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q

, ISSNO2I5-O158

Volme2l,Nomc2
Jmuaf,i2006

lfr:llndung
,., I

rr,l{,
"r, '

Rector, Surabaya University

Krlur I'ongrrsh I
,,r l,rl.rrlrrr l'.'h,'l,,p,r llrrvr.nrrur Srrrrlroyo

Advisor

of

Dean, Faculty

il{00}lEstAll PsYcH0L0slcAL J0uRt{AL


.Januari 2006

Mllrr llcittrl I Rcviewers


tlM (Malu,d, I'ro1. W.tr. Marmis, MD, Sp KJ(4,
l',,,1 | l,rr,turg l)rrw,rnsrrr, l'lr t). (o6jukrtte), Angcla E. Hope, Ph.D. (Austrelia),
A,,,ru I r., l,i,l l).. l"(,1. l)r. S.C. tltarni Munandar, Dipl.Psych. (akarta),
l)'()1. l)'. Srrlito Wirnwnrr S{rwono 0akerta)

l(D

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Sugoto, M.Si.,

Warga Tua
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l>.:nyunllng Pr:ngclola I Managing E.litot


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I r'{ ,',"u','ul' Mnrrolirr, I-ocin S. Napitupulu, 8.A., M.M., Chusnul, Riwahyono

10 Junl 2003

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EthnoqraphyandCognitiveTaskAnalysistoElicitExpertKnowledgein
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Angela L.S. Tan, Rosemary R. Seva, and Martin G. Helander

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Stres Kerja Akibat Konflik Peran Pada Wanita Bali

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l't6 Assessementof Per{ormanc, SubiectiveRatingandWorkloadon Various Parking


Layouls
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Ermida Simanjuntak
Classroom Fumiture and Student Body Dimensions in East Malaysian Primary
Schools
It A.R. Ghazilta, Z. Taha, S.H.A. Rashid, Iskandar, l'[azaruddin, and S.H. Sajeli
l(l) Physical Fitness and Academic Achlevement: Preschool Based and Non'
Preschool Based Elementary School Pupils
Tieqiep Habibudin and Danu Hoedaya
t6t

Terakreditasi I Accredited

Kcp. l)lktl Nomor: 34/DIKTI/Kep/2003,

Predicting Academie Adjustment and Result of ST[JNED (STUderen in NEDerland)

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Stal l)emasaren (Markaing Staf):

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Hubungan Orang Tua dengan Anak Dewasanya dan Keputusasaan di Kalangan

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'l lr,rrrur

Volume 21, Nomor 2

Psychology, Surebaya University

lrrrnscrr,

(lclrk l,prs
,,1,,,,,,,',,1,1,'rrl,rrr l',lr|ru1rn ckscnrplar
1 i . ltt.,.' t..l'tatI ,,r^l "lrrryu yurtB lfnnuflt

glllililg

Potron

',r,rxl,iltn

I'r,rl lrr lr

CI

Anima is published es a comunication md dissmination


media of research repods md scimtific papers in
psychologr/related sciences witi the purpose to advmce
science, knowledge, and theory oi psychology

.ll.
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ssN02150158

cm be read et inside beck cover

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Perceptual

Sirnaniuntak

Irrrhrrrrtrrr I'sychological Joumal

i,.l Jl No 2. l6l-168

(llassroom Furniture and Student Body


Primary Schools"
Firrrcnsions in i:"ii lT traysian
EAtfGhazilla**, a'Iaha,S'H'A'Rashid'lskandar'Nazaruddin'andS'H'Saieli
Design and Manufacturing'
C"ntt" iot
-or'Product
gngin;ering. besio n and M an ulactu re
o"p"'t*""ni
Kuala Lumpur
engineerini'rJ"'il'"unt"9'V ot f,'lalaya'
'*r ariffin@um.edu'mY
Alxtrrct'ttrisstudYi
{lnlrrctthisstrdinveSgdesmemsrnaturtttwwrq@q'u*-rJ*i.i-On rfhers*dyisrtquiredin

