Você está na página 1de 9

R.S.

KHURMI
J.K. GUPTA

cof{TEf{=T.
1. Introductian
1 . Defin ition. 2..Sub_divisions
of Theory of Mach ines.
3. Fundamental
Derived
Unitr. S. Systemi
_Units.4.

of Units. 6. C.C.S. Unirs. Z. f.p.S.

B. M.K.S. Units 9.

Units).

Units.

International System of Units

(S.1.

10. Metre. 11. Kilograi. lZ. Second.


.13. presenration
of Units ind their V"l;;;.
14. Rules for S.l. Units. i5. Force. ,l6.
Resultant
Force. 'l Z. Scalars and Vectors. t
A. Repres.nt"tion
of Vector euantities. f g. nddition of Vectors.
20. Subtraction of Vectors.

2.

Kinematics of Motion
1. Introduction.. 2. plane Motion. 3. Rectilinear

Motion. 4. CurvilinearMotion. 5. Linear


Displacement.
6. LinearVelocity. T . LinearAcceler"iion.

8. Equations
of Linear Motion.. 9. Graphicit [epresentation
of
Displacement with respect to f imel10.
Graphical
Representation_of Velocity witfr
respect to Time.

1.l. Craphical Representation of Rccelerat;on


with
respect to Time. 12. Angular Displaceruni.
13. Representation of Anguiar Disp-lacement
by a
I 4. An gu a r Ve oc iryi f s. nn giar
ncceleration
Y9.jor
1 6. Equations of Angular
Motion. 1 Z. n"l"ti"" i"t*"""
Linear Motion and. Angular tvlotion-.
1g. Relation
berween.Linear and ,ln[ular, q"""iiii",
of Motion.
I9. Acceleration of a particle
path.
"ionj "-Cir.ular
Kinetics of Motion
1. Introduction.. 2.. Newton,s Laws of
Motion.
3. Mass and Weight. 4. Momenirl.
s.
6. Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force.
Force.
I

3.

7.

Moment of a Force._8. Couple. O.


Cuntrip"tal and
Centrifugal Force. 10. Masi V"r""t
.l .l
of Inertia.
. Angular Momentum or Moment
oi uomentum.
12. Torque. j3. Work. j4. p;;;
15. Energy.
'16. principle
of Conservation of Eneigy. 1 Z.
lmpulse
and lmpulsive Force. 1g. principre
o?tonservation
of Momentum. 19. Energy Lorifyiri.rion
Clurch
During Engagement. 20. TJrque n"l,1ir"a
to nccelerate
q Ggared Sysrem. 21. Coilisio; ;iil*o Bodies.
22. Collision of lnelastic Bodies. 23.'Collision
of
Elastic Bodies. 24. Loss of Kin;ri;;nergy
During
Elastic

lmpact.

(v)

...24-71

*"

S!ru:p!* i-iarmonic Moticn


1. Introduction. 2. Velocity and Acceleration of a
Particle Moving with Simple Harmonic Motion.
3. Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion.
4. Terms Used in Simple Harmonic Motion.
5. Simple Pendulum. 6. Laws of Simple pendulum.
7. Closely-coiled Helical Spring. B. Compound
Pendulum. 9. Centre of Percussion. 10. Bifilar
Suspension. 1 1 . Trifi lar Suspension (Torsional

.." 72*q:3

Pendulum).

Simpie &,lechanisms
.l

. IntroducLion. 2. Kinematic

...94*11S
Link or Element.

3. Types of Links. 4. Structure. 5. Difference Between

a Machine and a Structure. 6. Kinematic

pair.
7. Types of Constrained Motions. B. Classification
of Kinematic Pairs. 9. Kinematic Chain. 10. Types of
Joints in a Chain. I1. Mechanism. 12. Number of
Degrees of Freedom for Plane Mechan isms.
13. Application of Kutzbach Criterion to plane
Mechanisms. 14. Grubler's Criterion for plane
Mechanisms. 1 5. Inversion of Mechanism. 16. Types
of Kinematic Chains. 17.Four Bar Chain or Quadric
Cycle Chain. lB. Inversions of Four Bar Chain.

