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Government College University, Faisalabad

Department of Electrical Engineering

Computer Aided Drawing


Lab Manual

Prepared & Edited by:


Engr. Abdul Ghafoor Bhatti (Lecturer)

Verified by:
Engr. Kashif Nisar Paracha (Lecturer)

Approved by:
Engr. Muhammad Afzal Sipra (TI, M),
Associate Professor, Chairman Electrical
Engineering
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

TABLE OF LAB EXPERIMENTS


Sr.
No.

Experiment

Page
No.

1.

Introduction to AutoCAD
To introduce the IntelliMouse and the AutoCAD coordinate system.
To Open AutoCAD 2004 and the AutoCAD 2004 window.
To save AutoCAD drawings.
To close and exit AutoCAD.

07

2.

Drawing with AutoCAD


To create the drawings using absolute coordinate entry and other four methods.
Using the Line, Polyline, Rectangle, Polygon, Circle, and Arc tools.
Using the worked examples to the above commands for better understanding.

13

3.

Text with AutoCAD


To introduce the text fonts available in AutoCAD.
To show how text styles are set in AutoCAD.

20

4.

Orthographic projection with AutoCAD


To show how objects can be fully explained as to size and shape in technical drawings of

29

the type Orthographic projections in first and third angle.

5.

Geometric Construction with AutoCAD


To create and Save AutoCAD drawing files.
To use the AutoCAD visual reference commands and to draw, using the LINE and CIRCLE

38

commands.

To use the ERASE command and the AutoCAD Pan Realtime option.

6.

Dimensions with AutoCAD


To introduce methods of dimensioning drawings.
Introducing the Dimension toolbar with application of tools from the toolbar.

47

7.

Sectioning and Hatching with AutoCAD


To illustrate the interior details by passing a section through a drawing.
How to section the views in AutoCAD and to discuss uses & types of section views.
To introduce various forms of hatching with the variety of hatching patterns.
To demonstrate hatching from the Boundary Hatch & Fill dialog and command line.

52

8.

Auxiliary views with AutoCAD


To equip the students with the basic knowledge and skills of engineering drawing to draw
auxiliary views, their need and positioning in drawing.

66

To familiarize the students with the application of auxiliary views with examples.

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

9.

Surface Intersection with AutoCAD


To equip the students with the basic knowledge of surface intersection of same or different
solids and their intersection line/curve.

74

To familiarize the students with the application of AutoCAD in surface intersections.

Pictorial drawing with AutoCAD


The purpose of this experiment is to show how objects can be fully explained as to size and
10.

shape in technical drawings of the Isometric type.

11.

12.

To familiarize students with the Isometric representation of an object in a form


understandable for a layman.

Freehand Sketching
To explain why freehand sketching is important in design.
To draw Freehand sketch lines and curves
To sketch an isometric 3-D projection and an orthographic multiview projection
3D Drawing
To introduce and describe the use of 3D modeling in AutoCAD 2004.
To learn the use of Properties, Render, move/copy in Z-direction, DDVPOINT, REVSURF
commands in 3D and 3D Objects dialog box.

80

90

96

To learn how to give objects a thickness, how to move them vertically, how to view your
3D creations and how to use the 3DFACE and SHADE commands.

APPENDICES
Sr.
No.

Appendix

Page
No.

A.

Type of Lines in Engineering Graphics

111

B.

Types of Holes in Engineering Graphics

112

C.

AutoCAD Drawing and Editing Commands

113

D.

AutoCAD Function Keys

122

E.

Drawing Assignments

123

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

PREFACE
The laboratory of each and every subject taught in the degree of Bachelors in Electrical
Engineering is of very much importance in every University. Fully equipped laboratory meeting
the industrial demands under the supervision of qualified, talented and practically motivated lab
assistants and lab engineers is also a basic criterion of the Pakistan Engineering Council. This
Laboratory manual is designed to help students to use AutoCAD software for Engineering
Drawing.
The objective of this manual is focused on how to use AutoCAD program as a drawing tool to
draw objects and to develop basic concepts of engineering graphics, which are essential for every
student enrolled in engineering. It is also an excellent method of learning the basics of AutoCAD
software for more general purpose.
The class work and Homework assignments in this manual are arranged to match the lecture
sessions. Every Command is explained and examples of its use are shown during the Lecture.
Special thanks to the staff and students for assisting me in the preparation of this manual.

With Regards
Engr. Abdul Ghafoor Bhatti

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

General Lab Instructions


Each student group consists of a maximum of 2-4 students. Each group member is
responsible in submitting lab report upon completion of each experiment on their
practical Note book.
Students are to wear proper attire i.e shoe or sandal instead of slipper. Excessive jewelries
are not advisable as they might cause electrical shock.
A permanent record in ink of observations as well as results should be maintained by
each student and enclosed with the report.
The recorded data and observations from the lab manual need to be approved and
signed by the lab instructor upon completion of each experiment.
Before beginning, make sure the software is properly installed and registered.
Start the experiment after adjusting the settings according to the experiments
requirements to get the authorized results.
Each student should perform the same experiment one by one with all its relative options
to be fully familiar with the command.
The students may ask the lab instructor to check the correctness of their work before
closing the file.
The students should write down the commands for repeated practice in the lab as well as
at home.
When the experiment has been satisfactory completed and the results approved by the
instructor, the students may exit the software and shut down the computer properly.
Chairs are to be slid in suitably.

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

Experiment No. 1
INTRODUCTION TO AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To introduce the IntelliMouse and the AutoCAD coordinate system.


To Open AutoCAD 2004 and the AutoCAD 2004 window.
To save AutoCAD drawings.
To close and exit AutoCAD.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
AutoCAD is an outstanding tool for learning the basics of Engineering Drawing. It
takes the user from one view engineering drawing to geometric constructions, multi-view
projections, 3D modeling and solid modeling. Each tutorial follows a traditional engineering
drawing techniques and methods while showing how to utilize the features and benefits of
AutoCAD to achieve professional results.
AutoCAD is the most widely used design and drafting software in the world. AutoCAD
provides you with the capability to create complex and accurate drawings. Its position as
the industry standard makes it an essential tool for anyone preparing for a career in engineering,
design, or technology. Because it is the industry standard, AutoCAD is the ideal cornerstone for
your design and drafting skill set. With knowledge of AutoCAD, you will find it easy to add
any number of a wide range of applications to create a complete design environment suited
to your needs.

STARTING AUTOCAD
From the Start Menu, choose Programs. Then choose AutoCAD from the menu (Figure 1.1).

OR

You can double click the icon

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

, available on the desktop.

Figure 1.1: Starting AutoCAD from start menu

Figure 1.2: The startup dialog box

When you start AutoCAD 2004, the startup dialog box is displayed. It provides you with
four ways to start a drawing. You can:
1. Open a Drawing: It enables you to open a Drawing from a list of four most recently opened
drawings. It also displays a Browse button to choose another file.
OR

Command line: OPEN

2. Start from the scratch: Opens a drawing based on the measurement system you choose;
English - feet and inches

and

Metric millimeters

(If AutoCAD is already started, from the File menu, choose New)
OR

Command line: NEW

3. Use a Template: Opens a drawing based on a template selected from a list. The list displays
files that exist in the drawing template file location as specified in the options dialog box.
4. Use a Wizard: Opens a drawing that you set up using either the Quick Setup wizard or the
Advanced Setup Wizard.

STARTING DRAWINGS FROM THE SCRATCH


Starting a drawing from the scratch is a quick way to begin a new drawing. In this way, you
can select one of the two measurement systems for the new drawing.

Imperial: Creates a drawing based on Feet and Inches measurement system. The default
drawing boundary, called drawing limits is 12 x 9 inches.

Metric: Creates a drawing based on metric measurement system. The default drawing
boundary is 429 x 297 millimeters.

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

AUTOCAD WINDOW / AUTOCAD DRAWING EDITOR


When you start AutoCAD, the AutoCAD window opens which is the design space. It
contains elements that you use to create your designs and to receive information about them.
The main parts of the AutoCAD window are:

Figure 1.3: AutoCAD Drawing Editor

MENU BAR: It contains the default AutoCAD menus. Menus are defined by menu files that you
can modify or design on your own. The default menu file is acad.mnu. Menu bar contains the
Pull Down menus such as File, Edit, View, Insert, Format etc.
STANDARD TOOLBAR: It contains Microsoft Office standard buttons such as New, Open,
Save, Print etc. and frequently used buttons such as Redraw, Undo, Zoom etc. The lower right
corner of the buttons has flyouts which display the function of each button.
OBJECT PROPERTIES TOOLBAR: It enables you to set the properties of the objects such as
Color, Linetype and Line-Weight and also manages Layers.
DRAW AND MODIFY TOOLBARS: They provide access to common Draw and Modify
commands. These toolbars are displayed when you start AutoCAD. Former is docked on the left
side of the window and later on right side. They are also called as Floating Toolbars as they can
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

be easily moved and placed anywhere on the screen. You can turn the toolbars ON or OFF. To
turn ON or OFF any toolbar, Right Click on any available toolbar, it displays a list of toolbars,
select (click on) the desired toolbar you want to display or close.
DRAWING AREA: It displays the drawing. The drawing area size varies, depending on the size
of the AutoCAD window and other displayed elements such as toolbars and dialog boxes.
CROSSHAIR: It Identifies pick and drawing points within the drawing area. You can use the
crosshairs, controlled by your pointing device (such as mouse), to locate points and select and
draw objects. It also displays the current X, Y and Z co-ordinate values as you move it.
USER COORDINATE SYSTEM (UCS) ICON:

It shows the orientation of the drawing.

AutoCAD drawings are superimposed on an invisible grid, or coordinate system, based on X, Y


and (for 3D) Z coordinates. AutoCAD has a fixed world coordinate system (WCS) and a
movable user coordinate system (UCS).