i[:[: *:::il:::*ll

:"'ilehffi *ffi"i*m:*l
al"y.,ttT
*nux;'i'ffi
ll5l i.;;ffifipfi

ioru
i:n in
( )r lc r to improve the condit
ottlcr
(

i,^ir**iuntiun

wasmeasured andanlhmpoTremcs]

usrrerDr"'--'- -;;tki;ioohigh
iurmffiim:#ffiffi$i6i
ns
io-irt.'rut
i;,Tilil;ffi?of
sruqelrt Duuv
,lcgrce ofmismatchbetweenm

formostofthe students.

T:,1%*".:,*:?$ltn1l?,,.r,*rtrnoushourMaraysra*,opo'.

;ii'#,xiii$'s?H*"lf$i'ii';*'J'!midli{::::";i[*i:l*'"9**:lyf.gi$il[l"J:
lhcresultisofgreatconcemwnrcnq)uruurs!rrruuL"-"'"u.iia".rtiiati'nsanddeuilstudiesare
ilf ;tE'iiil::i.{t:::**:f*",*n:;i,Hffi;'rffii.m
and improve rhe condirion
betteiundentandin g

l,i'giiiil'r:t oiae.6

prov ide

Keyrvord:classroomfumiture,Malaysiaprimarystudents'anthropometicmismatch

studiinimenvelidikiketidakcocoranalrara$1ry:Sffi|1trJf;$il11ffffiiffi*'#fr
^hstrak

:'"ll#ffiT*f,*'W**rumm*ffi*lxfirokG;il;'p*k31****''"
#galiuinur)'dariiuasekolah
r"oJpffiitOi(umprtkan OariiZ[lit""TO*
tiiukurdandarauf.-ran

Cilur'akan
vangdijadikanpmrr*n,Jn"diwKu;i"g'i'ffirk.orr^d;il;i;;il*"n*i*t-tolwaadatrngka

msmffi,ffifr ffi

IctidakcocokanyangunggiantaradimlnsinrbuhsiswlOtitt#*l|ffigktias'"Ba"gk'y-*s
rcrtaluringgiaaut

rrufudfiilrilnl*faraiiswa.naaluq;il;t*Jrk6'batrwamejiterlaluiin*iunt':*

penYelidikan lebih lanjutd

kondisitersebut.

Kaukunci:prabotkelas,siswastkola}rdasarMalaysi4ketakcocokanantropometrik

Malavsian schco!children spend a

badly
large of suffering leqativ3 sffects from

jy:iru***::l

iit.:,,il'H:
,*,f'li','n'si:i
*:ru,llil:ryof amp
rvironment compnsng
result in
can
child
routine .iu."?iftitti.s" andthe
of
lrours as well as tt. ur*oriaai[
establishment
#;;; G*e
(,t.tuirion classes. This protonged sitting
frorn p"irt"i"giJ"lstateswhich.couldaffecttheir
r)osture mosr often withbut support
risk p;;;;;tt in focusing in class and faster
to
susceptible
rr backrest makes them
r:r

This

article

was presented

Prof. Zahari Taha'

at the

seaeslPS

2005

in Denpasar,

Bati, May 23'25' Courtesy

of

Ghazilla

lirligue occurrence [2]. Various studies have


ill fitted design of classroom

slrowrr that the

lurniture have contributed to the high


incidence of musculoskeletal disorders

arnong school children [3]. This trend might


also be present in Malaysia but currently
tlrere is no study which indicates this. The
issue of back problems is prevalent in the

industry where the cost of solving this


problem is ever increasing. Tackling this
problem atthe initial stage in schools would
be ofgreat importance. The design ofchairs
and desks for the workplace has been
studied with great interest and yet little
interest has been shown in a school, which
under the Malaysian OSHA Act constitutes

as part of the workplace whereby the


students must be given the same attention
[4]. Thus the design of chair and desk must
be emphasized as required by the act. This
study was conducted not to determine the
cxistence of back problems among student
but to asses the fitness of the chair and
desk which could be an indicator of possible

et

al.

