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# Week 7

DISTRIBUTIONS &
SOBOLEV SPACES

Week 7
Lecture 7.1

DISTRIBUTIONS

A little more on D
Let be an open domain of Rn.
D () = C0().
Lets equip D () with this topology:
U is an open set if
for all K compact, and fU with supp fK,
there exists >0 and a multi index ,
{ gD () | supp gK
and for all xK, |f(x)-g(x)|< } U
The union of such U forms the topology.

Convergence in D
A sequence (fn) of elements of D
converges in D toward fD iff
i. There exists K compact s.t.
for all nN, supp (fn-f) K
ii. For all multi-index
fn(x) converges uniformly toward f on K

Dual space of D
Let D be the dual space of D.
Elements D of are called distributions.
Example:
For f in L1loc define Tf : D R by
Tf () = f
Tf is linear and continuous: Tf D
Functions in L1loc are distributions
They are called regular distributions.

## Other examples of distributions

Define T : D R by
T () = (0)
T is linear and continuous: TD
T is called a Dirac
This distribution is usually denoted by
It is not in L1loc

Differentiation
Let TD be a distribution
Define the derivative of the distribution T
T : D R by T() = -T()
For all D, <T,>=-<T,>
This is consistent with the derivative of functions
thanks to the integration by parts.

Differentiation
Let TD be a distribution
Let be a multi-index
Define the derivative of the distribution T
DT : D R by T() = (-1)|| T()
For all D, <DT,>=(-1)|| <T,>
This is consistent with the derivative of functions.

Example
Let TD be a distribution
Let =(1,4,5)
Define the derivative of the distribution T
D(1,4,5)T : D R by (1,4,5)T() = (-1)1+4+5 T(145)
For all D, <D(1,4,5)T,>= <T, 145>

## Why is it that such a big deal?

We no longer have to worry about differentiation!
Let f be defined by
f(x) = 0 if x<0
f(x) = 1 if x0
f L1loc
We have f =

Remark
Lp L1loc
Therefore functions in Lp are regular distributions.
We can now differentiate any function in Lp
The derivative may (or may not) be a function in Lp
When it is the case, it will be called
Wait for the next lecture!

Week 7
Lecture 7.2

WM,P SPACES

Definition
Let m N and p [1,].
The Sobolev Space Wm,p() is defined by
Wm,p () = { f Lp(), f Lp() for any ||m }
(derivative in the distributional sense)
|| f ||m,p = || f ||Wm,p = (||m |f|p)1/p
(for p<)
|| f ||m, = || f ||Wm, = max||m ||f||
With this norm Wm,p is a Banach space
| f |m,p = | f |Wm,p = (||=m |f|p)1/p is a semi-norm

Example
W2,3(]0,1[) = { fL3(]0,1[) s.t. fL3(]0,1[), fL3(]0,1[)}
|| f ||W2,3 = ( ]0,1[ |f|3 + ]0,1[ |f|3 + ]0,1[ |f|3 )1/3
x x3/2 does not belong to W2,3(]0,1[)
x x9/5 belongs to W2,3(]0,1[)

Example
W1,2(R) = { fL2(R) s.t. fL2(R)}
|| f ||W1,2 = ( R |f|2 + R |f|2 )1/2

Week 7
Lecture 7.3

HM SPACES

Definition
Let m N.
Define Hm = Wm,2
For f and g in Hm define <f,g> = ||m f g
With this inner product Hm is a Hilbert space.
|| f ||m = || f ||Hm = (||m |f|2)1/2 deriving norm
| f |m,2 =| f |Wm,2 = (||=m |f|2)1/2 is a semi-norm

Dual Space of Hm
Hm is a Hilbert space
(with the inner product <f,g> = ||m f g)
The Riesz representation theorem yields
(Hm)* = Hm
Reminder: To f Hm corresponds this element of (Hm)*
u <f,u>=||m f u
||f||2Hm = ||m |f|2 = ||m||f||2L2

Dual Space of Hm
Hm L2
L2 is a Hilbert space for <f,g> = f g
Define : L2 (Hm)*
(f) = [ u Hm() <f,u> R ]
||(f)||(H )* ||f||L
is injective
(L2) is dense in (Hm)*
m

Dual Space of Hm
Hm L2

Hm L2 (Hm)*
(L2)*
L2 is called the pivot space.
From now on, we will make this choice.

Trace Operator
Assume that has a sufficiently smooth boundary
Denote = is the boundary of
It is possible to define a boundary measure
and define the space L2()
We admit there exists a continuous linear mapping
tr: H1() L2() s.t. tr(u) = u|

Definition
Define Hm0 as the closure of D in Hm
We admit this characterization of Hm0()
Theorem
H10() = { f H1() s.t. f=0 on }
Hm0() = { f Hm() s.t. for ||<m, f=0 on }

Poincar Inequality
Theorem
Let be a bounded connected subset of Rn
with a Lipschitz boundary
Then there exists a constant C>0
depending only on , such that for all u in H10(),
|| u ||L C || u ||L

## The result is not true in H1().

u=1 everywhere on would not work!

Norm Equivalence
Theorem
When the open set is bounded, the semi-norm
| . |m is a norm on Hm0 which is equivalent to || . ||m

## Fundamental Greens Formula

Theorem
Let be sufficiently smooth
Let n be the unit outward normal to
Let { ei } be the canonical basis of Rn
For any u and v in H1() we have
u (iv) = - (iu) v + u v cos (n,ei)
u . v = - u .v + (u/n) v

Week 7
Lecture 7.4

SOBOLEV EMBEDDINGS

Embeddings
Let be a bounded subset of RN with a smooth
boundary.
Sobolevs embedding theorems give the
fundamental properties of the Sobolev spaces.
These properties are connected with the degree of
smoothness that can be expected in a Sobolev
space.

Continuity
The larger the product mp
the smoother the function!
The critical value is the space dimension N
If mp>N then all functions in Wm,p are continuous
(usual disclaimer: we are dealing with classes)

## Continuous Injection in Lq spaces

Proposition
Wm,p() Lq() for 1/q = 1/p - m/N if mp<N
Wm,p() Lq() for any q [1, [ if mp=N

## Compact Linear Application

Definition
Let X and Y be two normed vector spaces.
A linear application from X to Y is compact if
from any bounded sequence (xn) of elements of X
one can extract a subsequence such that its
image is strongly convergent in Y.
If there exists a compact linear application
from X to Y, we note XY

## Kondrasov Compact Injection Theorem

Wm,p() Lr()
for any r [1,q[, where 1/q = 1/p - m/N
provided mp<N
Wm,p() Lq()
for any q [1, [
provided mp=N
Wm,p() C() if mp>N

Example
Let be a subset of R2 (N=2)
H1() = W1,2()
1x2=2 therefore
W1,2() Lq() for any q [1, [
Thus, if ||un||H1 is bounded then, one can extract a
subsequence in L2 that converges strongly in L2
The unit ball of H1 is compact in L2 but not H1.

## Sobolev Embedding Theorem

If 1/q = 1/p (k-l)/N
Then Wk,p() Wl,q()
And the embedding is continuous