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CHAPTER 7: LEAN SYSTEMS

d) Push production
e) Continuous improvement

Multiple Choice
1. JIT is applies to
a) only the manufacturing organization
b) only the service organization
c) both the manufacturing and service organizations
d) only the production portion of manufacturing and service
organizations
e) all of the organization except the marketing division
2. JIT considers waste anything that
a) Fits in a waste basket
b) Reduces production capacity
c) Has been discarded
d) Cannot be recycled
e) Does not add value
3. JIT can be traced back to the early 1900s but no one can argue that
the philosophy gained worldwide prominence
a) at the close of WWII
b) in the 1950s
c) in the 1960s
d) in the 1970s
e) in the 1980s
4. The philosophy of JIT
a) Originated in Japan
b) Was operational at Henry Ford's complex in 1920's
c) Is a production planning system
d) Has received little attention in the US
e) Focuses on direct control of worker activities by management

10. An employee who will not help a customer because it is not my


job violates the JIT belief of
a) Simplicity
b) A broad view of operations
c) Continuous improvement
d) Visibility
e) Pull production
11. JIT was based on the need for
a) survival
b) waste elimination
c) better working conditions
d) consistent application of policies
e) consistent supplier performance
12. Kaizen is a Japanese term referring to
__________________________.
a) just-in-time production
b) continuous improvement
c) employee involvement
d) concurrent engineering
e) simplicity
13. An improvement tool that utilizes cross-functional teams to plan
and deliver improvements to specific processes during two- or threeday marathon sessions is called a ___________________________.
a) kanban blitz
b) cross-functional blitz
c) short-term blitz
d) JIT blitz
e) kaizen blitz

5. The broad view of JIT is now often termed


__________________________.
a) vendor-managed inventory
b) business process reengineering
c) lean production
d) cycle time management
e) e-distribution

14. JIT flexibility refers to


a) ability to modify sales figures
b) correct the bull whip effect
c) increase or decrease supplier deliveries on short notice
d) workers being able to perform many different tasks
e) managers being able to shift positions easy

6. In the broad view of the organization everyone should have


a) the same job duration
b) the same retirement plan
c) the same job description
d) the same view of serving the customer
e) a narrow view of the organization that includes only their assigned
tasks

15. Being able to keep costs low while changing the volume of
production is an example of
a) Simplicity
b) Flexibility
c) Visibility
d) Continuous improvement
e) Total quality management

7. The central belief of the JIT philosophy is


a) Quality must be emphasized
b) Use of Kanban
c) Elimination of waste
d) Minimize inventory
e) Save money

16. Three basic elements work together to complete a JIT system:


just-in-time manufacturing, total quality management, and
a) Quality circles
b) Pull production
c) Minimizing inventory
d) Respect for people
e) Full utilization of capacity

8. Which of the following is characteristic of the JIT philosophy?


a) Inventories are an asset
b) Lot sizes are optimized by formula
c) Tolerate some scrap
d) Elimination of waste
e) Rigidity
9. Beliefs that help define the JIT philosophy include all of the
following except
a) Simplicity
b) Visibility
c) Flexibility

17. JIT is often mistakenly assumed to


a) refer to the final assembly schedule only
b) dictate the product standards specification
c) refer to only just-in-time manufacturing
d) be a core element of ISO 9000 requirements
e) be driven by the finance department long range spending plan
18. By focusing on
processes, JIT is able to achieve
high-volume production of high-quality, low-cost products.
a) Downstream
b) Upstream

c) Change-over
d) Gateway
e) Value-added

c) Grievances
d) Product imperfections
e) Problems

19. The manufacturing process in JIT starts with the


a) Final assembly schedule
b) Schedules for individual machines
c) Vendor deliveries
d) Prioritization of lots
e) Forward scheduling

28. Before it is possible to operate successfully with JIT


a) Inventory space must be eliminated
b) Inventories must be reduced rapidly
c) Problems must be uncovered
d) Problems must be solved
e) Setup times must be increased

20. For the current month using JIT


a) The same amount of each product is produced in the same
order each day
b) Production matches that of last month
c) Lot sizes are varied week-to-week
d) Production differs greatly from day to day
e) Production is primarily for next months sales

29. An important TQM concept is that quality is defined by the


a) Quality control group
b) Marketing department
c) Board of directors
d) Customer
e) Auditors

