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1.1

Topology on D()

Definition 1 Let n

addition, we write

and = (1 , 2 , . . . , n )

Nn.

|| = 1 + . . . + n ,

and for D()

=

||

.

. . . xnn

x1 1 x2 2

Definition 2 V is an open set in D() iff it can be presented as an (finite or countable) union

jJ Uj of sets Uj of the following type:

Uj D() such that

for all K ( compact (in R n !), and f Uj with supp f K (thus f D()!), there exist > 0

and a multi-index , such that

{g D()| supp g K and x K, | f (x) g(x)| < } Uj .

A sequence (fk ) of elements of D() converges in D() toward f D() iff

1. There exists K

k N ,

supp fk K,

Note that

it follows immediately that supp f K.

1

MAS, ECP

if in the space C l () we introduce the norm

kf kC l() = max sup | f (x)|,

||l x

then

N n

fk (x) f on K

l N

fk f in D()

Afk Af in D().

The elements of D() are often called testing functions. D() is not a normable space (it is not

possible to define a norm).

Problem 1 Show that the following linear operators are continuous in D():

1. For a multi-index N n

: D() D(),

f (x) 7 f (x),

A : D() D(),

Sg : D() D(),

Rn

f (x y)g(y)dy.

Example 1 An example of a function from D() is given in the PDF of Week 6 Remark 2 p.3 (see

also Fig. 1)

Lemma 1 For all domain R n and all > 0 there exists a function C (R n ) such that (see

Fig. 2 for =]a, b[ (a < b))

1. x R n 0 (x) 1;

2. x (x) = 1;

3. x

/ 3 (x) = 0,

where

Proof. Let

= {x R n \ | d(, x) < }.

12 =

(x) =

Rn

1, x 2

0, x =

6 2 .

12 (y)w(x y)dy

satisfies 1)-3). Here w (x) D(R n ) is the kernel defined in Definition 5 of Week 6 p.3 such that

wh (x)

h=

1

4

1

2

h=

h=1

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

and (x) = 0 if |x| 1.

0.6

x

h ,

0.8

where (x) = e

1

1|x|2

(x)

1

a 3

a a

b+

x R n

w (x) 0,

Rn w (x)dx = 1.

R

(x) =

0 (x)

(x) =

=

( R

B (x)

B (x)

0,

w (x y)dy C (R n );

Rn

w (x y)dy =

Rn

w (z)dz = 1;

12 (y)w(x y)dy =

w (x y)dy = Rn w (z)dz = 1, x ;

x

/ 3 .

R

b + 3 x

if |x| < 1

3

2

/ 3 for the proof of Lemma 1.

In addition, we know (see Week 6 Theorem 1 p.6) that D() is dense in Lp (). We have defined

what a Cauchy sequence is in the metric spaces, but it can also be defined for the topological spaces

which are not metrizable.

In particular, let us define what a Cauchy sequence is in D():

Definition 3 Let k D() for k N . We say that (k ) is a Cauchy sequence in D() if there

is some compact set K ( such that for all k N supp k K and such that

N n

l N

k (k m )kC l (K) 0 as k, m .

Theorem 1 Let be a domain in

R n . D() is complete.

lN

N n

l N

k (k )kC l(K) 0 as k .

But if for all k N supp k K, then supp K also. Hence Cc () = D() and k in

D().

Problem 2 Prove that D() is dense in C ():

f C ()

1.2

Definition 4 Let D () be the dual space of D(): space of linear continuous functionals on D().

Elements D () of are called distributions.

Example 2 (Regular distributions) For f in L1loc () define Tf : D() R by

Tf () =< Tf , >=

f (x)(x)dx.

Tf is linear and continuous: Tf D (). Indeed, as supp is a compact in , we have for all l N

| < Tf , > | =

f (x)(x)dx

supp

supp

|f (x)|dx.

Z

supp

|f (x)|dx < .