Figure 1.4: UCS in AutoCAD

MODEL / LAYOUT TABS: They enable you to switch your drawing between model (drawing)
space and paper (layout) space. You create your designs in the model space, and then create
layouts to plot or print your drawings in paper space.
COMMAND WINDOW: Displays prompts and messages. In AutoCAD, you can give the
command in one of the three ways:
1. Choose an item from the menu or a shortcut menu
2. Click a button on a toolbar
3. Enter the command on the Command Line
Whichever method you use to give the command, AutoCAD displays command prompts and the
command history in the command window. It is a good practice to have an eye on the command
window as the prompts displayed will enable you to know what exactly is required. It also
displays error messages which will enable you to rectify the error.
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STATUS BAR: Displays the cursor coordinates in the lower left corner. The status bar also
contains buttons that can be used to turn on/off the common drawing aids. These include Snap,
Grid, Ortho, Polar, Osnap etc.

USING POINTING DEVICES


The Drawings can be controlled in AutoCAD using a pointing device such as a standard
mouse, an IntelliMouse or a digitizing tablet. The points can be specified either by clicking the
pointing device or by entering coordinates on the command line.
MOUSE: The options from menus and toolbars can be selected by clicking them with the
mouse. Mouse can also be used to draw or to select objects on the screen. With a two button
mouse, the left button is a pick button used to specify points on the screen. The right button
either displays a shortcut menu or is equivalent to pressing Enter. With a three button mouse, the
middle button either activates real-time panning or zooms in and out.
INTELLIMOUSE: The IntelliMouse is a two button mouse with a small wheel between the
buttons. The left and right button behaves in the same way as in a standard mouse. The wheel
can be used to zoom and pan in your drawing without using any AutoCAD command.
Using the IntelliMouse with AutoCAD
Zoom in or out

Rotate the wheel forward to zoom in, backward to zoom out.

Zoom to drawing extents

Double-click the wheel button.

Pan

Press the wheel button and drag the mouse.

SAVING DRAWINGS
When you are working on a drawing, you should save it frequently to avoid loss of work.
To save a drawing;
1. Click the icon

in Standard toolbar OR choose save from the file menu.

If you have previously saved and named the drawing, AutoCAD saves any subsequent
changes in the same drawing.

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

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Figure 1.5: Save Drawing As dialog box

Figure 1.6: Exiting AutoCAD

2. Choose save as from the file menu. Save Drawing As dialog box is displayed. In the
dialog box, under File Name, enter the name of the drawing and then choose Save.
OR

Command Line: SAVE

CLOSING DRAWINGS
Close command closes the active drawing (in case you are working with multiple drawings).
1. Drawings can be closed by clicking on button
OR
2. Choose Close from the File menu.

in the upper-right corner of drawing.

EXITING AUTOCAD
Choose Exit from the File menu (Figure 1.6).
OR

Command Line: QUIT

TIPS
1. In AutoCAD Default values are given like <Default> or <34.878> and Options are
given like [2P/3P/ Ttr]. Each option is separated by a forward slash /.
2. To accept the default value/settings press Enter.
3. To use an Option which is not the default, just type in the name of the option by typing
the capital character(s). For Example to use option CLose, typing CL is sufficient.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

12

Experiment No. 2
DRAWING WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To create the drawings using absolute coordinate entry and other four methods.
Using the Line, Polyline, Rectangle, Polygon, Circle, and Arc tools.
Using the worked examples to the above commands for better understanding.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Draw commands are used to create new objects such as Line, Polyline, and Circle etc. Most
AutoCAD drawings are composed purely and simply from these basic components. So, their
good understanding is fundamental to the efficient use of AutoCAD. In common with most
AutoCAD commands, the Draw commands can also be given in THREE ways.
1. Command names or short-cuts can be entered at the Keyboard.
e.g. Command line: LINE or L

2. Commands can also be started from the Draw Pull-Down Menu as


3. From the Draw Toolbar.

Note: In a pull down menu a symbol "

" next to a menu item means that the item

leads to a sub-menu that may contain other commands or command options. An ellipsis,
after a menu item means that the item displays a dialog box.

LINES
Lines are probably the simplest of AutoCAD objects. It can be drawn between any two points
picked within drawing area. It can be one segment or a series of segments, but each segment is a
separate line object. The line command can be used when you need to edit individual segments.
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

13

THE LINE COMMAND


Toolbar
Pull-down menu
Command:

Draw Line
Line (or) L

TO DRAW A LINE
By picking points on the screen:
Line command draws a simple line from first point/end (P1) to the second (P2). Pick the
points; the line is drawn from first point to the second as shown above. Similarly, you can
continue picking third, fourth, fifth points and so on. Each line segment drawn is a separate
object and can be moved or erased as required. To end the command, just hit

(enter key) or

spacebar key on the keyboard. You can draw lines by using anyone of the five coordinate entry
methods below. After which, the diverse methods out of these are detailed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ABSOLUTE Rectangular/Cartesian Coordinates


RELATIVE Rectangular/Cartesian Coordinates
ABSOLUTE Polar Coordinates
RELATIVE Polar coordinates
Direct Distance Entry

(100 , 0)
@ (100 , 0)
100 < -90
@ 100 < -90
100

DRAWING HIDDEN LINES


From the object properties toolbar, choose the line type command, and then select Hidden.
Proceed as above.
Using Cartesian Coordinates
Select

command from the Toolbar or Draw Line

Command Sequence
Command: Line
Specify first point: 10, 5 (or give any point) press
Specify next point: 20, 30 press
Specify next point: enter the coordinates of the next

point or

to complete the line

Thus a line will be drawn between these two points.


Using Polar Coordinate system
Select

command from the Toolbar or Draw Line

Command Sequence
Command: Line
Specify first point: Specify value of a point press

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

or pick a point
14

Specify next point: @20<45


Specify next point: enter the length and angle of the next line or

to complete the line

Using Direct Distance Entry


Select

command from the Toolbar or Draw Line

Command Sequence
Command: Line
Specify first point: Specify value of a point, then press
or pick a point
Specify next point: 30, move cursor in the direction in which to draw the line, then press
Specify next point: enter the length of the next line, move the cursor in the direction

desired line and press

. At the end, press

of the

again to complete the line.

PRACTICE OF LINE COMMAND

Figure 2.1: Two shapes for practice of Line Command

Figure 2.2: Application of Polyline Command

POLYLINES
A polyline is a connected sequence of line or arc segments created as a single object.
Polyline command can be used to edit all segments at once, set width of individual segments,
make segments taper and close the polyline. In practice the Polyline command works in the same
way as the Line command allowing you to pick as many points as you like.
Again, just hit

to end. As with the Line command, you also have the option to

automatically close a polyline end to end. To do this, type C to use the close option instead of
hitting

. The example above shows a number of polylines to give you an idea of the

flexibility of this type of line.


THE POLYLINE COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Polyline

Command:

Pline (or) PL

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

15

To Draw a rectangle of 50 x 30
Select

(as is shown above in steps 1, 2, 3, 4)

command from the toolbar (or) Draw Polyline

Command Sequence
Command: Pline
Specify start point: (pick any point)
Specify
Specify
Specify
Specify

next
next
next
next

Current line-width is 0.0000

point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 50, move cursor right


point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, cursor up
point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 50, cursor left
point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: 30, move cursor

downwards press

(or C to close)

PRACTICE OF POLYLINE AND RECTANGLE COMMANDS

Figure 2.3: A shape for practice of Polyline Command

Figure 2.4: Application of Rectangle Command

RECTANGLE
The Rectangle command is used to draw a rectangle whose sides are vertical and horizontal.
The position and size of the rectangle are defined by picking two diagonal corners. The rectangle
isn't really an AutoCAD object at all. It is, in fact, just a closed polyline which is automatically
drawn for you. The Rectangle command also has a number of options. Width works in the same
way as for the Polyline command. The corners of the rectangle can be Chamfered and Filleted.
The Elevation and Thickness commands are 3D options.
THE RECTANGLE COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Rectangle

Command:

Rectangle (or) REC

Command Sequence
Command: Rectangle
Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:pick P1
Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: pick P2

POLYGON
The Polygon command can be used to draw any regular polygon from 3 sides up to 1024
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

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sides. This command requires four inputs from the user, the number of sides, a pick point for the
center of the polygon, whether you want the polygon inscribed or circumscribed and then a pick
point which determines both the radius of this imaginary circle and the orientation of the
polygon. The polygon command creates a closed polyline in the shape of the required polygon.
This command also allows you to define the polygon by entering the length of a side using the
Edge option or by entering an exact radius for the circle.
TO DRAW A POLYGON
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Polygon

Command:

Polygon (or) POL

Command Sequence
Command: Polygon
Enter number of sides <4>: 5
Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: pick P1 or type E to define by edge length
Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>:

(to

accept the inscribed default or type C for circumscribed)


Specify radius of circle: pick P2 or enter exact radius

CIRCLE
Along with Line and Polyline, the Circle command is probably one of the
most frequently used. In common with the other commands, there are a
number of options that can help you construct just the circle you need. Most
of these options are self-explanatory but in some cases it can be quite
confusing. The Circle command, for example, offers 6 ways to create a circle.
THE CIRCLE COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Circle Center, Radius

Command:

Circle (or) C

Command Sequence
Command: Circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: (pick P1)
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <50.0195>: 25
(or pick P2) (this value

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

is

17

taken as radius of the circle)


Circle - Center, Diameter
Command: Circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan
radius)]: (pick P1)
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <50.0195>: type D
Diameter <50.0195>: 40 (value of diameter)

tan

Circle - 2P (Two Points)


