used to show

the hidden features of a part. They shall always begin with a dash in contact with the

line from which they begin, except when such a dash would form a continuation of a

full line. Dashes shall touch at corners, and arcs shall begin with dashes on the tangent

points.

Sectioning lines shall be used to indicate the exposed surfaces of an object in a

sectional view. They are generally thin full lines, but may vary with the kind of

material shown in section.

Dimension lines shall terminate in arrowheads at each end. They shall be unbroken

except where space is required for the dimension. The proper method of showing

dimensions and tolerances is explained in Section 1.7 of ANSI Y14.5M-1982.

A dimensioned drawing should provide all the information necessary for a finished

product or part to be manufactured. An example dimension is shown below.

Dimensions are always drawn using continuous thin lines. Two projection lines

indicate where the dimension starts and finishes. Projection lines do not touch the

object and are drawn perpendicular to the element you are dimensioning.

In general units can be omitted from dimensions if a statement of the units is included

on your drawing. The general convention is to dimension in mm's.

All dimensions less than 1 should have a leading zero. i.e. .35 should be written as

0.35

Parallel dimensioning consists of several dimensions originating from one

projection line.

Superimposed running dimensioning simplifies parallel dimensions in order to

reduce the space used on a drawing. The common origin for the dimension

lines is indicated by a small circle at the intersection of the first dimension and

the projection line. In general all other dimension lines are broken. The

dimension note can appear above the dimension line or in-line with the

projection line.

Chains of dimension should only be used if the function of the object won't be

affected by the accumulation of the tolerances. (A tolerance is an indication of

the accuracy the product has to be made to. Tolerance will be covered later in

this chapter).

A combined dimension uses both chain and parallel dimensioning.

Two sets of superimposed running dimensions running at right angles can be

used with any features which need their centre points defined, such as holes.

It is also possible to simplify co-ordinate dimensions by using a table to

identify features and positions.

When dimensioning small features, placing the dimension arrow between projection

lines may create a drawing which is difficult to read. In order to clarify dimensions on

small features any of the above methods can be used.

All dimensions of circles are proceeded by this symbol; . There are several

conventions used for dimensioning circles:

(a) Shows two common methods of dimensioning a circle. One method dimensions

the circle between two lines projected from two diametrically opposite points. The

second method dimensions the circle internally.

(b) Is used when the circle is too small for the dimension to be easily read if it was

placed inside the circle. A leader line is used to display the dimension.

(c) The final method is to dimension the circle from outside the circle using an arrow

which points directly towards the centre of the circle.

The first method using projection lines is the least used method. But the choice is up

to you as to which you use.

When dimensioning holes the method of manufacture is not specified unless they

necessary for the function of the product. The word hole doesn't have to be added

unless it is considered necessary. The depth of the hole is usually indicated if it isn't

indicated on another view. The depth of the hole refers to the depth of the

Cylindrical portion of the hole and not the bit of the hole caused by the tip of the drip.

All

radial

dimensions

are

proceeded by the capital R. All

dimension arrows and lines should

be drawn perpendicular to the

radius so that the line passes

through the centre of the arc. All

dimensions should only have one

arrowhead which should point to

the line being dimensioned. There

are two methods for dimensioning

radii.

(a) Shows a radius dimensioned

with the centre of the radius

located on the drawing.

(b) Shows how to dimension radii which do not need their centres locating.

The radius of a spherical surface (i.e. the top of a drawing pin) when dimensioned

should have an SR before the size to indicate the type of surface.

1.3.12: TOLERANCE

It is not possible in practice to manufacture products to the exact figures displayed on

an engineering drawing. The accuracy depends largely on the manufacturing process

used and the care taken to manufacture a product. A tolerance value shows the

manufacturing department the maximum permissible variation from the dimension.

Each dimension on a drawing must include a tolerance value. This can appear either

as:

specifying that the General Tolerance +/- 0.5 mm.

or a tolerance specific to that dimension

standards is shown below:

Note the larger size limit is placed above the lower limit.

All tolerances should be expressed to the appropriate number to the decimal points for

the degree of accuracy intended from manufacturing, even if the value is limit is a

zero for example.

Line styles are used to clarify important features on drawings, and they are as shown

below. (Fig.1.9)

Line styles are used to graphically represent physical objects, and each has its own

meaning, these include the following:

Visible lines - are continuous lines used to draw edges directly visible from

a particular angle.

Hidden lines- are short-dashed lines that may be used to represent edges

that are not directly visible.

Centerlines - are alternately long- and short-dashed lines that may be used

to represent the axis of circular features.

Cutting plane - are thin, medium-dashed lines, or thick alternately longand double short-dashed that may be used to define sections for section views.

Section lines - are thin lines in a parallel pattern used to indicate surfaces in

section views resulting from "cutting." Section lines are commonly referred to

as "cross-hatching."

FIGURE 1.10

Here is an example of an engineering drawing (Fig.1.10). The different line types are

colored for clarity. Black = object line and hatching. Red = hidden lines

Blue = center lines Magenta = phantom line or cutting plane

Fig.1.10 Illustrating types of Lines used in an engineering Drawing.

