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ClassicalModel

1.0Assumptions
WewillcoverSections2.5,2.5.1(butnot,yet,2.5.2,2.6),
and2.7.
Your text, section 2.5, considers a very simplified
representationofasynchronousmachine,giveninFig.1.
Xd

E = E

Vt

Fig.1
Inthismodel, E istheinternalmachinevoltageand V t
isthemachineterminalvoltage.Bothofthesequantities
arephasors.Iftheonlyloadinthenetworkisconnected
directlyacrossthemachineterminals,thentheterminal
voltagephasor V t isthereference,i.e., V t = Vt 0 .
1

Thisisthesocalledclassicalmachinemodelandisbased
onthefollowingassumptions:
1. Pau=Tau (so we neglect the error introduced by the
powerformoftheswingequation,duetothefactthat
mR).
2. Pm, the mechanical power into the machine, is
constant. Therefore we consider that the governor is
blocked, and that the effect on mechanical power for
thenonregulatedmachinethatwesawlasttimeistoo
small for the kind of frequency changes of interest to
us.
3. Thereisnodamping.
4. Regardingvoltages:
a. Internalmachinevoltage E leadsmainfieldMMF

Fr by90.
b. Terminalvoltage V t leadsstatorMMF Fs by90.
The implication of the above two assumptions is that

E leads V t bythesameanglethat Fr leads Fs ,which


isthetorqueangle.
2

5. E isconstant,thereforeweneglecttheactionofthe
excitationsystem.
6. Xd is the reactance of the direct axis under transient
conditions.
We will consider the case when the synchronous
generatorisconnectedtoaninfinitebus.Aninfinitebus
isabusinwhichthevoltagemagnitudeandthevoltage
frequencyareconstant.
Infinite buses do not really exist in a power system, but
buseshavingmachineswithverylargeinertiasconnected
to them tend to behave similar to an infinite bus under
some kind of disturbances. For example, if we were
studyingthestabilitybehaviorofa10MVAmachine,and
therewasanother1000MVAmachinecloseby,itwould
notbeunreasonabletomodelthe1000MVAmachineas
aninfinitebus.
A oneline diagram of a synchronous generator
connectedtoaninfinitebusthroughatransmissionline
of impedance ZTL is provided in Fig. 2. The transient
reactanceXdisnotshownbutisimplied.
3

ZTL

Vt

Fig.2
We will assume that the synchronous machine of Fig. 1
hassomestationloadwhichwecanmodelasaconstant
impedanceZS.ThecircuitdiagramcorrespondingtoFig.2
becomes,then,asinFig.3.
Xd

Vt

ZS

E = E

ZTL

V
= V0

Fig.3
Note that the voltage V of Fig. 3 is assumed to be the
reference.
4

We can convert the circuit of Fig. 3 into a twonode


network which will be more convenient to analyze. This
can be done (for this simple case but not in general)
usingaWyetoDelta(Y)transformation.
Consider the networks of Fig. 4, where the one on the
lefthasthesametopologyasthenetworkofFig.3.
Z2=ZTL b

Z1=jXd
a

Zc=1/y12

Za=1/y20

Zb=1/y10

Z3=ZS

c
Fig.4

IftheFig.4networksareequivalent,thentheimpedance
seenbetweenanytwoterminals,withthethirdterminal
open,mustbethesame.Thisfactprovides3equations:
a b : Z1 + Z 2 = Z c //(Z a + Z b )
b c : Z 2 + Z 3 = Z a //(Z b + Z c )
a c : Z1 + Z 3 = Z b //(Z a + Z c )

SolvingtheseequationsforZa,Zb,andZcresultsin
Za =

Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z1 Z 3
Z1

Zb =

Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z1 Z 3
Z2

Zc =

Z 1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z1 Z 3
Z3

The values of our network, as indicated in Fig. 4, are


Z1=jXd, Z2=ZTL, and Z3=ZS. Substituting these into the
above equations, and taking the inverse to obtain
admittances,resultsin
Za =

jX ' d Z TL + Z TL Z S + jX ' d Z S
jX ' d
y 20 =
jX ' d
jX ' d Z TL + Z TL Z S + jX ' d Z S