Fumiture and Body Dirnensions

back problems among students. Thlr


investigation examines the
mismatches between the individial
dimensions of Malaysian primary str
and the standard classroom furniture
available to them by the school

lhis study, stature dimensions foreach


r.lrlhl ;rrc taken whiie they are standing. ,4ll
lllrr,r rlimensions measured while they are
rllllnl crect on chair with knees bent at

This sru.dy would help in esrablishing


motivating the necessary further stl
in classroom ergonomics with n
attention to chair and desk.

\'turltttts Bod1, Dimensions

Hrrth' Measurernents

lelrlr

l'str{il(}ler

Method

A
to

Ftl\ts1'

hundred and twenty students,

12 years

old, from two primary r

in Kuching,

Sarawak, Malaysir

sampled in this pilot study. Twenty

from each grade were selected ia


Measurement is done with a teacher

during the measurement. Figure

the desk and chair currently used ln


schools.

measurernents they are


barefooted flat on a flat horizontal floor
surface. Students are dressed in light sports
attire. Table I shows the body dimeniions
measured in this study.

Measurements Method

4l;tlt!t (!

90'. For both

lrr

Me.asureo as the veriical ciisiance from the floor io ihe ico of ihe head.
while the students stood e!.ect, tooking stiaigtrt aneiCl '-'

l1q1gl11

i'h\lltil't heiqht

Measured- with the eibow flexed at g0, as the vrtical distance from
the
bottom of the tip of the eib.w to the'student's ieiGo suriace

Measured as the vertical distance from the top of rhe shoulder

at the acromiom
process to the student's s;tting surface.
li1's'tt1 ,11171 lengthDitterence tretween the erbow height
and shourder height.
I'tt'\' ltt\i(Jht Measured with knee flexed at g0o, as ihe vertical distance from
the foot
resting surface to be top of the knee cap, just abovJ the pateiia.
t't'l'ttlt"tl lteighi Measured with a 90o, knee flexion, frorn
the foot resting surface to the
popllteat space, which is the posterior surface oi ti..*- t nu*.
Hirtl't h Ltopliteal Measured with the knee fiexed at g0o, as the disiance
posterior
Ertltll 171,1rr1, suiface of the buttock to the posterior s,",rtace oiine ir+m the popritear
[n*u o,

te"t

tlltl

SUf

aCe.

rttIttre Meesur-erTrents
tlie desig$ and ihe size
rrl tlrr tlcsk and chair are similar as it is
ttr

I or lroth schools

lqlrlt

standard gol,em"tterii issued furniture. The


dirnensions of tire slassrocia furniture are

shc*r: in Table 2-

,l

t lt,rtt ttt;,! Desk Dimensians


Itar,rrrrlltJr

Measurement Method

,t=-tl lt,,ttJltt

3?-$,?rg:"rT
qetl rlttltlh
aedl

..1r4)e

a disrance trom rhe ftoor to the

htghesr poinr on the front

Measured from the back of the sitting surface of the seai to irs f.ant.
Direction and angle of the slope of the seat.s sitting surface.
Measured from the fioar to the top of the front ecge of the

t'="h ltt'tltht
dest{.
l'e"h i h'rtance Measured trom-the floor lo the bottom of the iront
edge oi ihe shelf under
the writing surface.

Figure

/.

Desk and chair currently used by both schools

Angle at which the writing surface of the desk stope.