Using the right drawing tools copy the drawings shown in Fig. 1.11 to 1.14:

Fig.1.11

Fig.1.12

Fig. 1.13

Fig. 1.14

WEEK 2:

2.0

Before starting your engineering drawing you should plan how you are going to make

best use of the space. It is important to think about the number of views your drawing

will have and how much space you will use of the paper.

If a view has lots of detail, try and make that view as large as possible. If

necessary, draw that view on a separate sheet.

If you intend to add dimensions to the drawing, remember to leave enough

space around the drawing for them to be added later.

If you are working with inks on film, plan the order in which you are drawing

the lines. For example you don't want to have to place your ruler on wet ink

It is important that you follow some simple rules when producing an engineering

drawing which although may not be useful now, will be useful when working in

industry. All engineering drawings should feature an information box (title block).

TITLE

BLOCK

BLOCK

2.3.1. TITLE:The title of the drawing.

2.3.2. NAME:The name of the person who produced the drawing. This is important for

quality control so that problems with the drawing can be traced back to their

origin.

2.3.3. CHECKED

In many engineering firms, drawings are checked by a second person before

they are sent to manufacture, so that any potential problems can be identified

early.

2.3.4. VERSION

Many drawings will get amended over the period of the parts life. Giving each

drawing a version number helps people identify if they are using the most

recent version of the drawing.

2.3.5. DATE

The date the drawing was created or amended on.

2.3.6. SCALE

The scale of the drawing. Large parts won't fit on paper so the scale provides a

quick guide to the final size of the product.

The projection system used to create the drawing should be identified to help

people read the drawing. (Projection systems will be covered later).

Many CAD drawings may be distributed outside the company so the company

name is usually added to identify the source.

This part is for students identification for exams records

KADUNA POLYTECHNIC

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

DRAWING

NO

SCALE

1:150

DATE

MATRIC

NO

KPT/COE/

07/0056

I. A. HARUNA

02/05/08

LEVEL

100

T. I. GARBA / A.A.

GIRBO

03/05/08

CLASS

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

NAME

SIGN

DRAWN BY

CHECHED

BY

ND I A

The standard sizes of drawing papers used for normal purposes should be as follows:

Designation

size in millimeters

A0

841 x 1189

A1

594 x 841

A2

420 x 594

A3

297 x 420

A4

210 x 297

A5

148 x 210

A6

105 x 148

A0

A2

A1

A4

A3

A6

A5

A6

Generally, it is easier to produce and understand a drawing if it represent the true size

of the object drawn. This is of course not always possible due to the size of the object

to be drawn, that is why it is often necessary to draw enlargements of very small

objects and reduce the drawing of very large ones, this is called SCALE.

However, it is important when enlarging or reducing a drawing that all parts of the

object are enlarged or reduced in the same ratio, so the general configuration of the

object is saved. Thus, scales are multiplying or dividing of dimensions of the object.

The scale is the ratio between the size represented on the drawing and the true size of

the object.

Examples:

1. Dimension carried on the drawing = 4mm.

True dimension= 40mm

Scale = 4 40 = 1:10

2. Calculating drawing dimension of a line having a true dimension of 543 mm to

a scale of 1/10.

of 543mm is represented as X

Then 10 mm ---------------- 1 mm

543 mm---------------- X mm

We have 1/10= x 543 or X= 54.3mm.

length of 54.3mm.

Lettering is more as freehand drawing and rather of being writing. Therefore the six

fundamental strokes and their direction for freehand drawing are basic procedures for

lettering.

There are a number of necessary steps in learning lettering, and they include the

following:

Knowledge of proposition and form of letters and the orders of the stroke.

Knowledge of the composition the spacing of letters and words.

Persistent practices.

Capital letters are preferred to lower case letters since they are easier to read on

reduced size drawing prints although lower case letters are used where they from of a

symbol or an abbreviation.

Attention is drawn the standard to the letters and characters. Table (2.1) below give

the recommendation for minimum size on particular drawing sheets:

Application

Dimension and notes

A4

A0

A1, A2, A3 and A4

5 mm

3 mm

3.5 mm

2.5 mm

The spaces between lines of lettering should be consistent and preferably not less than

half of the character height.

There are two fundamental methods of writing the graphic languages freehand and

with instruments. The direction of pencil movements are shown in Fig. 2.1 and

Fig.2.2.

2.8

TASK (2):

On a drawing sheet copy the following text in Fig (2.3) using the correct lettering

methods:

Fig (2.3)

3.1.1. Point: It is a non-dimensional geometrical element. It is occurred by Interception of

various lines.

3.1.2. Line: It is a 1D geometrical element occurred by moving of a point in various direction.

The picture below illustrates lines, drawn in various directions, and other geometrical

elements occurred by these lines.

3.1.3. Plane: A plane is occurred by at least three points or connection of one point and one line.

A

plane is always 2D. When the number of element forming a plane increases, shape and

name of the plane will change.