Zb =

jX ' d Z TL + Z TL Z S + jX ' d Z S
Z TL
y10 =
Z TL
jX ' d Z TL + Z TL Z S + jX ' d Z S

Zc =

Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 1 Z 3
ZS
y12 =
ZS
jX ' d Z TL + Z TL Z S + jX ' d Z S

With the admittance expressions, we may construct the


YbususingtheusualrulesforYbusconstruction:
6

1. Thematrixissymmetric,i.e.,Yij=Yji.
2. A diagonal element Yii is obtained as the sum of
admittances for all branches connected to bus i,
including the shunt branch, i.e., where we emphasize
that yik is nonzero only when there exists a physical
connectionbetweenbusesiandk.
3. The offdiagonal elements are the negative of the
admittancesconnectingbusesiandj,i.e.,Yij=yji.
These observations enable us to formulate the
admittance matrix very quickly from the network based
on visual inspection. We write down the Ybus for the
network on the righthandside of Fig. 4, repeated here
forconvenienceinFig.5.

c
Fig.5
7

Za=1/y20

Zb=1/y10

Zc=1/y12

y12
y + y10
Y = 12
y12 + y 20
y12
Y11 Y12

Y21 Y22

In the previous equation, we introduced uppercase


nomenclature, Y11, Y12, Y21, and Y22 for Ybus elements,
whichdifferfromthelowercasenomenclatureusedfor
admittances y10, y12, and y20. Both uppercase and
lowercasevaluesarecomplex.
Lets now insert the circuit obtained from the Y
transformation,Fig.5,intothesystemofFig.3,asshown
in Fig. 6. The current injections have also been denoted
inFig.6.
I1

I2

Zc=1/y12

E = E

Za=1/y20

Zb=1/y10

V
= V0

Fig.6
The Ybus relates the nodal current injections to the
nodal voltages, according to eq. 2.40 in your text,
repeatedhere:
8

I1 Y11 Y12 E
=

I 2 Y21 Y22 V

(1)

Now recall that in perunit, the power injected into the


networkfromthesourceontheleftofFig.6isexpressed
as

S1 = P1 + jQ1 = E I1*

(2)

However,by(1),wecanexpressthecurrentinjectedas

I1 = Y11E + Y12V

(3)

(4)

(5)

Substitutionof(3)into(2)resultsin

S1 = P1 + jQ1 = E (Y11E + Y12V )

= E Y11* E * + E Y12*V *
= E Y + EV Y
2

*
11

*
12

Nowlet

Y11 = G11 + jB11


Y12 = Y12 12
Substituting(5)into(4)resultsin
9

S1 = P1 + jQ1 = E (G11 jB11 ) + E V * Y12 12


2

(6)

Replacing the voltages in the second term with their


polarrepresentation,weget

S1 = P1 + jQ1
= E (G11 jB11 ) + E V 0 Y12 12
2

(7)

= E G11 j E B11 + E V Y12 ( 12 )


2

P1istherealpartoftheexpressionin(7),andQ1isthe
imaginary part. The swing equation needs only the real
part,andsoconcentratingonthat,weget:

P1 = E G11 + E V Y12 cos( 12 )


2

(8)

Nowrecallthatcos(x)=sin(x+/2).Usingthisin(8):

P1 = E G11 + E V Y12 sin( 12 + / 2)


2

(9)

Define=12/2,andsubstitutinginto(9),weobtain:

P1 = E G11 + E V Y12 sin( )


2

(10)

DefiningPC=|E|2G11andPM=|E||V||Y12|,(10)becomes
10

P1 = PC + PM sin( )

(11)

This function is plotted in your text as Fig. 2.9, and it


appearsasinFig.7below.
P1
PC+PM
PC

12

Fig.7
SomethingstonoteaboutFig.7:
The generator must supply both the transferred
power,PM,andthedissipatedpoweratthestation,PC.
Basedon(10),themaximumpowergenerationoccurs
at=/2.Butwedefined(previouspage)=12/2;
substitutionyields12+/2=/2=12,asindicated
inFig.7.
11