Ghazilla el al-

Popliteal Height and

Statistical analysis was employed in


ordcr to determine the mean, standard
tleviation, and standard error of the
anlhr,rrpometrics data that have been

n ! I r r r ryNt tne

'I

the seat height was either > 95Yo or <


of thc popliteal height.
Buttock-popliteal Length and Seat
Mismatch'. ,6, mismatch is defined
the seat depth was either >95% or 80%
the popliteal height.
Knee Rest Height and Desk

tri cs Mis nesfc hes

hc numbel and percentage of

the
studcnts where the body match or mismatch
with thc lurniture is caiculated based on
tlrc r ulcs adapted from Parce![5] and Chaffin

l6l.

it'!iswatch: A mismatch is definod


*erurring when a desk was < 2cnt
tlran the knee ireight.
Eii;ov' Rest lleight and De,sk I

A rnismatch isete{inee as inc*nipatibility

hclwcen dimensions of the stue!+i:l's body


tlirnension. The rnismatch ruies are l*!lrrwetJ
Irr order to detsrffiine mismatch betweeir
c c'rtl rn body dintens ions and *s
c:orr-c.sponding design paraineter as listed

:1

ccs g! { cos

rvlru'r' hE is the vertical distanee lrom the


lop oi' the desk to the student's sitting
nS rs the shouider irerghi. irEv r:
'rrrlaec"
rlrc elbow height, U= hS - hEv is the upper
rrrnr length, (6J is shoulder flexion and {J3l

is shoulder abduction.
Accorciing to Chaffin and Anderson
( l99l), the minir'iuln and rnaximum
lcccptable angle of the shc"'ulder during
Minimum desk height

Wlrere

N4axrmum

hE

ihe following equaticn:

Based on the above dirnensions,

it

is

shoulder herght and desk herght rs detlneo

*htclr would be commonly applied to


L region.

the higher primary grade. The standard


deviation is higher at the oider groups
indicating a higher variability with
increasing age. The data does not separate
between male and female student which
could induce the variability as past
literatures have shown that the growth of
female child faster as compared with male
children during this age goup.

Inhlc I

Dimensions of the Standard


tiu'ernment Issued Chsir ond Desk
91

7 c.'s 4i.j.

(;? t )

writing is 00*2-5('for shouider llcxion


0o-20o for shoulder abduetion. l:or fli
angics thc rur-responding cosincs at ,t I
a:rC 0.9063 (25oi and for abduction
the cor"responding cosines are l(0't)
0.9397(2CCi. Applying the cosine$ to
equation (2.1). <iesk height is dctc
b1' the following equatioris:

(.?-

r hE

(2.3)

\2

Fgtatr

r,

'lcr

lerl

I rr

pe*rt

r,l()l)e

Average dimension

rt;ht

tert i iulrth
[t,ct

l,

38.0
38.0
0

Irr,ir-yht

p*l

,lt:aranCe

Ittt lx,

r'.ltlgle

52.0
0

l*bllI
llutt,,ttt.t Aged 7-9 Years Old (n=60)
Mean

5.U

117.57

6.08

104.5C

't41.00

0.79

13.50

7.00
?9.00

24.00
49.00

a.M

34.16

3.40
Aa2

0.62

18.90

3.O2

s0.c0

c.39

-illl'rq1 1,",'.,.'unnn

35.49

2.35

*ltls1 l,oplrteal

29.13

2.60

44.00
37.00
35.00

0.34

1,O0

47.4O

0.68

S-E mean

?)

4J

fl

a mismatch of elbow-

ltsrlrtional using wood as the material. The


nrpf,irrrcment for the chair and desk is
tlrrrlrr irr Table 3. It is interesting to note
lhcr e was no accommodation for back angle

Student's body dirnensions are shown


in table 4 and table 5 for two different age
group covering 7 to 9 years old which is
the lower primary grade and l0 to 12 for

At'er,t11c

+ cos n1 - cos B)]


0.9063) + 0.9603(i - 09397)]
= 0.85'17hEv + 0.1483 Hs, since g = hS - hEv-*-*- (25)

concluded that

for both schools which were

hurerl by the state education's supplier.