3.1

Fig. 3.4

Fig. 3.5

Fig. 3.2

Fig. 3.3

Fig. 3.6

Fig 3.7

Fig 3.9

Fig 3.8

Fig 3.10

Fig 3.11

Fig 3.12

Fig 3.13

3.3: TRIANGLE

The triangle is a plane figure bounded by three straight sides, the connection of three points at

certain conditions form triangle.

A

Triangle

3 Point

1.

Scalene triangle: is a triangle with three unequal sides

2.

Isosceles triangle: is a triangle with two sides and hence two angles equal.

3.

Equilateral triangle: is a triangle with all the sides and hence all the three angles equal.

4.

Right-angled triangle: is a triangle containing one right angle. The side opposite the

right-angle is called the hypotenuse.

Scalene triangle

Isosceles triangle

Right-angled

triangle

Equilateral

triangle

Fig. 3.14

Fig. 3.15

Fig. 3.16

Fig. 3.16

3.4

TASK (3)

1.

2.

3.

Construct the following using a pairs of compasses:- 900, 600, 300, 450, 67.50, and 150

Line AB is 120mm long divide this line into Ratio 5:3:7.

Construct a perpendicular line to line AB 60mm long from a point P 30mm above the line

and 35mm from B.

Construct an equilateral triangle with sides 60 mm long.

Construct an isosceles triangle that has a perimeter of 135 mm and an altitude of 55 mm.

Construct a triangle with base angles 60 and 45 and an altitude of 76 mm.

Construct a triangle with a base of 55 mm, an altitude of 62 mm and a vertical angle of

371/2.

Construct a triangle with a perimeter measuring 160 mm and sides in the ratio 3:5:6.

Construct a triangle with a perimeter of 170 mm-and sides in the ratio 7:3:5.

Construct a triangle given that the perimeter is 115 mm, the altitude is 40 mm and the

vertical angle is 45.

4.

5

6

7.

8.

9.

10.

QUADRILATERALS: A

of four points at certain conditions form quadrilaterals.

A

Square

4 Point

Fig 4.1

B

3.5.1. square is a quadrilateral with all four sides of equal length and all its angles are right angles.

3.5.2. rectangle is a quadrilateral with its opposite sides of equal length and all its angles a right

angle.

3.5.3. parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal and therefore parallel.

3.5.4. rhombus is a quadrilateral with all four sides equal.

3.5.5trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of opposite sides parallel.

3.5.6. trapezoid is a quadrilateral with all four sides and angles unequal.

SQUARE

RECTANGLE

PARALELLOGRA

M

c

Fig 4.2

.

RHOMBUS

TRAPEZIUM

TRAPEZOID

f

3.6.1 Construction of a Parallelogram given

two sides and an angle.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

From A construct the known angle.

Mark off AB equal in length to the other known

side

With compass point at B draw an arc equal in

radius to AD.

With compass point at D draw an arc equal in

radius to AB. ABCD is the required

parallelogram

Fig 4.3

Fig. 4.4

Fig. 4.5

Fig. 4.6

3.7: CIRCLES

A circle is a locus of a point which moves so that its always a fixed distance from another

stationary point. The connection of infinite points at certain conditions form circle.

Circle

Infinite point

A

Concentric circles

Eccentric circles

Types of circles

NOMAL

circumference.

1. Draw the radius of the circle.

2. at any point on the circumference of the circle, the

tangent and then radius are perpendicular to each

other. Thus the tangent is found by constructing

an angle of 900 from the point where the radius

crosses the circumference.

TASK 4

1.

2.

3.

4

5

Construct a square of side 50 mm. Find the mid-point of each side by construction and join

up the points with straight lines to produce a second square.

Construct a square whose diagonal is 68 mm. 12. Construct a square whose

diagonal is 85 mm.

Construct a parallelogram given two sides 42 mm and 90 mm long, and the angle

between them 67. 14. Construct a rectangle which has a diagonal 55 mm long and

one side 35 mm long.

Construct a rhombus if the diagonal is 75 mm long and one side is 44 mm long.

Construct a trapezium given that the parallel sides are 50 mm and 80 mm long and are 45

mm apart.

WEEK 5

3.7.3: CONSTRUCTIONS INVOLVING CIRCLES

5.1.1. To construct the

circumference of a circle, given the

diameter.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

diameter AB, center O.

From B mark off three times the

diameter, BC.

From O draw a line at 300 to OA to

meet the semi circle in D.

From D draw a line perpendicular to

OA to meet OA in E.

Join EC, EC is the required

circumference.

FIG. 5.1

FIG. 5.2

FIG. 5.3

4.0: TANGENCY

4.1: CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENT

point P to a circle, center O

1.

2.

Joint OP.

Erect a semi-circle on to cut

the circle in A. PA produced is

the required tangent.

FIG. 5.4

5.0: POLYGONS

A polygon is a plane figure bounded by more than four straight sides. There are two classes of polygons,

regular and irregular polygons.

A regular polygon is one that has all its sides equal and therefore all its exterior angles equal and its interior

angles equal.

