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2010 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Sciences (IECBES 2010), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 30th November

- 2nd December 2010.

A Review of Signal Processing in Brain Computer


Interface System
N.A. Md Norani

W. Mansor, L.Y. Khuan

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam,

Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah A1am,

Selangor, Malaysia

Selangor, Malaysia

sufiariantiey @live.com.my

wahidah231@salam.uitm.edu.my

The non-invasive method allows different types of brain

Abstract-Brain computer interface system incorporating signal

signals to be produced from several activities. These include

processing techniques augments human capabilities by providing


a new interaction link with the outside world and is particularly
relevant as an aid for paralyzed humans, and even for able
bodied people. This paper describes the essential components of
BCI system, types and signal processing techniques used in the
system. Several methods of electrode placement, filtering, feature
extraction and EEG signal classifications are also discussed.
Future improvements on BCI system are proposed based on the
limitations that have been highlighted.

Keywords-

Brain-Computer

Interface;

Asynchronous

EEG signals that were recorded on the scalp during subject


performing some mental tasks [4], a single-trial visual evoked
potential (VEP) signals generated when the subjects gaze at the
screen of menus or alphabets [5] and the synchronization and
resynchronization of mu rhythm extracted during sensory
motor task [6].
There are various ways of acquiring EEG signals from the
scalp and processing the EEG signal to extract significant

and

information that can relate it with the motor tasks.

Synchronous BCI; EEG signals; electrode placements; Wired and


Wireless BCI.

few of the reports described in detail the signal processing


T.

techniques used in BCT.

TNTRODUCTION

This paper reviews the signal processing techniques used in

The functional brain activities related to the variation of the

BCT starting from the data acquisition stage to the classification

surface potentials on the scalp and brain surface has been

stage, and their performance in analysing and c1assitying EEG

studied by researchers many years. This signal which is called

brain signals using either wired or wireless transmission

electroencephalogram (EEG) has been recorded using various


methods of
processed

to

Although

numerous papers have reported about BCT technology, very

electrode
detect

placements,
the

required

filtered,
brain

amplified
activities.

methods.

and
With

IT.

combination of great techniques of signal acquisitions, pre

BCT SYSTEMS

There are various BCT designs proposed by researchers.

processing, classification and algorithm developed for human

Basically,

computer interaction, a system called Brain Computer Interface

the

main

elements of

BCT system are

signal

(BCT) was developed to assist impaired people to carry out

acquisition and signal processing units as shown in Figure 1. In

their daily activities.

the signal acquisition stage, electrodes placed on the scalp, the


cortical surface, or from within the brain are used to acquire

BCT is a system that establishes direct communication

brain signals.

between the brain and computer by analysing brain signals that


are acquired from various channels [1]. This technology has

(------------------1

I
I

I
I

---------------------

shown outstanding results which can provide individual with


bodied persons a means of communications through computers
that allow them to have command and control over their

I
I
I

environments [2, 3].

L---.f :

I
I

:
______i. i ___

Neuropsychological signals in BCl applications can be


obtained using various methods; implanted, evoked potentials
and operant conditioning methods. Tn the implanted method,

I
I
I
I

EWJCtion

''''''''' ri
Proct$s: L---.f Devices
I
I
I
I

L _____Sg_nI!'!c!g ___ :

Figure I. Basic design and operation of any BCI system

electrodes are placed on the motor cortex region, which


directly relevant to motor tasks. For both evoked potential and

Typical types of brain signals that serve as input to BCT

operant conditioning methods, usually non invasive method

include slow cortical potentials (SCP) [2], P300 potentials [5],

was employed where electrodes were placed on the scalp

motion-onset visual evoked potentials [7], steady-state visual

surface [1].

evoked potentials (SSVEP) [8], auditory evoked potentials [9],


event-related synchronization

978-1-4244-7600-8/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

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severe motor disabilities and limited dexterity or even able

443

I desynchronization (ERS/ERD)

These signals are

trained the subjects to modify their mu wave to move a cursor

processed to extract specific signal features that reflect the

[10] and sensor motor rhythyms (SMR) [6].

up and down on a computer screen respectively. Mu wave can

user's

be altered in continuous manner and can be attenuated by

intent,

for

examples

evoked

potential

amplitudes,

movement, tactile simulation and imagined movements [1].

