Você está na página 1de 32

Brewing with Brettanomyces

the horse the goat and the barnyard


ChadYakobson
Owner/Brewer

6/16/2011

Crooked Stave Artisan Beer Project

Msc.BrewingandDistillingICBD,HeriotWattUniversity
Edinburgh,Scotland
Dissertationtitled:PureCultureFermentationCharacteristicsof
BrettanomycesYeastSpeciesandTheirUseintheBrewingIndustry

BrewedforOdellBrewingCompany

Sabotuer
Friek
Deconstruction

OpenedCrookedStaveNovember1st2010
BrewedourFirstBatchJune10th,2011
100%Brettanomycesprimaryfermentationinoakbarrelsstillaging!
WildWildBrettSeriesof100%Brettprimaryfermentedbeers
BarrelagedSourBeersLBrettdOr,NightmareonBrettstreet,Reverentia
PetiteSourPartialBrettprimaryinspontaneouslysouredwortblendedinlarge
oakfoeder
SuretteSaisonwildale,mixedhouseculturefermentedentirelyinoakfoeder

Brettanomyces / Dekkera

Sameorganism,namecanmoreorlessbeusedinterchangeably

Brettanomyces

Dekkera

Theasexualreproducing(budding)form,known
asananamorph

Thesexualreproducingform,knownasateleomorph

Originalnomenclature:

Brettanomycesbruxellensis
Brettanomyceslambicus
Brettanomycesintermedius
Brettanomycescustersii
Brettanomycesclaussenii
Brettanomycesanomalus
thelistgoeson

Brettanomyces / Dekkera

Currentnomenclature:
Brettanomycesbruxellensis*
Brettanomycesanomalus*
Brettanomycescustersianus
Brettanomycesnaardenensis
Brettanomycesnanus
andfortheperfectstate(teleomorph)
Dekkerabruxellensis
Dekkeraanomala

Ofthese,Brettanomycesbruxellensisand
Brettanomycesanomalusarethetwospecies
currentlyusedbybrewers,withaBrettanomyces
custersianusjuststartingtomakeitswayintouse.

*B.lambicushassincebeenreclassiAiedasaB.bruxellensisandB.clausseniiasB.anomalus.

Initial Discovery and Characterization

Theearliestpublishedaccountcamefromapaperpresentedtothe
InstituteofBrewingin1904byN.HjelteClaussen.
HeproposedtheyeastbecalledBrettanomyces(BritishBrewingFungus),asitwas
responsibleforthesecondaryfermentationanddevelopmentofcharacteristic
_lavorsandaromasofthe_inestEnglishstockales.

In1940the_irstsystematicinvestigationwaspresentedbyM.T.J.Custers,andhis_indingson
17strainsofBrettanomyces.
AtthattimeCustersbelievedBrettanomycesyeastswereonlyfoundinEnglish
andBelgianbeers,
Wenowknowitisayeastthatisfoundaroundtheworldandineveryknown
winemakingregion.NOTaBelgianyeast..perse

CustersThesis
Fermentationofglucosetoethanoloccurredmorerapidlyunderaerobicconditions
thenanaerobicconditions,CusterstermedthisnegativePasteureffect.
Thiswasinnomeansacompletefermentationbyabrewersstandards,onlymeasureof
howquicklyfermentationormetabolismstartedunderthestudiesconditions.

Considerableamountsofaceticacidproducedduringaerobicconditions,whileno
appreciableamountswereformedduringanaerobicconditions.
Custerstobelievedcellsslowlybecameadaptedtoanaerobicconditionseventually
resultinginanormalanaerobicfermentation.

Custers Effect

ThetermCusterseffectwaslaterintroducedinplaceofnegative
Pasteureffectandisbestinterpretedintermsofglycolyticactivity;
ascellsareswitchedfromaerobicconditionstoanaerobic,glycolysis(thebreakdownof
sugarstopyruvate)comestoatemporarystop.Thistransientlagphasewasobservedto
lastuptotenhoursbeforetheslowdissimulationofglucoseandsubsequentproduction
ofCO2resumed.

Lagphaseduringearlyanaerobicgrowthand/orfermentationisduetothecontinueddrainage
ofNAD+toNADHthroughanirreversibleconversionofacetaldehydetoaceticacid.