Command: Circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan
radius)]: 2P
Specify first end point of the circle's diameter: pick P1 or

specify value of point


Specify second end point of the circle's diameter:

pick P2 or

specify value of point


Circle - 3P (Three Points)
3P option uses any three points on the circumference to form a diameter to
draw the circle. The command can be used in the same way as described above.
Circle - Ttr (Tangent, Tangent, Radius)
To use this option, you need to have two lines/arcs already drawn which can be described as
tangents to the circle to be drawn. Once the tangents are specified, it will prompt you to enter the
radius of the circle. A circle will be drawn with this radius and the two lines as tangents.
Command: Circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan
radius)]: T
Specify point on object for first tangent of the circle:

select L1 (line 1)
Specify point on object for second tangent of the circle:

select L2 (line2)
Specify radius of the circle < 23.657>: 10 (specify value of radius)

Circle - Tangent, Tangent, Tangent


To use this option, you need to have three lines/arcs already
drawn which can be described as tangents to the circle to be drawn.
Once the tangents are specified, a circle will be drawn with these
three lines as tangents.
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

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ARC
The Arc command draws an arc of a circle. There are numerous ways to
define an arc; the default method uses three pick points, a start point, a
second point and an end point. Using this method, the drawn arc will start at
the first pick point, pass through the second point and end at the third point.
THE ARC COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Arc 3 Points

Command:

Arc or A

Command Sequence
Command: ARC
Specify start point of arc or [Center]: (pick P1)
Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: (pick P2)
Specify end point of arc: (pick P3)

You can either pick points or specify the actual value of the point in terms of X, Y
coordinates. The command allows you to draw an arc by 10 different methods. All the options
work in the same way as described above. The Continue option allows you to draw arcs
continuously with the last option used. It will automatically select the end point of the previous
arc as the start point and will prompt you to enter only the end point.

TIP
1. The Autodesk website www.autodesk.com can be brought to screen from the Select File
dialog with a click on the Search the Web icon in the dialog.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

19

Experiment No. 3
TEXT WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To introduce the text fonts available in AutoCAD.


To show how text styles are set in AutoCAD.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Text conveys important information in your drawing. It can be created and added to your
drawing through the Keyboard. You use text for title blocks, to label parts of the drawing, to
give specifications, or to make annotations. AutoCAD provides two ways to create text.

Single Line Text


Mtext (Multi line text)

- used for short simple entries with editing


- used for longer entries with more formatting options

SINGLE LINE TEXT


USING SINGLE LINE TEXT
Pull-down menu

Draw Text Single Line Text

Command:

Text

Command Sequence
Command: Text
Current text style: "Standard" Text height: 2.5000
Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style]: pick a point
Specify height <2.5000>:
(or specify value of text height)
Specify rotation angle of text <0>:
(or specify angle)
Enter Text: Welcome To AutoCAD (enter the text required)
Enter Text:
(or enter the second line of text)

MULTI LINE TEXT


For Long complex entries, multiline text can be used. It consists of any number of text lines
or paragraphs that fit within the width specified (by defining a window). Unlike single-line text,
Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

20

multiline text includes all text lines or paragraphs created in its editing session as part of the
same mtext object. You can move, rotate, erase, copy, mirror or scale mtext objects. It has more
editing options. Using multiline text editor you can underline, change font, color, text etc.
USING MULTILINE TEXT (MTEXT)
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Text

Command:

MTEXT

Multiline Text

Command Sequence
Command: Mtext
Specify first corner: pick a point (defines one end of text window)
Specify opposite corner: pick a point (defines opposite end of the text window)

The text will fit in this window. Once the window is defined, Text Formatting menu is displayed
as shown in Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.1: Text Formatting Menu

You can enter the text, change the font, change the size of the font, specify colour, change
the style, and change the width of the text. After you enter the text and make the necessary
editing; choose OK to exit the command. The text will then be entered in your drawing area.

SETTING TEXT STYLE


1. Click on Text Style . . . in the Format drop-down menu and the Text Style dialog appears
(Figure 3.2).

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

21

Figure 3.2: The Text Style dialog

2. In the Font name popup list click Arial.


3. Click the New... button for the New Text Style dialog. Enter Arial in its Style name field
(Figure 3.3) and click its OK button. The name Arial appears in the Style name field.

Figure 3.3: The New Text Style dialog

If thought necessary several other text styles could be included by adding to those already in
the Text Style dialog. The method of adding text styles has been described in Figure 3.3.
EXAMPLE SINGLE LINE TEXT
Command Sequence
Command: enter dt
Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style]: pick or enter coordinates
Specify rotation angle of text _0_:
Enter text: This is text which is being placed in the AutoCAD 2004 starting at

the point as

specified Press
Enter text: press

key again

Computer Aided Drawing Lab Manual

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As the text is typed at the keyboard, so it appears in the AutoCAD drawing area, starting at
the specified point. If at the second prompt Enter text: further text is typed, it appears below the
first line of text. Several lines of text can be entered in this manner.

Note: Instead of a right-click to go into the next prompt sequence, the

key of the

keyboard must be pressed. Right-clicks have no effect when using this tool.
EXAMPLE MULTILINE TEXT
Command Sequence
Call the Multiline Text tool with a click on its tool icon in the Draw toolbar as shown in
Figure 3.4 or enter t or mt at the command line. The command line shows:
Command:mtext
Current text style: ARIAL
Text height: 8
Specify first corner: pick
Specify opposite corner or [Height/Justify/Line spacing /Rotation
/Width]: drag to size and pick

Figure 3.4: MText icon in Draw toolbar

/Style

Figure 3.5: The Multiple Line text size box

A rectangular box appears shown in Figure 3.5. Drag the corner of the box to the size in
which text is to be placed. With the pick of the opposite corner the Text Formatting dialog
appears above the box which changes appearance as shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6: The Text Formatting dialog

Type text to be placed in AutoCAD drawing area in the box and when finished, click OK
button of the Text Formatting dialog. Text appears placed as required in the AutoCAD window.

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Note: The size of the box in which text has been entered can be adjusted drag the corner of
the rectangle at the top of the box in which text has been entered as indicated in Figure 3.7. Note
that the unit length of the dragged box appears in brackets above the dragged edge.

Figure 3.7: Dragging the text box to size

Figure 3.8: The two types of fonts

TEXT FONTS
A large number of text fonts are available in AutoCAD. These are of two types Windows
True Type and AutoCAD SHX fonts. In the Font name popup list of the Text Style dialog, the
fonts are shown with one of two icons against their names. Figure 3.8 shows these two icons. A
few examples of the Windows True Type fonts are shown as follows:

Whereas some of the AutoCAD SHX fonts are given as:

Thus the complete list of the fonts available in AutoCAD 2004 is given in Figure 3.9 as.

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Figure 3.9: The text fonts available in AutoCAD 2004

Some of the Windows True Type fonts can be entered in Bold, Italic, Bold Italic or Regular
style. SHX fonts can only be entered in a single style.

CHECKING SPELLINGS
There are two methods, one each for the single line and multiline text, by which spelling of
text can be checked and corrected.
EXAMPLE THE DDEDIT TOOL FOR SINGLE LINE TEXT
1. Using Dtext (Single Line Text) place some badly spelt text in the AutoCAD window.
2. Either enter ddedit at the command line or from the Modify pull-down menu, pick Object,
the Text and finally Edit . . . depicted in the following Figure 3.10.
The command line shows:
Command:ddedit
Select an annotation object or [Undo]: pick the

text

The Edit Text dialog, as in Figure 3.11, appears with the text in the Text field of the dialog.

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Figure 3.10: Selecting Edit . . . from the Modify pull-down menu

Figure 3.11: The Edit Text dialog

3. Using normal word-processing methods correct the text in the Text field like Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.12: The editing of text in the Edit Text dialog

4. Left-click the OK button. The corrected text replaces the old wrongly spelt text.
EXAMPLE THE CHECK SPELLING TOOL FOR MULTILINE TEXT
1. Place some badly spelt text on screen.
2. At the command line enter spell or sp. The command line shows:
Command: enter sp right-click
Select objects: pick the text
Select objects: right-click

Thus the Check Spelling dialog shown in Figure 3.13 appears. In its Suggestions field a word
for the first of the wrongly spelt word in the text appears. Click the Change button and the word
is corrected. The second wrongly spelt word appears in the Suggestions field.
If the word in the Suggestions field is not that which is required, a click can be made on a
word from the list below the field bringing that suggestion into the field. Click Change and the
change is affected. When all spelling has been corrected an AutoCAD Message window appears
(Figure 3.14). Click its OK button.
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Figure 3.13: The Check Spelling dialog

Figure 3.14: AutoCAD Message window

3. The dialog disappears and the text should now be spelt correctly.

THE VARIABLE TEXTFILL


To set this variable at the command line:
Command: enter textfill right-click
Enter new value for TEXTFILL _1_: enter

0 right-click

With TEXTFILL set to 0 (OFF) when Windows True Type text is printed or plotted the text
filling disappears as is clear in Figure 3.15.

Figure 3.15: The Polt Preview for True Type text with TEXTFILL set to 0

TEXT SYMBOLS
When symbols such as %, (degrees), (diameter) or _ are to be included within text, the
following need to be entered from the keyboard:
For 45% enter 45%%%.
For 45 enter 45%%d.
For 45 enter %%c45.
For 45_0.5 enter 45%%p0.5.
i.e. when symbols are to be entered within text, use %% as a prefix to d (for degree symbol), c
(for diameter symbol), p for plus/minus symbol and another % (for percentage symbol).
However the required symbols do not show on screen until the OK button of the Text Formatting
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dialog is clicked when working with Multiple Line Text, or the

key is pressed twice when

working with Single Line Text.