Far lr grade is provided with the same type
nf r lrnirs and desk. The design is purely

har

seai heighi + hE

cos

is

acceptable clesk height is deternrinld

desk nerght = sot herght

= hEv + U[(1 = hEv + U[(1 -

x t I furnitur e di me ns ions
l'lrc design of the chair and desk

I t:

r.unuuon

as when the desk was either shofldl


the minimum desk height or taller
maxlrnum desk herght.

llgl, rt ,'
Fll,r,i4 r,,1;1 (elbow height)
ihllirrg,;11,rr16"r heiglit
llplr*l rrrrrr length

of

Sndents

ill'l)or1 and reduce stresses at the lumbar

--*-=-'
hE = ri_ii + U[(1 - 1) + 1i1_1)] = hEv___*

Whe re.

f*'

Anthropometrics Measurements

fvfisrnatch: Ar:rrording tc parcel et a l, ( I

bclow.

ltf- kFv t i j

Results

Seqt

Mismatch: A mismatch is defined

colleclcd.
.,1

Fumiture and Body Dimensions

'J.UU

height
tullrrr h lroJrliteal length

31.35

1.95

30.00
25.00
26.00

ileiul't

20.3s

5.26

0.30
0.25

168

Ghazilla et at.

l'ablc

Furniture and BodY Dimenstons

Studcnts aged I0-12 (n:60)

Arrthropometric
Dirnensions

Mean

Stature

14C.81

Elbow rest (efbcw height)


Srttirrg shoulder height

Upper arm lenglh

S,D

16.70
44.12
21.52
43.78

120.00
10.00

, qq.
3.81

3S.ES

3.88

30"c0
31.00
31.00

38.88

Weight

4,"t6

37.05

12.21

6 shows lhe

percentag ofstudents
the chair for bcth age groups.

ritt

35.50
17.O0

2A.AA

160.00

1.11

23.00
52.00
25.00

0,46
0.58
0,39
0.4e
0.37
0,54

51.C0

43.00
49.0e
72.A0

lower

primar-y age groirps fits the chair whereby

l'ahle 6

I'crcentage af Srudents Who Fit the Chair


l)imensions

Age group Z-9 (percentage)

N%

Age group 10-'12 (percentage)


NI

O/

lrkiat hetght

loo

low

Ht

loo

high

0
0

0
0

60

100

lt

JJ.JJ
38 33
28.33

JJ

55.00

Seat riepth

Ioo

shallow

Frt

Too deep

0
60

'r00

zb
'|

43.33

166

Table

Age group 7-9

4ge grouP

N%

trr,tlJlrl

()l

StUdent

ll"[rw 0
il i) cilr

lj
rrltl
,, I

cm

cnr

cm

rove 8.1 cm

Discussions
ll;rscd on the resuits it is obvious

elbow heighr where else for the high$


age group

more rhan 50% of thanl


Pr*ury
nave ro ratse more than 5 cm of thl[
functional elbow height. As for ttre kni
clearances all of the students are well ov$
2 cm which would fit all of them nicety,

8.30
b.bb
23.33
35.00

Lbo

10
1a

Itn.OO

14

21.66

a1

35

58.33

16

26.66

ConclUslon
that

Irrrrrilure through out the world. The


rrrrt;rbility of student dimension has not

laken into consideration in the design


rrl thc chair and desk for both this school.
llrr tlcsign of chairs and desk may not
Irnvt' bcen done through proper ergonomics
lrr,r'rr

rrnsiderations which cause these


lrrr'nratches to arise. While this study is
lrrly l pilot study, the finding could be
nr rndicator of similar problem in other

r,

OC,

rt rril('-size-fil all design was implemented


flr the chair and desk. The same findings
Irrrvc ;rlso been found by other researchers
rlr tlrt'rr respective couniries. This rndicates
s lrl k trf thorough design studies of school

lrouls through out the country. Since the


by the

h,rirs and desks are supplied

it could have
weil being of
the
towards
olrlund
effect
l,r
tlrr crrrrent and future school children. As

povernment suppliers
l'able 7 shows the percentage ofstudents
who fits the desk for both age groups. Based
on the results the table is too trigh for the
majority of the students whereby irore than
70Yu.of the lower primary age group have
to raise more than 5 cm of their frmitional

.10-12

r,,:' of desk height over


ail Elrlirble functional elbow

158

whiie tire resl are either to too low or


and oo shaiiow or deep.

