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B5_115_2012

CIGRE 2012

Substation Automatic Restoration Systems for Future Advanced Networks


H. ITO
T.MAEDA
K. NAGAHAMA
Chubu Electric Power Co. Tokyo Electric Power Co. Kyushu Electric Power Co.
K. SEKIGUCHI
T.KAMEDA
T. WAKABAYASHI
Toshiba Corp.
CRIEPI
Electric Power Development Co.
Japan

SUMMARY
Todays highly developed industry and sophisticated society rely heavily on information and
communication technology. As a consequence, there are ever increasing demands to improve the
reliability of the electric power supply and to achieve higher levels of quality. Japanese utilities and
manufacturers have increased their efforts to maintain and improve the reliability of the electric power
supply and have achieved excellent performance with results of less than 10 minutes/year for the
System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI). One of the key contributing factors in achieving
this performance has been through the coordination of protection and automation systems. This paper
describes the substation automatic restoration systems (hereafter SARS), their development and how
they have made a major contribution to the improvement of the reliability of the electric power supply
in Japan.
According to a domestic survey on Substation Control and Monitoring System Technology published
by the IEEJ in 2010, the SARS used in Japan, for all practical purposes, can be classified into 2 types:
full automatic restoration to achieve a complete restoration of the supply and partial automatic
restoration that needs re-energization which is undertaken by an operator [1]. The former is
subcategorized into 6 types: transmission line recloser, distribution line recloser, automatic busbar
transfer at a tapped substation, automatic restoration following a transformer fault, and automatic
restoration following an HV or LV busbar fault. The latter includes partial automatic restoration
following the complete outage of a substation or a busbar fault. These automation systems are customdesigned and applied individually to each line in accordance with the operations policy of each utility.
In this paper we will introduce a number of advanced examples made specifically from the viewpoint
of the coordination of protection and automation systems designated in the preferential subject.
Japan has been successful in developing various types of SARS based on the optimal coordination of
protection and substation automation systems. Furthermore, if a high-speed information and
communication network is attained, it is thought that a new automatic restoration function could be
developed and applied in order to meet the increasing needs of the electric power system. These
systems will serve as a useful reference towards the development of future advanced networks.

KEYWORDS
Substation Automatic Restoration Systems - full automatic restoration - partial automatic restoration

Itou.Hisanori@chuden.co.jp

1. Introduction
Todays highly developed industry and sophisticated society rely heavily on information and
communication technology. As a consequence, there are ever increasing demands to improve the
reliability of the electric power supply and to achieve higher levels of quality. Japanese utilities and
manufacturers have increased their efforts to maintain and improve the reliability of the electric power
supply and have achieved excellent performance with results of less than 10 minutes/year for the
System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI). One of the key contributing factors in achieving
this performance has been through the coordination of protection and automation systems. This paper
describes the substation automatic restoration systems (hereafter SARS), their development and how
they have made a major contribution to the improvement of the reliability of the electric power supply
in Japan.

2. Outline of Substation Automation Restoration Systems (SARS)


SARS are effective functions for decreasing the SAIDI, improving the reliability of the power supply,
attaining labour savings for utility operators and speeding up the operations process. SARS are
mounted in SAS, protection relays, or SCADA system (varies according to utility policy). According
to a domestic survey on Substation Control and Monitoring System Technology published by the IEEJ
in 2010, the SARS used in Japan, for all practical purposes, can be classified into 2 types: full
automatic restoration to achieve a complete restoration of the supply and partial automatic restoration
that needs re-energization which is undertaken by an operator. The former is subcategorized into 6
types: transmission line recloser, distribution line recloser, automatic busbar transfer at a tapped
substation, automatic restoration following a transformer fault, and automatic restoration following an
HV or LV busbar fault. The latter includes partial automatic restoration following the complete outage
of a substation or a busbar fault. These automation systems are custom designed and applied
individually to each line in accordance with the operational policy of each utility. Table 1 shows some
major examples of SARS.

2.1 Full automatic restoration systems


Full automatic restoration systems restore power systems by automatic reclosing or automatic transfer
of transmission lines, following the clearance of the fault by protection relays. When a fault occurs on
the power system, circuit breakers are tripped by protection relays. Since the majority of overhead line
faults are caused by lightning, they can be re-energized following a certain period of time after the
clearance of the fault. Even in the case of permanent faults such as transformer faults, prompt isolation
of faulty equipment and re-energization can improve system reliability because early restoration will
eliminate the overload caused by the fault.

2.2 Partial automatic restoration systems


In Japan, 99% of substations are automated and tens to hundreds of substations are operated remotely
from one operation centre. Therefore, automation of the restoration process is key factor to achieve
higher speed operations. On the other hand, re-energization by closing circuit breakers must be
conducted carefully by an operator after checking the safety of personnel, the state of the power
equipment and the overall network condition such as the reserve of power to start thermal power
plants, prevention of over-voltages caused by the Ferranti effect and maintaining the demand-supply
balance. In order to optimize secure and speedy operation, partial automatic restoration systems can
automatically open circuit breakers so that they are ready for re-energization because one operation
centre can take a considerable length of time to perform the restoration process when multiple
substations are blacked out at the same time. The partial automatic restoration systems also
automatically isolate the faulted busbar and transfer feeders to the healthy busbar. When a busbar fault
occurs, a number of items of plant must be isolated from the faulty busbar because multiple
transmission lines are usually connected to it. This function helps to reduce the restoration time.