Example2.3:
ThisexampleisworkedinyourtextbutIwanttoclarify
somepartsofit.ThesystemappearsinFig.2.10ofyour
textandFig.8below.
Vt

Z1=j0.4

Zt=j0.1

Z2=j0.4

V = 1.00

Fig.8
The problem states that H=5 seconds, Xd=0.20 pu, the
machineisdelivering0.8pupowerataterminalvoltage
of|Vt|=1.05pu,all dataisgiven onthemachinepower
base, and all resistances are neglected. It is desired to
obtaintheequationofmotionforthemachinerotor.No
disturbance is specified, and so we want to determine
the swing equation for the given topology. Doing so is
useful for studying the machine for a small network
disturbance.

12

Letsunderstandbetterwhatthisproblemisaskingusto
do.Wearetryingtoexpresstheswingequationbelowin
awaythatitcanactuallybesolved.

2 H &&
(t ) = Pmu Peu

Re

(12)

Weknowthepowerdeliveredis0.8pu.Sinceweassume
no losses in the generator, this means Pmu=0.8 pu, and
based on the classical model assumptions, we assume
that this mechanical power into the machine remains
constant.
Whatwedonotknowatthispoint,andwhatweneedto
determine, is an expression for the electrical power out
ofthemachineduringasmalldisturbancecondition.And
thisexpressionneedstobewrittenintermsofasthe
unknown if we are to have any hope of solving (12). So
ourinitialgoalistoexpressPeuasafunctionof.
Tosolvethisproblem,onemustfirstunderstandthatFig.
8omitsthetransientreactance,Xd.Weshowhowthisis
includedinFig.9.

13

Vt

Xd=0.2

Z1=j0.4

Zt=j0.1

V = 1.00

Z2=j0.4

Fig.9
We can get an equivalent impedance between the
internalvoltageandtheinfinitebusaccordingto

Z12 = jX 'd + Z t + (Z1 // Z 2 )

(13)

where the notation // means paralleled with.


SubstitutingthenumericalvaluesresultsinZ12=j0.5.This
meansthaty12=j2.0.WecanthenconstructtheYbus:
Y11 Y12 Y11 Y12 j 2.0 j 2.0
Y =
= Y Y = j 2.0 j 2.0
Y
Y

21 22 21 22

(14)

P1 = E G11 + E V Y12 sin( )

P1 = PC + PM sin( )

Wefoundin(10)and(11)that
2

14

(10)
(11)

where PC=|E|2G11 and PM=|E||V||Y12|. Noting that our


system is lossless, G11=0 implies PC=0, and
12=/_Y12=/_j2.0=/2. Therefore, =12/2=0. So (11)
becomes:

P1 = PM sin

(15)

where PM=|E||V||Y12|. We do know that |V|=1.0 and


|Y12|=2.0.Therefore

P1 = 2 | E | sin

(16)

One problem we are faced with at this point is that we


donotknow|E|.Sowhatdowedo?
This is actually a quite typical situation in stability
analysis,evenforlargescalemultimachinemodels.The
situation is: we know terminal conditions of each
machine at t=0 because a timedomain simulation is
alwaysinitiatedfromasteadystatesolution.Weusually
call this steadystate solution the power flow.
Remember,apowerflowonlytellsus
thecomplexpoweroutofthemachineterminals,and
thevoltageandangleatthemachineterminals.
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In order to perform timedomain simulation of the


system, beginning from the initial conditions at the
machine terminals provided by a power flow program,
we will always need to backcalculate from the
terminal conditions in order to determine parameters
necessary to initialize the machine model internal
dynamics (which are represented for timedomain
simulationbutnotforpowerflow).
Thus, an important step for timedomain simulation is
always to perform this back calculation. For machine
models we will study later in the course, this effort has
somecomplexities.Fortheclassicalmachinemodel,the
effortisstraightforward.Letsdoit.
The strategy for performing the back calculation is
fundamentally the same, however, independent of the
machinemodelused.Thepowerflowtellsusthepower
flow and voltage magnitude and angle at the terminals.
We use this information to get the current out of the
machine. Then we back calculate using the current to
and machine internal impedances to obtain machine
internalvoltages.
16

