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15 September 2001

Optics Communications 197 (2001) 97101

www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom

Generation of superpositions of squeezed states via


Raman interaction
Hongcai Li *, Longquan Wu
Department of Physics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China
Received 20 April 2001; accepted 3 July 2001

Abstract
A scheme is presented for generating superpositions of squeezed states via Raman interaction of degenerate K-type
three-level atoms with single-mode cavity elds. A proposal is made for control of squeezing direction. 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
PACS: 42.50.Dv; 03.65.Bz
Keywords: Superposition state; Squeezed coherent state; Raman interaction; Squeezing direction

1. Introduction
In recent years, more and more attention has
been paid to squeezed coherent state of the light
eld [18]. Because in this state the quantum
uctuation of one quadrature component is far
less than the corresponding component in a coherent state, the squeezed state has less quantum
noise in the component than a coherent state. This
property makes the squeezed state of the light eld
become very useful in optical communication, high
precision interference measurement and test for
weak signal etc. Thus the research for the squeezed
light eld is of both theoretical signicance and
practical value.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-0591-752-7926.


E-mail address: hongcai_li@263.net (H. Li).

Recently, Zhu et al. [9] have studied the


squeezed even and odd coherent states. They have
shown that elds in the squeezed even coherent
state can exhibit a remarkable enhanced squeezing
level. This indicates the superposition of squeezed
coherent states and the squeezed coherent state
have dierent nonclassical natures. Zheng and
Guo [10] have studied how to prepare superposition of squeezed coherent states via a two-level
atom. It involves an appropriately prepared twolevel atom crossing a high-Q cavity initially lled
with a squeezed coherent eld. After the nonresonant interaction with the cavity eld the detection
of the atomic state leaves the cavity eld in a superposition of two squeezed coherent states.
In this paper, we propose another method to
prepare superpositions of squeezed coherent states.
We use Raman interaction of degenerate K-type
three-level atoms with single-mode cavity eld. We
also discuss how to control the squeezing direction

0030-4018/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.


PII: S 0 0 3 0 - 4 0 1 8 ( 0 1 ) 0 1 4 1 4 - 6

98

H. Li, L. Wu / Optics Communications 197 (2001) 97101

of single-mode squeezed coherent states in the light


eld.
In Section 2 we discuss the single-mode squeezed
coherent state and its properties. The method for
the generation of superposition of squeezed coherent states via Raman interaction is investigated
in Section 3. The method for controlling the
squeezing direction is discussed in Section 4. The
conclusions are provided in Section 5.
2. Single-mode squeezed coherent state and its basic
properties
For a single-mode eld, a squeezed coherent
state is dened [11] as
jn; bi SnDbj0i;

where j0i is the vacuum state, Db and Sn are


the displacement operator and the squeezing operator respectively, and
Db expba b a;
h
i
2
Sn exp 12n a2 12na ;
i/

2
3

where b jbje is a complex number, a and a are


photon annihilation and creation operators respectively, n reih is a complex number, r stands
for the squeezing parameter, h represents the
squeezing angle. The number of r determines the
squeezing degree of the light eld, and the h determines squeezing direction of the eld.
Obviously, we have
S n S 1 n S n:

In single-mode eld, we can introduce two


quadrature operators dened by
X1 12a a ;
5
1
a a ;
6
2i
which obey the commutation relation
i
7
X1 ; X2 ;
2
and as a result satisfy the uncertainty relation
X2

DX1 DX2
here

P 161 ;

DXi 2  hXi2 i

hXi i2 :

If the light eld is in a coherent state jbi


Dbj0i, then we have
DX1 2 DX2 2 14:

10

If the light eld is in the case of a squeezed coherent state jn; bi, then we have


1
2
2 h
2r
2 h
2r
DX1
e cos e sin
;
11
4
2
2


1
2
2 h
2r
2r
2 h
e sin e cos
DX2
:
12
4
2
2
From Eqs. (11) and (12), we can see that the quantum uctuations of the two quadrature components only have close relations with squeezing
parameter r and squeezing angle h, but bear no
relations to b. Or we can say that the quantum
uctuations of the two quadrature components are
only determined by squeezing operator Sn:
In the case h 0, from Eqs. (11) and (12), we
get
2

DX1 14e

2r

DX2 14e2r :

13
14

If r > 0, then we have


2

15

16

DX1 < 14;


DX2 > 14:

This means the quantum noise of X1 component is


squeezed, but the quantum noise of X2 is amplied.
The value of DX1 2 depends on the squeezing
parameter r: As the value of r is more, the squeezing
degree of X1 component is increasing.
For the case h p, we have
DX1 2 14e2r ;
2

DX2 14e

2r

17
;

18

if r > 0, we get
2

19

20

DX1 > 14;


DX2 < 14:

H. Li, L. Wu / Optics Communications 197 (2001) 97101

99

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the degenerate K-type three-level


atom interaction with the single-mode eld.

Fig. 1. Phase-space plot showing the values and uctuation


regions of two quadratures in a coherent state jbi and a
squeezed state jn; bi (in the case of h 6 0).