It is convenient to identify f L1loc () with Tf D () and to consider the function f as being a

distribution (namely that given by Tf ). So, elements of L1loc () are distributions. They are called

regular distributions.

Remark 1 If f1 , f2 L1loc () and f1 = f2 a.e. in , then

D()

i.e.,

f1 = f2 in D ().

The converse is also true thanks to Lemma 2 of Week 6 p.8:

if f1 , f2 L1loc () and f1 = f2 in D ()

f1 = f2

a.e. in .

T () =< T, >= (0).

T is linear and continuous: T D ().

T is called a Dirac (sometimes a Dirac delta function). This distribution is usually denoted by .

It is not in L1loc () (prove it!).

To describe the space D (), we give (without the proof) the following Theorem which gives a criteria

when a linear form on D() is continuous:

Theorem 2 Let T : D() R be a linear form. Then

T D ()

D( ) | < T, > | MkkC m ( ) .

gT : T D () 7 g T D ()

of the product g T by

D()

Definition 6 Let T D () be a distribution.

We define T : D() R , the derivative of the distribution T , by

T () = T ( ).

(Since D(), then D(), and since D () is a linear vector space, T D (). Consequently, T D (), i.e. a linear continuous functional on D().)

Therefore, we define the operator D : D () D () by

< T , >= < T, > .

D(),

This is consistent with the derivative of functions thanks to the integration by parts: since has a

compact support in , then (x) = 0 for all x and the boundary term in the formula of the

integration by parts is equal to zero.

Example 4 We consider = R . Let us consider the derivative of the Heaviside function:

(x) =

0, x < 0,

1, x 0.

D(R )

< , >=

(x)(x)dx.

Let us calculate :

D(R )

Finally,

D(R )

(x) (x)dx =

(x)dx = (x)|+

0

More generally,

Definition 7 Let be a domain in

multi-index.

Rn .

D()

Nn

be a

Remark 2 If f C () then all its derivatives f (in the usual, or classical sense) are equal to

the corresponding derivatives of f in the sense of distributions:

As f C () then f L1loc () and thus f D (). We summarize:

C () ( D ().

Therefore, by integration by parts,

< D f, >= (1)||

D()

f (x) (x)dx =

Example 5 Let T D (R 3 ) be a distribution and let = (1, 4, 5). By Definition 7, the operator

D (1,4,5) : D(R 3 ) R is defined by

D(R 3 ),

Corollary 1

if (uk )kN

N n

kN

kN

uk = S D (),

then

D uk = D S in D ().

Proof. The first statement follows from the definition of a distribution: since D(), then for

all N n D(), therefore, for all T D () the distribution D T is correctly defined for all

Nn.

The second point follows from

S = lim

m

X

uk

m

k=1

D() N n

= m

lim < D (

m

X

k=1

m

X

uk , >,

k=1

m

uk ), >= m

lim <

m

X

D uk , >=<

k=1

kN

D uk , > .

m

X

uk , >

k=1

Lp () L1loc ().

Therefore functions in Lp () are regular distributions.

Thus, we can now differentiate any function in Lp ! But the derivative may (or may not) be a function

in Lp . When it is the case, we have a Sobolev space, we will see this in the next section.

2

2.1

Definition and main properties

Let m N and p [1, ]. The Sobolev Space W m,p () is defined by

Let be a domain in

Definition 8

(derivative in the distributional sense) with a norm

kf km,p = kf kW m,p () = (

0||m

|D f |p ) p = (

kf km, = kf kW m, () = max kD f kL ()

0||m

kD f kpLp () ) p

for p <

(1)

0||m

for p = .

(2)

N(f ) =

kD f kLp () .

(3)

0||m

Therefore, sometimes the norm in W m,p () is directely defined by (3). We notice that for p = 1 the

norms (1) and (3) are identically the same and for p = the norms (2) and (3) are also equivalent.

Remark 4 We notice that

W 0,p () = Lp ().

Theorem 3 Let m N and p [1, ]. The Sobolev space W m,p () with the norm (3) (and thus

with (1)-(2)) is a Banach space.