Thereexistsaninabilityforthecellstorestoretheredoxbalanceviaproductionofreduced
metabolites,speci_icallyglycerol.

Thiscouldbeattributedtotheabsenceofglycerol3phosphatephosphataseactivityinsomeorall
Brettanomycesspecies.

TheproductionofglycerolhasbeenshowntobeimportantinmetabolizingNADHand
restoringtheredoxbalanceduringanaerobicfermentationinotheryeastsincludingbrewers
yeasts.
Glycerolproducedbyyeasthasasecondaryroleinenhancingtheperceptionofbodyand
mouthfeelinbeerwhen12g/larepresent.Moreonthislater

TheslowadaptationofBrettanomycesyeastsmetabolismduringanaerobicconditions
followingthelagphasewasneverunderstood,althoughthe_indingsareinagreementwith
multiplestudiesthathavesuggestedanaerobicfermentationispossiblewithsluggishtoslow
activityinitially.

Fermentation Capabilities

Twouniqueandimportantenzymes.

glucosidase

glucosidase

Enzymecapableofhydrolyzing(breakingdown)wortdextrinswithup
to9degreesofpolymerization,amaltooligosaccharidecontaining9glucosemolecules.
Enzymefunctionsbycleavingoffaglucosemoleculeformingthenextlowermaltooligosaccharide.
BothextracellularandintracellularformsoftheenzymeareproducedbyBrettanomycesyeasts.
EnzymeresponsiblefortheoverattenuationobservedinLambicandSourbeers.

Enzymecapableofhydrolyzingmultiplesugarsandglycosidiccompoundsincluding;
Lactosemilksugar
Cellobiosesugarfromcelluloseinwood/plantmaterial
GlycosidespresentinvariousHops,FruitandSpices
EarlystudiesconductedatGuinessinDublinfoundstrainsofBrettanomycesclausseniiwereableto
fermentlactoseandcellobiose.
ResearchintoethanolproductionfoundaBrettanomycescustersiistrainthatwascapableoffermenting
cellobiosetoethanol,andexhibitedahigherutilizationofcellobiosethenotherBrettanomyces
clausseniistrainsusedinthestudy.
PresentatvaryinglevelsinonlycertainBrettanomycesspecies.

InterestinglyBrettanomycesyeastsaremostcommonlyculturedfrombeerconditionedinoak
barrelsandasymbioticrelationshiphasbeenassumedgiventhelongevityoftheirexistencein
thebarrels.
StrangelyenoughmostoftheBrettanomycesspecieswhichdominateduringLambicbrewingdo
notgenerallyhavethenecessaryglucosidaseenzymepresenttohydrolysecellobiose.

Production of Secondary Metabolites

Mostsigni_icantaspectofBrettanomycesyeastsistheirabilityto
in_luencethe_lavorandaromaofbeer.
Manyorganolepticdescriptorsexistincluding;clove,spicy,horsey,barnyard,
smokey,medicinal,bandaide,metallic,crackerbiscuit,goatlike,catpiss,apple,
_loral,tropicalfruitandcitrus.

ResearchfromtheWineandBrewingindustrieshaveexplainedafewofthese
compounds

Precursorcompoundscomefromrawmaterialswiththeirproductionemphasizedor
limitedthroughbrewingtechniques.
Abilitytoproducevariousaromaticor_lavorcompoundsvariesgreatlybetweenstrains.
StrainDependent!

Volatile Phenolics

Responsibleforsomeofthemostrecognizedaromatic
characteristicsassociatedwithBrettanomyces
4vinylguiacolClovelike
4ethylguiacolSpicy,Clove
4vinylphenolPhenol,Plastic,Smokey
4ethylphenolSpicy,Smoky,Horsy
4vinylcatecholPlastic,Bitter,Smoky
4ethylcatecholBandaide,Medicinal,Barnyard

Appeartohaveasynergisticoradditiveeffectmakingtheirpresenceobservablewhilethe
actualcompoundlevelsarebelowrecognizedthresholdlevels.
Makesidentifyingonecompoundhardastheysharesimilarorganolepticcharacteristics
dependingontheamountpresentinabeer.
Themechanismresponsibleforthemetabolismofthesevolatile
phenolicsisatwoenzymesystem.
Firstisaphenolic(cinnamic)aciddecarboxylase,
Responsibleforthedecarboxilationofhydroxycinnamicacidsintotherespective4vinyl
derivative
PresentinbothBrettanomycesandvariousbrewersyeaststrains
Second,avinylphenolreductaseresponsibleforthereductionofthe4vinylderivativeintoits
respective4ethylderivate.
ThevinylreductaseenzymeisuniquetoBrettanomycesyeasts