21. JIT relies on a ______ that withdraws parts for a previous work
cell and moves them to the next.
a) Information technology system
b) coordination system
c) six sigma system
d) quality circle system
e) transportation system

31. JIT considers


resource.
a) Capital
b) Productive equipment
c) Information
d) People
e) Vision

22. JIT is a
system.
a) Pull
b) Push
c) Lead time
d) Preventive maintenance
e) Closed
23. JIT manufacturing cannot succeed if
high.
a) Variable
b) Fixed
c) Set-up
d) Depreciation
e) Marginal

30. The objective of quality at the source is not only to identify a


quality problem, but also to
a) Determine its extent
b) Uncover its root cause
c) Rate its seriousness
d) Place blame
e) Categorize it

costs are too

24. The ultimate goal of JIT is to produce products in a lot size of


a) 100 or fewer
b) N=(DT(1+X))/C
c) The inverse of the carrying cost
d) One
e) The capacity of the factory
25. Unlike JIT traditional quality control systems use
a) quality circles
b) quality plans
c) control charts
d) acceptable quality levels
e) quality applications

to be a companys most precious

32. In JIT the workforce is viewed as


a) another resource to be managed
b) another contractual obligation
c) a long-term asset
d) a short term asset
e) an asset that must be closely managed
33. JIT believes in developing
suppliers.
a) Long-term
b) Adversarial
c) Arms-length
d) Temporary
e) Distant

relationships with

34.
are groups of workers who are responsible
for every aspect of their business.
a) Focus teams
b) Staff departments
c) Partnerships
d) Self-managed teams
e) Negotiators

26. According to JIT,


is carried to cover up a wide
variety of problems, such as poor quality, demand uncertainty, and
slow delivery.
a) Inventory
b) Excess capacity
c) A group of back-up workers
d) Spare equipment
e) Insurance

35. Traditional manufacturing operations are based on the assumption


that
a) Overproduction is disastrous
b) Nice guys finish last
c) It is better to anticipate future requirements and plan for them
d) If you manufacture it, demand will increase
e) Inventory has no value

27. According to JIT, by eliminating inventory we can clearly identify


and work on eliminating them.
a) Obsolete products
b) Malfunctioning machines

36. JIT uses a pull system where communication starts with either the
customer or with the _________ work station in the production line.
a) First
b) Bottleneck

c) Dominant
d) Most expensive
e) Last
37. With JIT there are two types of Kanban cards, production Kanban
and
Kanban.
a) Buffer
b) Transaction
c) Withdrawal
d) Logistics
e) Sales
38. In JIT a Kanban card is used to signal
a) The need for more parts
b) A supplier needs assistance
c) A worker is overloaded
d) A machine is ready for preventive maintenance
e) Management is inspecting operations
39. Without kanbans, the withdrawal and production of materials
a) can continue in a reduced manner
b) will not be well coordinated
c) cannot take place
d) would continue based on historical needs
e) would continue based on forecasted needs
40. The number of kanbans or containers needed at a workstation is
dependent on all except which of the following?
a) the demand rate
b) the number of workers
c) the size of the container
d) the lead time
e) the safety stock level
41. The system of Kanbans used to coordinate delivery of goods by
suppliers can include all of the following except
a) Filled containers delivered by the supplier
b) Purchase approvals by the production manager
c) Mail boxes for each supplier
d) Empty containers with a Kanban
e) Bar-coded Kanbans
42. If it is desired to reduce the amount of inventory in the system,
the number of Kanban cards should
a) Be decreased
b) Be increased
c) Remain the same
d) Be calculated by formula
e) Remain the same, but container size should be increased
43. Consider a workstation that can process 4 units per minute. It
takes 2 hours to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 10 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?
a) 57.6
b) 48
c) 0.96
d) 9.6
e) 28.8
[Soln (N=(DT+S)/C =(4 * 60 * 2 + .2 * (4 * 60 * 2))/10 = 57.6)]
44. Consider a workstation that can process 4000 units per hour. It
takes 15 minutes to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 20 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?
a) 16
b) 3600