19. Single Slider CPank Chain. 20. Inversions of


Single Slider Crank Chain. 21. Double Slider Crank
Chain. 22. Inversions of Double SliderCrankChain.
f

Velocitv in &4echanisms
ns{anta*e{iL!s {rjl:tr* M*11":*d}
1. lntroduction. 2. Space and Body Centrodes.
3. Methods for Determining the Velocity of a point
on a Link.4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by
Instantaneous Centre Method. 5. Properties of the
Instantaneous Centre. 6. Number of Instantaneous

...119-142

{l

Centres in a Mechanism. 7. Types of Instantaneous


Centres. 8. Location of Instantaneous Centres.
9. Aronhold Kennedy (or Three Centres-in-Line)
Theorem. 10. Method of Locating Instantaneous
Centres in a Mechanism.
7.

Velacity in S4*chanisrns
{ela!ive Vel*city totrc?h*d}
1. Introduction. 2. Relative Velocity of Two Bodies
Moving in Straight Lines. 3. Motion of a Link.

4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Relative Velocity


Method. 5. Velocities in a Slider Crank Mechanism.
6. Rubbing Velocity at a Pin )oint. 7. Forces Acting
in a Mechanism. B. Mecharrical Advantage.
(vi)

...143-173

Accelerati*rr in,\4$r:ha*isnrs
1

...174*Z3l

. Introduction. 2. Acceieration Diag:am for a Link.

3.

Acceleration of a Point on a Link.


4. Acceleration in the SIider Crank Mechanism.
5. Coriolis Component of Acceleration.
L-:l

Mecharuis'-lr; as,:;ti? Lower Pairs


'1. Introduction 2. Pantograph 3. Straight Line

...23?*?5 7

Mechanism. 4. ExactStraight LineMotion Mechanisms

Made up of Turning Pairs. 5. Exact Straight Line


Motion Consistingof One Sliding Pair (Scott Russel's
Mechanisnr). 6. Approximate Straight Line Motion
Mechanisms. 7. Straight Line Motions for Engine
Indicators. B. Steering Cear Mechanism. 9. Davis
Steering Cear. 10. Ackerman Steering Cear.
1'1. Universal or Hooke's .loint. 12. Ratio of the
ShaftsVelocities. 13. Maximum and Minimum Speeds
of the Driven Shaft. 14. Condition for Equal Speeds
of the Driving and Driven Shafts. 15. Angular
Acceleration of the Driven Shaft. 'l 6. Maximum
Fluctuation of Speed. 17. Double Hooke's Joint.

i0. Friclion

...258*3?,e

1. Introduction. 2. Types of Friction. 3. Friction


Between U n I ubricated S u rfaces. 4. Friction Between
Lubricated Surfaces. 5. Limiting Friction. 6. Laws of
Static Friction. 7. Laws of Kinetic or Dynam ic Friction.
B. Laws of Solid Friction. 9. Larvs of Fluid Friction.
10. Coefficient of Friction. 1'1. Limiting Angle of
.12.
Friction.
Angle of Repose. 13. Minimum Force

Required to Slide a Body on a Rough Horizontal


Plane. 14. Friction of a Body Lying on a Rough
Inclined Plane. 15. Efficiency of Inclined Plarre.
16. Screw Friction. 1 7. Screw Jack. 18. Torque

to

Lift the Load by a Screw Jack.


19. Torque Required to Lower the Load by a Screw
Jack. 20. Efficiency of a Screw )ack. 21. Maximum
Efficiency of a Screw )ack. 22. Over Hauling and
Required

Self Locking Screws. 23. Efficiency of Self Locking


Screws. 24. Friction of a V-thread. 25. Friction in
Journal Bearing-Friction Circle. 26. Friction of Pivot

and Collar Bearing. 27. Flat Pivot Bearing.


28. Con ical Pivot Beari

ng.