sensory motor cortex rhythms, firing rates of cortical neurons


and others. In the signal processing stage, feature extraction

Another type of BCI system is Thought Translation Device

process is carried out and the features are then converted into

(TID) which enables

commands that can operate and control devices.

completely

paralysed individual to

communicate by self-regulating their brain signals such as SCP

Two types of data transmission are used in BCI system;

through a feedback training. Subjects were trained to select

wired or wireless. Most existing BCI system uses wires to

letters or write messages [25] and may use either visual or

communicate with its components, thus the system is bulky and

auditory feedback as mentioned in [26, 27]. An implanted BCI

heavy. This connection often limits the movements of the

system has been devised by Kennedey et al [28, 29] to move a

users. A wireless data transmission

cursor for activating speech synthesizer which then produced

practical

to

be

used

in

BCI system is more

ordinary

working

or

living

phrases with subject's implant. The velocity of cursor was


determined by the rate of neural firing.

environments. It offers portability and reliability since it can be


embedded in various electrical products such as laptops, cell

Numerous researchers have studied the signals obtained

phones and others [10].

from imagined movements to control devices [30, 31, 32, 33].


in

Barbosa et al [26] used imaginary signals to control a mobile

For

robot using electrodes placed on the scalp. K.J. Miller et.al [30]

asynchronous BCT, when the system is ON, the output of the

studied the signals obtained from imagined movements and

Tn

general,

asynchronous

BCT

are

designed

(self-paced)

or

to

operate

synchronous

either

mode.

system will be affected by the intention of users' desires. Self

reported that these signals are the same as those generated from

faced BCI system is divided into two types; a 2-state self-paced

the actual cursor movements. In another study, the imagination

(Low Frequency-Asynchronous Switch design (The LF-ASD))

of hand grasping was used to control hand movements in the

[11] and a 3-state self-paced BCI system. The later provides

online BCI system [32].

extra advantages such as it allows the users to activate more

TTl.

devices and offers more flexibility in controlling a device than


the 2-state self-paced BCI system [12].

Tn BCI system applications, the electrode placement can be


either invasive or noninvasive. For invasive technique, direct

Tn 3-state self-paced BCT system, the subjects experienced

implantation of electrodes in the subject's brain is required

three states; the intentional control (TC), no control (NC) and

whereas for non-invasive, brain signals are obtained using

TC state again. Tn the TC state, the users do not control the BCT

electrodes attached to the subject's scalp. Non-invasive BCI

system. They may be idle, daydreaming, thinking about their


problems, or performing some other actions.

system

When there is

BCT

system,

the

times

allowed

preferable

in

neurological

rehabilitation

system.

an inactive state output during NC state [11].


synchronous

is

investigations since it is harmless compared to the invasive

intentional user control, the system will respond and maintain

In

TECHNIQUES OF ELECTRODE PLACEMENT

The most widely used technique to place electrodes on the

for

scalp for recording EEG signals is 10-20 International System

intentional user control are defined by the system. Therefore, it

rn this technique, EEG electrodes are located on the scalp at

is tested only during the intentional user control and ignores

10%

responses during NC state. Even though asynchronous BCI

and

20%

of

measured

distance

starting

from

craniometric reference points such as nasion, inion, left and

design provides natural mode of interaction and covers the

right pre-auricular points. The original 10-20 system included

most significant information, it has not been widely studied in

only 21 active

the field. BCI designs for self-paced control are very limited

electrodes as shown in Figure 2. A reference

and ground electrodes must be included and have to be placed

[12-16].

either on the ear lobe or mastoid. This choice depends on the

The EEG signals related to both movement and imagination

cap technology used. Some caps are equipped with embedded

of movement can be used as the input for BCT system [17].

electrodes or provide dedicated electrodes outside the cap for

Body movements such as hands, fingers, foot and eyes are the

reference and ground.

typical parameters studied by researchers. Signals obtained


from

these

parts

are

used

as

inputs

to

activate

With the recent development of high resolution EEG, an

some

extension of the 10-20 system has been proposed. This new

applications such as switching on and off lighting system,

configuration, namely the 10-10 system, allows the placement

change the television channels, writing e-mail by moving the

of a high number (64-256) of EEG electrodes and most

cursor on the screen [18], control electric wheelchair [19] and

electrodes are separated from each other by intervals of 10%. A

helps injured people to walk and even climb stairs.