Production of Esters

EsterasespresentinBrettanomycesspecieshaveestersynthesizing
activitywithanincreaseofthefollowingestersobservedduringthe
periodBrettanomycesspeciesdominateasactiveyeastsinLambicandSourbeers.
EthylacetateFruity,solventy
EthyllactateFruity,buttery
PhenethylacetateRose_lowerlike

Theesterasesdecreaseanyisoamylacetatepresent.

HighconcentrationsofC8toC12fattyacidsaccumulateinLambicaswellduringthesame
period.
TheseFattyacidsthenbecomeester_iedintotheirrespectiveethylesters.

Recentlybrewershavetalkedaboutpineappleortropicalfruitlikearomasproducedby
Brettanomycesyeasts.
Unknownwhichcompoundsareresponsibleforthese_lavorsoraromas
Somepeoplehavesuggestedethyllactate,othersethylbutyrate.
Nostudiespreviouslylookedatarangeofestersproducedbypureculturesof
Brettanomycesyeastsbecauseupuntilrecentlyithasalmostexclusivelybeenconsidered
aspoilageorganism.

Important Aroma / Flavor Compounds

Threshold
Ethylacetate(*onlyonestrain)
EthylcaproateC6fattyacidester

Sweet,Fruity,Pineapple

EthylcaprylateC8fattyacidester

Musty,Pineapple,Fruity,Waxy

Low/NotProduced
Ethylacetate
Isoamylacetate
HigherAlcohols
Diacetyl
Acetaldehyde

How Crooked Stave Makes Brett Beers

Thingstotakeintoconsideration.

Fermentationtype

RawMaterials

Flabby/Weakmouthfeel
Malt/Adjuncts
Hops
Fruit

BrewingTechnique

Primaryfermentation
Hybrid/Mixedfermentation
Secondaryfermentation
Bottleconditioning

Torestornottorest
Sourmashing/wort
Resttempandtime
Mashthickness
Spargetemp

Nothingnewright?

American-Style Brett Ale


AmericanBrettalescanbeverylighttoblackortakeonthecolorofaddedfruitsor
otheringredients.Woodandbarrelagedsouralesareclassi_iedelsewhere.Lightto
moderateand/orfruityandcontributedbytheBrettanomycesyeast.Theevolutionof
naturalaciditydevelopsbalancedcomplexity.Horsey,goaty,leathery,phenolicand
lighttomoderateand/orfruityacidiccharacterevolvedfromBrettanomycesorganisms
maybeevident,yetinbalancewithothercharacter.Aciditymayalsobecontributedto
bybacteria,butmayormaynotdominate.Residual_lavorsthatcomefromliquids
previouslyagedinabarrelsuchasbourbonorsherryshouldnotbepresent.Wood
vesselsmaybeusedduringthefermentationandagingprocess,butwoodderived
_lavorssuchasvanillinmustnotbepresent.Indarkerversions,roastedmalt,caramel
likeandchocolatelikecharactersshouldbesubtleinboth_lavorandaroma.American
Brettalesmayhaveevidentfullrangeofhoparomaandhopbitternesswithafullrange
ofbody.Esteryandfruityestercharactersareevident,sometimesmoderateand
sometimesintense,yetbalanced.Diacetylandsweetcornlikedimethylsul_ide(DMS)
shouldnotbeperceived.Chillhaze,bacteriaandyeastinducedhazeareallowableat
lowtomediumlevelsatanytemperature.FruitedAmericanStyleBrettAleswillexhibit
fruit_lavorsinharmoniousbalancewithothercharacters.OriginalGravity(Plato)
VarieswithstyleApparentExtract/FinalGravity(Plato)VarieswithstyleAlcohol
byWeight(Volume)VarieswithstyleBitterness(IBU)VarieswithstyleColorSRM
(EBC)Varieswithstyle

BrewersAssociation,2011BeerStyleGuidelines,January10,2011

Brewing with Brettanomyces

Ideconstructmybeersfrom_inishtostartbycomingupwiththe
_inishedcreationandworkingbackwards.