An irregular polygon is the one that has unequal sides and also unequal angles (both interior and exterior).

Polygons are frequently referred to have particular names. Some of these are listed below.

A pentagon is a plane figure bounded by five sides.

A hexagon is a plane figure bounded by six sides.

A heptagon is a plane figure bounded by seven sides.

An octagon is plane figure bounded by eight sides.

A nonagon is a plane figure bounded by nine sides.

A decagon is a plane figure bounded by ten sides.

Etc.

pentagon

octagon

hexagon

CONSTRUCTION OF POLYGONS:

Fig. 5.8

Fig. 5.7

Fig 5.9

Fig. 5.10

Method 3:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Bisect GA.

From A construct an angle of 450 to intersect the bisector at point 4.

From G construct an angle of 600 to intersect the bisector at point 6.

Bisect between points 4 and 6 to give point 5. Point 4 is the centre of a circle

containing a square: point 5 is a the centre of a circle containing a pentagon.

Point 6 is the centre of a circle containing a hexagon. By marking off points

at similar distances the centers of circles containing any regular polygon can

be obtained.

Mark off point 7 so that 6 to 7 = 5 to 6 etc.

With centre at point 7 draw a circle, radius 7 to A (=7 to G).

Step off the sides of the figure from A to B, B to C, etc. ABCDEFG is the

required heptagon.

Fig. 5.11

Fig. 5.12

1.

2.

3.

4

5

Construct a regular hexagon if the diameter is 75 mm. 19. Construct a regular hexagon

within an 80 mm diameter circle. The corners of the hexagon must all lie on the

circumference of the circle.

Construct a square, side 100 mm. Within the square, construct a regular octagon. Four

alternate sides of the octagon must lie on the sides of the square. 21. Construct the

following regular polygons:

a pentagon, side 65 mm,

a heptagon, side 55 mm,

a nonagon, side 45 mm,

a decagon, side 35 mm.

Construct a regular pentagon, diameter 82 mm.

Construct a regular heptagon within a circle, radius 60 mm. The corners of the heptagon

must lie on the circumference of the circle.

WEEK 6

6.0: ELLIPSE:

An ellipse is the locus of a point which moves so

that its distance from a fixed point (called the

focus) bears a constant ratio, always less than 1, to

its perpendicular distance from a straight line

(called directrix).

6.1

PROPERTIES OF AN ELLIPSE:

two directrices.

Fig. 6.1

6.2

CONSTRUCTIONS OF ELLIPSE:

A.

concentric circles method.

1. Draw two concentric circles, radii = half (1/2)

major and half (1/2) minor axes.

2. divide the circle into a number of sectors.

(12 0r 8).

3. where the sector lines cross the smaller

circle, draw the horizontal lines cross the

larger circle, draw the vertical line to meet

the horizontal lines.

4. draw a neat curve through the intersections.

B.

Fig. 6.2

rectangular method.

1. Draw a rectangle, length and breadth equal to

the major and minor axes

2. Divide the two shorter sides of the rectangle

in the same even numbers of equal parts.

Fig. 6.3

Divide the major axis into the same number

of equal parts.

3. from the points where the minor axis crosses the edge of the rectangle, draw the intersecting

lines as shown in figure 6.3

4. Draw a neat curve through the intersections.

C.

A trammel is a piece of stiff paper or card with a straight edge.

1. Mark the trammel with a pencil so that half the major and minor axes are marked from the

point P

Fig. 6.4

2. keep B on the minor axis ,A on the major axis and slide the trammel.

3. mark at frequent intervals the position of P. Figure 6.4 shows the trammel in position for

plotting the top half of the ellipse; to plot the bottom half , A stays on the major axis and B goes

above the major axis, still on the minor axis.

Fig. 6.5

D.

To construct the normal and the tangent of an ellipse, and to find the

foci.

1.

2.

3.

Normal: Normal at any point P. Draw two lines from P, one to each focus and bisect the

angle thus formed. This bisector is a normal to the ellipse.

Tangent: Tangent at any point P. since the tangent and normal are perpendicular to each

other by definition, construct the normal and erect a perpendicular to it from P. this

perpendicular is the tangent.

Foci: Foci with compasses set at a radius of half (1/2) major axis, center at the point where

the minor axis crosses the top (or the bottom) of the ellipse, strike an arc to cut the major

axis twice, these are the foci.

TANGENT

TANGE

NT

Fig. 6.6

FOCI

FO

CI

TASK SHEET 6

1.

Fig. T6.1 shows an elliptical fish-pond for a small garden. The ellipse is 1440 mm long and

720 mm wide. Using a scale of 1/12 draw a true elliptical shape of the pond. (Do not

draw the surrounding stones.) All construction must be shown.

FIG. T6.1

Fig. T6.2 shows a section, based on an ellipse, for a handrail which requires cutting to

form a bend so that the horizontal overall distance is increased from 112 mm to 125

mm. Construct the given figures and show the tangent construction at P and P1.

Show the true shape of the cut when the horizontal distance is increased from 112 mm

to 125 mm.