29.T rapezoidal or Tru ncated

Conical Pivot Bearing. 30. FIat Collar Bearing


3'l . Friction Clutches. 32. Single Disc or Plate Clutch.

33. Multiple Disc Clutch.34. Cone Clutch.


35. Centrifugal Clutches.

1T. Belt, Rope and Clrain

Drives
1. Introduction. 2. Selection of a Belt Drive.
3. Types of Belt Drives. 4. Types of Belts.
5. Material used for Belts. 6. Types of Flat Belt
(vll)

...325--3i:i i

Drives. Z. Velocity Ratio of Belt Drive. g.


Velocity
Ratio of a Compound Belt Drive. 9.

Slip

,f

B;ltl

10. Creep of Belt. 1 I . Length of an


Open Suf t Oriu".
12. Length of aCross Belt Drive. 1 3. powerTransmitted
by a Belt. 14._Ratio of Driving Tensions

for Flat

Belt
Drive. 15. Determination 6i ,tngte of Co;;;i:
16. Centrifugal_Tension. 12. Maximum
Tension
the Belt. 1g-. Condition for til"trunrrnission in
of
Maximum power. 19. lnitial Tension in
the geli.
20. V-belt Drive.21. Advanrages r"A
Oir"au"ntl!"i
of V-belt Drive Over Flat Beit Drive. 22.
Ratio of
Driving Tensions for V_belt. 23. Rope Drive.
24. Fibre Ropes. 25._Advantages of flfr"-nop"u
Drives. 26. Sheave for Fibre nopEs. Zz.

Wii"iop-J,

28. Ratio of Driving Tensions'for Rope Drive.'29.


Chain Drives.J0. Advantages anJ Oirraurntull,
oi
Chain Drive Over Belt oiRop"-Orive. 3t.,}-erm"i
Used in Chain Drive. 32. Relation Between pitcli
and Pitch Circle Diameter. ::. netation get*een
Chain Speed and
.Angutar vlioiity or spioi[ui.
34. Kinematic of Chain
Drive. 35. ilassification;i

Chains. 36. Hoistingand HaulingChains.


37. Conveyor
Chains. 38. power Transmittirig Chains.
39. L;;;th

of Chains.

12.

Tcothed Cearing
1. Introduction. 2. Friqtion Wheels. 3. Advantages
and Disadvantages of Gear Drive. +. Classificaiion

of Toothed Wheels. 5. Terms Used in

...382-427

Cears.

6. Cear Mate rials. T . Condition for Constant


Velocity
Ratio of Toothed Wheels_Law of Gearing.
8. Velocity

of Sliding of Teeth. 9. Forms of Teeth. 10.


Cycloidal

Teeth.

1 1 . lnvolute Teeth. 12. Effectof


nltering tl"re
Centre Distance on the Velocity Ratio For
lnvolute
Teeth Cears. 13. Comparison Between Involute

and

Cycloidal Gears. 14. Systems of Cear Teeth.


proportions

15. Standard
of CearSystems. I6. Length
of Path of Contact. 17. Length of ,qrc of Contact.
'iB. Contact
Ratio (or Number of pairs of Teeth in
Contact). 19. Interference in Involute Cuurr.
20. Minimum Number of Teeth on the pinion
in
Order to Avoid lnterference. 2.t . Minimum
Number

of Teeth on the Wheel in Order to Avoid


tnterference.

22. Minimum Number of Teeth on a pinion


for
Involute Rack in Order to Avoid Interference.
23. Helical Gears. 24. Spiral Gears. 25. Centre
Distance for a pair of Spirai Cears. 26. Efficiencf
oi

Spiral Gears.

13.

Cear Trains
1. Introduction. 2. Types of Cear Trains.
3. Simple Cear Train. 4.'bompound Gear Train.
(viii)

...428-479

5. Design of Spur Cears. 6. Reverted Gear Train.


7. Epicyclic GearTrain. B. Velocity Ratio of Epicyclic
GearTrain. 9. Compound Epicyclic GearTrain (Sun
and Planet Wheel). 10. Epicyclic Cear Train With
Bevel Cears. 1 1 . Torques in Epicyclic Gear Trains.