OnceIknowwhatIwantthebeertolook,smellandtastelike,itseasiertochoosethe
ingredients/brewingtechniquesthatwillhelptocreatethe_inalproduct.

IfitiscleanerBrettanomycescharacteristicsImafter,subtlefruityaromas,or
lightclovewithaslighttartness,thenPrimaryfermentationwithBrettwouldbe
thechoice.

IfImafteramorefunkybeerwithstrongercomplexcharacteristicsgained
throughextendedaging,secondaryfermentationwouldbethechoice,possiblyina
barrel.

Amixedfermentationcangivethebestofboth..yeastwithfruityestersfroma
chosenSaccharomycesstrainsaswellasgoodattentionquicklywhilethe
Brettanomycesstraindeliversmoreprimarytypecharacteristicsupfrontaswellas
deliveringonthebackendduringextendedaging.

Itsnotblackandwhiteandtherearemanycombinationstoplaywith.Intheendit
willcomedowntotherawmaterials,BrewingtechniquesandBrettanomyces
strain(s)chosen.

Quality Control
Useseparatelymarkeddesignatedequipment
AsyouretireequipmentuseitasBrettanomycesandsourbrewingequipment

Brettanomycesisnotasuperorganism,itisayeastandcanbecleanedand
removedlikeyeast.Heatkillingorsterilizingwilldothetrick

Recommendedmediaagars
MYPG(Maltextract)agar

WLNagar

CuSO4agar

Propagation

Iwouldhighlyrecommendpropagatingupanactivestarterifusing
Brettanomycesyeastforprimaryfermentation.

SametechniquesusedtogrowSaccharomycescanbeusedwith
Brettanomyces,onlymoretimeisneeded.

Propercellcountsneededforprimary
Propercellphysiologywillleadtoahealthyactivefermentation
Higherviabilityandvitality

24hourlagphase
3daysofexponentialgrowth
12daylagorslowedgrowth
23daysofnearexponentialgrowth
Generallytook78daystoreachstationaryphase

Equipmentneeded

1litreErlenmeyer_lask
Sterilebreathablefoam/_ilmtocover_lask(stillneedtheexchangeofO2andCO2)
Warmenvironment(80Fisnice)
Stirplatewillmaximizecellcounts(giveagoodswirldailyoroftenifyoudonthaveastirplate)
Lightlyhoppedwortof12Platoor1.048Gravity

Batch Culture Growth Curve

Primary Fermentation

Cleanprimaryfermentation
Brettprimaryfermentedbeerthatdoesnotuseanysouringorganismorsourmashing.
Fermentationtakesbetween2weeksand1month.Straindependent
Littletonoperceivedtartnessasanaerobicfermentationdoesnottypicallyproducelevels
ofacidsabovethreshold.
CoulddevelopaslighttartnessfromminimalaceticacidproducedbytheBrettaftersome
extendedagingorheavyoxygenatingatknockout.

Sourprimaryfermentation
Brettprimaryfermentedbeerthateitherhadasourmash,orsouringorganismswhich
developduringprimaryandwithtimeandaging.
AcidultedmaltisanotheroptionandIveheardofbrewersusing10%ormoreinthemash
CanbeagoodideaasthereseemstobeasymbioticrelationshipwithBrettandLacticacid
bacteria
Appearstoimproveattenuationandlowerfermentationtime.
Fermentationtimestill10daysto1onemonth.Straindependent
MostpeopleassociateBrettwithtart/sourbeers.

Primary Fermentation

Iknockoutat68F(20C)andletfermentationrampupto72F(22C)

IliketoheavilyoxygenateatknockoutAlwaysoxygenate!

Iprefertokeepthefermentationaround70F(2022C)forastablesustained
fermentation

Estimateddissolvedoxygenof1215pmm
IncreasesO2andincreasesaceticacidproduction
Ilikeaslightaceticcharacterasat45150ppmaceticisasoftandsweetacid,very
complimentarytothebeer

Pitchingrateof1106cell/ml/Plato

Thisisthestandardruleofthumbpitchingrateforaleyeast

14Plato(1.056)beerattenuatesdownto2.5P(1.010)in710days

Fasterfermentationtimewhenrepitchingwithsuccessivegenerations
Greaterabilitytofermenthighgravitybeers

22Pbeerattenuateddownto4Pin10days

Oak Barrel Primary Fermentation

Minuteamountsofoxygenduringfermentationinbene_icialin
stimulatingfermentation.