c) 50
d) 10
e) 60
[Soln (N=(DT+S)/C =(4000 * 15/60 + .2 * (4000 * 15/60))/20 = 60)]
45. Small lot production
a) Increases inventory
b) Decreases flexibility
c) Reduces setup
d) Increases excess processing
e) Shortens lead time
46. What is adjustment of a machine after making one product type
so that production can begin for another product type?
a) Level assembly schedule
b) Group technology
c) Setup
d) Cycle time
e) Automation
47. External setups
a) Are the same as single setup
b) Can be done while the machine is running
c) Are undesirable for small lot production
d) Are often contracted out
e) Are more common than internal setups in traditional
manufacturing systems
48. Uniform plant loading involves
a) Large lots produced over several days
b) Making the same mix of products every day in small quantities
c) Large amounts of inventory
d) Making large changes in production to respond to changes in
demand
e) Spreading production uniformly over several plants
49. One aspect of flexible resources is
a) Use of multifunction workers
b) Relying on special equipment
c) Use of overtime
d) Leasing, rather than buying, equipment
e) Variable work schedules
50. Advantages of cell manufacturing using a U-shaped cell include
all of the following except
a) Production efficiency with flexibility to produce a variety of parts
b) Easy reach and flexibility for workers
c) Higher worker satisfaction
d) No special material handling
e) Longer setup times
51. Quality in just-in-time is centered on building quality into the
a) Product
b) Maintenance of equipment
c) Process
d) Distribution system
e) Workforce
52. Quality problems in manufacturing can come from many sources,
including all of the following except
a) Customer needs are not incorporated into the product design
b) Low quality materials from suppliers
c) Product specifications being ignored
d) Equipment problems from design of the production process
e) Operator error
53. What is the term that means giving workers authority to stop the
production line when quality problems are encountered?
a) Automation

b) Kaizen
c) Muda
d) Poka-yoke
e) Jidoka
54. Poka-yoke means
a) Using color coding
b) Foolproofing
c) Using process control charts
d) Preventive maintenance
e) Undercapacity scheduling
55. Regular inspections and maintenance designed to keep a machine
operational is ___________
maintenance.
a) Preventive
b) Breakdown
c) Unscheduled
d) Emergency
e) Unnecessary
56. According to JIT, workers should perform
a) system specification development
b) as directed by the supervisor
c) routine preventive maintenance activities
d) poka-yoke designs
e) quality program development
57. Which of the following is not characteristic of preventive
maintenance in JIT systems?
a) Keeping machines operational
b) Regular inspections of machines
c) Workers helping to maintain their own equipment
d) Operating machines properly
e) Perceiving breakdowns as an opportunity for continuous
quality improvement
58. Something you would not expect to see in a just-in-time work
environment is
a) Order
b) Clutter
c) Ample space
d) Tools in their place
e) Cleanliness
59. Just-in-time organizations rely on employees to
a) Do what their boss tells them to do
b) Dress differently every day
c) Work together
d) File grievances
e) Be adversarial toward management
60. Just-in-time relies on
worker skills,
meaning the ability of workers to perform many different tasks on
many different machines.
a) Natural
b) Verbal
c) Intuitive
d) Manual
e) Cross functional
61. JIT production workers are expected to
a) Cover up quality problems
b) Ignore data
c) Take responsibility in getting to the root cause of quality
problems
d) Blame problems on someone else
e) Have a poor attitude about quality

62. JIT production workers


a) Keep data to themselves
b) Participate in team problem-solving activities
c) Do not understand data
d) Never use data
e) Rely on others to do data analysis
63. The role of production employees in JIT includes all of the
following except
a) Be actively engaged in improving the production process
b) Monitor quality
c) Record data
d) Follow clearly defined and limiting work rules
e) Act on the information they have
64. Which of the following is not a characteristic of bottom-round
management?
a) Consensus management by committees or teams
b) Participation in quality circles
c) Decision making starts with discussion at the bottom level
d) Lack of consensus
e) Employees volunteering to help solve quality problems
65. Which of the following is not a role of JIT management
a) creating a JIT culture
b) cost and information sharing
c) serving as coaches and facilitators
d) developing an incentive system
e) ensuring multifunctional training occurs
66. In Japan lifetime employment
a) Is a recent trend
b) Has had little impact
c) Is an ideal that is never achieved
d) Is true for everyone
e) Comprises a relatively small percentage of the total work force
today
67. In a JIT environment, workers need to
a) Protect themselves from their bosss whims
b) Be prepared to be reprimanded
c) Keep their ideas to themselves
d) Always work in pairs
e) Feel secure in their jobs
68. With JIT a companys relationship with its suppliers includes
a) Competitive bidding
b) Being in partnership with them
c) Buying parts from the cheapest supplier
d) Short-term relationships
e) Having as many suppliers as possible
69. With regard to suppliers, JIT typically requires
a) Delivery of large lots at regular intervals
b) Buyer inspection of incoming goods and materials
c) Multiple sources from which to purchase
d) Information sharing
e) Buying parts from the cheapest supplier
70. The benefits of long-term relationships with a small number of
suppliers include all of the following except
a) Always getting the lowest price
b) Focus on improving process controls
c) Greater accountability
d) Develop stable delivery schedules
e) Eliminate paperwork

