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1/16/2011

Design of Concrete Structure


CEE 4511
Lecture-1: Introduction
Instructor: Mohammad Shafiqual Alam
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Islamic University of Technology
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General Information
Instructor
Asst.Prof. Mohammad Shafiqual Alam
Office:105, Ground Floor, New Academic Building
Phone: (029291254-59) 3348
Email: shafiq37@iut-dhaka.edu

Class Location
A/B R-110

Class Time
SUN
MON

11:20 - 13:00
09:40 - 11:20

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BOOKS
Textbooks:
Design of Concrete Structures, 13th Edition Arthur H. Nilson, David Darwin,
Charles W. Dolan, McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Reference books:
1. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design, 4th Edition
James G. MacGregor, James K. Wight, Prentice Hall, 2005.
2.Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals, 5th Edition
Phil M. Ferguson , John E. Breen , James O. Jirsa
3. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings
Thomas Paulay , M. J. N. Priestley
4. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,
ACI318-05,American Concrete Institute, 2005.
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Lecture goals
An introduction to different structural forms
Reinforce Concrete Structure
Design approach

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Cantilever construction

Simply supported beam

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Continuous span girder

Cantilever Beam System

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Precast (T and I) Beams

Box Girder Bridges

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Three Hinge Arch

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Continuous Arch

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Cable Stayed Girder Bridge

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Shells (Barrel, Hypar)

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Free form Shells

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Modern Highrise Building

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Moment Resisting Frame

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Moment Frame Action

Response to vertical gravity loading

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Moment Frame Action

Response to horizontal lateral loading

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Frame-Wall Lateral Force Resisting


System

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One-way Slab-Beam Floor System

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Joist Floor System

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Flat-Plate Floor System

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Flat Slab Floor System

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Waffle Slab Floor System

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Two-way Slabs with Beams

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Typical Structure

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Typical Structure

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Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)


Structure

Concrete:

high compressive strength


but low tensile strength
Steel bars: embedded in concrete (reinforcing)
provide tensile strength
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Steel and Concrete in Combination


Bond between steel and concrete
prevents slip of the steel bars.
Concrete covering prevent water
intrusion and bar corrosion.
Similar rate of thermal expansion,
Concrete: 0.000010 - 0.000013
Steel: 0.000012

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Why Reinforced Concrete?


Concrete is cheaper than steel
Good combination of Concrete &
Steel
Durability from concrete covering
Continuity from monolithic joint

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Why Reinforced Concrete?


Fire Resistance
Concrete building have 1-3 hour fire rating with
no fire proofing (steel and timber require
fireproofing to obtain this rating)

Rigidity
Greater stiffness & mass reduces oscillations
(wind), floor vibrations (walking)

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Why Reinforced Concrete?


Low Maintenance
Availability of Materials
Sand, gravel, cement, H20 & concrete
mixing facilities widely available
Reinforcement - easy to transport as
compared to structural steel

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Disadvantage of RCC
Construction time
Concrete Quality Control
Cracking of Concrete

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Disadvantage of RCC
Forms and Shoring (additional steps)
Construction of forms
Removal of forms
Prepping (or shoring) the new concrete to
support weight until strength is adequate.
Labor/Materials cost not required for other
types of materials

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Disadvantage of RCC
Time-dependent volume changes
Concrete & steel undergo similar expansion
and contraction.
Concrete undergoes drying shrinkage, which
may cause deflections and cracking.
Creep of concrete under sustained loads
causes an increase in deflection with time.

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Disadvantage of RCC
Strength per unit volume is relatively low.
fc (5-10% of steel)
greater volume required
long spans typical built with steel

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Analysis Vs Design
Analysis
Assessing structure responses
due to the application of loads
Responses may include:
Force
Stress
Deformation (Deflection)

Standard analysis procedures


are available
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Analysis Vs Design
Design
Selection of many aspects of
structure among a large array
of possibilities
Layouts
Member sizes & shapes
Materials
Construction processes

Relies heavily on experiences


and skills of the designer
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General Design Procedure


Estimating Loads
on Structure
Dead Load (building
components)
Live Load (people
and things)
Wind Load
Earthquake Load
Etc

Structural
Modeling and
Analysis
Model the
structure as
beam, columns,
frame, truss, etc
Obtain the load
effect (moment,
stress, etc)

Design a structure
member
Determine size and
shape of member to
resist the load effect

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Design Objectives
Basic design objectives are:
Stability