FIG T6.2

WEEK 7:

7.0: ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

Isometric is a mathematical method of

constructing a three dimensional (3D)

object

without

using

perspective.

Isometric was an attempt to make

drawings more and more realistic.

The mathematics involved mean that all

lengths when drawn at 30 degrees can be

drawn using their true length.

An isometric drawing shows two sides of

the object and the top or bottom of the

object (FIG. 7.1). All vertical lines are

drawn vertically, but all horizontal lines

are drawn at 30 degrees to the horizontal.

Isometric is an easy method of

constructing a reasonable 3D images.

(Fig. 7.1)

7.1

PROJECTION:

degree set square (FIG. 7.2). Follow the steps

below to draw a box in isometric.

(Fig. 7.2)

horizontal to the required length.

degrees to the horizontal

Figures 7.3 to 7.6 illustrate four (4) isometric pictorial drawing of components, study

the drawing and by using scale 1:1 re-draw them.

Note: All dimensions are in mm

Fig. 7.3

Fig. 7.5

Fig. 7.4

Fig. 7.6

Figures T7.1 to T7.4 shows four (4) isometric pictorial drawing of components,

study the drawing and by using proper drawing tools and scale 1:1 re-draw the

isometric pictorial drawings.

Note: All dimensions are in mm

Fig. T7.1

Fig.T7.2

Fig. T7.3

Fig. T7.4

WEEK 8

8.0: ORHTOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

Orthographic projection is a mean of representing a three-dimensional object

(Fig.8.1) in two dimensions (2D). It uses multiple views of the object, from points of

view rotated about the object's center through increments of 90.

The views are positioned relative to each other

according to either of two schemes: first-Angle or

third-Angle projection. In each, the appearances of

views may be thought of as being projected onto

planes that form a transparent "box" around the

object. Figure (8.2) demonstrate the views of an

object using 1St. Angle and 3rd. Angle projections.

Fig. (8.2)- Illustrating the difference between 1st. and 3rd. Angles projection

8.1

ANGLE OF PROJECTIONS

Figures (8.3 to 8.6) shows isometric pictorial drawing of a number of components,

study the drawing and using 1st and 3rd angle of projection and a scale of 1:1 draw the

following:

Fig. (8.3)

Fig. (8.5)

Fig. (8.4)

Fig. (8.6)

8.2

OBJECT

8.2.1 INTRODUCTION

Any object can be viewed from six mutually perpendicular directions, as shown in

Figure (8.7) below. Thus, six views may be drawn if necessary. These six views are

always arranged as shown below, which the American National Standard arrangement

of views. The top, front, and bottom views line up vertically, while the rear, left-side,

front, and right-side views line up horizontally.

Fig. (8.7)

Fig. (8.8)

If the front view is imagined to be the object itself, the right-side view is obtained by

looking toward the right side of the front view, as shown by the arrow RS. Likewise,

if the right-side view is imagined to be the object, the front view is obtained by

looking toward the left side of the right-side view, as shown by the arrow F.

The same relation exists between any two adjacent views.

Obviously, the six views may be obtained either by shifting the object with respect to

the observer, as we have seen, or by shifting the observer with respect to the object

Fig. (8.8).

8.3

parallel lines converge to one point

somewhere in the distance. This point

is called the vanishing point (VP).

This gives objects an impression of

depth.

(Fig.8.9)

The sides of an object diminish

towards the vanishing point. All

vertical and horizontal lines though

are drawn with no perspective. I.e.

face on.

One point perspective though is of

limited use, the main problem being

that the perspective is too pronounced

for small products making them

looking bigger than they actually are.

(Fig 8.10)

(Fig 8.10)

products in one point perspective, the

perspective is too aggressive on the

eye making products look bigger than

they actually are.(Fig 8.11).

(Fig 8.11)

8.4

useful drawing system than the simpler

One Point Perspective. Objects drawn in

two point perspective have a more

natural look (Fig 8.12).

In two point perspective the sides of the

object vanish to one of two vanishing

points on the horizon. Vertical lines in

the object have no perspective applied to

them.

By altering the proximity of the

vanishing points to the object, you can

make the object look big or small (Fig.

8.13).

(Fig. 8.12 )

(Fig 8.13)

Fig (8.13) Shows affect of different locations of Vanishing Points

8.5

two points perspective. Like two point it has

two vanishing points somewhere on the

horizon. But three points perspective also has a

vanishing point somewhere above or below the

horizon which the vertical vanish to.

The nearer the vanishing point is to the object,

the bigger the object looks. Look at these

buildings (FIG.8.14), all the vanishing points

are too close. This has caused an excessive

amount of vertical perspective. Learning how

to apply vertical perspective is the key to

making your drawings realistic.

(Fig 8.14)

vanishing point far below the horizon so that the

depth added to the verticals is only slight. In

many cases the vanishing point is not even on

the paper (FIG. 8.15). Learning how to apply

vertical perspective will make your drawings

more and more realistic.

