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B767/26/101

Fire Protection

Boeing 767-200/300

Fire Protection
Training manual
For training purposes only
LEVEL 1

ATA 26

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B767/26/101
Fire Protection

Training manual

This publication was created by Sabena technics training department, Brussels-Belgium, following ATA 104 specifications.
The information in this publication is furnished for informational
and training use only, and is subject to change without notice.
Sabena technics training assumes no responsibility for any
errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this publication.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of Sabena technics training.

Contact address for


course registrations
course schedule information
Sabena technics training
training@sabenatechnics.com

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SYSTEM PRESENTATION.......................................................................................................6
1.1. Fire & Overheat Detection. ...................................................................................................8
1.2. Functional Data Flow..........................................................................................................10
1.3. Fire Extinguishing. ..............................................................................................................12
2. ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. ............................................................................14
2.1. Components. .....................................................................................................................14
3. APU FIRE DETECTION & WARNING. ..................................................................................16
3.1. Functional Description........................................................................................................16
4. APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM...................................................................................18
4.1. General Description. ..........................................................................................................18
5. CONTROL & INDICATION. ..................................................................................................20
5.1. Functional Description........................................................................................................20
5.2. Flight Compartment Indications. ........................................................................................22
6. CARGO COMPARTMENT SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS ..................................................24
7. CARGO COMPARTMENT FIRE EXTINGUISHING. ...............................................................26
8. WHEEL WELL FIRE DETECTION ..........................................................................................28
8.1. Functional Description........................................................................................................28
9. WING & BODY DUCT LEAK DETECTION ............................................................................30
10. LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION. ......................................................................................32
11. LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER.......................................................................................34

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
APU FIRE DETECTION & WARNING ......................................................................................... 17
APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ........................................................................................ 19
CARGO COMPARTMENT FIRE EXTINGUISHING ...................................................................... 27
CARGO COMPARTMENT SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS......................................................... 25
CONTROL & INDICATION ....................................................................................................... 21
ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ................................................................................... 15
FIRE AND OVERHEAT DETECTION............................................................................................. 9
FIRE AND OVERHEAT PROTECTION .......................................................................................... 7
FIRE EXTINGUISHING.............................................................................................................. 13
FLIGHT COMPARTMENT INDICATIONS ................................................................................... 23
FUNCTIONAL DATA FLOW (SHEET 1) ...................................................................................... 11
LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER .............................................................................................. 35
LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION.............................................................................................. 33
WHEEL WELL FIRE DETECTION ............................................................................................... 29
WING & BODY DUCT LEAK DETECTION ................................................................................. 31

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


ADP
AFOLTS
APU
BTL
CB rF3
CCW
CRES
CW
DISCH
EICAS
ENG
FWD
OVHT
PRV
SOV
SYS

Air Driven Pump


Automatic Fire/Overheat Logic/Test System
Auxiliary Power Unit
Bottle
Monobromotrifuoromethane
Counterclockwise
Corrosion Resistant Steel
Clockwise
Discharge
Engine Indicating Crew Alerting System
Engine
Forward
Overheat
Pressure Regulating Valve
Shutoff Valve
System t

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1. SYSTEM PRESENTATION.
The 767 fire/overheat protection systems are designed to provide indication to
the flight crew when a fire or overheat condition exists in an engine
compartment, an APU compartment, the cargo compartments, main wheel
wells and in those areas from the APU firewall to the left and right engine
firewalls that have the pneumatic distribution ducting installed
(duct leak system) .
The lavatory systems are designed to sense fires and automatically activate its
fire extinguishing system.
The extinguishing systems for the engines, APU and cargo compartments are
designed to put out fires in those areas and keep them out for a
predetermined period.
No extinguishing system is required for the wheel well fire and duct leak
overheat systems.

Cargo Systems.
The cargo compartments (forward, aft and bulk) use smoke detectors to sense
a fire condition.
The aft and bulk compartments are considered as one compartment for fire
detection and extinguishing and are referred to as the AFT CARGO
COMPARTMENT.
One extinguishing system, used for either compartment, is designed to put
out and keep out a fire for a predetermined amount of time.

Engine System.
Each engine system consists of a fire detection and indication system and an
overheat detection and indication system.
Both engines share a common extinguishing system which may be used to put
out a fire in either engine.
The system is not meant to be used to put out a fire in both engines, should a
fire occur in both during the same flight.

Duct Leak System.


The duct leak (wing or body) system provides overheat detection and
indication only.

Wheel Well System.