CanhaveaheavyH2Saromaforsometimeifnotabletobreathe

Benefits of Pre-soured Wort

Acidulatedmalt,SourMash,SourWort

Presouringwortwithlacticacidleadstobetterattenuationina
greaterrangeofBrettanomycesstrains.
Increases_lavorcompoundsandaddsdepthmaybeevencomplexity
Bothethylacetateandethyllactateincreasedasthelacticacidconcentration
increased,especiallyethyllactate(go_igure).
Esterslikeethylcaproateandethylcaprylatesawadecreaseinproductionwhile
higheralcoholsincreasedslightly.
Anincreaseinhigheralcoholsisprobablyduetotheincreaseinattenuation.

Conclusion
LacticacidappearstoincreaseattenuationinBrettanomycesyeasts.
Asourmashorsomeacidulatedmaltinthegristcouldbebene_icial.
Toomuchacidandtheestersethylcaproateandethylcaprylatewhichareprobably
responsibleforthefruity,pineapple,_loral,tropicalfruit,andsweetaromas/_lavors
decrease.
Inour_irstcommercialbatchwedroppedthepHto4.5tostartprimary,it_inishedin
under3weeks.
Mostrecentsourwortbatchdroppedfrom10Pto1.5Pin9days.Lotsoftropicalfruit
aromaand_lavor
CautionifmakingsourwortdroppHto4.5beforeKO,KO@120Fandsustain
around100forafewdays,DoNotoxygenatePurgewithCO2throughwort.Pitcha
culture..Youcanreboilaftertokillthelacto.

Impact of Pre-souring Wort

Furtheranalysisconcentratedonthechangesinfermentationbehavior
duetopresouringwortwithlacticacid.
Wortwasacidi_iedwithaninitiallacticacidconcentrationof
100mg/l,startingpHof4.55
1,000mg/l,startingpHof3.75

500mg/l,startingpHof4.05
3,0000mg/l,startingpHof3.08

Hybrid/Mixed Fermentation

ThisisthesameideaaswithSaisonmixedfermentations.
Oneyeastisusedtogetthedesired_lavorsandtheotherforattenuation.
Saccharomycesprimaryforafewdays,thenpitchBrettanomyceswhilethe
activefermentationisstillgoing.Moresimilartosecondaryfermentation.
CouldalsounderpitchinprimarywithSaccharomycesstrain,thenwhen
fermentationslows,rackofftheyeastandtransfertoanothertankwitha
largepitchofBrettanomycesto_inishoutfermentation.
Brettanomycesyeastpitched_irstfortheprimaryandafterpitch
Saccharomycesto_inishoutandattenuatethefermentation.
Improvesmouthfeeldependingonthestrainchosen
Mixedfermentation
PitchbothBrettanomycesandSaccharomycesatthesametimeleteach
onedoitsthing..
RelativelycleanBrettcharacterdevelopsafterafewweeks.
Oncefermentationiscompleteitsgoodtorackthebeerofftheyeast(s)and
maturethebeerwithonlytheyeastsinsolution.MostlyBrettasitsnottoo
_locculentatroomtemps.

Secondary Fermentation

MostpopularuseofBrettanomycesisinsecondaryfermentations.

Canaddmorecomplexityoranewdirectiontoabeer.

Afewfactorstoconsider
Assesswhatchangesarelikelytotakeplaceandhowitwillaffectthebeer.
Residualsugars
Researchconductedonsecondaryfermentationswiththesameeightstrainsof
Brettanomyces,showedadecreaseinbothmaltoseandmaltotriose.
Thebeersstartedwithagravityof2.5P(1.0093)andsawfurtherattenuation
between1.8P(1.0062)and0.9P(1.003)
Maltosedecreasedfrom5g/lresidualsugarto<1g/lsometimesaslowas0.1g/l.
Maltotriosedecreasedfrom7g/lresidualsugartobetween4and2g/l.