In this case, however, the terminal conditions we know


are power out and voltage magnitude. But we do not
know the machine terminal voltage angle which we do
need. The reason we do not know this is because we
have not done a power flow calculation. So we need to
do that. In this case, it is simple to obtain by inspecting
thecircuit,asgiveninFig.10,whichisacircuitdiagram
fortheonelineofFig.9.
Vt

Xd=0.2

Zt=j0.1

Z1=j0.4

Z2=j0.4

V = 1.00

Fig.9
Zt=j0.1
Xd=0.2

Z1=j0.4

Vt

Z2=j0.4

V = 1.00

Fig.10
17

We want to find E and we could do so if we knew the


current. We can find the current if we can identify
magnitude and angle for two different voltages. We
know magnitude and angle at the infinite bus, and we
knowterminalvoltagemagnitude,soweneedtoobtain
terminalvoltageangle.
Thiswecandobyrecognizingthatourequation(15)also
applies to the portion of the circuit between terminal
voltageandinfinitebus(thereisnoreasonwhyitshould
notsincethecircuitisidentical,avoltageateitherendof
alosslessline).

P1 = PM sin t

(15)

wherewenoticethatwereplacedtheanglewithtsince
it is the angle across the impedances over which we
computethepowerflow.PMisgivenby:
PM=|Vt||V|/(Xt+X1//X2)=(1.05)(1)/(0.1+0.2)=3.5

(16)

We know the electrical power out is 0.8 pu, therefore


(15)becomes:

0.8 = 3.5 sin t


18

(17)

From(17),wesolvetoobtain

sin t = 0.8 / 3.5 = 0.2286

(18)

Andsot=0.2306radiansor13.2147.
Nowwecanobtainthecurrent,whichwillbe

V t V
1.0513.2147 10
I=
=
j ( X t + X 1 // X 2 )
j 0.3

(19)

= 0.8 j 0.074 = 0.8034 5.285

Now that we have the current, we can compute the


internalvoltageaccordingto
E = V t + jX 'd I = 1.0513.2147 + j 0.2(0.8034 5.285)
= 1.037 + j 0.4 = 1.111521.09

(20)

Nowwemayobtaintheequation(16):

P1 = 2 | E | sin

(16)

P1 = 2 *1.1115sin = 2.223sin

as

19

(17)

Nowinsertinginto(12)

2 H &&
(t ) = Pmu Peu

Re

(12)

andrecognizingthatPeuisthesameasP1,wehave

2 H &&
(t ) = Pmu 2.223 sin

Re

(18)

(19)

WithH=5,Re=377,andPmu=0.8,wehave:

10 &&
(t ) = 0.8 2.223 sin
377

Andpushingtheconstanttermtotherighthandside,

&&(t ) = 30.16 83.8071sin

(20)

Example2.4:
Here, we want to obtain the equation of motion as in
Example 2.3, but we want to do so for a faulted
condition,wherethefaultisabalancedthreephasefault
havingimpedancetogroundofj0.1pu,occurringonone
ofthetransmissionlinesveryclosetothesendingend.

20

ThesituationisillustratedinFig.11.
Z1=j0.4

Zt=j0.1
Xd=0.2

Vt

Z2=j0.4

V = 1.00

j0.1

Fig.11

Thiscircuitmayberedrawninamoresimplefashionas
inFig.12.
Zt=j0.1
Xd=0.2

Z2=j0.2
Vt

V = 1.00

j0.1

Fig.12

We again use a Y transformation on this. The two


equivalentnetworksaregiveninFig.13.