This system provides detection and indication only.
Extinguishing is provided by lowering the landing gear if the airplane is in
light.

Lavatory Systems.
The fire detection system provides visual and aural indications.
The extinguishing system automatically activates should a fire occur in the
lavatory waste container.

APU System.
The APU systems are similar to the engine systems except no overheat
detection and indication system is provided
(only fire detection and indication).
The APU system has its own dedicated extinguishing system.

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FIRE AND OVERHEAT PROTECTION


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1.1. Fire & Overheat Detection.


The fire detection system monitors airplane components for fire overheat or
smoke conditions.
Each protection area is annunciated in the cockpit.
Engines.
The 767 uses a dual loop, Kidde-type, detection system on the engines.
The system has four detectors.
The Upper firewall, lower forward, and the lower aft detectors are fire
detection sensors.
The upper forward detector is the engine overheat detector and is located in
the pneumatic ducting area.
APU.
The 767 uses a dual loop, Kidde-type, fire detection system for the APU.
One detector is located above the APU, in the area of the APU air inlet, and
the other detector is located on the left clamshell APU access door, located
beneath the APU.

B767/26/101
Fire Protection

Duct Overheat.
The duct overheat system consists of overheat detectors that parallel the hot
pneumatic duct within the airplane structure and overheat switches mounted
in the engine struts.
Their purpose is to detect leakage of hot air and alert the flight crew so the
source can be isolated.
Detected leakage is annunciated on the pneumatic panel, the Master Caution
system and EICAS.
Cargo Compartment Fire Protection.
Fire detection in the cargo compartment is accomplished by sensing smoke as
the by-product of a fire.
Two smoke detectors are provided for each cargo compartment and are
equipped with fans to draw air samples through the detectors.
If both smoke detectors in the compartment sense sufficient smoke, it will be
reported to the flight deck as a fire.
Lavatory Smoke Detection.
Each lavatory has one smoke detector installed that will provide a visual/aural
warning to the passenger cabin crew when smoke is detected in the lavatory.

Wheel Well Fire Detection.


The wheel well is protected against overheats caused by landing gear brake
fires.
The detector is a single loop, Fenwal-type detector mounted on the ceiling of
the wheel well bay.

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FIRE AND OVERHEAT DETECTION


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1.2. Functional Data Flow.


Power.
The fire detector loops are automatically powered when power is applied to
battery bus.
When one or both loops sense a fire or overheat, this information is sent
automatically to detector cards located on the P54 module.
Signal Processing.
Both loops are required to sense a fire or overheat when using AND logic.
If one loop is failed, the system logic and test card will latch out the bad loop
and reconfigure to a single loop operation on the remaining good loop.
Alarm Flow.
When the correct alarm signals are processed in the logic and test card,
it sends alarm signals to the various indicators in the cockpit.
For an engine fire these include :
- Fire switch illuminated,
- Fire switch unlocked,
- Fuel control switch illuminated,
- EICAS warning message L (R) ENGINE FIRE,
- Discrete fire warning light,
- Master warning lights,
- Flight compartment fire bell.
For an engine overheat indications are :
- Discrete overheat annunciator light,
- EICAS caution message L (R) ENG OVHT,
- Caution aural tone,
- Master caution lights,

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FUNCTIONAL DATA FLOW (SHEET 1)


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1.3. Fire Extinguishing.


Engines.
Two identical bottles are located behind the right sidewall of the forward
cargo compartment.
The bottles are plumbed such that either bottle can be fired to either engine.
APU.
A single APU bottle is located in the stabilizer access area, forward of the APU
firewall.
A single discharge tube nozzle is directed into the APU compartment from the
bottle.
Cargo Compartment.
The fire extinguishing agent is contained in three bottles located in the
forward cargo compartment.
Dual squibs and manifolding allow the bottles to be discharged into either
cargo compartment.
This triple arrangement allows up to 195-minute extinguishing capability.
Lavatory.
Each lavatory is equipped with a fire extinguisher to combat trash basket fires.
The fire extinguisher is heat sensitive and discharges automatically at elevated
temperatures.

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FIRE EXTINGUISHING
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2. ENGINE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.