71. Which of the following is not a good approach for suppliers who
are providing JIT services to manufacturers?
a) Use the push system for deliveries
b) Locate near their customers
c) Have small warehouses near the manufacturing plant
d) Use standardized containers
e) Join together with other suppliers to help each other make small
deliveries
72. The challenge for service operations is that they have to
synchronize their __________ with demand.
a) accounting
b) finance
c) marketing
d) production
e) information systems
73. In making specific changes to JIT manufacturing, which of the
following steps should come first?
a) reduce lot sizes and lead times
b) switch to pull production
c) reorganize workplace
d) reduce setup times
e) implement layout changes
74. Which of the following is not considered to be a key element of
JIT supplier relationships?
a) suppliers viewed as internal factory
b) use of single-source suppliers
c) long-term supplier relationships developed
d) suppliers locate near customer
e) cost and information sharing
True/False
1. JIT considers waste anything that does not add value. True

13. JIT considers people to be a companys most precious resource.


True
14. There are two types of Kanban cards, production Kanban and
withdrawal Kanban. True
15. If it is desired to reduce the amount of inventory in the system,
the number of Kanban cards should be increased. False
16. External setups can be done while the machine is running. True
17. Just-in-time organizations rely on employees to work together.
True
18. Just-In-Time relies on cross-functional worker skills. True
19. Bottom-round management includes consensus management by
committees or teams. True
20. With regard to suppliers, JIT typically requires information
sharing. True
21. Successfully implementing JIT requires that it be done as quickly
as possible. False
22. JIT concepts that are applicable to service organizations include
use of multifunction workers. True
23 The challenge for service organizations is synchronizing their
production with demand. True
24. Services organizations cannot use the JIT philosophy to reduce
cycle time. False
25. A key outcome of JIT is that organizational barriers are
eliminated. True

2. The broad view of JIT is now often termed lean production or lean
systems. True

Essay

3. Often the best quality problem resolution solution involves a


complex answer as the organization is a complex organization. False

1. The central belief of the JIT philosophy is elimination of waste)


What are the other beliefs that help define this philosophy?

4. Continuous improvement is called kaizen by the Japanese. True

Ans: broad view of operations, simplicity, continuous improvement,


visibility and flexibility

5. An improvement tool that utilizes cross-functional teams to plan


and deliver improvements to specific processes during two- or threeday marathon sessions is called a kanban blitz. False

2. Under the JIT belief of visibility, describe JIT facilities.

6. With a kaizen system there is no excess production because the


only products and quantities produced are those specified by the
kaizen. False

Ans: open and clean, with plenty of floor space; no clutter; everyone
can see what everyone else is doing; no one can hide extra
inventory anywhere; an orderly environment; visibility allows
waste to be readily seen

7. JIT facilities are lacking in floor space. False

3. Describe the kaizen blitz.

8. Being able to keep costs low while changing the volume of


production is an example of flexibility. True

Ans: This is an improvement tool that utilizes cross-functional teams


to plan and deliver improvements to specific processes during
two- or three-day marathon sessions. This process allows a
small group of people to concentrate on a bit-size chunk of the
problem for a short period of time. Companies find that a
kaizen blitz can quickly deliver dramatic and low-cost
improvements to processes.

9. By focusing on value-added processes, JIT is able to achieve highvolume production of high-quality, low-cost products. True
10. The manufacturing process in JIT starts with the final assembly
schedule. True
11. JIT manufacturing cannot succeed if set-up costs are too high.
True

4. What is the formula to compute the number of kanbans needed to


control the production of a particular product (including the variable
definitions)?