21

Z2=j0.2 b

Z1=j0.3
a

Zc=1/y12

Za=1/y20

Zb=1/y10

c
Fig.13

y 20 =
=
y10 =

Z1
1
=
Z a Z1 Z 2 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z1 Z 3
j 0.3
j 0.3

=
= j 2.7273
j 0.3 * j 0.2 + j 0.2 * j 0.1 + j 0.3 * j 0.1 0.11
Z2
j 0.2
1
=
=
= j1.8182
Z b 0.11 0.11

Z3
j 0.1
1
=
=
= j 0.9091
y12 =
Z c 0.11 0.11

TheequivalentcircuitisshowninFig.14.

22

Z3=j0.1

I1

y20=j2.723
y10=j1.8182

E = E

I2

=j0.9091
a y12

V
= V0

Fig.14
Assuming the internal voltage magnitude remains
constant at the value we found in the last example (an
assumption inherent to the classical machine), which is
|E|=1.1115, and with y12=j.9091Y12=j.9091, we have
that

P1 = PM sin

(21)

wherePMisgivenby:
PM=|E||V|Y12|=(1.1115)(1)(.9091)=1.0105(22)
So(21)becomes

P1 = 1.0105sin

23

(23)

Pluggingbackinto(12)

2 H &&
(t ) = Pmu Peu

Re

(12)

10 &&
(t ) = 0.8 1.0105 sin
377

(24)

&&(t ) = 30.16 38.0958 sin

(25)

(whereagain,Peu=P1),wehave

Or

Finally, it is of interest to consider what happens when


the fault is cleared. In this case, the j0.1 impedance to
ground is eliminated, but so is the faulted line, as
illustratedinFig.15.
Zt=j0.1
Xd=0.2

Z1=j0.4

V = 1.00
E

Vt

Fig.15
24

Nowtheimpedancebetweenthevoltagesisj0.7,andthe
transferadmittanceisY12=j1/0.7=j1.4286,therefore
PM=|E||V|Y12|=(1.1115)(1)(1.4286)=1.5879

(26)

Theswingequationforthepostfaultnetworkisthen

10 &&
(t ) = 0.8 1.5879 sin
377

(27)

&&(t ) = 30.16 59.8638 sin

(28)

or

Letssummarizethethreeswingequationsforthethree
differenttimeframes:
Prefault:

&&(t ) = 30.16 83.8071sin

Faulton:

&&(t ) = 30.16 38.0958 sin

Postfault:

&&(t ) = 30.16 59.8638 sin

Whatdoyounotice?
Here, we observe that the coefficient of the sin term
variesasfollows:

25

The largest one, 83.807, corresponds to the prefault


conditionwhenthetransmissionsystemisstrongest;
The smallest one, 38.095, corresponds to the faulton
conditionwhenthetransmissionsystemisweakest.
Themiddleone,59.863,correspondstothepostfault
condition. Here the transmission system is stronger
thanthefaultonconditionbecausethefaulthasbeen
eliminated. But it is weaker than the prefault
condition because a transmission line has been
eliminated.
Althoughthisexamplehasbeenforaverysimplesystem,
theobservationsoftheabovethreebulletsapplyforreal
systemsaswell.
Oneconcepttoclarifyhere:whatdoesitmeantohavea
strong or weak transmission system? Note that the
coefficientofthesintermintheaboveequationsis

E V Re
X 2H

26

The second fraction, Re/2H, is present for all three


conditions (prefault, faulton, and postfault) and so
does not play a role in distinguishing between strong
andweaktransmission.
Forthefirstfraction,|E||V|/X,theproduct|E||V|isthe
sameamongthethreeconditions,buttheparametersX
isdifferent.Herearethedifferences:
Prefault:

X=0.3(seeeq.(16)above)

Faulton:

X=1/0.9091=1.1(seeeq.(22)above)

Postfault: X=1/1.4286=0.7(see.eq.(26)above)
Soweseethat
astrongtransmissionsystem(prefault)meansthe
transferimpedancebetweensourceandsinkislow
(0.3),and
a weak transmission system (faulton) means the
transferimpedancebetweensourceandsinkishigh
(1.1).

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