newer modified combinatorial electrode system uses electrode

Researchers have used various approaches to perform tasks

placement of the 10-10 system, however, the electrodes are

using brain signals via a computer. For example, in selecting

more closely spaced. The most practical electrode placement

letters cases, the visually evoked potentials (VEPs) [20] and

for routine clinical use is the combination of the 10-20 system

P300 evoked potential were used to measure the speed rate of

and the 10-10 system if additional electrodes are required [34].

characters per minute [21]. Tn the case of cursor control


applications,

researchers

[22-24]

used

multiple

The advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and

electrodes

the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic

placed over sensorimotor cortex to monitor ERS/ERD and

signal source localization methods have allowed a new layout

444

of electrode placements to be developed [35]. Until now,

can be removed using techniques such as Principal Component

investigations

of

Analysis (PCA) [40], Support Vector Machines (SVMs) [41],

electrodes on the scalp are still carried out. The areas of

Independent Component Analysis (lCA) [40], Blind Source

electrode placement and the number of electrodes placed on the

Separation (BSS) [43] and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

on

the

minimum

possible

connection

scalp are varies based on the information that needs to be

[44].

extracted from the brain signals. For example, four electrodes

classification

An iterative SOBl-based BSS method followed


of

independent

components

using

by

SVM

(F3, F4, C3, and C4) were used for acquiring signals from

technique has been designed to effectively remove artifacts

imagination of hand grasping [33] and five electrodes (Fz, Pz,

automatically [45]. Overall, these techniques have specific

Cz, Cl, and C2) for determining perceptual errors in the P300

purposes that could match each objectives of experiments

BCI speller [36].

conducted.
After filtering, the EEG signals will pass through feature
extraction process (see Figure 3) where feature selection
technique is used to select significant features. In [45, 46], a
hybrid BSS-SVM system was used to extract the movement
related features from the EEGs. Feature extraction methods
based on Self Organizing Maps (SOM) using auto-regressive
(AR) spectrum [47] and inverse model [48-50] has been
studied to discriminate the EEG signals recorded during right
and left hand motor imagery. In the decomposition of EEG
multiple sensor recordings, the feature selection used were
PCA and ICA

Figure 2. The 10-20 International System of Electrodes Placement.

[51]. All movement-related potentials are

limited in duration, frequency and spatial information of EEG

(Redrawn from http://www.bem.fi/bookIl3113.htm#03)

data [50, 51]. The combination of time - frequency (TF) and


Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique can be used
In most cases, there is a direct relationship between major
brain

features,

International

and

System.

electrode
Two

types

positions
of

in

the

[55]. The feature extraction method based on discrete Wavelet

10-20

transform has been employed in [2] to control the cursor

EEG electrodes are

movement

via EEG.

The

variance

and

mean of

signals

commonly used in this system; mono-polar and bipolar types.

decomposed by Haar mother wavelet served as the inputs to the

A set of mono-polar and bipolar EEG electrodes were used for

classifiers

detecting the right and left hand movements in a self-paced

decomposition was used to select features of EEG signals to

BCT system [10]. The combination of these electrodes (a set of

control four-direction motion of a small ball on the computer

15 mono-polar and 30 bipolar electrodes) were used as input

screen [55].

[2].

In

other

study,

db40

wavelet

packet

for two different systems to compare which input can better


differentiate between right and left extensions. It was reported
that the design that uses bipolar EEG electrodes outperforms

EEG

the one with mono-polar EEG electrodes [10].