Constructability

Safety

Functionality

Serviceability

Aesthetics

Economy

Maintainability

Low environmental impact

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Design Challenges
Civil Engineering designs have several challenges that differ from
other engineering disciplines
Most of the design is one-of-a-kind. We cannot test the structure before
putting it into service.
Structures are designed to last for a very long time (40 years or more)
There are a lot of uncertainties that may affect the performance of the
structure, most of which are unknown at the time of design. For example
Quality of materials
Quality of construction
Building usage (loads on each room)
Nonstructural modifications to the building
Natural disaster (Hurricane, Earthquake, Tsunami)
Major failure of structure affects a lot of human life
Repair, Retrofit and Maintenance cost, in some cases, can be as much as the
initial cost of the structure

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Failure and Limit states


Failure can means different
things to different people not
necessarily the collapse of a
structure
Limit state is the boundary
between what is acceptable and
what is not

There are three broad types of limit states in structural designs


Ultimate Limit State: Relate to loss of load-carrying capacity
Serviceability Limit State: Relate to gradual deterioration, users
comfort, or maintenance cost
Special Limit State: Damage/failure caused by abnormal conditions or
loading
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Limit States
Serviceability
Excess deflection
Excess vibration
Permanent
deformation
Crack Width
(relate to corrosion
and durability)

Ultimate
Exceeding moment
capacity
Crushing of concrete
in compression
Rupture of cables
Loss of overall
stability
Weld rupture
Shear of the bolt
Buckling of steel
flange or web

Special
Effects of fire,
explosions, or
vehicular
collisions.
Effects of
corrosion,
deterioration
Long-term
physical or
chemical
instability

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Design Criteria
General format:
Estimated Value > or < Prescribed Value
Load Effect < Resistance
Examples:
Moment acting on beam < Moment capacity
Crack width < Maximum crack width
Mid span deflection < Maximum deflection limit

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Design Approaches
Prescriptive Design: Tell you specifically how to design
things
Working Stress Design (WSD), Allowable Stress Design
(ASD), Service Load Design (SLD)
Ultimate Strength Design (USD), Strength Design (SD),
Limit State Design (LSD), Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)

Performance-Based Design: Specify the performance


required, you can design anyway you like to satisfy it
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WSD/ASD
Consider the structure under service load, i.e. load that
we can normally expected in the structure
The structural members remain in the elastic range
General Format:

Stress under working load < Allowable stress


Consider the safety reserve in term of Safety Factor
SF = Strength/ Stress From Load
Example:
MD+ML < Mn/ SF
SF ~ 2-2.5

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USD/SD/LRFD
Consider the structure under ultimate load, i.e. load
that may occur once in a lifetime of the structure
The structural members are in the inelastic range
(near failure)
General Format:
iQi Rn
Load Factor
Nominal Load Effect

Nominal Resistance/strength

Resistance/Strength Factor

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USD/SD/LRFD
In

this approach, not only we consider the ultimate


effect, we also consider the probabilities
Probability that the ultimate load may be higher than the nominal load
Probability that the maximum occurrence of one load rarely occurs at
the same time as the maximum occurrence of another load
Probability that the actual resistance may be lower than the nominal
resistance

Probability is accounted for in the form of Load and


Resistance Factor
thats why we call it Load and Resistance Factor Design or LRFD
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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Since there are numbers of uncertainties in the building
construction and usage that we cannot accurately determine,
we must allow for these uncertainties by designing for the
worst possible condition combinations of applied load and
structural resistance for each limit state.
Structure must have adequate strength reserve over the
designed service construction
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PROBABILISTIC DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY

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PROBABILISTIC DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY

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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Overload: Load higher than the typical service load
Change of use
Underestimation of loads
Variations in construction
Let:
m = mean value
= bias factor, the ratio of mean to nominal (design) value
s = standard deviation
CV = coefficient of variation, the ratio of standard deviation to mean
value
Notes:
Large bias means that the actual load is higher than the design value
Not good
Large s or CV means that we dont know the magnitude of load for
Certain
Not good
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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Typical variations of building loads in USA (Nowak, 2005)

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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Under strength: Strength of structural member is
lower than predicted
Flaws in material/ Concrete understrength
Deviations of structure size/geometry during construction
Formula for calculating member capacity are not 100% exact

Flexure is easier to predict than shear


Behavior of concrete is difficult to predict than steel

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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Typical variations of concrete quality in USA (Nowak, 2005)