TIPS
1. Use right-click menus where appropriate. It can be prevented from appearing by setting the
variable SHORTCUTMENU to 0.
2. Set the variable SHORTCUTMENU to 8 and check what form of right-click menu
appears with right-clicks with a tool in operation.

EXERCISE
Construct a copy of the drawing in Figure 3.16 working to any sizes thought suitable. The
text is Times New Roman (bold).

Figure 3.16: Exercise Drawing of text and hatching

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Experiment No. 4
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To show how objects can be fully explained as to size and shape in technical
drawings of the type Orthographic projections in first and third angle.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Orthographic projection is a method of describing objects in technical drawings. The basic
idea of this form of technical drawing is to show views of the object being described as seen
from a variety of directions. Two methods of this form of projection are first angle of projection
and third angle of projection. The idea behind these two angles is shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1: Two orthographic projection planes

st

Figure 4.2: To view for 1 angle of projection

The object being described is placed in position in two planes, one horizontal, the other
vertical, and crossing at right angles. The object is viewed from its front and from above and,
with the insertion of a second vertical plane, viewed from one side. The three viewing directions
of the first angle of projection are shown in Figure 4.2. What is seen from these viewing
directions is drawn on the horizontal and vertical planes. Perspective is ignored.

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st

Figure 4.3: The resulting 1 angle of projection

st

Figure 4.4: A 6-view 1 angle orthographic projection

The three planes are revolved so as to all lie in the same plane with the result that the views
as drawn on the planes are seen as shown in Figure 4.3. The planes are regarded as being
invisible and are not seen in the resulting projection views.

NUMBER OF VIEWS IN AN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION


The number of views included in an orthographic projection depends upon the complexity of
the object(s) being described. Objects constructed from flat sheets require only a single view.
Other objects may require two views. In general most objects can be described in three views,
but more complicated objects may require a larger number of views. Figure 4.4 shows six views
in a first angle orthographic projection.

Figure 4.5: A pictorial view of the bracket

Figure 4.6: Auxiliary view to show shape of hole

AUXILIARY VIEWS
Views at an angle other than horizontal or vertical can be included in an orthographic
projection. Figure 4.5 shows a bracket with an elliptical hole at right angle to its sloping face.
To show the exact shape of the hole, a view at right angles to the sloping face is of value.
Such an auxiliary view is shown in Figure 4.6. This view is in first angle of projection.
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Figure 4.7: A 3-view 3rd angle orthographic projection

Figure 4.9: Common technical drawing lines

THIRD ANGLE OF PROJECTION


Three views of an object have been shown in first angle of projection in Figure 4.3 earlier. A
three-view third angle of projection of the same object is now shown in Figure 4.7.

RULES FOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS


1. In first angle of projection, a plan is drawn below the front view.
2. In first angle of projection, end views are drawn on the opposite sides of the front view
from which the view is seen.
3. In third angle of projection, a plan is drawn above the front view.
4. In third angle of projection, end views are drawn on the same side of the front view from
which the view is seen.
5. In general, views are not labelled as such.
6. In auxiliary views, the projections are made onto an imaginary plane at
right angles to the direction of viewing.

LINES IN TECHNICAL DRAWINGS


When constructing technical drawings by hand it is common practice to
use lines of different widths. This method can be carried over to drawings
constructed using AutoCAD. Lines can either be drawn using the Polyline
tool when line widths are set as the tool is used, or using the Line tool with
lines set to widths from the lineweight popup list available in properties
toolbar as shown in Figure 4.8. The lineweight only takes effect when
plotting or printing. Lines constructing using the Line tool can also be

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modified to any line width using the Pedit tool.


Some of the important types of lines usually used are as shown in Figure 4.9. Lines described
as thin lines in this Figure are those used in dimensions, construction lines, projection lines, etc.

Figure 4.10: A 1st angle orthographic projection

Figure 4.11: A 3rd angle orthographic projection

In building drawings lines thicker than those shown in Figure 4.9 are often used to
differentiate between different building details such as walls and partitions.

EXAMPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS


Two examples of orthographic projections & their symbols are given in Figures 4.10 & 4.11.
Former figure shows a single object in three views in first angle of projection. The same single
object is shown in later figure in three views this time in third angle of projection.
Figure 4.12 below shows the drawing procedure for Orthographic views as:

Figure 4.12: Drawing procedure for orthographic views

Now, some of the examples of Orthographic Views in 1st angle of projection are given as under:

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Following is an example of Orthographic Views in 3rd angle of projection:

Draw the orthographic views of the engineering objects as per the instructions given along
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with the following figures.

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TIPS
Orthographic projections may be in 1st or 3rd angle, 2nd or 4th are not used.
In 1st angle, views are placed on side of the front view away from the direction of viewing.
In 3rd angle, views are placed on side of the front view nearest to the direction of viewing.
The vertical and horizontal planes on which views are placed are imaginary.

1.
2.
3.
4.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


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Experiment No. 5
GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To create and Save AutoCAD drawing files.


To use the AutoCAD visual reference commands and to draw, using the LINE and
CIRCLE commands.
To use the ERASE command and the AutoCAD Pan Realtime option.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Geometric Construction is based on plane Geometry, including points, lines, circles, arcs and
polygons. AutoCAD provides powerful commands for creating complex geometric figures.
AutoCAD commands used in this experiment are: Circle command with the Center, Diameter
option; Line command, Erase command and Pan command. Every command is explained and
examples are shown during the Lecture session. The techniques and applications explained are
used throughout the class work and homework assignments.

THE GUIDE PLATE


Lets create a mechanical design using the different coordinate entry methods.
First of all, use the Erase command and erase all entities on the screen before proceeding to
the next exercise. As a rule, CAD designs and drawings should be created at full size using realworld units. The CAD database contains all the definitions of the geometric entities and the
design is considered as a virtual, full-sized object. Only when a printer or plotter transfers the
CAD design to paper, the design is scaled to fit on a sheet. The tedious task of determining a
scale factor so that the design will fit on a sheet of paper is taken care of by the CAD system.
This allows the designers and CAD operators to concentrate their attention on the more
important aspect the design issue.

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Figure 5.1: The Guide Plate

Figure 5.2: Line command in Draw toolbar

1. Select the Line command icon in the Draw toolbar. In the command prompt area, near the
bottom of the AutoCAD graphics window, the message _line Specify first point: is
displayed. AutoCAD expects the user to identify the starting location of a straight line.
2. Locate the start point of the design at the origin of the world coordinate system.
Command: _line
Specify first point:

0,0

(Type 0,0 in the command prompt area and press the

key once.)
3. Create a horizontal line by entering the absolute coordinates of the second point.
Specify next point or [Undo]:

5.5,0

Figure 5.3: A horizontal Line created

Figure 5.4: Pan Realtime in Standard Toolbar

The line just created is aligned to the bottom edge of the drawing window. Let us adjust the
view of the line by using the Pan Realtime command. It enables us to move the view to a
different position.
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4. Click on the Pan Realtime icon in the Standard toolbar area. The icon is the image of a
hand with four arrows.
5. Move the cursor, which appears as a hand inside the graphics window, near the center of
the drawing window, then push down the left-mouse-button and drag the display towards
the upper right side until we can see the sketched line. (Notice the scroll bars can also be
used to adjust viewing of the display.)
6. Press the [Esc] key to exit the Pan command. Notice that AutoCAD goes back to the Line
command.
7. Now, draw a vertical line by using the relative rectangular coordinates entry method, which
takes the last point specified, as a reference:
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:

@0,2.5
8. Endpoints can be located by mixing any of the entry methods. Move the cursor to the
Status Bar area, and turn on the GRID and SNAP options. These options facilitate to get a
visual reference as to the size of objects and learn to restrict the movement of the cursor to
a set increment on the screen. The options can be toggled ON & OFF with just a left-click
even in the middle of another command.

Figure 5.5: SNAP and GRID ON

Figure 5.6: Coordinates of the current point

9. Create the next line by picking the location, world coordinates (8.00,2.50), on the screen.
10. Now, use the relative polar coordinates entry method. It takes last specified point as
reference:
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:@3<90

(Distance 3 with an angle of 90)

11. Using the relative rectangular coordinates entry method to create the next line, imagine a
reference coordinate system aligned at the previous point as shown in Figure 5.7 below.
Coordinates are measured along the two reference axes.
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:

@-1.5,1

(-1.5 and 1 are measured

relative to the reference point.)

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Figure 5.7: Relative Rectangular Coordinates method explained

12. Move the cursor directly to the left of the last point and use the direct distance entry
technique by entering 6.5

Figure 5.8: Direct distance entry

Figure 5.9: Right click popup menu of line command

13. For the last segment of the sketch, we can use the Close option to connect back to the
starting point. Inside the graphics window, right-mouse-click and a popup menu appears on
the screen.
14. Select Close with the left-mouse-button to connect back to the starting point and end the
Line command.

CREATING CIRCLES
The menus and toolbars in AutoCAD are designed to allow the CAD operators to quickly
activate the desired commands. Besides using the Draw toolbar, we can also select the different
Draw commands through the pull-down menus.
1. In the pull-down menus, select: [Draw] _ [Circle] _ [Center, Diameter]

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Figure 5.10: The finished closed design

Figure 5.11: Center, Diameter option of Circle

Notice the different options available under the circle submenu:


Center, Radius and Center, Diameter: Circle based on a center point and a radius or a
diameter.
3 Points: Circle based on three points on the circumference.
2 Points: Circle based on two endpoints of the diameter.
TTRTangent, Tangent, Radius: Circle with a specified radius tangent to two objects.
TTTTangent, Tangent, Tangent: Circle tangent to three objects.
2. In the command prompt area, AutoCAD expects user to identify the location of a point or
enter an option. Any of the four coordinate entry methods can be used to identify the
desired location. Enter the world coordinates (2.5,3) as the center point for the first circle.
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:

2.5,3

3. In the command prompt area.


Specify diameter of circle:

2.5

Figure 5.12: First Circle completed

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Figure 5.13: Circle right click popup menu

42

4. Inside the graphics window, right-mouse-click to bring up the popup option menu.
5. Pick Repeat Center, Diameter with the left-mouse-button in the popup menu to repeat the
last command.
6. Using the relative rectangular coordinates entry method, relative to the center-point
coordinates of the first circle, we specify the location as (2.5,2).
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]:

@2.5,2

7. The default option for the Circle command in AutoCAD is to specify the radius and the last
radius used is also displayed in brackets. In the command prompt area:
Specify Diameter of circle<2.50>:

1.5

Figure 5.14: The finished drawing

SAVING THE CAD DESIGN


1. In the pull-down menus, select: [File] _ [Save As]
2. In the Save Drawing As dialog box, select the folder in which you want to store the CAD
file and enter GuidePlate in the File name box.