Table 1 Substation Automatic Restoration Systems (SARS) introduced in Japan.


Category

Function

High-speed

Main
(one shot)
Back-up for
earth fault
Transfer of receiving line
at a tapped substation
Restoration following
transformer fault
Restoration following
primary-side busbar fault
Restoration following
secondary-side busbar fault

disconnecting the faulty busbar and transferring all outage


feeders to the healthy busbar at secondly side

Load disconnection after


blackout of substations

tripping of all load feeders after blackout of substations


(preparation for the overall power system restoration)

Disconnection of faulty busbar

disconnecting the faulty busbar and preparing to transfer all


transmission lines to the healthy busbar (close disconnecting
switches) by combining the information from gas pressure
sensors and protection relays in EHV GIS substations

Medium-speed
Low-speed

Partial
automatic
restoration
systems

within 1 second, multi-phase reclosing for double circuit lines


ranging from 1 to 15 seconds, three phase reclosing for double
circuit lines
typically 60 seconds, three phase reclosing for single/double
circuit lines, including the backup function of High/Mediumspeed reclosing
typically 60 seconds, three phase reclosing for distribution
feeder
sequential tripping of feeder's breaker until earth fault
recovery and reclosing except for that of the faulty feeder
Transfer the receiving line from faulty line to healthy back-up
line at a tapped substation
disconnecting the faulty transformer and transferring the
outage feeders to the healthy transformer
disconnecting the faulty busbar and transferring the outage
lines/transformers to the healthy busbar at primary side

Reclosing of
transmission
line

Full
automatic
restoration
systems

Description

Reclosing of
distribution
feeder

3. Examples of advanced SARS in Japan


3.1 Coordination between fault clearance protection and SARS
The first example is one of the full automatic restoration systems shown in Table 1. This function is
realized by the coordination between fault clearance protection and SARS. This function ranks as
back-up of the earth-fault directional relay, which has a theoretical limitation in its ability to detect
high-resistance faults in non-grounded neutral distribution systems. If zero sequence voltage is
detected and continues beyond the pre-determined operating time of the earth-fault relay, the autoreclosing function is initiated to open circuit breakers one by one until the fault is cleared. When the
fault is cleared by opening one of the CBs, the SARS identifies the faulty feeder and re-closes all
healthy feeders except for the faulty one after a certain period of time (Figure 1). This function is
incorporated in either the protection relay system or the SCADA equipment. If the fault is not cleared,
even after all of the distribution feeders have been disconnected, the SARS opens the secondary-side
transformer CB by determining that the secondary side transformer is faulty.

1.open
2.open

Earth fault

open feeder CBs

reclose
reclose only
sound feeder CBs

Figure 1 Coordinated operation between protection relay and SARS.

3.2 Coordination between fault location systems and SARS


A second example is one of the partial automatic restoration systems shown in Table 1. This function
is realized by the coordination between fault location systems and SARS. In Gas Insulated Switchgear
(GIS) substations, even if equipped with fault location systems with gas pressure sensors, it is difficult
to immediately restore service after the occurrence of a busbar fault because 99% of substations,
including EHV systems, are remotely controlled in Japan. In addition, many transmission lines and
transformers are connected to EHV, GIS substations and it takes a significant amount of time to
disconnect them from the faulty busbar. Therefore, in order to ensure a fast restoration time after the
occurrence of a fault inside the GIS, SARS equipment with an automatic busbar restoration function
has been introduced. This system isolates the faulted busbar and transfers feeders to a healthy busbar
in accordance with the operation of the busbar protection relays and information supplied by the fault
location systems.
Figures 2 and 3 show the outline of the SARS used in EHV, GIS substations. This SARS operates
when a busbar fault occurs and the busbar protection relay operates. This SARS not only locates the
faulted point by using information obtained from the gas pressure sensors, busbar protection and other
protection relays but also isolates the faulted busbar by opening disconnecting switches and
transferring all of the healthy transmission lines to the healthy busbar by closing disconnecting
switches. However, this SARS does not re-energize transmission lines automatically, so that the final
command to close the circuit breakers must be conducted by an operator after ensuring the safety of
personnel, the state of the power equipment and the overall network.

Busbar fault

trip

trip

trip

trip

Figure 2 System configuration of the SARS

Protection relay
operation (trip CBs)

open

open

Busbar fault
open

Gas pressure or other


protection relays

Busbar protection

relaysline fault

Busbar protection

open

relaysbusbar fault

Not in a bridge state

SARS operation
(open DSs)

Fault locating

Disconnect the faulty busbar


(open DSs)

close
close

Connect sound lines to the sound busbar


(close DSs)

SARS operation
(close DSs)

Figure 3 Coordinated operation between fault location systems and SARS.