1.t.

Gyroscopic Couple and Precessional Motion


'l
. Introduction. 2. Precessional Angular Motion.

...480-513

3. Cyroscopic Couple. 4. Effect of Gyroscopic Cou ple

on an Aeroplane. 5. Terms Used in a Naval Ship.


6. Effect of Cyroscopic Couple on a Naval Ship
during Steering. 7. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on
a Naval Shipduring Pitching. 8. Effectof Cyroscopic
Couple on a Navel during Rolling. 9. Stability of a
Four Wheel drive Moving in a Curved Path.
'l
0. Stability of a Two Wheel Vehicle Taking a Turn.
11. Effect of Cyroscopic Couple on a Disc Fixed
Rigidly at a Certain Angle to a Rotating Shaft.

15.

lnertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts

...514-564

.1.

Introduction. 2. Resultant Effect of a System of


Forces Acting on a Rigid Body. 3. D-Alembert's

Principle. 4. Velocity and Acceleration of the

"

Reci procating Parts in Engi nes. 5. Kl ien's Construction.


6.Ritterhaus'sConstruction. 7. Bennett'sConstruction.
8. Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and
Acceleration of the Piston. 9. Angular Velocity and
Acceleration of the Connecting Rod. 10. Forces on
the Reciprocating Parts of an Engine Neglecting
Weight of the Connecting Rod. 11. Equivalent
Dynamical System. 1 2. Determination of Equivalent
Dynamical System of Two Masses by Graphical

Method. 13. Correction Couple to be Applied to


MaketheTwo Mass Systems Dynamically Equivalent.
14. Inertia Forces in a Reciprocating Engine Considering

theWeightof Connecting Rod. 1 5. Analytical Method


for Inertia Torque.

16.

Turning Moment Diagrams and Flywheel


'l

. Introduction. 2. Turning Moment Diagram for

... 565-611
a

Single Cylinder Double Acting Steam Engine.


3. Turning Moment Diagram for a Four Stroke Cycle

Internal Combustion Engine. 4. Turning Moment


Diagram for a Multicylinder Engine. 5. Fluctuation
of Energy. 6. Determination of Maximum Fluctuation
of Energy. 7. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy.
8. Flywheel. 9. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed.
10. Energy Stored in a Flywheel. 1 1. Dimensions of

the Flywheel Rim. 12. Flywheel in Punching


1tx)

Press.

'r7.

Steam Engine Valves ;rnsJ ffeversing


Cears
1. Introducion. 2. D_slide Valve.
piston
3.
SIide
Valve. 4. Relative positions ofCrunf.
unU E..*iii
Centre Lines. 5. Crank positions

off, Release

...6.E

2*65?

foinarnirrtn, Cri

and. Comprurrion.-0. Approximate


Analytical Method for Crank posiiions
atAdmission,

Cut-off, Release and Compression.


i. Vutu" Diagram.
ZeunerValve Diagram. 9. Reuleaux

B.

Vaf ue

'10.

Oialram.

Bilgram Valv_e
It.lif".tof tnuTrrif
point of Cut_off Diagram.
witl a Si;pl; Stide Valve.
I

2. Mey er' sExpansion Valve. 1


3. Vi rtual

or" f q, iuui"ni
Eccentric for...,l-,9 Meyer,s fxpansion
Valve.

14. Minimum Width and tiestseftiniof


the f-C;;;;;;;;
xpansio"n
Plate for Meyer,s. f"prnrion
Vri"?.
r!.
Gears. 1 6. principle oi t_int

,f^otionr_Virtr"t

for a Valve with an Off_sel iine oiEccentric


Stroke.
1 Z. Stephenson Link
Motion. J g. Virtual o.eqriuuf uii
Eccentric for Stephenson LinL volion.
19. Radiar

Valve Cears. 20. Hackworth Valve


Cear. 2I . Walschaerl

Valve Gear.

18.