Signal

-+

Filtering

f-+

Feature
Extraction

r-

EEG signal
Classification

f-+

Device
Output

As mentioned previously, the electrical brain activity also


can be recorded invasively. In this technique, microelectrode

Figure 3. Signal processing stages in BCI system

arrays are chronically implanted in cortical areas of the brain to


record the activity of single neurons [37]. Typical areas include

There are five different categories of classifiers; linear

the primary motor cortex (Ml), the dorsal premotor cortex

classifiers, neural networks, non-linear Bayesian classifiers,

(PMd), and the posterior parietal cortex (PPe). The advantage

nearest neighbor classifiers and combinations of classifiers that

of this technique is that it provides long-term stability of the

have been studied in BCT system design [56]. Linear classifiers

recordings. Another invasive technique is electrocorticography

are

(ECoG) where the electrical activity from the cerebral cortex is


recorded by placing electrodes on the surface of the brain [38].

algorithms

that

use

linear

functions

to

known as Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) and

The nature of the signals recorded via ECoG is similar to EEG,

Support

however, the ECoG recording has higher spatial resolution than

Vector

Machine

(SVM)

are

the

most

popular

techniques used to separate the data representing the different

EEG recording. The ECoG and implanted arrays procedures

classes by using hyperplanes [56, 57]. FLDA has the ability to

are harmful since it requires the skull and dura meter to be

distinguish

opened respectively. These invasive electrode placements may

signals

from

related

movement

activity

with

classification accuracy of 81.63% from single trial [18]. In

cause infections and hemorrhage [39].


TV.

discriminant

distinguish classes. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) or

recognizing P300 potentials obtained from spelling a word,


FLDA (an accuracy of 95.75%) outperforms Least squares

SIGNAL PROCESSING

Analysis (LSA) and Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis

In order to have an artifact-free EEG to extract the

(SWLDA) [51]. However, LDA and SVM classifiers have

embedded information, the EEGs have to be filtered. Artifacts

limitations. The main limitation of LDA is its linearity which

such as eye-blinking, electrocardiograms (ECGs), breathing

can cause poor outcomes when it deals with complex nonlinear

from respiratory system and any other internal or external noise

EEG

will affects the output of BCT system. The ocular artifact (OA)

data

[56 ,

59].

SVM

are

known

to

have

good

generalization properties, but has low speed of execution [56].

445

Other

SVM did not perform well in detecting SCP derived from

classification methods used in the recent BCI

cursor movement from artificially respirated ALS patient (an

research include Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Fisher

accuracy of 68.33%) even though it could accurately detect the

classifier and Fuzzy logic. The PSO has been incorporated in


Satti et al [72] work to select subject specific-frequency band

signals from healthy subject (an accuracy of 82.25%) [2].

for an efficient tuned BCI system. Fisher classifier was used by

The most widely used Neural Network (NN) for BCI, is

[55] to recognize SSEVP signals generated from controlling a

the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP),a universal approximator that

small ball movement on the computer screen. An investigation

is sensitive to overtraining,especially with such noisy and non

on the performance of Fuzzy Logic in detecting four different

stationary data as EEG [56,560]. Other types of NN used in

imagery tasks revealed that this technique could only provide

BCI are Gaussian classifier [61],Learning Vector Quantization

an

(LVQ) Neural Network [62],Fuzzy ARTMAP Neural Network


[63], Dynamic Neural Networks such as the Finite Impulse
(TDNN)

or

Gamma

dynamic

Neural

of

78%

with slow

computation

time

[73].

recent works using various classifiers is summarized in Table 1.

Response Neural Network (FIRNN) [64],Time-Delay Neural


Network

accuracy

Comparison of the classification accuracy obtained by the

As

Network

wired

BCI

systems, the

wireless

system

also

incorporates various classification algorithms. However, very

(GDNN) [65], RBF Neural Network [66], Bayesian Logistic


Regression Neural Network (BLRNN) [67], Adaptive Logic

limited papers reported on the signal processing techniques

Network (ALN)

[68] and Probability estimating Guarded

used in wireless BCT system [75]. Most of them focused only

Neural Classifier (PeGNC) [69]. Tn the recent studies,Barbosa

on the construction of the hardware itself [76]. Brown et al [77]

et al [30] studied the performance of Probabilistic Neural

developed a wireless,8-channel EEG monitoring handset and

Network Delta band (PNN-DB), MLP Neural Network with

used a microcontroller to process the signals,however,the way

Driven Pattern Replication (MLP-DPR), Modular Multi-net

the signals are processed,was not described. A more advanced

system (MMN) and Hierarchical Model (HM) to find the best

work on the development of wireless BCT is the use of system

method to control a mobile robot. They discovered that the HM

on-chip to produce a multi-channel low-power system [78].

with statistical implementation could produce the best result


V. LiMITATION AND FUTURE TMPROVEMENT

with an accuracy of 91%.