Proof. Let (ui ) be a Cauchy sequence in W m,p ():

> 0 N N :

m, k N

X

kD um D uk kLp () < .

0||m

there exist functions v Lp () and v Lp () for 1 || m such that

ui v in Lp () and D ui v in Lp () (1 || m).

To finish the proof, we need to show that

D v = v for all 1 || m,

from where we could conclude that v W m,p () and thus (ui) converge to v W m,p () in W m,p ().

As Lp () L1loc () and so ui determines a regular distribution Tui (or itself can be considered as a

regular distribution):

Z

D()

< ui , >=

ui(x)(x)dx.

| < ui, > < v, > |

where we have applied the Hlder inequality (see Week 2 p.26 Definition 35 and Proposition 12).

Hence < ui, >< v, > for every D() as i .

Similarly,

D()

i .

It follows that

D()

< v , >= lim < D ui , >= lim (1)|| < ui , >= (1)|| < v, > .

i

Thus D v = v for all 1 || m, from where v W m,p () and kui vkW m,p () 0 for i .

Remark 5 If classical partial derivatives exist and are continuous then they coincide with the distributional partial derivative. Thus the set

S = {f C m ()|kf kW m,p () < }

is contained in W m,p (). Since W m,p () is complete, it is possible to prove that

S

kkW m,p ()

= W m,p ()

(it is the theorem of Meyers and Serrin, see R. A. Adams Sobolev spaces p.52). It means that

C m () is dense in W m,p ().

We give without the proof the following Proposition (see R. A. Adams Sobolev spaces for more

details):

Proposition 1 The function

X Z

|f |m,p = |f |W m,p() = (

||=m

|D f |p ) p

N(f ) = kf kLp () +

kD f kLp ()

||=m

is a norm in W m,p (). For bounded and regular (see Definition 10) this norm is equivalent to

the norm k kW m,p () (see (3) or (1) and (2)).

Example 6 Let us consider

W 2,3 (]0, 1[) = {f L3 (]0, 1[)| f L3 (]0, 1[), f L3 (]0, 1[)}

with the norm

kf kW 2,3 (]0,1[) = (

3

]0,1[

|f | +

]0,1[

9

|f | +

]0,1[

|f |3 ) 3 .

Here x 7 x 2 does not belong to W 2,3 (]0, 1[), but x 7 x 5 belongs to W 2,3 (]0, 1[).

10

W 1,2 (R ) = {f L2 (R )| f L2 (R )},

endowed with the norm

Z

kf kW 1,2(R) = (

|f |2 +

|f |2 ) 2

< f, g >=

fg +

f g.

Theorem 4 W m,p () is separable if 1 p < , and is reflexive and uniformly convex if 1 < p < .

Proof. (See R. A. Adams Sobolev Spaces for more details.)

Let us present W m,p () as a closed subspace of a Cartesian product of spaces Lp (). Let N be the

number of multi-indices satisfying 0 || m.

For 1 p let

LpN

N

Y

Lp ().

j=1

kukLpN

PN

1

p

p

,

j=1 kuj kLp

=

max1jN kuj kL ,

if 1 p < ,

if p = .

Using the properties of the Lp spaces, we obtain that LpN is a Banach space that is separable if

1 p < and reflexive and uniformly convex if 1 < p < .

Let us suppose that the N multi-indices satisfying 0 || m are linearly ordered in some

convenient fashion so that to each u W m,p () we may associate the well-defined vector P u LpN

given by

P u = (D u)0||m .

Since

kP ukLpN = kukW m,p () ,

P is an isomorphism of W m,p () onto a subspace W LpN .

Since W m,p () is complete, W is a closed subspace of LpN . Thus, W is separable if 1 p < and

is reflexive and uniformly convex if 1 < p < .

The same conclusions must therefore hold for W m,p () = P 1 (W ).

Let us also give the following properties of Sobolev spaces W m,p :

Proposition 2

1.