Figure 5.16: Save Drawing As Dialog Box


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3. Pick Save in the Save Drawing As dialog box to accept the selections and save the file.

EXIT AUTOCAD
To exit AutoCAD, select File then choose Exit from the pull-down menu or type QUIT at the
command prompt as shown in Figure 1.6.

EXERCISES

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Draw the objects below (from Plate 6-7) to scale 2:1. All the dimensions are in mm.

Draw the objects below (from Plate 8-11) to scale 1:1. All the dimensions are in mm.

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Draw the object shown in Plate 12 to scale 1:2 and that in Plate 13 to scale 2:1. All the
dimensions are in mm.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Experiment No. 6
DIMENSIONS WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To introduce methods of dimensioning drawings.


Introducing the Dimension toolbar with application of tools from the toolbar.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Dimensioning is the process of describing an object by its size. The dimension values
indicate the measurement of the dimension of the object. AutoCAD provides a whole range of
dimensioning tools which can be used to quickly dimension any drawing. Dimensioning in
AutoCAD is automatic; lines, arrows and text are all taken care of by the dimension commands.
AutoCAD dimensions are special blocks which can easily be edited or erased as necessary. The
dimension toolbar is as shown in Figures 6.1(a) & (b).

Figure 6.1(a): Dimension Toolbar

CLASSIFICATION OF DIMENSIONS IN AutoCAD


AutoCAD divides the dimensions into the following four categories:

Linear
Radial

Ordinate
Angular

When working with dimensions it is very important that line origins are
picked accurately so that the resulting measurement and text are correct.
Always use an Osnap to pick dimension line origins.

L INEAR D IMENSIONS
The Linear dimension commands are used to dimension along straight lines.
There are five linear dimension commands, namely:

DIMLINEAR,

DIMCONTINUE, DIMBASELINE, DIMALIGNED and DIMROTATED.


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THE LINEAR DIMENSION COMMAND


Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions Linear

Command:

DIMLINEAR

Command Sequence
Command: Dimlinear
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: pick P1
Specify second extension line origin: pick P2
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ Text/ Angle/ Horizontal/ Vertical/
Rotated]: (pick a point to position the dimension line)

A LIGNED D IMENSION
These are dimensions along/parallel to inclined lines (distance to be dimensioned) which
cannot be dimensioned with the DIMLINEAR dimension command which will only give a
measured dimension in either a horizontal or vertical direction. However, this command also
works exactly in the same way.
THE ALIGNED DIMENSION COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions Aligned

Command:

DIMALIGNED

Command Sequence
Command: Dimaligned
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: pick P1
Specify second extension line origin: pick P2
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: (pick a

point to place the

dimension line)
THE RADIUS DIMENSION COMMAND (To measure radius of a circle or arc)
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions Radius

Command:

DIMRADIUS

Command Sequence
Command: Dimradius
Select arc or circle:

pick P1

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Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

(pick a point to place the

dimension line)
THE DIAMETER DIMENSION COMMAND (To measure diameter of a circle or arc)
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions Diameter

Command:

DIMDIAMETER

Command Sequence
Command: Dimdiameter
Select arc or circle: pick P1
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

(pick a point to place the

dimension line)
THE ANGULAR DIMENSION COMMAND

(To measure the angle between two intersecting lines)

Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Command:

DIMANGULAR

Angular

Command Sequence
Command: Dimangular
Select arc, circle, line or <specify vertex>: pick P1
Select second line: pick P2
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

(pick a point to place the

dimension line)

B ASELINE D IMENSION
It can generate a series of dimensions from a same base point. But a first dimension in the
sequence using a command such as DIMLINEAR, must have already been created.
THE BASELINE DIMENSION COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Command:

DIMBASELINE

Baseline

Command Sequence
Command: Dimbaseline
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:

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pick P4
(or pick point)

49

In the example above, the "35" dimension was created using the DIMLINEAR command.
The others were created using DIMBASELINE and picking points P3 and P4.

C ONTINUE D IMENSION
It adds a string of dimensions end to end. But a first dimension in the sequence using a
command such as DIMLINEAR, must have already been created. There is no prompt for the first
line origin rather AutoCAD automatically selects the second line origin of the previous
dimension to be the first of the new dimension. There is also no prompt for the dimension line
position, AutoCAD automatically matches up with the previous dimension.
THE CONTINUE DIMENSION COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Command:

DIMCONTINUE

Continue

Command Sequence
Command: Dimcontinue
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:
Specify second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <select>:

pick P3
pick P4
(or pick point)

A perfectly aligned string of dimensions can very quickly be generated using the Continue
command. In the example above, the "35" dimension was drawn with DIMLINEAR command;
all the other dimensions were drawn using the DIMCONTINUE command by simply picking the
points P3 and P4, one after the other. It only continues dimension in a single direction.
THE LEADER COMMAND (To annotate any point on a drawing)
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Command:

LEADER

Leader

Command Sequence
Command: Leader
Specify first leader point or [Settings] <settings>:
Specify next point: Specify next point:
Enter text width <0>:
(or specify value of width)

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50

Enter first line of annotation text <Mtext>: enter the text


Enter next line of annotation text:
(or enter the text)

THE CENTER MARK COMMAND

(To annotate a circle or an arc with a cross at the center)

Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Dimensions

Command:

DIMCENTER

Center Mark

Command Sequence
Command: Dimcenter
Select arc or circle:

pick on the circumference of circle or arc

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Experiment No. 7
SECTIONING AND HATCHING WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To illustrate the interior details by passing a section through a drawing.


How to section the views in AutoCAD and to discuss uses & types of section views.
To introduce various forms of hatching with the variety of hatching patterns.
To demonstrate hatching from the Boundary Hatch & Fill dialog and command line.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
If you haven't already gone through Orthographic Projection, you should have to be familiar
with some of the concepts before this topic.

SECTIONAL VIEWS OF OBJECTS AND THEIR PRINCIPLE


Sectional views are used in engineering graphics (more specifically in Mechanical and
Architectural drafting). Anytime you need to show some detail that isn't readily seen from an
exterior view, "cut it up" and draw it in such a way as to expose the required inner details of the
object. The cutting plane is also called Section Plane. An object with section plane is shown in
Figure 7.1. The use of sectional views is to make orthographic views less complicated to
visualize. Cutting the view to reveal the interior eliminates all hidden lines making the view
easier to understand and draw.

Figure 7.1: Principle of sectional view

After cutting the object by an imaginary plane A, the piece N which is between the observer
and the cutting plane is removed. The remaining portion M is shown in Figure 7.1(b). Portion of
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the object cut by the cutting plane is made clear by drawing hatching lines. Now, the hidden
details are very clear from the cut face. Orthographic projection of the remaining piece M of the
object is called sectional view or sectional projection. While drawing sectional orthographic
views, following conventions may be noted by referring Figure 7.1(c).
1. The front view is a fully sectioned while top and side views are drawn completely, as the
object has not been actually cut.
2. The cut surface is indicated by section lines, with parallel and equally spaced inclined
lines (also called hatching lines).
3. The cutting plane is shown by type H line.
4. Arrows show the direction in which section is viewed.
5. Cutting plane is identified by letters like AA, BB etc.
6. The sectioned surface is enclosed in thick line boundaries.
7. Visible lines beyond the cutting plane are shown as in orthographic views.
8. Hidden lines beyond the cutting plane are not generally shown.

CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONAL VIEWS


Sectional views may be taken by cutting the object at any angle and location. But in
engineering practice, to serve the purpose of drawing, a section is taken generally along the
centerline of the object. For exposing details at some odd parts of the object, special sectional
views are also prepared. The types of sectional views frequently used in engineering may be
given as follows.
1. Full Sectional Views: Here the entire object is sectioned by the imaginary cutting plane.
An example is as shown in Figure 7.2(a).
2. Half Sectional Views: here, only one half of the view is under section while the other half
of the view is without section [Figure 7.2(b)].

Figure 7.2: Types of sectional views


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3. Partial (local) or Broken Section: In this type of section, only a small portion of the
component is shown to reveal details [Figure 7.2(c)].
4. Revolved Section: Here, cutting plane, which is perpendicular to the axis of object is
revolved to bring it into the plane of axis. Outlines of the revolved section are shown in
continuous thin lines [Figure 7.2(d)].
5. Removed Section: When above revolved section is removed outside the object, then it is
called Removed Section. The outline is shown with thick continuous line [Figure 7.2(e)].
6. Offset Section: To expose more details by a single cutting, the section plane is offset
through the details as shown in Figure 7.2 (f). In the related view, details of the offsetting
should be shown by type H cutting line.
Among the above six types, full and half sectional views are briefed here.
FULL SECTIONAL VIEWS
For getting full sectional view, the entire object is sectioned by an imaginary cutting plane
and the portion between cutting plane and observer is removed. Orthographic view of the
remaining object is Full Sectional View. This type of views may be classified as:
Full Sectional front view (elevation)
Full Sectional top view (plan)
Full Sectional right side view (end view)
Full Sectional left side view (end view)
The elevation, plan and end views of full sectional view are shown in Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.3: Full sectional views

HALF SECTIONAL VIEWS


When an object is symmetrical about its centerline, one half of a full section is needed to be
drawn. Such a view is called Half Sectional View. For getting a half sectional view, the object is
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cut by two imaginary cutting planes perpendicular to each other. Now, one quarter of the object
is imagined to be removed shown in Figure 7.4(a).