Although EEG-based BCT will offer bright future for

There are two types of Nonlinear Bayesian classifiers used

impaired people and convenient way of living for able bodied

in BCT system; Bayes quadratic and Hidden Markov Model


(HMM).

Both

classifiers

produce

nonlinear

people, there are still some limitations to be considered. EEG

decision

signals suffer from a reduced spatial resolution since it is

boundaries. The advantages of these classifiers are that they are

influenced by the synchronous activity of thousands of cortical

generative and reject uncertain samples more efficiently than

neurons. These signals were recorded on the scalp,so they are

discriminative classifiers [56]. Nearest Neighbors classifier is

susceptible to artifacts generated by muscle contractions and

also used in BCT for example,k Nearest Neighbors (kNN) and

ocular movements, as well as outside sources. Tn addition,

Mahalanobis Distance. kNN assigns an unseen point the

current EEG-based BCTs transfer information and control

dominant class among its k nearest neighbors within the

complex devices at low speed.

training set. kNN has failed in several BCT experiments since it


is very sensitive to the curse-of-dimensionality [56, 69, 70],
however, it may perform efficiently with low-dimensional
used to detect imagination of hand movement tasks and the

On the other hand,these limitations can be overcome by

accuracy produced by this classifier is 80% [30].

some

Classifiers can be combined to reduce the variance and

[56].

Tn

of

filtering

adopted in the system to improve the communication between


human and

cascade where the errors committed by the previous classifier


classifier

ways

as Artificial Intelligence (Al) can be combined together and

stacking are the classifier combination strategies used in BCT

each

Appropriate

during the experiment. Various machine learning systems such

applications [56] Boosting consists of several classifiers in


by

future enhancement.

methods can be employed to remove artifacts that generated

thus increase the classification accuracy. Boosting,voting and

focussed

years,the time taken for the user to operate the brain-actuated


device should also be considered.

feature vectors [56]. Mahalanobis Distance classifier has been

are

Since a stable level of

performances can only be achieved after several months or

machine.

The principle

of mutual learning

provided by the systems allows human learn to operate the

voting, several

brain-actuated device very rapidly, in a few hours which

classifiers are used with each of them assigning the input


feature vector to a class. Due to its simplicity and efficiency,
voting is the most popular and has been combined with LVQ

normally take a few days using conventional system [40,41].


This can reduce length of learning and training period.

better and conducive environment should be provided for the

NN,MLP or SVM [56]. Stacking uses several classifiers which

subjects when conducting the experiment so that they can relax

are called level-O classifiers to classify the input feature vector.

and enjoy participating in the work.

The output of each of these classifiers serves as the input to a


meta-classifier (or level-I classifier) which is responsible for

It would be extremely convenient to have a physiological

making the final decision. In BCT research,stacking has been

signal monitoring system that is portable, wearable, and

used as level-O classifiers in Hidden Markov Models (HMM),


and as meta-classifier in SVM [71].

capable of monitoring target physiological signals remotely via


wireless

transmission

technology

446

can

protocol.

maximize

the

Tncorporating
BCT

system

wireless
usability,

TABLE I.

CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY OBTAINED BY RESEARCHERS USING VARIOUS METHODS.

Brain
signal
types

Activity

Electrode placement

SCP

Controlling cursor
movements for
ALS patient s [2]

(i) P300
(ii) SSVEP

i.

P300: Fz, Cz, P3,


Pz, P4, P07, Oz
and P08
SSVEP: P3, Pz,
P4, P07, Oz and
P08

ii.

Controlling finger
movement [18]

ERP

Controlling cursor
movements [30]
Mobile robot
activation via
imagination [31]
Controlliing motion
of a small ball [55]
Spelling words [58]

ERD
Imagery
signals
SSVEP
P300

Hand movements
imagination, mental
subtraction and
recitation [73]

Imagery
signals

Controlling hand
grasp [74]

Imagery
signals

wearabiI ity,

portability

environments.

Wireless

installation complexity,

and
BCT

C3 and C4
F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz,
C4, P3 and P4

OWT
Ob40 wavelet
packet

01 and 02

F3, F4, Fz, Pz,C3,C4,


and Cz

reliability
system

wire weight,

in

can

II.