Wo Fit the

F.r

aii of them tbr.rnd the chair to be too


yci.tg.deep for their bo,Jy dimensionl,
the h.igherprirnary age group only 3g.li
flis rhe height and 43.3'J % firs thc dl

I)imensiory

rvho ilts
Ilased on ihe results none of,

lltrErtr:;tons

Al

lL.fismotch Between Stztdent


I ] o dy D i m e ns irs rts ond C hd, i r
e:,"td E e s k
o_i'

I'able

Max

8.62
3.47
4.24

Sjtting knee height


Sitting popl;ieal height
Ruttock-p6plilsal length

Level

nltlc

Filr.ttluge of Students

tlrc OSI{A act ruling is indicative of


pnvcrnments concerns ofhealth and safety

irr lhc workplace including schoois


rrrirsules must be taken to avoid schools
lrr'rng non-compliance of the act.

Tire firrdings

of this pilot

study shows

that further deiail investigation is required'

fhe findrng could be lusl the tlp ol the


iceberg whire more information needs to
gatliered to cater the variations of student
population across age gender and location

be

ihroughout MalaysL. Several issues that


would be of concern are listed below for

further investigation and research'


The standard dimensions of school

furniture mav not be suited for Malaysian

primary schtol children which sulgest


i n*eO for children anthropometric
database of Malaysian population for

of deslgn'
The design of classroom furniture
involves i multidirnensional problem
whereby further studies are required in
order to understarrd the key elements
and its effect"
The variabiiifv of sizes requires new
school furniture designs that could
acconmodate this variability across age

the purpose

and gender

Ghazila et al.

i**rs

|xkrcsian Psychologieal
No. 2. 169-175

The effect ofrnismatches befween schoo!

Effg.rts are currently being made


to

furniture and body dimensions have yet


to be tcuched in Malaysian schoo!

studles on the above issues which


help ensure the future work f0
Malaysia are nor affected bV MSd
could han:per the nation buiaing

children wiiich suqgest a study on its

impact so that proper governmental


regulation can be sefi:p.

l,hysical Fitness and Academic Achievefilert:


Pieschoot 6ased and Non-Freschool Based
Elementary School PuPils"
Tjetjep Habibudin and Danu Hoedaya*'
faxtittds' Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan

References

Universitas Pendidikan lndonesia


**E-mail: drdanu @Yahoo-com

chaffin' G', Anderson, D. {rggl). occupatiana!


Biamechanics. New york: wilcy,

'*;;u^::?tr: j"(-'::2,,;;',h::;!i:i;,,,'ii'i"L,trerors
'*^:kf;;?.:.'jfr
a i n g d i ca mfa r ? Mei boume : proceed
in gs
*J il ii, a" ;Z'{r";:"::;:r!X,;;
---aErgonomics S*clety r-rf Australia.
"i
se

Lane K, Richardson M- (t993). Flurnan factors


engineering and schoor furniture: A
Educatian Facility planner, Zi,'iZ-ZS.
- _ _odyssey.

Malaysian aecxpatitmai
'gafety and Heorth
Ministry of Human Reiources.

eit.

ttgs+).Deparunenr of safety and

Olsen, T.L., Anderson, R.., Dearwater, S.R.,


fuiska, A.M., Cauiy,J.A., Aaron, D.J.,
I
R.E. ( r992)" r-he epidem.ioiagy o-ir'w bu"k
rn an adolescenr popuiarion. A

Jayrnal of Public Heahh, AZg1,

parcells,

c',

Joumal

sre Vol ,l l,

;;;

AOO_SOL.'