Figure 7.4: Half sectional views

Orthographic view of the remaining three fourth portion of the object is called Half Sectional
View. Sectional views obtained in this case are called front view, left half in section and left
side view, right half in section shown in Figure 7.4(b). It may be noted that top view is not
affected by sectioning. Half sectional views may be classified as:
Top half sectional views (Front, Top, Right, Left side views)
Bottom half sectional views (Front, Top, Right, Left side views)
Right half sectional views (Front, Top, Right, Left side views)
Left half sectional views (Front, Top, Right, Left side views)
Figure 7.5 shows different outside and sectional views of a simple guide block. You are
advised to identify and draw the remaining sectional views of this block which are not shown.

Figure 7.5: Different views of a guide block

CONVENTION FOR SECTIONING


Hatching is used to show the areas of section clearly. It is done by drawing continuous thin
(type B) lines at a convenient angle. The preferred hatching angle is 45 for principal outlines or
lines of symmetry of the sections (Figure 7.6).
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Figure 7.6: Preferred Hatching Angles

Figure 7.7: Hatching of adjacent parts & dimensioning

Hatching of adjacent components is done in different directions or spacings shown in Figure


7.7. It may be interrupted for dimensioning, if it is not possible to place dimensions outside the
hatching. In case of large areas, hatching may be limited to a zone as shown in Figure 7.8. If
sections of the same component in parallel planes are to be shown side by side, hatching should
be identical; but hatching may be offset along the dividing line between the sections.

Figure 7.8: Sectioning of large areas

Figure 7.9: Sectioning of an object with web

When a cutting plane passes longitudinally through the centre of a rib or a web, the rib
should not be sectioned (Figure 7.9). But the rib is shown in section when the cutting plane
passes crosswise through the rib. Spokes or arms of wheels or pulleys, shafts and fasteners like
bolts, nut rods, rivets, keys, pins, cotters etc. are not sectioned longitudinally. Hence, they should
not be hatched. They are shown in section, if the cutting plane is at right angles to their axis.

HATCHING IN SECTIONS
AutoCAD has several hatch patterns stored as a built-in library. The setting for patterns
(scale & angle for pattern and object selection) can be done through the hatching dialog box.
THE HATCH TOOL
Hatch tool can be called from the icon shown in Figure 7.10 of Draw toolbar or by entering
h at the command line which results in Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog with a lot of choices.
There are really only three items you need to be aware of to make it work:

Pattern: It indicates what material is used in the area to be hatched.


Angle: Most of the time this will be 0, but sometimes it is needed to be changed.
Scale: This is the one that gets changed a lot. If the hatch pattern 'looks solid' - then usually
the scale is to be increased because the lines are too close together. If the hatch pattern

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'looks empty' - then it might has to be decreased because the lines are too far apart. The
scale will vary depending upon what size the drawing is.

Figure 7.10: Hatch icon in Draw toolbar

Figure 7.11: Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog & ANSI hatch palette

PARTS OF THE BOUNDARY HATCH AND FILL DIALOG


Call the Hatch tool and the dialog appears on screen (Figure 7.11). Left-click in the Swatch
field and the Hatch Pattern Palette sub-dialog comes to the screen with four tabs. Left-click the
ANSI* tab and the sub-dialog shows a number of ANSI hatch patterns in the ANSI palette.
(*ANSI stands for American National Standards Institute)

OTHER HATCH PALETTES


Left-click the ISO* tab and the palette shown in Figure 7.12, appears. (*ISO stands for
International Organization for Standardization)

Figure 7.12: The ISO hatch palette

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Figure 7.13: The Other Defined hatch palettes

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Left-click the Other Predefined tab and its palette appears (Figure 7.13). The final palette
(Custom) would contain hatch patterns defined by the operator of the software.
OTHER SUB-DIALOGS
In the Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog left-clicking the Advanced tab displays sub-dialog
shown in Figure 7.14.

Figure 7.14: Advanced sub-dialog

Figure 7.15: Gradient sub-dialog with Select Color dialog

Then left-clicking the Gradient tab displays its sub-dialog. Click the button to the right of
Color 2 field and a Select Color dialog appears from which a color can be chosen (Figure 7.15).
EXAMPLES OF HATCHING
Figure 7.16 shows various hatch patterns at angles and scales given in each diagram.

Figure 7.16: Examples of a variety of hatch patterns

HATCHING - EXERCISE 1
1. Construct the drawing 1 of Figure 7.17 and make its three copies.
2. Hatch
Swatch
HONEY from the Other Predefined palette
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3. Click Advanced tab & in the Normal diagram, ensure its radio button is on (dot in circle).

Figure 7.17: Diagrams for hatching-Exercise 1

Figure 7.18: Select Objects button of Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog

4. Click the Hatch tab and set Angle to 0 and Scale to 30.
5. Click the Select Objects button (Figure 7.18) and when the dialog disappears, click the
rectangle, the ellipse and the circle of drawing 2, followed by a right-click.
6. The dialog reappears. Click its Preview button. The dialog again disappears showing the
hatching of the drawing. If the hatching is as required, press escape button or spacebar, the
dialog reappears. Click its OK button.
7. If the hatching is not as required, press escape button or spacebar and in the dialog, make
any necessary changes to the hatch pattern, its angle and scale.
8. Repeat step 7 if necessary until satisfied.
9. Hatch
Advanced
radio button of Outer diagram.
10. Hatch
Swatch
STARS pattern. Set its Angle to 0 and its Scale to 30.
11. Click the Select Objects button and when the dialog disappears, click the rectangle, ellipse
and circle of drawing 3.
12. Back in the dialog, click Preview and adjust the angle and scale if necessary.
13. In drawing 4, with Advanced set to Ignore hatch with the pattern ANSI134, set to an Angle
of 90 and Scale of 30.
The result of these three Hatch examples is shown in Figure 7.17.
HATCHING - EXERCISE 2
1. Construct the drawing given in Figure 7.19 to any suitable dimensions.

Figure 7.19: Diagram for hatching - exercise 2

Figure 7.20: Pick Points button of Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog

2. Hatch
hatch pattern to ANSI31 of Angle _ 0 and Scale _ 30.
3. Click the Pick Points button (Figure 7.20). The dialog disappears.
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4. Left-click in each of the points shown in the left-hand drawing of Figure 7.19, followed by
a right-click. The dialog reappears.
5. Click its Preview button, the drawing reappears. Check whether the hatching is suitable.
Right-click & in the Boundary Hatch and Fill dialog which reappears either click its OK
button if satisfied, or make changes to the pattern, angle and scale as required.
HATCHING FROM THE COMMAND LINE
To hatch from the command line:
Command: hatch
Enter a pattern name or [?/Solid/User defined]: _ANSI31_:?

then right-click
and AutoCAD Text Window (Figure 7.21) appears showing all the patterns and the materials
each represents.

Figure 7.21: AutoCAD Text Window with patterns & their identities Figure 7.22: Isometric and Orthographic Views of an object

For the material whose pattern exists but not known, it can be chosen from the text window.
Once a pattern has been identified, its name can be entered in response to:
Command: hatch right-click
Enter a pattern name or [prompts]: brick right-click
Specify a scale for the pattern _1.0000_: 20
Specify an angle for the pattern _0_: right-click
Select objects to define hatch boundary or _direct hatch_: pick
Select objects: pick objects as essential until all objects forming the boundary have been selected.

DRAWING SECTION VIEWS IN AUTOCAD


For this exercise, begin by drawing the part in Figure 7.22, and think about what the section
view will look like. Isometric view is just for reference, not to draw. To draw the "Cutting Plane"
that marks the section, draw a line, then use the leader command to make the arrows. Add text
for the "A"s. Ok - what is section view going to look like?
The Cutting Plane points up from the front view, it doesn't mean that its pointing at the top
view, but in this case it works. Also note the Cutting Plane is in the middle. So, if you choose the
Top View, you're correct.
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Copy the Top View, keeping the dimensions. Its a good idea to make sure that it is directly
above the other view if a part of it is to be stretched. Then both of the views can be drawn at
once. Thus the Section view should look like in Figure 7.23, before hatching.

Figure 7.23: The Section View before hatching

Figure 7.24: Picking the points for hatching

Start the Hatch command and pick in the spots shown in Figure 7.24. All of the three areas
are to be picked at the same time so that the hatch creates one object instead of three. Thus, if it
is needed to edit the hatch, all the areas will look the same. The areas picked will be filled up
with the last hatch pattern and settings used. Apply STEEL hatch pattern from Other
Predefined tab seen in Figure 7.13. If everything went well, the Section view chosen above
should look like in Figure 7.25 below.

Figure 7.25: The hatched part

Figure 7.26: Showing break in a solid bar and pipe

Its up to user if user wants to put hatch on a separate layer. It can help a lot as user gets into
more complex drawings. While learning about printing through Layout Tabs, think about how
having Hatching can be useful on its own layer - and maybe more than one layer.
Figure 7.26 shows section view for break in solid bar and a pipe (a common way of showing
long pipes that don't fit in the drawing) i.e. add just a break, but dimension the full length.

EXAMPLE 1
Isometric view of a lever is shown in Figure 7.27. Draw its full sectional elevation and plan.