This shows that we get dierent results in the case


of h p, the quantum noise of X2 component is
squeezed, but the quantum noise of X1 is amplied.
Comparing the results of h 0 with h p, we can
see that the values of h determine the squeezing
direction, as shown in Fig. 1.
Also the squeezed coherent state can be expressed in the form [11]
jn; bi

1
X

Cn jni

21

n0


 n=2
1
m
Cn p
exp
n!l 2l


b
 Hn p ;
2lm

1 2 m 2
jbj b
2
2l

We consider a K-type three-level atom is injected into a single-mode cavity. Assume that the
energies of the two lower states jgi and jei of the
atom are equal. When the atomic transition frequency x0 is highly detuned from the cavity frequency xf , i.e. D x0 xf is large, the upper
state jii can be adiabatically eliminated. Under this
condition the eective Hamiltonian for such a
system is given by [12,13]
He

ga ajeihgj jgihej

a ab1 jgihgj b2 jeihej;


23

where a and a are the creation and annihilation


operators for the cavity eld, and
g

k1 k2
;
D

b1

k21
;
D

b2

k22
;
D

with k1 k2 denoting the coupling constant between the transition jei ! jii jgi ! jii and the
cavity eld. For simplicity we here assume k1
k2 k, so that
b1 b2 g:

22

ih
where
p l coshr, m e sinhr, and Hn b=
2lm is the Hermite polynomial.

3. Generating a superposition of squeezed states via


Raman interaction
In this section we propose a new scheme for the
generation of superposition of squeezed coherent
states through the degenerate Raman atomeld
interaction as shown in Fig. 2.

24

25

Suppose that the atom is initially in the superposition of two ground states
1
jwa1 0i q jei e1 jgi;
1 je1 j2

26

and the eld initially in the Fock state jni. After an


interaction time t the system evolves to


1
1
jwn ti q 1 e1 e2ingt
2
2
1 je1 j


1 e1 jg; ni 1 e1


27
1 e1 e2ingt je; ni :

100

H. Li, L. Wu / Optics Communications 197 (2001) 97101

Assume that the eld initially is in the squeezed


coherent state jn; bi, then from Eqs. (21) and (27),
the time evolution of the system state is

1
X

1
1
jwti q
Cn 1 e1 e2ingt
2
2
1 je1 j n0


1 e1 jg; ni 1 e1


2ingt
1 e1 e
je; ni :
28
If we detect the atom in the state jei, then the
cavity eld collapses into
1
X


Cn 1 e1 1 e1 e2ingt jni:
jwf 1 i N1

where n2 reih8gt , N2 is a normalization factor.


Therefore choosing a proper crossing time t, a
superposition of three squeezed coherent states
appears in the cavity.
We note that the scheme can be generalized to
preparing superpositions of more squeezed coherent states. Suppose we inject N appropriate atoms
into the cavity which is initially prepared in the
squeezed coherent state one by one and each time
the interaction time is t, after interaction these
atoms are detected in the state jei, then the cavity
is nally in the superposition of N 1 squeezed
coherent states.

n0

29
Substituting Eq. (22) into Eq. (29), we can rewrite
jwf 1 i as
jwf 1 i N1 1

e1 jn; bi 1 e1 jn1 ; bi;

30

where n1 reih4gt , N1 is a normalization factor.


jwf 1 i is a superposition of two squeezed coherent
states which have dierent squeezing direction because of 4gt phase dierence between n1 and n. We
must point out that the phase dierence is related
to the interaction time t. Choosing dierent time t
by controlling the atomic velocity, we can get different superpositions of squeezed coherent states.
For example, if we choose 4gt p, then we
have
jwe1 i Ne 1

e1 jn; bi 1 e1 j

n; bi;

31

when we take e1 0, i.e. the injected atom is in the


state jei, jwe1 i leads to a even squeezed coherent
state.
Now we inject another atom in the state
1
jwa2 0i q jei e2 jgi
2
1 je2 j

32

e2 1

e1 jn; bi 2

1 e2 1 e1 jn2 ; bi;

Detailedly analyzing the above results, we can


see that if we choose all the parameters e1 , e2 . . .
are equal to 1, i.e. all the injected atoms are initially in the state
1
jwa 0i p jei jgi;
2

2e1 e2 jn1 ; bi
33

34

then from Eq. (30) we get the cavity eld for one
injected atom is
jwf 1 i jn1 ; bi;

35

where n1 nei4gt reih4gt , Eq. (35) shows that in


the case e1 1, we do not get a superposition of
squeezed coherent states, but get another squeezed
coherent state which only changes the squeezing
direction of the initial cavity, i.e. h ! h 4gt:
Assume we inject another atom with initial state
(34), then the cavity is in the state
jwf 2 i jn2 ; bi;

into the cavity in the state jwf 1 i which is expressed


by Eq. (30). After the interaction time t of the
second atom with the cavity eld, if the atom is
detected in the state jei, the cavity eld collapses to
jwf 2 i N2 1

4. Controlling the squeezing direction

36

where n2 nei8gt reih8gt : This time the squeezing angle is changed in such a way that h ! h
8gt.
Repeating the same procedure again and again,
if we inject n atoms, than we have
jwfn i jnn ; bi;

37

H. Li, L. Wu / Optics Communications 197 (2001) 97101

nn nei4ngt reih4ngt ;

38

the change of squeezing direction is h ! h 4ngt.


Using this method, we can change the squeezing
direction of squeezed coherent state by control of
atoms crossing time t. This will have practical use
in optic communication.

5. Conclusions
We have proposed a scheme for preparing superpositions of squeezed coherent states. Our
scheme also provides the possibility for control of
the squeezing direction of squeezed coherent state
in the cavity. In our scheme we use the two lower
levels of three-level K-type atom and thus the
atomic spontaneous emission can be greatly suppressed. Therefore it will be very useful in many
applications.

101

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the National
Natural Science Foundation of China.

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