2.2

11

x

and there exists M > 0 such that

x, y R n1

Fig. 4):

x0

df |Ux0 6= 0.

Ux0

f (x) = 0

x0

If is a bounded domain with a regular boundary (at least locally Lipschitz), then we have following

results:

Theorem 5 Let be a bounded domain with a locally Lipschitz boundary. Then it holds

1. C () is dense in W m,p ().

2. We can extend f W 1,p () from to a bigger domain ( ( ) without loss of regularity:

f W 1,p ( ) and f = f on . In addition, it holds

kfkW 1,p ( ) C(p, , )kf kW 1,p () ,

where the constant C(p, , ) does not depend on f .

3

3.1

Definition and properties

R n and m N .

12

< f, g >H m () =

0||m

D f D g =< f, g >L2 () +

m

X

< D f, D g >L2 () ,

(4)

||=1

kf km = kf kH m () = (

X Z

||m

|D f |2 ) 2 = (

kD f k2L2 () ) 2 .

||m

Proposition 3

v H m ()

kvkL2 () kvkH m () .

2. H m () is dense in L2 ().

Proof.

1. It is a direct corollary of the definition of the norms in H m and in L2 .

2. Firstly, we notice that

D() ( H m () ( L2 ().

Secondly, D() is dense in L2 () by the norm k kL2 (see Theorem 1 PDF Week 6 p.6). Thus,

H m () is dense in L2 ().

3.2

As H m () is a normed (Banach) space, then its dual space is (H m ()) = L(H m(), R ).

Since H m () is a Hilbert space, the Riesz representation theorem yields

(H m ()) = H m (),

where elements of (H m ()) are linear continuous forms defined by the inner product of H m (). It

means that to f H m () corresponds the following element of (H m ()) :

X Z

u H () 7< f, u >H m () =

||m

D f D u.

H m () ( L2 (),

H m () = (H m ())

( L2 () = L2 (),

which are not true, we dont identify the dual space of H m with H m , but identify a subspace of

(H m ) in such a way that holds

Hm

( L2 = (L2 ) ( (H m).

13

not identified with (H m ) . By the mapping (f ) : L2 () (H m ()) defined for all u H m () by

f L2 () 7 [(f )](u) =< f, u >L2 () (H m ()) ,

we indentify a subspace of (H m ) with L2 :

Hm

( L2 = (L2 ) ( (H m).

T : u H m () < f, u >L2 () R

is a linear continuous form on L2 () and also on H m (). Thus T (H m ()) . We define (f ) :

L2 () (H m ()) by

f L2 () 7 (f ) = [u H m () < f, u > R ] = T (H m ()) .

Let us prove the following properties of (f ):

Lemma 2

2. (f ) is injective

3. (L2 ) is dense in (H m )

Proof.

1. k(f )k(H m ) kf kL2 :

We have for all u H m

| < f, u >L2 | kf kL2 kukL2 kf kL2 kukH m ,

from where

k(f )k(H m ) = sup

u6=0

| < f, u >L2 |

kf kL2 .

kukH m

2. (f ) is injective:

By definition of (f ),

u H m ,

f L2

(f ) =< f, u >L2 .

Therefore,

Ker(f ) = {f L2 | u H m

u L2

< f, u >L2 = 0

f = 0.

3. (L2 ) is dense in (H m ) :

Let us apply Corollary 6 of Week 3 p. 12: By Theorem 3 of Week 3 p. 8, (H m ) is a Banach

space. Clearly, (L2 ) = Range((f )) is a subspace of (H m ) . We also notice that H m is dense

in L2 and H m (H m ) L2 .

14

If (L2 ) is not dense in (H m ) , then, by Corollary 6 of Week 3 p. 12,

u H m

which is not possible (u = 0).

u 6= 0 such that f L2

< u, f >L2 = 0,

Hm

( L2 = (L2 ) ( (H m).

L2 is called the pivot space. From now on, we will make this choice.