Ingeneralitsimportanttohavesomeextradextrinsinthebeeraswellasaspecialtymalts
oradjunctsthatcontributetobodyotherwisethebeercanturnoutwateryand_labby,
lackingdepth.

AtthesametimeImnotafanoftakingabadbeerthatdidntfermentoutandhad
fermentationissuesandtossingBrettanomycesatittoseewhathappens.Wontmakethe
bestbeer,onlyforsomethinginterestingatbest

Secondary Fermentation

Extractionofpolyphenolsandhydroxycinnimicacidsfromthemash.

HigherlevelsinSecondaryfermentationsthanPrimaryfermentation.

Hydroxycinnimicacidsarepresentinthecellwallsandcellswhichmakeupthe
aleuronelayerandthehusk.
Proteinrestwillcreatetheprecursers.
Excessivehandlingofthemalt/mashcouldimpartsomeofthesecompounds.
Carefulwithoverspargingandspargingtoohot.
Somewillboiloffinthemash,butwhatisleftbehindcanleaveaggressive_lavors
afterSaccharomycesalongandBrettanomycesdotheirthing.
InsecondaryafterusingaPOF+Saccharomycesstrainthe4vinylcompoundswill
alreadybepresent.

Italwaysbeenmyphilosophytolimitthephenoliccharacteristicsofthese
beers.

Somebrewerslikethem,andpurposelymashtogettheprecursersand
createspicy,smoky_lavors.

Ferulicacidrestatabout109111For4344C..

Secondary Fermentation

PitchingrateinSecondaryfermentations

Brewershavetheirtheorieswhyahighpitchcountproducesmore_lavorand
aromaandotherBrewerswilltellyouthatlowerpitchcountswillproducemore
_lavorandaromas.

Researchwitheightstrainsshowedvariabilityfromstraintostrain.Sometimes
higherpitchcountsloweredhigheralcohols,sometimestheyraisedthem.Same
wastrueforesters.

Ihavenotfoundmuchofacorrelatedeffectonoverattenuationeither.

DontaddtoomuchBrettanomycesyeastslurryotherwiseyourejustblendingin
Brettanomyces_lavor,createdduringthepropagation.
HighinAceticAcid.

Generalcellcountstoaddinsecondarycanbeanywherefrom500,000cells/mlto
2,000,000cells/ml.

Bottle Conditioning

PopulartechniquetogettheBrettcharacterbyaddingtheyeastin
thebottlingbucket.Needextrasetsofallgasketsandporousmaterialonthebottle
_iller.
Bestpracticeistohaveasecondbottlingunit,unlessyoudontmindallyourbeers
possiblyhavingBrett.

Canbeusedtoputthe_inaltouchonabeerandallowforalightintegrated
BrettanomycescharacterinsteadofaBrettbomb.
Seewhat100,000cells/mlcandotoabeerinbottleconditioning.
Timetoreachthedesiredcharacterwillbestraindependent.NewBelgiumis
typicallytwoweeks,otherstake3months.
CarefulovertimeasautolysisoccursinSaccharomyces,treheloseisreleased
whichisafermentablesugarforBrettanomycesandfurthercarbonationwill
occur.
Ithasalsobeensuggestedthatun_ilteredbeerswherethereisalargeportion
ofSaccharomycesincontactwithBrettanomyceswillproducegoatyaromas
duetocaproic,caprylicandcapricacidsreleasedfromthecellwallof
Saccharomyces.
Brettanomycescouldturnsthoseacidsintoestersthenovertime.
Wouldneedtositonthebeerafterbottlingtodeveloptheseesters.

Goodpracticeistoletthebeerdropbrightor_ilterbeforesecondaryunlessyou
wantthesearomasand_lavors.

RawMaterials

DevelopingabeerthatwillbefermentedwithBrettanomycesinvolves
developingarecipethatwillstanduptotheyeast.

Noonesetsouttomakea_labbybeeroronelackingaromaand_lavor,butcanbe
thecasewithBrettanomycesfermentedbeers.
Usuallyassociatedwithdrynessduetooverattenuation.