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Figure 7.27: A Lever

Figure 7.28: Sectional View of the lever

As per statement, the section plane is to be taken parallel to VP. First draw top view and then
the sectional front view. Section lines should be avoided at the key-way. As the cutting plane
passes longitudinally through the centre of the web, it should not be sectioned. The result is as
shown in Figure 7.28.

EXAMPLE 2
Orthographic views of a forked end of a machine part are shown in Figure 7.29. Draw the
following views:
(a) Front view, top half in section
(b) Top view, bottom half in section

Figure 7.29: Orthographic Views of the part

Figure 7.30: Half Sectional Views of the part

Draw the elevation top half in section and plan bottom half in section. Avoid hidden lines in
sectioned areas. Half sectional views of the part are shown in Figure 7.30.
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EXERCISES
More exercises are as given below with the related instructions along with each.
1. Working to any suitable dimensions, construct a copy of the drawing in Figure 7.31.

Figure 7.31: A drawing with multiple Hatches

2. Complete the front view as an Offset Section and a Full Section for Figures 7.32 & 7.33
respectively (Dont section the rib). Furthermore, draw the top view as a Full Section for
Figure 7.34.

Figure 7.32

Figure 7.33

Figure 7.34

3. Determine the Right, Front and Half sectioned views each of Figures 7.35 to 7.37
respectively.

Figure 7.35

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Figure 7.36

Figure 7.37

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4. Draw sectional views of the machine parts given in Figures 7.38 through 7.42, taking
section along their centre lines. The views are specified along with the drawings. Take the
arrow mark with F as the direction for the front view.

Figure 7.38: Cylindrical Block

Figure 7.39: A Bearing

Figure 7.40: A Machine Part

Figure 7.41: Bearing Block

Figure 7.42: A Bearing Block

TIPS
1. Hatch tool can be used by clicking its icon in Draw toolbar (or entering h in
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command line) or by entering hatch at the command line. The first is probably the
better method unless the operator wishes to find a hatch pattern name for a material.
2. Experiment with both the Advanced and the Gradient methods of hatching. Gradient
color hatching is new to AutoCAD 2004.
3. Usually when hatching drawings, the Pick Points method of selecting areas to be
hatched will be used, but the Select Objects bounding the area may on occasions have
to be used.
4. In engineering technical drawings, when hatching sectional views, items such as

screws, bolts, spindles, webs, ribs and similar parts should be shown as outside views
within the sectional view.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Experiment No. 8
AUXILIARY VIEWS WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To equip the students with the basic knowledge and skills of engineering drawing to
draw auxiliary views, their need and positioning in drawing.
To familiarize the students with the application of auxiliary views with examples.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Orthographic projection was very useful in supplying the necessary information on showing
heights, widths, and depths while keeping within the six principal planes of projection. As long
as shapes can be seen clearly there is no need to go beyond the six principal views. An object
such as Figure 8.1 is well defined using three of the six principal views. But, for an object such
as seen in Figure 8.2, the top and front views need the supplementary auxiliary views to show the
normal (true surface) views of the inclined tabs.

Figure 8.1: Object needs only three


principal views to define shape

Figure 8.2: Object needs auxiliary views to define shape

Auxiliary views are the orthographic projections drawn by making projections onto a plane
other than horizontal, frontal or profile planes. Using auxiliary views is a part of study known as
space geometry or descriptive geometry.
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The most common used auxiliary views that will be studied here, are:
1. The normal view of a line
2. The point view of a line
3. The edge view of a plane
4. The normal view of a plane
The term ''normal'' means perpendicular to. In this experiment, it is used to describe the view
in which the direction of sight is perpendicular to a line or plane. The view in which line is seen
as a single point is the ''point'' view of a line, obtained by looking parallel to the line. The view in
which all lines of the plane appear in a continuous single line is the ''edge'' view of a plane and is
obtained by looking parallel to the plane.

CLASSIFICATION OF LINES
A line may be lying in two, one, or none of the principal planes of projection.
1. If it lies in two principal planes of projection, it will be seen usual (with the true length) in
the two of front, top or right side views; and is named for the planes it lies in (Figure 8.3).
The line appearing usual in two principal planes, will be seen as a point in the third.

Figure 8.3: Line lying in two principal planes. From left to right; (a) Horizontal-Frontal, (b) Horizontal-Profile, (c) Frontal-Profile

2. If it lies in one principal plane of projection, it will be seen usual (seen with the true
length) in only one of the principal planes and it is named for the planes it lies in (Figure
8.4). The line lying in one principal plane of projection may be inclined to the other two
principal planes. An auxiliary view is required to show the end view of that line.

Figure 8.4: Line lying in one principal plane. From left to right; (a) Horizontal (inclined to frontal and
profile), (b) Frontal (inclined to horizontal and profile), (c) Profile (inclined to horizontal and frontal)
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3. If it lies in none principal plane of projection, it is called as oblique line and will not be
seen normal in any of the principal planes. Two auxiliary views are required to show the
normal and edge views of that line.

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANES
A plane may be parallel to one of the principal planes or it may be inclined to two principal
planes or it may be inclined to all of the principal planes.
1. If the plane is parallel to one of the principal planes it receives its name from that principal
plane and it will be seen regular in that principal plane (Figure 8.5).

Figure 8.5: Plane parallel to one principal plane. From left to right; (a) Horizontal, (b) Frontal, (c) Profile

2. If a plane is inclined to one of the principal planes, it is also inclined to another one. Such a
plane cant be seen normal (usual) in any of the orthographic views. It will appear as a line
(edge view) in one view. Auxiliary view is required to show normal view of the plane
(Figure 8.6).

Figure 8.6: Plane inclined to two principal planes. From left to right; (a) Horizontal-Profile, (b) Frontal-Profile, (c) Frontal-Horizontal

3. If the plane is inclined to all of the three principal planes, it is called as oblique plane. It
will not appear as a normal or as an edge view in any of the principal views. Two auxiliary
views are required to show the edge and normal views of the plane.

AUXILIARY VIEWS ON PLANES OF SOLIDS


The concepts of space geometry for lines and planes become very useful and interesting
when applied to solids since the objects in the outside world are overwhelmingly solids. There
are three types of surfaces that can exist on a solid; normal, inclined and oblique surface.
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In Figure 8.7 (a), all surfaces are parallel to the principal planes of projection, and therefore
each of the principal views is a normal (true-surface) view. In Figure 8.7 (b), the shaded surface
is at inclined to two of the principal planes and perpendicular to the third. Such surfaces are
called as inclined surfaces. In Figure 8.7 (c), the shaded surface is inclined to all of the three
principal planes and is called as oblique surfaces.

Figure 8.7: Classification of surfaces. From left to right; (a) Usual, (b) Inclined, (c) Oblique

NORMAL VIEW OF INCLINED SURFACE ON SOLID


The inclined surfaces may be in any of the twelve positions shown in Figure 8.8.

Figure 8.8: Inclined surface positions

The first row (a,b,c,d) shows surfaces inclined to front and side. The surface is on the right
front (a), left front (b), right rear (c), and left rear (d). The second row (e,f,g,h) shows surfaces
inclined to top and side. The surface is on the upper right (e), upper left (f), lower right (g), and
lower left (h). The third row (i,j,k,l) shows surfaces inclined to top and front. The surface is on
the upper front (i), upper rear (j), lower front (k), and lower rear (l). Different angles of
inclination are possible from those shown in Figure 8.8, but there is no other location possible.
In Figure 8.9, surface ABCD is inclined to horizontal and profile planes and perpendicular to
frontal plane. So, it is seen as edge view in front view but none of the principal views shows the
true size and true shape of the surface. To show true size of the surface ABCD, an auxiliary view
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is needed with a direction of sight perpendicular to the inclined surface. The surface ABCD is
projected onto a plane parallel to ABCD and normal view of the inclined surface is obtained.

Figure 8.9: Orthographic drawing with auxiliary view attached to front view

AUXILIARY VIEWS OF INCLINED SURFACES_TYPE 1


The auxiliary view is attached to the view in which the surface's edge view is seen in true
size. See the below examples.

Figure 8.10: Auxiliary views of inclined surfaces_Type 1

In the above two examples we have only inclined surfaces, so the edge view of the inclined
surface will appear in true size in one of the principal views (Front, top or right side views). For
these types of shapes, only one auxiliary view is enough to define the shape.

AUXILIARY VIEWS OF OBLIQUE SURFACES_TYPE 2


If there exists an oblique surface, none of the principal views show the edge view in true size,
so an extra auxiliary view is needed in which the edge view of the surface is seen in true size and
the normal view of the oblique surface is attached to this extra auxiliary view (Figure 8.11).

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Figure 8.11: Auxiliary views of oblique surfaces_Type 2

Main AutoCAD commands used in drawing auxiliary views are;

Line

Trim

Point

Distance

Offset

Divide

EXAMPLES
The pictorial views of a machine block and a jig angle are shown in Figures 8.12 and 8.14
respectively whereas the Front Auxiliary View of the former figure is as shown in Figure 8.13
and the side auxiliary view of the later is as shown in Figure 8.15.

Figure 8.12: Pictorial view of a machine block

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Figure 8.13: Front Auxiliary View of the machine block

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Figure 8.14: Pictorial view of a jig angle

Figure 8.15: Side Auxiliary View of the jig angle

EXERCISES
1. Figure 8.16 shows Isometric view of a wedge block. Draw the side auxiliary view of
sloping surface, after drawing the front and side views. Take arrow direction as the front
side.
2. Draw the front, top and a front auxiliary view of the C-block given in Figure 8.17. The
arrow mark with letter F shows the front side.
3. Figure 8.18 gives pictorial view of an inverted T-block with a sloping surface. Draw front
view in the arrow direction. Add a partial auxiliary view of sloping surface and a top view.