12. According to JIT, by eliminating inventory we can clearly identify


obsolete products and work on eliminating them. False

Ans: N = (DT + S) / C; where N = total # of kanbans or containers


(one card per container), D = demand rate at the workstation, T

= the time it takes to receive an order from the previous


workstation, C = size of the container, and S = safety stock to
protect against variability or uncertainty in the system.
5. What are the advantages of cell manufacturing using a U-shaped
cell?
Ans: production efficiency with flexibility to produce a variety of
parts, easy reach and flexibility for workers, higher worker
satisfaction, and no special material handling
6. What are the responsibilities of production employees in JIT?
Ans: get to the root cause of quality problems, participate in team
problem-solving activities, be actively engaged in improving
the production process, monitor quality, record data, and act on
the information they have
7. What are the key elements a JIT companys relationship with its
suppliers?
Ans: suppliers viewed as an external factory, use of single-source
suppliers, respect for suppliers, build long-term relationships,
form a partnership with suppliers, share cost and other
information, work together to improve process controls,
increased accountability on the part of the suppliers,
development of stable delivery schedules, suppliers may locate
near the companys factory, and elimination of paperwork
8. What are the benefits of JIT?
Ans: increased flexibility, shorter lead times, increased productivity,
improved quality, increased machine utilization, lower
production costs, reduced inventory
9. What does a company need to successfully implement JIT?

1. Frank James works for a production facility that makes car radios.
His job is to insert the integrated circuits and make sure that they
work correctly. He is expected to handle 20 radios per hour. The
factory uses a Kanban production system with containers that hold
four radios. It takes 60 minutes for Frank to receive the radios from
the previous work station. How many Kanbans are needed?
Ans: 5 (N = (DT+S)/C = 20 * 1 /4 = 5 No safety stock)
2. Matt Dillon works for a production facility that makes ball point
pens. His job is to place the spring on the central ink insert. He is
expected to process 200 inserts per hour. The factory uses a Kanban
production system with containers that hold 50 inserts. It takes 30
minutes for Frank to receive the inserts from the previous work
station. How many Kanbans are needed?
Ans: 2 (N = (DT+S)/C = 200 * 1/2 /50 = 2 No safety stock, lead time
converted to an hour basis)
3. Frank James works for a production facility that makes car radios.
His job is to insert the integrated circuits and make sure that they
work correctly. He is expected to handle 20 radios per hour. The
factory uses a Kanban production system with containers that hold
four radios. It takes 60 minutes for Frank to receive the radios from
the previous work station. The factory sets safety stock at 50 percent
of demand during lead time. How many Kanbans are needed?
Ans: 7.5 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(20 * 1) + (.5 * 20 * 1)] /4 = 7.5)
4. Matt Dillon works for a production facility that makes ball point
pens. His job is to place the spring on the central ink insert. He is
expected to process 200 inserts per hour. The factory uses a Kanban
production system with containers that hold 50 inserts. It takes 30
minutes for Frank to receive the inserts from the previous work
station. The factory sets safety stock at 40 percent of demand during
lead time. How many Kanbans are needed?

Ans: a champion for JIT implementation, a shared vision of where


the company is and where it wants to go, top management must
create the right atmosphere, reward systems to reward ideas
and team cooperation, quality improvements need to be made,
reorganize the workplace, reduce setup times, reduce lot sizes
and lead times, make layout changes, switch to pull production,
and develop relationships with suppliers

Ans: 2.8 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(200 * ) + (.4 * 200 * )] /50 = 2.8)

10. Discuss why implementation of a JIT will not start and end in
definite time periods.

Ans: 4.8 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(4 * 60 * 10/60) + (.2 * 4 * 60 * 10/60)]


/10 = 4.8 units/minute and lead time converted to an hour basis)

Ans: JIT is a gradual process that is never complete because


improving performance is a never-ending task.

6. Consider a workstation that can process 2 units per minute. It


takes 6 minutes to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 12 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?

11. What JIT concepts are applicable to service organizations?


Ans: reductions in cycle times, use of multifunction workers,
minimizing set-up times, parallel processing, workplace
organization, improved quality, and uniform facility loading
12. Describe how JIT affects the Accounting department.
Ans: Traditional accounting systems generally allocate overhead on
the basis of direct labor hours. This does not accurately describe the
actual use of overhead. JIT relies on activity-based costing to
appropriately allocate overhead. In an ABC specific costs are
identified and then assigned to various types of activities. Overhead
is then assigned to the jobs depending on how many activities a
particular job takes up.
Problems

5. Consider a workstation that can process 4 units per minute. It


takes 10 minutes to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 10 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?