(FIG.8.15)

8.6

Figures (T13a to T13d) shown are isometric pictorial drawings for a number of

components, study the drawing and using 1st and 3rd angle of projection with scale of

1:1 draw the following:

Note: All dimensions are in mm

Fig. (T8.1a)

Fig. (T8.1b)

Fig. (T8.3c)

Fig. (T8.4d)

WEEK (9):

8.7

PROJECTION

Multi views projection is a mean of producing the true shape and dimension of all

details of three-dimensional object or two-dimensional plane surface such as tile

drawing paper. For this reason, this method of projection is universally used for the

production of working drawing, which is intended for manufacturing purposes.

In multi-views projection, the observer looks directly at each face of the object and

draws what can be seen directly (90 Degree rays). Consecutively, other sides are also

seen and drawn in the same way (Fig. 9.1).

Hence, there are two system of multi-views projection that is acceptable as British

standard (Fig. 9.2), these are known as:

1. First Angle (1st Angle) or European projection.

2. Third Angle (3rd Angle) or American projection.

8.8

PROJECTION

the object is projected in the direction

(sense) of sight of the object, onto the

interior walls of the box Fig.9.3.

Fig.9.3

is then created by "unfolding" the box, to view

all of the interior walls Fig.9.4.

Fig.9.4

Fig.9.5

the object is projected opposite to the

direction (sense) of sight, onto the

(transparent) exterior walls of the box

Fig.9.6

Fig.9.6

object is then created by unfolding the box, to

view all of the exterior walls Fig.9.7.

Fig.9.7

Fig.9.8

8.9

1.

TASK (8.2)

Figures T8.2a and T8.2b show two (2) isometric pictorial drawing of

components, study the drawing and by using scale 1:1 draw the following:

Fig. (T8.2a) use 1st angle of projection draw,1- Front view 2 -Side view 3Top view.

Fig. T8.2a

Fig (T8.2b) use 3st angle of projection draw,1- Front view 2-Side view

view

Fig. T8.2b

3 - Top

2.

Fig T8.2c and T8.2d show two (2) isometric pictorial drawing of components,

study the drawing and by using scale 1:1 and third angle of projection draw

the following:- Front view- Side view

- Top view

Fig T8.2c

Fig T8.2d

WEEK -10

9.0: ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED ON

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS.

9.1: INTRODUCTION

There is a number of common engineering terms and expression, which are frequently

replaced by abbreviation or symbols on drawing, to save space and drafting time. This

will include the electrical, electronic, pneumatic and hydraulic symbols (Table

10.1).

Table (10.1)

There are many common engineering features which are difficult to draw in full. In

order to save drafting time and spaces on drawing, these features are represented in

simple conventional form as show in Table 10.2 below.

Table (10.2)

Table (10.3)

Engineering Diagrams usually indicate the only relative positions of inter-connected

components or systems represented their relevant diagrams.

Block diagram indicates simple form as to functional system where a number of

blocks represent the elements of that system- Fig. 10.1.

Fig. (10.1)

Fig. (10.2)

The diagram indicates the standard symbols representing the functional components

and connection disregarding their physical size or position Fig. (10.2).

The pneumatic system is a mechanical system

that uses pressurized gas (usually air) to perform

various kinds of control processes.

The pneumatic system consist of pressure

generator set, pressure actuated component like

(cylinder & vales).Fig.10.3.

The use of pneumatic system has been come very

popular especially in the food industry for in easy

maintenance and running cost.

Fig. (10.3)- Air pump

The hydraulic system is a mechanical system that

uses pressurized liquid (usually oil) to perform

various kinds of control processes Fig. (10.4).

The pressurized liquid in a hydraulic system

circulates I close loop.

9.9

TASK (10)

1) The drawing in Figure (10.6) illustrates assembled mechanical parts, study the

drawing then list the items below accordingly.

Fig. (10.6)

2) The drawing in Figure (10.7) illustrates a pneumatic/Hydraulic diagram, study the

drawing then list the items in a tabular form below accordingly.

Figure (10.7)

3) The drawing in Figure (10.8) illustrates an electrical circuit, study the drawing and

then list the items below accordingly.

Figure (87)

Figure (10.8)

WEEK11:

10.0 MISSING VIEW

In orthographic projection, the object has principle dimensions, width, height, and

depth which are fixed terms used for dimensions of the three views.

Note that the front view shows only the height and width of the object, the top view

shows the depth and width only. In fact, any one view of three-dimensional object can

show only two dimensions, the third dimension will be found in an adjacent view Fig.

(11.1).

Fig. (11.1).

Note that:

The top view is placed directly above or below the front view depending

on the angle of projection (1st or 3rd).

The same relation exists between front and side view, same height.

The side view is placed directly right or left to the front view, (right side

view or left side view).

10.1

The Fig. (11.2) is a pictorial drawing of given object, three-views of which are

required using first angle of projection. Each corner of the object is given a number as

shown. At I the top view and the front view are shown, with each corner properly

numbered in both views. Each number appears twice, once in the top view and again

front view.