2.1. Components.
There are two identical engine fire extinguisher bottles located in the forward
cargo compartment, behind the sidewall lining in the right rear corner.
These bottles are controlled by two engine fire handles located on the P8 fire
control panel.
This panel also has amber discrete lights showing bottle discharge indications
as sensed by bottle-mounted a pressure switch with red color coded electrical
connections.
Controlled length jumper wires with color-coded, heat shrink tubing (yellow
for left engine extinguishing and blue for right engine extinguishing system)
mate with non-interchangeable squibs on each bottle to prevent crosswiring.
Operation.
The bottles are plumbed such that either handle can discharge either or both
bottles to its engine.
The distribution tubing runs aft and follows the raceway in front of the front
wing spar to both engine struts.
Hard tubing, color coded yellow, connects both bottles to the left engine
extinguishing system.
Flexible braided hoses, identified with a strip of blue tape, connect both
bottles to the right engine extinguishing system.
The plumbing terminates in two strut-mounted nozzles protruding through
the firewall to direct extinguishant on the fire.
Squibs.
A squib test module on the right side panel provides a means of checking the
continuity of the bottle squibs.

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3. APU FIRE DETECTION & WARNING.


3.1. Functional Description.
The APU fire detection system is similar to the engine fire detection system.
The APU fire detection loops receive power from the 28 V DC battery bus.
When a detector card that serves an APU fire detection loop senses a fire,
it sends a signal to the automatic fire/overheat logic test system (AFOLTS) card.
Normally, the AFOLTS card uses AND logic; that is, both detector loops 1 and 2
must sense a fire in order for alarm signals to generate.
When an APU fire occurs, the AFOLTS card gives these indications :
- The discrete warning light illuminates,
- The red master warning light illuminates,
- The fire bell rings,
- The APU fire handle illuminates in red and unlocks, and
- EICAS warning message APU FIRE,
- The APU remote shutdown panel activates.

Like the engine fire detection system, the initiated test of the system is
performed when the ENG APU/CARGO test switch is pressed on the PB test
panel.
Remember, this test will also produce flight compartment indications for
engine fire and overheat, as well as fire indications for the cargo smoke
detection system.
APU shutdown is inhibited during test.
The APU fire detection system also has continuous and power-up tests.
These tests do not output flight compartment verification; however,
failed APU loops will appear on the status and maintenance pages of EICAS.
Whenever any test finds both loops defective, the system FAIL light comes on
and the EICAS advisory message FIRE/OVHT SYS appears.

Also, when there is an APU fire, the APU automatically shuts down.

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4. APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.


4.1. General Description.
The fire extinguishing agent is CF3Br (bromotrifluoromethane) which is
contained in a single bottle located forward of the APU firewall on the lower
right side.
When discharged, a single nozzle floods the APU compartment with
extinguishing agent.
The bottle is discharged by firing a squib from the flight compartment or from
the APU remote control panel on the nose landing gear.
Flight compartment initiation is through the APU fire handle on the P8 panel.
This handle is locked down by a solenoid and is automatically released when
an APU fire is detected.
After pulling the fire handle, it can be rotated either direction to discharge the
extinguishing bottle.
A bottle discharge light on the P8 panel will illuminate when the bottle loses
pressure.
The APU bottle squib can be tested at the Squib Test Panel (P61).

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5. CONTROL & INDICATION.


5.1. Functional Description.
A fire in the engine will display the following indications :
- The discrete warning display,
- The master warning light,
- The fuel control switch,
- The engine fire handle,
- Fire bell,
- An EICAS warning message.
An engine overheat will provide these indications :
- The master caution light,
- OVHT light on the fire control panel,
- An aural caution is heard (single stroke tone),
- An EICAS caution message.

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CONTROL & INDICATION


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5.2. Flight Compartment Indications.


Operation.
When the fire switch is pulled, an EICAS caution L (R) ENG SHUTDOWN is
transmitted.
This EICAS message will inhibit other normally shown EICAS, engine-related
messages.
The individual discrete lights on the individual system control panels still
illuminate as shown.

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FLIGHT COMPARTMENT INDICATIONS


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6. CARGO COMPARTMENT SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEMS


The system is designed to provide a FIRE WARNING indication in the flight
compartment when a predetermined amount of smoke is detected in the air
of the forward or aft cargo compartments.
System Description.
There are separate smoke detection systems for each compartment
(FWD/AFT) with redundant sample air blowers and smoke detectors.
Smoke detector blowers draw air through sampling tubes and detectors
whenever power is available on the airplane.
A plenum pressure switch monitors blower operation and initiates switchover
through control relays when failure of an operating blower is detected.
The smoke detectors (FWD/AFT) are monitored and tested by AFOLTS card
number 6.
The AFOLTS card is normally configured to AND logic.
Annunciator lights and EICAS messages are provided for the following :
to indicate the location of a fire, which detector(s) sensed the smoke
condition, which detector has failed or which system (FWD/AFT) has failed
completely.
The same test switch that is used to test the engine and APU fire detection
systems is used to test the cargo smoke (fire) detection system.