Covernors
1. Introduction. 2. Types of
Covernors. 3. Centrifugal

...653-73r

Governors. 4. Termi Used in Cou"rnorr.


5. Watt
Governor. 6. pr

8.

H a rtn e

"'jl"*"";I",i

"ii:;rr,';i,,""""":#;i:

0. Wilson_Hartnell Covernor.
.12.
1

Sensitiveness

1.

pickeringCovernor.

of Covernors.

ti.

Stanility

of
Covernors. I4. lsochronou, Couuino*r.
1 5. Hunting.
1 6. Effort and power
of a Govern o,i. I Z . Effort and
Power of a porter Governor. f AControtting fo[e.
19. ControjJing Force Diagram
foru Fort"rCovernor.

'19"

20. Control I i n g Force_ Diagra, for.


ipri ng_control led
covernor. 21. Coeffici"it of tnrunJiiuun"rr.
"
Srakes and Dynanrometers

l.

Introduction. 2. Materials for Brake


Lining.
3. Types of Brakes. 4. Single Block
or Shoe Brake.

5. Pivoted Block or Shoe B-rake. 6- Double


Block or
Shoe Brake. Z. Simple eunJ BrJu.
i.
O;fferential
Band Brake. 9. Band and Block SrrL".
10. Internal

Expanding Brake. 11. Braking oi


a Vehicle.
12. Dynamometer. 13. Types oi Dynurometers.
14. Classification of Absorption Dinorornu,urr.
15. Prony Brake Dynamometer. lO.
nope Srake
Dynamomet ers. 1 7 .'Classification
oi
Transm
ission
.l

Dynamometers.

B. Epicycl
ic-train Dynamometers.
.Dynamomeier_Froude

19. Belt Transmission


Th

roneycraft Transm

or

on Din;,n ;,n;i"r. 2 0. Tors ion


Dynamomet er. 21 . Bevis C i6son Fiurn
ltgnt rorsion
iss

Dynamometer.

(-{)

...732-773

.".774*&'.t2

CamE
1 . Introduction. 2. Classification'rof Followers.
3. Classification of Cams. 4. Terms used in Radial
cams.5. Motion of the Follower.6. Displacement,

Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams when the Follower

Moves

with Uniform Velocity. 7.

Displacement,

Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams when the Follower


Moves with Simple Harmonic Motion. 8. Displacement,
Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams when the Fgllower

Moves with Uniform Acceleration and Retardation.


9. Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration Diagrams

when the Follower Moves with Cycloidal Motion.


'l
0 Construction of Cam Profi les. 11. Cams with
Specified Contours. 12. TangentCam with Reciprocating

Roller Follower. 13. Circular Arc Cam with Flatfaced Follower.

i1. Balancing sf R-otating

...&33*&57

Masses

1. lntroduction. 2. Balancing of Rotating Masses.


3. Balancing of a Single Rotating Mass By a Single
Mass Rotating in the Same Plane. 4. Balancing of a
Single Rotating Mass By Two Masses Rotating in
Different Planes. 5. Balancing of Several Masses
a
ll
:L,

Rotating in the Same Plane. 6. Balancing of Several


Masses Rotating in Different Planes.

.."85S*9rlS

Balancing of Reciprocating Masses


1.

Introduction.2. Primaryand Secondary Unbalanced

Forces of Reciprocating Masses. 3. Partial Balancing

of Unbalanced Primary Force in a Reciprocating


Engine.4. Partial Balancing of Locomotives.
5. Effect of Partial Balancing of Reciprocating Parts
of Two Cylinder Locomotives. 6. Variation of Tractive

Force. 7. Swaying Couple. B. Hammer Blow.

9. Balancing of Coupled Locomotives. 10. Balancing


of Primary Forces of Multi-cylinder In-line Engines.
1 1. Balancingof Secondary Forces of Multi-cylinder
In-line Engines. 12. Balancing of Radial Engines
(Direct and Reverse Crank Method). 13. Balancing

of V-engines.

23.