Fig. (11.2)

At I point 1 is visible in both views, therefore placed outside the corner in both views.

however point 2 is visible in the top view and number is placed outside, while in the

front view it is invisible and placed inside.

10.2

Fig. (11.3)

Fig. (11.4)

Fig (11.5)

Fig (11.6)

Complete the drawing shown in Fig (T11) to produce the third missing view

Fig. T11

WEEK (12):

11.0 FREEHAND SKETCHING

11.1 INTRODUCTION:

Free-hand sketching is used extensively during the early design phases as an

important tool for conveying ideas, guiding the thought process, and serving as

documentation. Unfortunately there is little computer support for sketching. The first

step in building a sketch understanding system is generating more meaningful

descriptions of free-hand.

One of the advantages of freehand sketching is it require only few simple items such

as

1. Pencil (soft pencil i.e. HB).

2. Paper (A3 & A4).

3. Eraser.

When sketches are made on the field, where an

accurate record is required, a sketching pad with

clipboard are frequently used (Fig.12.1). Often

clipboard is employed to hold the paper.

(Fig. 12.1)

sketching:

1. The pencil should be held naturally,

about 40mm from general direction of

the line down.

2. Place the paper rotated position so the

horizontal edge is perpendicular to the

natural position of your forearm.

3. When ruled paper is being used for

sketching try to locate the sketched line

on ruling line

(Fig.12.2).

4. Use your imagination and common sense

when choosing the most suitable angle of

view.

(Fig. 12.2)

1) Use A4 sheet with a pencil and try to draw the lines as shown in Fig. T12.1 below.

Fig. T12.1

2) Use A4 sheet with a pencil and try to draw the component shown in Fig. T12.2

below.

Fig. T12.2

WEEK13:

12.0 SKETCHING THE VIEWS FROM AN ACTUAL OBJECT

In industry a complete and clear description of the shape and size of an object is

necessary to be able to make it. In order to provide all dimensions and information

clearly and accurately a number of views are used. To sketch these views from an

actual object the following steps should be followed:

1. Look at the object carefully and choose the right position that shows the best three

main views (Fig. 13.1).

(Fig. 13.1)

lightly the rectangles of views and set them

according to the projection method (1st or 3rd

angle) chosen.

3. Hold the object, keeping the front view

toward you (Fig. 13.2), and then start sketching

the front view.

(Fig. 13.2)

to bring the top toward you, then sketch the top

view (Fig. 13.3)

(Fig. 13.3)

so as to bring the side view in position relative

to the front view, and then sketch the side view

(Fig. 13.4)

(Fig. 13.4)

6. make sure the relationships between all

views are carried out correctly (Fig. 13.5)

(Fig. 13.5)

Another method for pictorial is sketching the

oblique sketching. To made an oblique sketch

from an actual object follow these steps:

1. hold the object vertically, making sure most

circular features in front of you (Fig. 13.6)

(Fig. 13.6)

2. Sketch the front face of the object in

suitable proportional dimensions (Fig. 13.7)

(Fig. 13.7)

3. Sketch the receding lines parallel to each

other or a convenient angle between (3045) with horizontal, these lines may in full

length to sketch a caviller oblique or may be

one half sizes to sketch cabinet oblique.

(Fig. 13.8)

4. Complete the required sketch as

explained for isometric sketch previously.

(Fig. 13.9)

Fig. T13 shows an isometric pictorial drawing of a component; study the drawing

and then using scale 1:1 draw the following:

An isometric pictorial drawing (freehand).

The following views (freehand).

A front view.

Side view.

Top view.

Note: All dimensions are in mm

Fig. T13

WEEK 14

When two solid interpenetrate, a line of intersection is formed. Many object are formed by a

collection of geometrical shapes such as cubes, cones, spheres, cylinders, prisms, pyramids, etc,

and where any two of these shapes meet, some sort of curves of intersections or interpenetrations

are formed. It is necessary to be able to draw these curves to complete drawings in orthographic

projection or to draw patterns and developments.

Construction:

Interpenetration:

13.1

INTERPENETRATION

13.2

meeting at right angles. Fig. 14.1

meet the larger prism and these are projected across

to the front elevation the plan shows where corners

2 and 4 meet the larger prism and this is projected

up to the front elevation.

Fig 14.1

meeting at an angle. Fig 14.2

The front elevation shows where corners one 1 and

3 meet the larger prism. The plan shows where

corners 2 and 4 meet the larger prism and this is

projected down to the front elevation.

Fig 14.2

meeting at an angle. Fig. 14.3

The front elevation shows corners 3 and 6 meet the

larger prism. The plan shows corners 1,2,4, and 5

meet the larger prism and these are projected up to

the front elevation.