Stommer, 1n., & Hubbarq, Rp


tisss). Mismatch of ctrassroom turnituro
srudenr body dimensions. urournar of Adiiescent

based

Abstract.Thepurposeofthisstudywastodetermine.thelevelofphy.sica!finress-ofPreschool
rriir.ruryictrootpupils-ardthecrindibutionofphysicalfinressontheir
first semester'
,,roO.rilacttiet.r.nt-iilJutti.uf t*uttr."taics-, it6oththebeginninggndtheendoftre
prpilstomtrrceelementary
Ai"volving40maleardfemalegraie'l
n'ia*+oSn*to*tf*a*lt*"Ot.t

ft;;il;.tr[|i;.*ogiiJ
schoots.TheTKJItfnOon

iiil'i;f'tyii*f Fm.tif.s*6111,alncaOimicAihievementTesr)wereused

,,,l"if..tarrr-nqu.rrionnuir.*iiAioOist iUureOlnorderloobtainimp"tl*tf{lryiniormation

iilrl6*rb'd;tti.ve.R.;"lb;.tttt

scores

-r,ir.""
t

{Rreschool-Uasedpupilspiisrssedbetter_fitnesslevelsand
mes're rihe pupiis a!so scoicdbetterin mathematics'
foundon fiuress levels be rweenthetwo groups.The implieations of

befterinmun.*rii"r. etti,eendofthe fiisrse

iig-"ifdioif.r*.ri "."

hc resulls are discussed.

Keywords: physical fi tnes, academic

Hearth, 24 (4). z6s-273.

mentarv schooi pupils' non'

ffi*;;.Ji5:,l,filfrT,ffifff
t sekola'\

Atrstrrk.T'ujuanstudiiniadalah untukmenentukantinCkal.$lu$aranjt:tglgl^'::,kelas
(JasttSnlyui,g**np*p.ttJiolt*pra-sekolahdanyingricut',[anptngq*keb"rgaranjasmanitersebul

ritu-paOi'permuiaaiCanakhirsernesterpertamaDa1am

nrO-iit*"?f".akade;'k:il;susni.*tatn

;ffilitililt;.

rcdcLr-li;;;fart;diterapkandenginmilibakan40si*adensiswidaritigasD'

Data

liihr"stlk*'d;e*a"urriio,Fo-rti,,i*tasminitnuonesitilK{){*-li|:f-'lTiianAkadei'nis
il,il;Dl;;pftn,ait.rit.l"i.luesTonerunr.rkrnemperolehrambahanffirmasipentirigterutarnd

il;iffid;"g;ffig*.

fi^if+'*fi**runiukkanUah'+'asiswa-siswiyang_mempemlehpendidika*pra-

iU*i*iiiUE*re;all;^*-id*skor

niiar matematikya.rglebih baiL. Padaakhirsernesterperlama'

siswa-siswitencb.'tiugum.meror.rii[oimut

*rtxyatrgituiFuuiknumultat3!-lfl;4@siEtltgt

il;ileillfi&'d;ft-ffiiltaail;;k

i#p"fistsebui.

Dibahas berbagai impl ikasi dad hmil-

hasiltemebul
Karakunci:kebugaranjasrnani,prestasiakademik,penCidikaqpra'SD

t'hildren will grow and develop into mature and responsible-person (Immanuel
1947)'
lurrurity through Jducation oniy; in other Kant, 1940; cited in Henderson'
(1997i
views
al.
et
w,,rds'it is o-nly education which can Moreover, Lutan
rlr.tt-.rmine how well a child can become

education as deliberate actions toward a

+'l'hisarticlewaspresentedattheseaeslPS2005inDenpasar'Bali'May23'25
C'r,tiii-it D;n; Hoe;;;a,'pi-o.- ii ri"tlep Habibudin' drs'' M'Pd'
16S