Notexactlythecase
OnereasonwhyBrettanomycesissucha_ickleorganismisduetothelagphase
seenwhenswitchingfromaerobictoanaerobicconditions.Thisisduetothe
inabilitytorestoretheredoxbalancebetweenNAD+andNADH.Thisis
appearstobecausedbythelackofglycerolproductionduringfermentation,a
metabolicstepwhichactstorestorethebalance.
Glycerolproducedbyyeasthasasecondaryroleinenhancingtheperception
ofbodyandmouthfeelinbeerwhen12g/larepresent.
Somestudieshaveobservedslightglycerolproductionoccurringunder
anaerobicconditionsinavariableamountofstrains.
Glycerolproductionbetweenstrainscouldindicatetheabilityofthe
redoxtoberestoredmorerapidly,inwhichcasestrainswouldlikelybe
capableoffullfermentationwithadecreaseinthetimerequired.

RawMaterials

Bodyandtheoverallbeerpro_ilehavetobebuilttosuitthe
Brettanomycesyeastsandtheirabilitytooverattenuateaswellas
thelackofglycerolproduction.

Bodycanalsobetakencareofinthebrewhouse.
Mashinginatahighertemp
Lowermashresttime
Bothcouldfavoralongerendtofermentation,Ifyourelookingtomakeabeer
thatisreadyforbottlingsoonerthesetechniquesmightnotbethebest

Adjuncts
OatsIpreferSteelcutoats,givesasilky,creamymouthfeel,light_lavor
contribution.
FlakedWheatAddsmorecomplexstarches,highproteinlevel,couldaidhead
retention.
Cara(pils)(hell)(foam)supposedtoaidheadretentionaswellasbuildbody
inbeer,little_lavororcolorpickup.
Ryecanaddanicecharacterat510%ofthegrist.
SpeltSuggestedforpuremouthfeeladdition.

Acidulatedmalt
Iveheardofusagesupto10%whichgiveaverynicelacticacidity.
Aciditycreatesmouthfeel,possibilitiesfornew_lavors/aromas,
Coulddoasourmash,orsourthewort.

Flavor/Aroma Contributed From Malts

PrimaryfermentationwithBrettanomycescancreaterelativelyclean
beers.Eachstrainwillhaveitsowncharacteristic_lavorsandaromas
butmuchcanbedonetoenhancetheappealofthosecharacteristicsandenhancethe
Brettanomycestypearomas.

ViennaandMunichmakeanicecontributionontopofthebasemalt.
CaraVienna,CaraMunich,CaraAroma,Carmel,Honey,SpecialBallthesemaltscanadd
anicecharacterinaBrettbeer.
Carefulaboutaddingmaltswhichincreasethebready_lavor/aromaas
Brettanomyceswillcreatetheseonitsown.
RoastedmaltsI_indadarkBrettbeertobequitecomplex,lotsofaromasand_lavors
develop.
ConsiderdebitteredofdehuskedmaltslikeCarafaspecialI,II,orIII.
Toomuchroastedmaltcharacterbringsoutastringencyanddoesntworkwellwith
someBrettnomycesstrainswhichcanhaveametallicastringentcharacter.
Hops
Brettanomycescandosomeveryinterestingthingswitharomatichopglycoside
compounds.
Brettaromascanbecomplimentedbyaromatichopswithfruity,spicey,piney,and
citrustypearomas.

Brewing Techniques

Singleinfusionmashnotsurethereisanythingtobegainedbya
stepmash.
Ferulicacidprecurserfor4vinylguiacoland4ethylguaicol
Wantspicy,smokey,phenoliccharacteristics?
Ferulicacidrestat4344C(109111F)enzymesreleaseferulicacid
andotherhydroxycinnamicacidsintothemash

MashTemp6567C(150153F)adequateconversionwithhighlymodi_ied
malts,largestarchgranulegelatinization.

Mashrest30minutes,enoughtimeforconversion.
Recirc(vorlauf)tillsolidsarecleared

MashthicknessIlike2.5:1liquortogristratio(Liters:Kilograms)
Toohighpromotesdryness.

SpargingTohotofaspargetempextractshuskandtannin_lavorsaswellasover
sparging.
Createsastringencyandthepossibilityforphenolicprecurserstobeleached
intothewort
168F(75C)willdothejob
Finalrunningdependsonthebeerbutdontgobelow23P

Questions?

www.crookedstave.com
www.brettanomycesproject.com