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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Observed and theoretical frequencies
Column Strength (28 days)
Clas
s

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Observations
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Normal Distribution
# of Data
:336
Mean ()
:4089 psi
Std ()
:989 psi
COV()
:24.2%
Chi-Squ. Test :5% satisfied

Frequency

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1

10

11

12

13

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Class

Lower bound
(psi)

Upper bound
(psi)

500

1000

1000

1500

1500

2000

2000

2500

2500

3000

3000

3500

3500

4000

4000

4500

4500

5000

10

5000

5500

11

5500

6000

12

6000

6500

13

6500

7000

14

7000

7500

Column Strength distribution (Bangladesh Practice)


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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Observed and theoretical frequencies
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Beam/Slab Strength (28 days)


180
160

Frequency

Upper bound
(psi)
1000
1500

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000

2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500

Class

Distribution

140

# of Data
:669
Mean ()
:3455psi
Std ()
:901 psi
COV()
:26%
Chi-Squ. Test :5% satisfied

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1
-20

1
2

Lower bound
(psi)
500
1000

Observations

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11

12

13

14

Class

Beam/Slab strength distribution (Bangladesh Practice)


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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Observed Vs Theoritical frequeny
60Grade yield strength
300

Class

Lower bound (ksi) Upper bound (ksi)

Observations

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Gamma
distribution

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50

50

55

55

60

60

65

65

70

70

75

75

80

80

85

10

85

90

11

90

95

Frequency

250

200

# of Data
:710
Mean ()
:66ksi
Std ()
:6 ksi
COV()
:9%
Chi-Squ. Test :Not satisfied

150

100

50

0
1

10

11

Class

Yield strength of 60 ksi Steel( Bangladesh perspective)


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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Observed Vs Theoritical frequencies
300
observation

Frequency

Ultimate strength of 60G

Normal
distribution

250

Class

# of Data
:710
Mean ()
:100. ksi
Std ()
:11.6 ksi
COV()
:11.5%
Chi-Squ. Test :Not
satisfied

200

150

Lower bound (ksi) Upper bound (ksi)

60

70

70

80

80

90

90

100

100

110

110

120

120

130

130

140

100

50

0
1

Class

Ultimate strength of 60 grade Steel (Bangladesh Perspective)


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UNCERTAINITIES IN
CONSTRUCTION
Typical variations of concrete member sizes (Nowak, 2005)

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LOAD FACTOR &


COMBINATIONS
Probability that the
maximum occurrence of
one load rarely occurs at
maximum occurrence of
another load is taken care
by Load Combinations

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LOAD FACTOR &


COMBINATIONS
Common load combinations for RC structures (ACI
318, before 2002):
1.4D + 1.7L
0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W)
0.75(1.4D +1.7L +1.87E)
0.9D + 1.3W
0.9D + 1.43E

Max Live Load


Wind Load (add to DL)
Earthquake (add to DL)
Wind Load (opposite to DL)
Earthquake (opposite to DL)

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LOAD FACTOR &


COMBINATIONS
Common load combinations for RC structures (ACI
318, after 2002):
1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or R)
1.2D + (1.0L or 0.8W) + 1.6(Lr or R)
1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0(Lr or R) + 1.6W
1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E
0.9D (1.6W or 1.0E)

Max Dead Load


Max Live Load
Max Rain/ Roof LL
Wind Load (add to DL)
Earthquake (add to DL)
(opposite to DL)

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RESISTANCE FACTOR
Takes care of uncertainties in the
resistance
3 Main sources of uncertainties
Material Property uncertainty in
the strength, chemical
composition, defects
Fabrication uncertainty in the
dimensions
Analysis many methods are
approximate so there are a lot of
uncertainties in predicting the
resistance
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RESISTANCE FACTOR
Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318 before 2002)

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RESISTANCE FACTOR
Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318 after 2002)

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LRFD Design Procedure

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FINAL NOTES
USD/LRFD method does not necessarily provide a cheaper design
compared with the WSD/ASD method
USD/LRFD method generally provide more uniform safety margins across
the range of structure types and loads compared with the WSD/ASD
Method
Variations of load and resistance are separated in USD/LRFD whereas they
are lumped in the safety factor for WSD/ASD
Unusual loads and materials can be handle with new load and resistance
Factors
There are also some changes in the way structural resistance are calculated
(due to recent knowledge of structural behaviors and materials)
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