Desert Habitat

A desert is a biome with warm,
dry weather. A desert gets less than
25 centimeters of rain of rain
each year. There may be one day
with a lot of rain. Then months
may pass with no rain at all.

A desert can get very hot during the day. The sun’s heat warms the land
and air. At night, the desert can cool off quickly.
Desert soil is mostly sand. Rain quickly drips through the sand. The water
goes deeper than most plants’ roots can reach.

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Water Habitats
From space, Earth has been described as a "blue marble." This is because
most of the Earth is covered by ocean. In fact, almost 75% of the Earth is
water. Water can be found in the form of oceans, lakes, rivers, etc. Water
habitats can be divided into two categories: freshwater
habitats and saltwater habitats.
Freshwater Habitats
Freshwater habitats are any natural water places that don’t have salt. They
include ponds, wetlands, rivers, streams, lakes, and swamps.
Lakes and ponds high in the mountains usually have clean, pure water. These
freshwater habitats are a good place for fish and insects to live.

Lakes, ponds and streams in lowland areas tend to have more natural things
in it which encourages plankton to grow. This water doesn’t contain as much
oxygen, which fish and other animals need to survive.
Types of freshwater:
Pond - a pond is a small body of fresh or salt water that is surrounded by
land.
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Stream / River - A stream or a river is a long body of moving water. Rivers
and streams get their water from rain, but also from melting ice and snow in
mountains.
Lake - A lake is a large body of water that is surrounded by land. Lakes get
their water from rain and some are fed by rivers and streams.
Swamp – A swamp is land that is always wet and often partly covered with
water.

Fun Facts:
 Even a dried creek may contain life. Some amphibians and insects can
dig into the mud and live for months or even years. Once heavy rains
come, they reappear.
 Plankton is food for many small bugs and animals.
 The babies, or larvae, of many flying insects live in the water and eat
plankton. Watch for dragonflies or mayflies the next time you’re near a
pond.
 About three-quarters of Earth is covered by water, but less than 1% of it
is freshwater. Freshwater is water that has very little salt in it and
people, as well as many plants and animals, need freshwater to
survive.
 Plankton can’t survive in fast-flowing water, such as rivers, which is why
you won’t find a lot of animals here. Some fish, such as salmon, choose
these places to lay their eggs because predators are few.

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Saltwater Habitats
Saltwater takes up 7/10 (70%) of the earth! This means they are very
important for people, animals, and plants. Saltwater habitats include oceans,
coral reefs, and estuaries.
Oceans
Oceans are the largest bodies of water on Earth. They are made up of salty
water, which is why they are saltwater habitats. There are five oceans:
1. the Pacific Ocean
2. the Atlantic Ocean
3. the Indian Ocean
4. the Arctic Ocean
5. the Southern Ocean
Here they are on a map:

Who Calls The Ocean Home?
 Brainstorm for the animals you know who live in the oceans:

Coral Reefs
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Coral reefs are found as barriers along continents (for example, the Great
Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia.)
Who Calls Coral Reefs Home?
 Coral, (which does look like rock but is actually an animal!) fish, sea
urchins, octopi and starfish also call coral reefs home.

Estuaries
An estuary is where a stream or river goes into the ocean. Here, freshwater
and saltwater mix.
Who Calls Estuaries Home?
 A variety of worms, oysters, crabs and different kinds of waterfowl
(like herons, ducks and geese).

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Rainforest

A rainforest is a large thick forest that gets at least two to five meters of rain
each year. Most rainforests are found in hot, humid places near the equator
(the center of the earth). The largest rainforest in the world is the Amazon. It
is found in South America. A rainforest is made up of four layers: the forest
floor, the understory, the canopy and the emergent.
1. The Emergent is the area where the tallest trees are found. Only birds and
insects live here.
2. The Canopy is the roof of the rainforest and it is where there are many
trees. There is lots of sunlight and food for animals up here to enjoy. The
canopy is where you will find the most of the rainforests animals living, such
as monkeys, sloths and birds.
3. The Understory is the part between the forest floor and the canopy. There
is less sunlight here, so many plants have large leaves so they can get as
much sunlight and water as they need. Here you will find many insects,
snakes and jaguars living here.
4. The Forest Floor is the bottom part of the rainforest. It does not get much
sunlight, so not many plants and animals live here. Here you can find insect,
lizards and fungus (mushrooms).

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Label the parts of a rainforest:
____________________

____________________

____________________

Tundra
The tundra is a very cold place. It is so cold that snow covers the ground for
____________________

most of the year. There are three types of tundra places: 1. Arctic Tundra (in
the north), 2. Alpine Tundra, and 3. Antarctic Tundra (in the south). The word
"tundra" means an place where the soil in the ground is always frozen.
Tundra Seasons
The tundra has two seasons, summer and winter. The winter season in the
tundra is much longer and colder than any other winter on earth. During this
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season the ground is covered with a thick layer of snow. The summer season
in the tundra is very short. During the summer season, the snow will melt
away and small brownish colored plants will grow very close to the ground.
Trees and large plants do not grow in the tundra environments. The tundra is
similar to the desert, because it receives very little rain.
Tundra Animals
There are not many animals that live in the tundra. The animals that do live
there are the arctic foxes, arctic hares, reindeers (caribou), mountain goats,
musk oxen, penguins (only in the Antarctica tundra), seals, snowy owls, polar
bears (only in the Arctic tundra), and wolves (only in the Arctic tundra). Many
birds fly to the tundra every summer to make a home (nest) and feed.
How do animals keep warm?
The animals that live in the tundra have thick fur coats that cover their
bodies to keep them warm. The artic hare, the artic fox, and the snowy owl
are some of the animals who bodies fur will change color to match the
season. In winter these animals fur will turn a white color to blend in with the
snowy environment. However, in the summer season when the snow begins
to melt, these animals’ fur coats will changes to a brown color to match the
summer brown plants.

On the map below color and label the map the Arctic and Antarctic tundra
are:

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