Spectral
power

operational

help

to

and trouble-shooting

PNN adaptive: 93%


Static: 85.8%

different

[I]

Jorge Baztarrica Ochoa, "EEG Signal Classification for Brain Computer


Interface Applications", 2002.

[2]

M.R.Nazari Kousarrizi, A.Asadi Ghanbari, M.Teshnehlab, M.aliyari and


A. Gharaviri, "Feature Extraction and Classification of EEG Signals
using Wavelet Transform, SVM and Artificial Neural Networks for
Brain Computer Interfaces," 2009 International Joint Conference on
Bioinformatics, System Biology and Intelligent Computing, pp.352-355,
2009.

[3]

J.R. Wolpaw, N. Birbaumer, OJ. McFarland, G. Pfurtscheller and


T.M.Vaughan, "Brain-computer interfaces for communication and
control", Clin. Neurophysiol, 2002, pp. 767-791.

[4]

R.Palaniappan, P.Paramesran, S.Nishida, and N.Saiwaki, "A New Brain


Computer Interface Design using Fuzzy ARTMAP," IEEE Transactions
on Neural System and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 140-148,
Sept.2002.

[5]

E.Oonchin, K.M.Spencer and R.Wijesinghe, "The mental prosthesis:


assessing the speed of a P300-based brain computer interface," IEEE

average

in

the

signals.

help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the system, a


lot of improvement needs to be done to produce a system that
selection

PNN adaptive &


static

II.

REFERENCES

Although new signal processing techniques used in BCr can

automatic

MLP
Fuzzy Logic

FLO: 95.75%
LS: 89.45%
III.
SWLOA:
90.73%
I.
MLP: 90%
ii. Fuzzy Logic:
78%
I.

persons respectively.

classification accuracy. The classification accuracy gives some

can be operated in real environments.

FLOA
LSA
SWLOA

With all these improvements, a more convenient way of life

guidance on the suitability of the classification method used to


embedded

Above 80%

and better service can be offered to able bodied and disable

CONCLUSION

feature

MMN: 88.75%
ii.HM: 91%

I.

signal processing should be the main focus in future research.

Different combination of feature extraction

important

80%

of training period should be decreased. BCI systems with

This paper has reviewed signal proceeding techniques used

recognize

i. LOA: 81.63%
ii.SVM: 75.41%

high-fidelity data acquisition, wireless technology and online

hold the electrodes at the front-end of a BCT.

yields

Single-trial

system for ease of use. For better system efficiency, the length

baseball cap, a headband, or a pair of sunglasses can be used to

methods

i. MLP: 80.87%
ii. PNN (RBF):
68.35%
iii. SVM: 68.33%
i. P300: 77.27 100%
ii. SSVEP: 69.23 100%.

numbers of electrodes should be employed in current BCT

reduce

portability and wearability, a wearable device such as a

classification

Classification
Accuracy

Fisher classifier

I.

FC3, FC4, CI, C2, C3,


C4, C5, C6, CP3, CP4

LOA
SVM

Mahalanobis
distance classifier
I.
MMN
II.
HM

III.

them to perform their routine tasks more easily. To maximize

in BCT system.

Fisher
ratio

II.

provide users with flexible posture and movement and allow

and

I.
II.

I.

Fz,Cz, Pz, Oz,C3 and


C4

effort compared to the traditional wired BCT systems. It can

VT.

i. MLP
ii. PNN (RBF)
iii.SVM

LOA

Power
Spectral
density
(PSO),
Spectrogram
Fast Fourier
Transform

128 electrodes

Classification
method

Feature
Selection
Method

Haar mother
wavelet.

Cz- Mastoids

Spelling words [8]

Features/
Feature
extraction
method

Features, such as

of electrode positions and

frequency

components according to particular parts of motor imagery


should be incorporated in the BCT system. The minimum

447

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June 2000.
[6]

[25] T.Hinterberger,

Dennis J. McFarland and Jonathan R. Wolpaw, "Sensorimotor Rhythm


Based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI): Feature Selection by Regression

[8]

AGrether,

N.Neumann

and

the Completely Paralyzed", in H.Diebner, T.Druckrey & P.Weibel (eds):

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