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General Component Locations.


The forward cargo smoke detector assembly is mounted forward of the
left forward corner of the forward cargo compartment sidewall in the main
equipment center.
The aft cargo smoke detector assembly is mounted
outboard of the aft cargo compartments left sidewall forward of the bulk
cargo door opening.
The control relays for the blowers (FWD/AFT systems) are mounted in the
forward cargo handling access panel (P35).
This panel is located in the forward cargo compartment forward of the cargo
door.
AFOLTS card No. 6 is mounted in the fire detection card file (P54).
The cargo fire detectors are tested from the FIRE/OVHT test panel (P8) using
the same test switch for engine and APU fire loops.
General Subsystem Features.
The smoke detectors are identical and interchangeable with each other.
They are the same type as used in the equipment cooling system.
The four blowers are identical and interchangeable.
The sampling tube inlets extend through the ceiling lining of the cargo
compartments.
These inlets are made of a soft rubber to prevent damage to the inlets,
personnel or cargo.

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7. CARGO COMPARTMENT FIRE EXTINGUISHING.


Layout.
Three bottles are located behind the right sidewall of the forward cargo
compartment. Distribution tubing allows the bottles to be discharged to either
cargo compartment. A discharge manifold pressure switch in the
forward cargo compartment line is used for discharge annunciation of the
number one bottle in parallel with a bottle-mounted pressure switch.
This in-line switch allows more rapid annunciation of bottle charge condition.
Two pressure switches in the forward and aft lines from bottles 2 & 2A are
necessary because the agent is metered to provide a stream of Halon for 165
minutes.

Bottles.
Bottles 1 and 2 are the same size and are filled with 80 lbs of Halon 1301.
Bottle 2A has 33 lbs of agent.
Each bottle is charged with dry nitrogen gas to a pressure of 360 psi.
The thermal discharge port releases all the extinguisher agent into the forward
cargo storage compartment anytime the pressure in the bottle rises to 1300
100 psig.
The low pressure switch closes at 270 psi decreasing pressure and opens at
300 30 psi of increasing pressure.

Nozzles.
The forward and aft compartments each have nozzles from both discharge
systems. The spray pattern is designed to give maximum extinguishing agent
coverage to the compartment areas. The aft nozzle in the aft compartment
satisfies requirements in the bulk cargo compartment area.
Control.
The APU/CARGO fire control panel provides the controls for the extinguisher
system. The arming switches arm the appropriate squib circuits for the cargo
compartment selected. The extinguisher bottle discharge switch activates the
bottle-mounted squibs which release the extinguisher agent. When activated,
the number one bottle empties immediately. At the same time if the airplane
is on the ground, bottles 2 and 2A begin to meter agent. If the airplane is in
light, bottles 2 and 2A will activate 30 minutes after bottle N 1. The number
1 bottle will extinguish the fire immediately. The number 2 and 2A bottles
supplement the number 1 bottle for 165 minutes.
The pressure regulator meters the extinguishing agent to the compartments so
the concentration is above 3% for a total of 195 minutes (180 mm plus
15 mm reserve) . This concentration is sufficient to keep the fire extinguished.
The filter dryer removes cartridge fragments and moisture from the lines.
The metering nozzles provide optimum spray patterns. The squib test panel
provides a method for checking continuity of the discharge squibs.
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8. WHEEL WELL FIRE DETECTION


8.1. Functional Description.
Two sensors, connected in series, are attached to the top of each main wheel
well.
They detect a fire caused by overheated brakes.
The wheel well fire detector form a single loop Fenwal detection system.
A signal from any wheel well fire detector element goes to the Duct Leak and
Wheel Well Fire Card, located in the P54 Fire Protection Card File.
The card causes flight compartment indications of a wheel well fire.
You test the wheel well fire detection system from a separate test switch,
located on the P8 Fire/Ovht Test Panel.
A successful test turns on all flight compartment indications for a wheel well
fire.
Heat in the wheel well that raises the temperature of any part of the sensor to
400 5F (204 8C) signals a wheel well fire.
This is because the temperature sensitive insulation in the detector elements
becomes more conductive as the temperature rises.
The duct leak and wheel well fire card, at the alarm temperature, provides a
ground to the wheel well fire indications in the flight compartment.