3.3 Coordination between SPS and SARS


This section describes a form of collaborative restoration between SPS and SARS. 500 kV mesh, bulk
power system forms a backbone that surrounds the Tokyo metropolitan area. Power is fed into this
area via parallel 275 kV tie transmission lines and a number of large capacity underground cables. The
275 kV system is operated as a radial network and includes generating plant embedded at the ends. If
the power supply from the 500 kV bulk power system is interrupted due to the occurrence of a fault on
a single route of the tie transmission lines, the 275kV power system in the metropolitan area will be
separated and become an islanded system with heavy overload. The generation capacity of the
metropolitan power system is very small compared to the load requirement, and therefore an abrupt
decline in frequency will occur which in turn will lead to a consequent shutdown in generation, that
will result in a blackout. Therefore, in dealing with the islanded system, a SPS which is called an
urban power system stabilizer has been installed [2]. This form of SPS is used to maintain stable
operation of the islanded system by balancing the active and reactive power with high-speed control
upon the detection of the islanded system. The SPS has been applied to the areas of the power system
marked and in Figure. 4.
Generally, larger sized power systems tend not to be affected by changes in load. However, the
islanded system protected by the SPS is so small that it is susceptible to load variations and it is not
possible to maintain stability and sustain prolonged operation because of the limited regulation
capability provided by the generation. Therefore, a SARS, which we have called an Islanded System
Automation Synchronizer (ISAS), has been introduced to enable rapid re-synchronization of the
islanded system with the 500 kV mesh bulk power system. Although in the past system re-synchronize
operations were performed manually by operations staff and could take between 10 to 20 minutes to
complete, ISAS identifies the most suitable re-synchronization point and automatically performs the
re-synchronize operation in less than 1 minute to several minutes maximum. This function has been
deployed within the overall power system at the locations marked and respectively in Figure.4.
The function at is described using the following example.

Figure 4 The power system in the metropolitan area Figure 5 System re-synchronize operation in
the islanded system.
In power system , substation C provides the interconnection point between the bulk power system
and the metropolitan networks. The 275 kV bus configuration can be changed daily in accordance with
the prevailing conditions for demand-supply and with consideration to any equipment which might be
out-of-service for maintenance. When substation C receives power from route C or route D as shown
in Figure. 5 (a), it is named "Topology I". If we consider the islanded system for this topology, when
a fault occurs on route C, the ISAS will re-synchronize the islanded system to the bulk power system
via route D. Alternatively, when substation C is receiving power from both route C and route D, with
the 275 kV bus separated as shown in Figure.5 (b), it is named " Topology II". For this topology, when
a fault occurs on route C it islands the system at C1, the ISAS will re-synchronize the islanded system
along with the system at C2 via route D to the 500kV bulk power system.

The resynchronization procedure for Topology I is described below.


(1) System activation and configuration recognition
The ISAS is activated on the condition that the SPS operates, and that the differences in the phase
angle or magnitude of the voltages between the bulk system and power system exceed the specified
values. At the same time, the bus configuration is automatically recognized using the 275 kV bus
voltages in substation C.
(2) Selection of the transmission line
Selecting more than one transmission line to receive power from the healthy 275 kV transmission lines
in the order of descending priority, the ISAS opens the transmission lines unnecessary to maintain
safety. If the operation fails, subsequent procedures are aborted.
(3) Close the transmission lines and the transformer CBs
After the CBs and DSs for each of the transmission lines selected at (2) are closed and the 275 kV bus
is energized, then to resynchronize, the CBs on the primary side of the 275/154 kV transformers are
closed sequentially, checking that the conditions for synchronization between the 275 kV bus and the
transformers are correct; the voltage and frequency differences are within the specified range; the
phase angle differences are within the specified range and are continuously decreasing.
For Topology II, after the DSs on the bus side of the 275/154 kV transformers are reconnected from
the bus with the outage to the bus that is connected to the bulk 500kV system, the transformer CBs are
closed to resynchronize.
One of the requirements for the resynchronization function is high reliability in order to avoid
unwanted operations. Another is adaptability, in order to operate appropriately according to bus
configurations which are changeable due to daily system operations. The other is the simplicity of the
scheme required to achieve rapid resynchronization. The ISAS was developed in consideration of
these requirements and has been in operation since 2007. ISAS will contribute to rapid power system
restoration enabling fast and assured resynchronization of islanded systems to the bulk power supply
system.

4. Conclusion
Japan has been successful in developing various types of SARS based on the optimal coordination of
protection and substation automation systems. Furthermore, if a high-speed information and
communication network can be attained, it is thought that a new automatic restoration function could
be developed and applied in order to correspond to the increasing needs of the electric power system.
These functions will serve as a useful reference towards the development of future advanced networks.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] Technical Report No.1203 of IEEJ in 2010 ' Substation control and monitoring system technology '
[2] S. Agematsu et al. ' Islanding Protection System with Active and Reactive Power Balancing
Control for Tokyo Metropolitan Power System and Actual Operational Experiences', DPSP, 2001, 7th
International Conference on IEE.