3.3

Trace operator

Lipschitz, writing that is regular or sufficiently smooth.

Rn

We note (see L.C. Evans Partial differential equations p. 252 for the proof)

Proposition 4 For a regular of a bounded domain , C () is dense in H m ().

For a regular of the class C 1 of a bounded domain , it is possible to define a boundary measure

and define the space L2 ():

L2 () = {v measurable on |

|v(x)|2dx < }.

T : u C () 7 u| L2 (),

such that

ku(x)| kL2 () CkukH 1 () .

(5)

Proposition 5 Using (5), the operator T can be uniquely extended to a linear continuous operator

tr : H 1 () L2 (),

named the trace operator.

Proof. Construction of tr:

Thanks to Proposition 4, we have that

u H 1 () (um ) ( C () such that um u for m in H 1 ().

As H 1 is complete, then (um ) is a Cauchy sequence in H 1 :

> 0 N N such that m, k N

kum uk kH 1 () <

.

C()

15

> 0 N N such that m, k N

v L2 () such that um | v for m in L2 ().

Uniqueness of v:

Let (

uk ) be a sequence in C () such that

(

uk ) 6= (um ) and

uk u in H 1 (),

uk | v in L2 ().

kv vkL2 () = kv um | + um | u| + u| uk | + uk | vkL2 ()

kv um | kL2 () + kum | u| kL2 () + ku| uk | kL2 () + k

uk | vkL2 ()

kv um | kL2 () + k

uk | vkL2 () + C()(kum ukH 1 () + ku uk kH 1 () ) 0 for m, k .

Hence, kv vkL2 () = 0 and thus v = v. We conclude that for all u H 1 () our construction allows

to define an unique element of L2 (), which we call the trace of u.

3.4

Spaces H0m ()

Remark 7 In what following we write for functions in Sobolev spaces understanding the derivative in the sense of distributions.

Definition 13 Define H0m () as the closure of D() in H m ().

We admit this characterization of H0m ():

Theorem 6 For all domains in

R n (bounded or not)

2. H0m () is a Hilbert space with the inner product of H m (),

4. If u H m () and v D(), then vu H0m (),

5. H01 () = {f H 1 ()| f = 0 on },

Theorem 7 (Poincar inequality) Let be a bounded domain of

Rn .

Then there exists a constant C = C() > 0 depending only on , such that for all u in H01 (),

kukL2 () C()kukL2 () ,

(6)

where

kukL2 () =

n

X

u

xk

k=1

L2 ()

16

Proof. Since D() is dense in H01 (), for all u H01 () there exists a sequence of functions

vk D() which converges toward u in H01 ():

kvk ukH 1 () 0 for k .

Firstly we show (6) for vk D(). After it, since the convergence by the norm of H 1 () implies the

convergence of kvk ukL2 () and k(vk u)kL2() toward 0, we obtain (6) for u H01 () taking the

limit for k by the norm of H 1 .

Let be a parallelepiped such that ( and, without loss a generality, we suppose that

= {x R n |0 < xi < di, i = 1, . . . , n} and d1 = min di .

i=1,...,n

( , we extend vk from to by 0.

vk (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

x1

vk

(y1 , x2 , . . . , xn )dy1 .

y1

(7)

we take the square of (7) and integrate it over :

Z

vk2 dx =

d1

dx1

x1

vk

(y1 , x )dy1

y1

!2

R n1 |0 < xi < di

i = 2, . . . , n},

dx .

(8)

Z

vk

(y1 , x )dy1

1

y1

x1

!2

we obtain

Z

vk2 dx

d1

dx1

x1

x1

1 dy1

d1

0

vk

y1

x1

vk

y1

!2

!2

dy1 x1

!2

dx,

d2

dy1 dx = 1

2

d1

vk

y1

vk

y1

!2

!2

dy1 ,

dx.

Z

vk2 dx

d2

1

2

vk

y1

Remark 8 The Poincar inequality holds true for domains bounded at least in one direction. But

the result is not true in H 1 (). u = 1 everywhere on would not work!