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9. WING & BODY DUCT LEAK DETECTION


Duct leak detection consists of overheat detectors that parallel the hot
pneumatic ducting within the airplane.
The detection of hot air leakage is annunciated on the pneumatic panel and
EICAS.
Crew action will preclude hot air near fuel and/or electrical wires for an
extended period of time.
General Component Location.
Detector thermal switches are located in each engine strut.
Duct leak detection sensors (elements) for the left and right wings extend from
the engine struts through the leading edge of the wings to the wing body
fairing and on into the left and right air conditioning compartments to the left
and right isolation valves.
The body detection sensors (elements) extends from the APU fire wall to the
center isolation valve, with a branch that extends to the ADP and aft cargo
heating.
Duct leak logic for the left wing, right wing and body is provided by the duct
leak and wheel well fire card in the P54 card file.
Strut leak logic is provided by the left and right bleed air control printed circuit
cards located in the P50 electrical systems card file.

Strut Thermal Switches.


The strut-mounted thermal switches close at 300 8F (148 4C), and
provide a ground input to the respective bleed air control PC.
The thermal switches, two per strut, are wired in a series/parallel
configuration.
The thermal switches automatically reset when temperature decreases below
270F (132C)
Wing and Body Detection Sensors.
The wing and body detection sensors (elements) consist of a nickel wire
surrounded by an insulating material all of which is contained within a steel
tube.
An electrical connector is at each end of the sensing elements which when
connected to other elements and/or airplane wiring provide a complete loop.
The insulating material is heat sensitive and becomes more conductive with a
temperature increase.
When the temperature of the detector reaches 255 15F (123 8C),
the decreased resistance value between the nickel wire and the grounded steel
tube will be sensed by the M691 duct leak and wheel well fire card in the P54
Card file.
The sensor elements reset when temperature decreases to 225F (107C).

Duct leak indication is provided on the bleed air supply panel (P5) and through
the left or right EICAS computers (E8).
Two test switches (DUCT LEAK, STRUT LEAK) are located on the P61 and may
be used to test the system.

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10. LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTION.


The lavatory smoke detection system provides a single tone aural alert and
a visual alert to the passengers and cabin crew when smoke is detected in a
lavatory.
System Description.
The system consists of one detector assembly in each lavatory.
The detectors are identical and interchangeable.
General Component Locations.
The detector assembly is flush mounted inside the lavatory either in the
ceiling or near the ceiling, in the sidewall.
General Subsystem Features.
The detector assembly consist of a faceplate, housing (box), sensor unit, alarm
horn and electronic circuitry.
The sensor unit uses the ionization detection principle.
The sensor unit incorporates a red alarm indicator to provide a visual
indication when smoke is detected.
Mounted within the housing, but visible through the face plate, a green
power indicator is provided.
Near the power indicator, a power/reset switch is installed.

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11. LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER


The lavatory fire extinguisher protects the lavatory under-sink area by
automatically suppressing fire in the waste compartment.
Location.
The extinguisher is attached to the outside of the lavatory waste chute,
beneath the lavatory sink and behind a removable enclosure panel.
The temperature indicator is mounted inside the waste chute below the bottle
discharge nozzles.
Physical Description/Features.
The extinguisher consists of a reservoir, mounting bracket and two discharge
nozzles (sensor and valve) The reservoir is filled with FREON 1301
(approx. 124g) and has a total weight (including bracket and nozzles) of
approximately 408 grams.
The reservoir has a five-year service life.
The discharge nozzles have their tips filled with eutectic solder that will melt at
170F 5F (76.7C 2.7C).

Access.
The fire bottle may be accessed by opening the waste compartment door;
then removing the enclosure panel.
The panel is installed by four Dzus fasteners.
The temperature indicator is accessed by opening the waste compartment
door and removing the waste container.
The indicator may be inspected by looking up the waste chute from the waste
compartment.
Operation.
The fire bottle will automatically discharge, within 60 seconds, into the waste
chute when the discharge nozzle tips are exposed to 170F 5F
(76.7C 2.7C).
Warning /Caution.
The waste compartment fire extinguisher enclosure panel must be installed for
dispatch.

The temperature indicator has four heat sensitive circles that turn black at
different temperatures.

EFFECTIVITY
ALL

page 34
12 - 04 - 2012
rev : 1

Training manual

B767/26/101
Fire Protection

LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER


EFFECTIVITY
ALL

page 35
12 - 04 - 2012
rev : 1