Fig 14.3

at right angles. Fig.14.4

The smaller cylinder is divided in to 12 equal

sector on the front elevation and on plan, the plan

shows where these sectors meet the larger

cylinder and these intersections are projected

down to the front elevation to meet there

corresponding sector at 1,2,3,etc

Fig 14.4

3.6

meeting at an angle. Fig 14.5

The method is identical with above

principle. The smaller cylinder is

divided in to 12 equal sector on the

front elevation and on plan, the plan

shows where these sectors meet the

larger cylinder and these intersections

are projected down to the front

elevation to meet there corresponding

sector at 1,2,3,etc

Fig 14.5

WEEK 15

14.0 DEVELOPMENT

Many articles such as cans, pipes, elbows, boxes, etc are manufactured from thin sheet materials.

Generally a template is produced from an orthographic drawing when small quantities are required.

The figures below illustrate some of the more commonly used development in pattern marking. An

example of an elbow joint is shown developed in fig. 15.1. The length of the circumference has been

calculated and divided into twelve equal parts. A part plan, divided into six parts, has the division

lines projected up to the joint, then across to the appropriate point on the pattern. It is normal practice

on a development drawing to leave the joint along the shortest edge; however, on part B the pattern

can be cut more economically if the joint on this half is turned through 180.

Fig 15.1

development of part of the cylindrical portion is shown viewed from the

inside. The chordal distances on the inverted plan have been plotted on

either side of the centre line of the hole, and the corresponding heights

have been projected from the front elevation. The method of drawing

pattern for the branch is identical to that shown for the two piece elbow

in fig. 15.1

An example of radial-line development is given in fig. 15.3. The

dimensions required to make the development are the circumference

of the base and the slant height of the cone. The chordal distances

from the plan view have been used to mark the length of arc required

for the pattern; alternatively, for a higher degree of accuracy, the

angle can be calculated and then subdivided. In the front elevation, lines

0 1 and 07 are true lengths, and distances OG and OA have been plotted

directly onto the pattern. The lines 02 to 06 inclusive are not true

lengths, and, where these lines cross the sloping face on the top of the

conical frustum, horizontal lines have been projected to the side of the

cone and been marked B, C, D, E, and F. True lengths OF, OE, OD, OC,

and OB are then marked on the pattern. This procedure is repeated for the

other half of the cone. The view

Fig 15.2

Part of a square pyramid is illustrated in

Fig 15.3

fig. 15.4. The pattern is formed by

drawing an arc of radius OA and

stepping off around the curve the

lengths of the base, joining the points

obtained to the apex O. Distances OF

The development of part of a hexagonal

pyramid is shown in fig. 15.5. The

method is very similar to that given in

the previous example, but note that lines

OB, OC, OD, OE, and OF are true

lengths obtained by projection from the

elevation.

Fig. 15.6 shows an oblique cone

which is developed by triangulation,

where the surface is assumed to be

formed from a series of triangular

shapes. The base of the cone is divided

into a convenient number of parts (12 in this case) numbered 0-6 and projected to the front

elevation with lines drawn up to the apex A. Lines OA and 6A are true-length lines, but the

other five shown all slope at an angle to the plane of the paper. The true lengths of lines IA,

2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A are all equal to the hypotenuse of right-angled triangles where the height is

the projection of the cone height and the

base is obtained from the part plan view

by projecting distances 131, B2, B3,

B4, and B5 as indicated.

Assuming that the join will be made

along the shortest edge, the pattern is

formed as follows. Start by drawing line

6A, then from A draw an arc on either

side of the line equal

in length to the true length 5A. From

point 6 on the pattern, draw an arc equal

to the chordal distance between successive

points on the plan view. This curve will

intersect the first arc twice at the points

marked 5. Repeat by taking the true

length of line 4A and swinging another

arc from point A to intersect with chordal

arcs from points 5. This process is

continued as shown on the solution.

Fig. 15.7 shows the development of part

of an oblique cone where the procedure

described above is followed. The points of

intersection of the top of the cone with

lines 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A are

transferred to the appropriate true-length

constructions, and true-length distances

from the apex A are marked on the pattern

drawing.

A plan and front elevation is given in

fig. 15.8 of a transition piece which is

formed from two halves of oblique

cylinders and two connecting triangles.

Fig 15.4

The plan view of the base is divided

into 6 parts each. Each division at the

bottom of the front elevation is linked

with a line to the similar division at the

top. These lines, P l, Q2, etc., are all the

same length. Commence the pattern

construction by drawing line S4 parallel to

the component. Project lines from points 3

and R, and let these lines intersect with

arcs equal to the chordal distances C,

from the plan view, taken from points 4

and S. Repeat the process and note the

effect that curvature has on the distances

between the lines projected from points P,

Q, R, and S. After completing the pattern

to line Pl, the triangle is added by

swinging an are equal to the length B

from point P, which intersects with the arc

shown, radius A. This construction for

part of the pattern is continued as

indicated.

Fig. 15.5

Fig 15.7

Fig 15.6

RAD C

1.

50 mm diameter and of negligible

thickness, with their axes in the same

plane and forming a bend through 90.

Draw:

(a) the given view, and (b) the

development of pipe K, using TT as

the joint line.

Fig T15.1

2.

elevation of a tin-plate dish. Draw the

given views and construct a

development of the dish showing each

side joined to a square base. The plan

of the base should be part of the

development.

Fig T15.2

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