Ans: 1.2 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(2 * 60 * 6/60) + (.2 * 2 * 60 * 6/60)] /


12 = 1.2 units/minute and lead time converted to an hour basis)
7. Consider a workstation that can process 4 units per minute. It
takes 2 hours to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 10 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?
Ans: 57.6 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(4 * 60 * 2) + (.2 * 4 * 60 * 2)] /10 =
57.6 units/minute converted to an hour basis)
8. Consider a workstation that can process 1060 units per hour. It
takes 15 minutes to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 20 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent

of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?
Ans: 15.9 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(1060 * 15/60) + (.2 * 1060 *15/60)] /
20 = 15.9 lead time converted to an hour basis)

How many kanbans and containers should be devoted to this product?


________________________
Ans: 2.29 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(100 * 15/60) + (.1 * 100 * 15/60)] /12
= 2.29)

9. Consider a workstation that can process 400 units per hour. It


takes 3 hours to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 50 units. The factory sets safety stock at 10 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?

4. Traditional production plans schedule


________________________ while JIT with Level Scheduling uses
________________________ .

Ans: 26.4 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(400 * 3) + (.1 * 400 * 3)] /50 = 26.4)

Ans: large batches at one time, small batches at many times.

10. Consider a workstation that can process 1200 units per hour. It
takes 1.5 hours to receive an order from the previous station. The
container size is 40 units. The factory sets safety stock at 20 percent
of demand during lead time. How many kanbans are needed for the
workstation?

5. Materials and work in process move farther and more often under
________________________

Ans: 54 (N = (DT+S)/C = [(1200 * 1.5) + (.2 * 1200 * 1.2)] /40 =


54)

6. Name three ways that quality at the source includes more than
manufacturing. ________________________
________________________ ________________________

11. Franks umbrella corporation is designing a kanban system. They


know that they are expected to produce 100 umbrellas per hour.
Theyve also determined that a key external resource takes 30
minutes to deliver the required material once an order has been
transmitted. To start with they want to maintain a safety stock of 25
critical parts. Originally they want to start with 3 kanbans. What
container size should Franks umbrella company start with?
Ans: 25 (N = (DT+S)/C therefore C = (DT+S)/N = [(100
umbrellas/hr * 0.5/hr)+25] /3 = [50 umbrellas +25)] /3 = 54) = 25
12. Raissas teapot firm is moving to a JIT system. One question they
are trying to answer is what level of safety stock they should
maintain. They produce 240 teapots every four hours. The teapot
ceramic handle vendor will deliver a container containing 30 parts
one hour after they receive a request to ship. Raissas kanban system
uses four containers. What should they maintain as a safety stock?
Ans: 2 (N = (DT+S)/C therefore S = (N*C)/(D*T) = (4*30)/(240 tea
pots/4 hours * 1 hour) = 2
Short Answer
1. What are the three major elements of JIT?
________________________, ________________________, and
________________________ .
Ans: just-in-time manufacturing, total quality management, and
respect for people.
2. What are three reasons that respect for people is important in JIT.
________________________, ________________________, and
________________________ .
Ans: JIT requires workers active participation, cooperation, ideas,
willingness to cross train, flexibility, good attitude, willingness to
change, for example.
3. A work cell produces 100 units per hour. It takes 15 minutes to get
packaging from the previous workstation. Each container holds a
dozen (12) units. Safety stock is 10% of demand during lead time.

Ans: traditional manufacturing.

Ans: product design, process design, suppliers, stopping a production


line when a problem occurs.
7. Scheduling two, 12-hour shifts and a 4-hour housekeeping and
repair shift each workday is an example of
________________________
Ans: preventive maintenance
8. Production employees in JIT setting record and visually display
performance data like: ________________________
Ans: SPC charts, time since last unscheduled work stoppage, time
since last injury
9. JIT supply chains often involve firms that
________________________
Ans: locate near each other.
10. JIT changes happen in sequence because
________________________
Ans: One of several reasons like: Some changes depend on, or are
easier to implement after, others. Trying to make all changes at once
would overwhelm and demoralize the managers and other employees.
11. Every organization is just one element of an ______ _____ ____
Ans: entire supply chain

12. The principles of JIT need to be adopted by all members of a


supply chain in order to have a ______ ____
Ans: full impact