Theorem 8 When the open set is bounded, the semi-norm | |m is a norm on H0m which is

equivalent to k km .

Proof. Instead of the general result, let us prove the equivalence of the norm

kukH01 () =

sZ

(u2 + |u|2)dx

(9)

17

and

|u|1 =

sZ

|u|2dx = kukL2 () .

(10)

We need to show that there exist constants C1 > 0 and C2 > 0, such that

C2 |u|1 kukH01 () C1 |u|1 .

Thanks to the Poincar inequality and the positivity of the norm, we find that indeed

kuk2L2 () kuk2L2() + kuk2L2() (C 2 () + 1)kuk2L2() ,

from where it is sufficient to take C2 = 1 and C1 =

3.5

C()2 + 1.

Definition 14

If is C 1 , then along is defined the outward pointing unit normal vector

field = (1 , . . . , n ). The unit normal at any point x0 is (x0 ).

We denote by the normal derivative of u

u

=< , u >Rn .

Theorem 9 Let be sufficiently smooth. Let be the unit outward normal to . Let {ei } be the

canonical basis of R n . For any u and v in H 1 () we have

Z

u(i v) =

(i u)v +

uv cos(, ei )

In particular, there is useful formula which can be considered as a classical integration by parts:

Z

uv =

Z

u

v uv.

Sobolevs embedding theorems give the fundamental properties of the Sobolev spaces.

These properties are connected with the degree of smoothness that can be expected in a Sobolev

space.

The larger the product mp ... the smoother the function!

The critical value is the space dimension n. If mp > n then all functions in W m,p are continuous

(usual disclaimer: we are dealing with classes).

Proposition 6 For any domain in

W m,p () Lq ()

and

W m,p () Lq ()

18

compact if from any bounded sequence (xk ) of elements of X one can extract a subsequence (xkl )

such that its image (Axkl ) is strongly convergent in Y .

If there exists a compact linear application from X to Y , we note X Y

Theorem 10 Let be a bounded domain in

1. W m,p () Lr () for any r [1, q[, where 1/q = 1/p m/n provided mp < n.

2. W m,p () Lq () for any q [1, [ provided mp = n.

3. W m,p () C() if mp > n.

Example 8 Let be a a bounded domain of

H 1 () = W 1,2 ().

R2

Thus, if kuk kH 1 () is bounded then, one can extract a subsequence in L2 () that converges strongly

in L2 (). The unit ball of H 1 () is compact in L2 () but not in H 1 ().

Let us define the inclusion operator

Definition 16 The operator i(u) = u which associates u H 1 () with the same u as an element of

L2 () is called the operator of inclusion of H 1 () in L2 ().

Instead to prove Theorem 10, we prove the particular case

Theorem 11 Let be a bounded domain in R n with locally Lipschitz boundary . Then the

inclusion operator i : H 1 () L2 () is linear, bounded and compact.

Proof. Continuity

We have

ki(u)kL2 () kukH 1 () .

Compactness

Let (um ) is a bounded sequence in H 1 ():

m kum kH 1 () C.

Let define a parallelepiped in the way as

( ,

Let

n

= M

i=1 i , where i = k=1 [ai , ai +

dk

].

N

By Theorem 5 point 2 p.11, we can extend um from to a parallelepiped , containing , such that

the extensions um

um H 1 (), um | = um , kum kH 1 () k

umkH 1 ()

and in addition there exists a constant C(, ) independing on u, such that

k

um kH 1 () C(, )kum kH 1 () .

19

um ) is also a bounded sequence in H 1 ().

For this it is possible to prove the following inequality for all u H 1 ():

n

N

X

1

u dx

i=1 |i |

Z

2

udx

n

+

2

Z X

n

k=1

dk

N

!2

u

xk

!2

dx.