...909-971

Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations


1

Introduction. 2. Terms Used in Vibratory Motion'

3. Types of Vibratory Motion. 4. Types of

Free

Vibrations. 5. Natural Frequency of Free Longitudi nal


Vibrations. 6. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse
Vibrations. 7. Effect of Inertia of the Constraint in
Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations. B. Natural
Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations Due to a
Point Load Acting Over a Simply Supported Shaft.
9. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations
Due to Uniformly Distributed Load Over a Simply
txt

Supported Sh3-ft,.10. Natural,


Frequency

of Free
.f i-snlft'ii"ld at Both Ends
and Carryins a Unifoimiri''rjiirinrted
Load.
I 1 . Natural FrEquenc.y of f r"Jf
ranruerse Vibrations
for a shaft subjectd't; il;;il;;f point
Loads.
Transverse Vibrations

i 2. Criticatorwhqrti1g

"
so""d;i;;;;fi.

.l3.

of Free Dampe.d v,oi5ti"^r'U;;.;r, Frequency


Damping).
actor or Da mp
R;;r
5. Logarith m ic
K ^?::ti:rf16.
L/ecrement.
Frequency of";Underdarp"l
forl"J
Vibrations. 1 7,.,Magnifi.iri."-. i"ii.r
or
Dynam
ic
Magn ifier.
i

24.

B. Vi

brati"on

rolition

Torsional Vibrations
1

ntroduction. 2. Natura

I Freq

iransm

"ii

iss

ibi I itv.

...972-10a1

uency of

Free Torsional
Vibrarions. 3. Effect of neriil-ol
iAJ'conrrr"i nt on
Torsional Vibrarions. +. Fr"e
iorrilnuf Vibrations
of a Single Rotor Systep.S.
fi""
f.rrional Vibrations
of a Two Rotor System. 6. Free
forsio-nal Vibrations
of a Three Rotor Sysrem z.
shaft. a. Free Toisio""i vitr"iiJni Equivalent
ur
r

irij";"ily

"

System.

25.

ceared

Computer Aided Analysis and


Synthesis of
Mechanisms
'1. Introductiol,
,, Computer Aided Analysis for
Four Bar Mechanism ir?""J""rtrn,s
Equation).

3. programme for Four

B;r;;;h;;;im.

Anatysis tu," siij;;-i;;;i


1i*d
'oi
6. Coupler Curves.^

...1002-1049

+. Computer
Mechanism.

z. Syntheiis
rttechanisms.
pi"l[m. 9. precision
Synti,i,rii
points for Function
ceneriti.i". ib]i"ite Retationship
for function ceneration. i i.
C,.upnrFri
Four Bar Mechanism. f Z. Craphical sv"liiiriJ'&
synthesis of
Slider Crank Mechanism. 13."'C;puter
Aided
(Analyrical) synthesis_of rour
ilr' rve.hrnirrn.
14. programme to
B. Classifications of

co_orJin"t"-

.
Displacements of th,e-lnputr"a

.h;"il;;i;;

Orip"t Links. 15. Least


square Techn;0u9. t o. erogrammeiiing
L""rt Squl*'
Technique. 1 Z. Comput"; Aid;J
ifn*,"ri,
of Four
Bar Mechanism.Witl-r C"upf"r' pii,ii
18. Synthesis
of Four Bar vecr,aniiil ;;; ;;;y Guidance.
I 9. Ana lytical Synthesis for rt
iJer, Coi i. Mechan ism.

26. Automatic

Control

Introduction. 2. Terms Used in


Automatic Control
of Sysrems.
1

3. Types of

nutoriiictintrot

i"ro*;"

...1050-1062

System.

Diagrams..5. Lag in
6. Transfer
3;.9f,.k
t-unction. 7. Overall Traisfer f
rirition.
8 Transfer
Function fora system with Viscour'O"i"p"A
Output.

9. Transfer Function

.f i-i"rt"il'l
-i'i.

1O-_Open_Loop Transfer f
un.tion.
I

ranster Function.

Cf

cou"rnor.
or"O_Lrop

lndex
(xii)

...1S63-1'*7t