(11)

We have supposed that (um ) is a bounded sequence in H 1(). Therefore, as we have seen, (

um ) is

a bounded sequence in H 1 (). Thus, since i is a continuous operator from H 1 () to L2 (), the

sequence (i(

um )) is also bounded in L2 ().

On the other hand, L2 () is a Hilbert space, thus weak topology on it is equial to the weak topology.

Moreover, as L2 is separable, from Theorem 11 PDF Week 4 p.20, it follows that all closed bounded

sets in L2 () are weakly sequentially compact (or compact in the weak topology since here the weak

topology is metrizable).

Consequently, the sequence (i(

um )) is weakly sequentially compact in L2 ().

To simplify the notations, we will simply write um for i(

um ) L2 ().

Since (um ) is weakly compact in L2 (), we have

(umk ) (um ) :

u L2 () umk u.

As (L2 ()) = L2 (), by the Riesz theorem,

umk u L2 ()

v L2 ()

(umk u)vdx 0.

We also notice that umk u L2 () implies that (umk ) is a Cauchy sequence in weak topology on

L2 . In addition, if we take v = 1 , then

Z

Thus, using (11), for two members of the subsequence umk with sufficiently large ranks p and q, we

have

n

kup uq k2L2 ()

kup uq k2L2 ()

N

X

i=1 |i |

2

n

uq

n X

2
up

< + = .

(up uq )dx + 2

dk

2N k=1

xk xk L2 () 2 2

i

2

Z

2

n

uq

n X

2
up

< .

dk

2

2N k=1

xk xk L2 () 2

Consequently, (umk ) (i.e., (i(umk ))) is a Cauchy sequence in L2 (), and thus converges strongly in

L2 ().

We conclude this section by

Theorem 12 Let be a bounded domain in R n with a locally Lipschitz boundary . If k > l,

(k l)p < n and 1/q = 1/p (k l)/n, then W k,p () W l,q () and the embedding is continuous.

20

representation theorem

x (t) + x(t) = g(t) t ]0, 1[,

x (0) = 0, x (1) = 0.

(12)

(13)

We suppose that g L2 ([0, 1]) is given. We want to find x(t) such that it satisfies the equation (12)

with the boundary conditions (13) (we specify what happens in the limit points or boundary points of

the segment ]0, 1[). These kinds of boundary conditions are called Neumann boundary conditions.

Define H = H 1 (]0, 1[), which is a Hilbert space with the inner product

a(u, v) =

[0,1]

(u v + uv)d.

Therefore, a(u, v) is symmetric continuous and coercive bilinear form on H 1 (]0, 1[).

We notice that

a(u, u) = kuk2H = ku k2L2 ([0,1]) + kuk2L2 ([0,1]) ,

from where it follows that

u H

(14)

u H

f (u) =

[0,1]

ugd.

Since H L2 ([0, 1]) and g is a fixed element of L2 ([0, 1]), thus the fuctional f (u) is correctly defined.

Actually,

u H f (u) =< g, u >L2 ([0,1]) .

kun ukH 0 for n +.

Thanks to (14), it follows that un u also in L2 ([0, 1]). Using the continuity of the inner product

in L2 , it means that

lim f (un ) = lim < g, un >L2 ([0,1]) =< g, lim un >L2 ([0,1]) =< g, u >L2 ([0,1]) = f (u).

Let us prove that system (12)(13) can be written in the variational form as

u H

a(x, u) = f (u).

Z

[0,1]

(x u + xu)d =

[0,1]

gud.

21

Z

[0,1]

(x u + xu)d = x u|t=1

t=0 +

[0,1]

(x u + xu)d.

x u|t=1

t=0 = x (1)u(1) + x (0)u(0) = 0.

Therefore,

u H

[0,1]

(x u + xu)d =

[0,1]

gud.

By Riesz Theorem, or more generally the Lax-Milgram Lemma, we conclude that system (12)(13)

has a unique solution x in H.

This solution is called a weak solution.

Remark 9 Once we have a weak solution of a problem, we can study its regularity.

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