Figure 8.16: Wedge Block

Figure 8.17: C-Block

Figure 8.18: Tee-Block

4. A pictorial view of a slotted block is shown in Figure 8.19. Draw the front view and an
auxiliary view of the inclined surface. The arrow mark with letter F indicates the front side.
5. The isometric view of a rod guide is given in Figure 8.20. Prepare the following views;
Plan
Front view in the direction of arrow
Side view
Partial side auxiliary view

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6. Figure 8.21 shows a bracket with a sloping surface. Draw an auxiliary view of the inclined
surface, after preparing any two orthographic views. An arrow mark with letter F shows the
front side.

Figure 8.19: Slotted Block

Figure 8.20: Rod Guide

Figure 8.21: A Bracket

TIPS
1. As many views are drawn in orthographic projection as are needed to describe the object(s)
being drawn as clearly as possible.
2. Auxiliary views in orthographic projection are placed on imaginary planes at angles other
than vertical or horizontal.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Experiment No. 9
SURFACE INTERSECTION WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

To equip the students with the basic knowledge of surface intersection of same or
different solids and their intersection line/curve.
To familiarize the students with the application of AutoCAD in surface intersections.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Intersections are fundamental in CAD, CAM, computational geometry, geometric modeling
and design, analysis and manufacturing applications. Examples of intersection problems include:
Contouring of surfaces through intersection with a series of parallel planes or coaxial cylinders
for visualization, numerical control machining (milling) involving intersection of generalized
offset surfaces with a series of parallel planes (to create machining paths), Ducts, pipe joints,
smoke stacks, boilers, containers, machine castings etc. Surface intersection (a study of solid
penetrations) is not an easy problem, and continues to be an active topic of research.
The term Intersection of Surfaces refers to the lines that occur when geometrical surfaces
such as planes, cylinders, cones etc. intersect one another. When a solid penetrates another solid,
there is a line common to both the surfaces, called as lines or curves of intersection. Line of
intersection will be common to the surfaces of intersecting solids and may be straight or curved,
based on shape of intersecting surfaces and can be drawn by determining a no. of points in order.
Tailors stitching cloths must have the knowledge on development and intersection of surfaces to
cope with the wastage of a lot of material.

CLASSIFICATION OF INTERSECTING SURFACES


Intersecting surfaces can be classified into three categories:
1. Intersection of two plane surfaces
2. Intersection of two curved surfaces
3. Intersection of a plane surface and a curved surface
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1. INTERSECTION OF TWO PLANE SURFACES


The intersection of two plane surfaces is a straight line. Prism and prism, prism and pyramid
or pyramid and pyramid intersect each other forming straight lines as curves of intersection.
When a prism penetrates another prism, plane surface of one prism intersects the plane surfaces
of another prism and hence the lines of intersection will be straight lines. In these cases, lines on
the surface of one of the solids need not necessarily be drawn as it is done with cylinders.
Instead, the points of intersections of the edges with the surface are located by mere inspection.
These points are projected in the other view and the lines of intersection obtained.
EXAMPLE
A square prism of base side 60 mm rests on one of its ends on the HP with the base sides
equally inclined to the VP. It is penetrated fully by another square prism of base side 45 mm with
the base side equally inclined to the HP. The axes intersect at right angles. Axis of the
penetrating prism is parallel to both the HP and VP. Draw projections of the prisms and show the
lines of intersection. The construction is shown in Figure 9.1.
1. Draw the top and front view of the prisms in the given position.
2. Locate points of intersection of the penetrating prism with surfaces of the vertical prism in
top view by inspection. Here, the edges 2-21 of horizontal prism intersect the edge point of
the vertical prism at m2 in top view. n4 corresponds to the edge 4-41, and immediately
below m2, ml and m3 relate to 1-11 and 3-31 respectively.

Figure 9.1: Construction of Intersection of two prisms

Figure 9.2: Intersection of two cylinders

3. Similarly locate points nl, n2, n3 and n4.


4. Project ml onto 1--11 in the front view as m1. Similarly project all other points. m3
coincides with m1 and n3 coincides with n1.
5. Join m2 m1 & m1 m4 by straight lines. Similarly, n2 n1 & n1 n4 also by straight lines.
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2. INTERSECTION OF TWO CURVED SURFACES


Intersection of two curved surfaces (Cylinder and cylinder, cone and cone or cylinder and
cone) is a curve. Figure 9.2 shows intersection of two cylinders.
EXAMPLE
A horizontal cylinder of diameter 40 mm penetrates into a vertical cylinder of diameter 60
mm. The axes of the cylinders intersect at right angles. Draw the curves of intersection when the
axis of the horizontal cylinder is parallel to the VP. The construction is as given below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Draw the top and front views of the cylinders.


Draw the left side view of the arrangement.
Divide circle in the side view into number of equal parts say 12.
Generators of horizontal cylinder are numbered in both front and top views (Figure 9.3).
Mark point m1, where the generator through 1 in the top view meets the circle in the top
view of the vertical cylinder. Similarly mark m2, , m12.
6. Project m7 to m1 on the generator 1 1 in the front view.

Figure 9.3: Construction of Intersection of two cylinders

Figure 9.4: A cone and a section plane

7. Project m7 to m7 on 7 7. Similarly project all the points.


8. Draw a smooth curve through m1,......., m7. This is intersection curve at the front. The
curve at rear through m4, m8--m12 coincides with corresponding visible curve at the front.
Since the horizontal cylinder penetrates and comes out at the other end, similar curve of
intersection will be seen on the right also.
9. Draw a curve through n1,......, n7 following the same procedure. The two curves m1-m7
and n1 -n7 are the required curves of intersection.
3. INTERSECTION OF A PLANE SURFACE AND A CURVED SURFACE
The intersection of a plane and a curved surface is a curve. Prism and cylinder, pyramid and
cylinder, prism and cone or pyramid and a cone intersect each other in a curve. Lets consider
examples, where surfaces intersect on a plane curve giving one more quadric curve.
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CONE AND ELLIPSOID INTERSECTION


Make up a Solid-cone (Figure 9.4). Using Section command, get its plain section as an
ellipse. Use Explode command to the section. Use List command to make sure, that an
intersection line is an ELLIPSE.
Using ellipse half make a rotation contour. Make up an ellipsoid using Revolve command,
assigning ellipse longer axis as rotation one. Unite the cone and the ellipsoid (Union). Having
done this, the second part of intersection line is found. Lets study characteristics of the line
obtained. Copy it (Solidedit). Position UCS by three points of the line (osnap Nearest). Using
List, bring out list of line coordinates on the screen. So, z-coordinates of line points equal zero;
i.e. the line is plane.
CONE AND HYPERBOLOID INTERSECTION
Here, a cone and a hyperboloid have two straight line intersections. Youll get a hyperbola as
a complementary cone plain section [Figure 9.5(a)]. To get hyperboloid as a Solid-object, create
profile (Region) and use Revolve command. Draw a hyperboloid axis (Line) indicating its upper
and lower base centers [Figure 9.5(b)]. Set UCS rectangular to axis, specifying point of origin in
middle point. Section circumference is found (Section). Make up a triangle section using Section
command (1,4,5). Indicate some point on hyperboloid lower base as point 1 (osnap Nearest) and
points 2 and 3 on the circumference (osnapTangent).

Figure 9.5: An intersection of a cone and a hyperboloid

Draw a cone by triangle rotation (1,4,5). Common variant is in Figure 9.5(c), where triangle
serves as a rotation profile (1,7,8). Having made up a cone and united it with hyperboloid in
intersection, one more curve appears along with the two straight lines [Figure 9.5(d)]. Check,
whether it is a plane curve using List command. You can be sure that it is an ellipse.

METHODS TO DRAW THE LINE OF INTERSECTION


Following are the methods used to draw the line of intersection.
1. Line method or piercing point method
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2. Cutting plane method


1. LINE METHOD OR PIERCING POINT METHOD
In this method, a number of straight lines are drawn on one of the solid surfaces and the lines
of intersection are drawn.
2. CUTTING PLANE METHOD
In this method, the two solids are assumed to be cut by planes parallel, perpendicular or
inclined and the lines of intersection are drawn.
Finding lines of intersection between two solids using AutoCAD software requires the use of
the following commands:

Line: From pull-down menu draw, or Draw toolbar.


Point: From pull-down menu Format and point style.
Copy: From pull-down menu Modify, or from the Modify toolbar.
Trim: From pull-down menu Modify, or from the Modify toolbar
Offset: From pull-down menu Modify, or from the Modify toolbar.
Distance: From pull-down menu tools, and then inquiry.
Divide: From pull-down menu Draw, and then point.
Pline: From pull-down menu Draw, or from the Draw toolbar.
Pedit: From pull-down menu Modify, then object, then polyline or from the modify II toolbar.
Measure: From pull-down menu Draw, and then point.

EXAMPLES
1. Figure 9.6 explains two square prisms intersecting at 90 as follows:

Figure 9.6: Two square prisms intersecting perpendicularly

2. When one of the two solids is either pyramid or cone, then see how their axes are?
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Figure 9.7: Left to right; (a) cylinder axis parallel to both & cone axis perpendicular to HP, (b) cylinder axis vertical & cone axis parallel to both

EXERCISES

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


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Experiment No. 10
PICTORIAL DRAWING WITH AUTOCAD
OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this experiment is to show how objects can be fully explained as to
size and shape in technical drawings of the Isometric type.
To familiarize students with the Isometric representation of an object in a form
understandable for a layman.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
Pictorial drawings are not often used for construction purposes. However, on some working
drawings pictorial views are used to reveal information that orthographic views alone would be
incapable of showing; other situations may require a pictorial drawing essentially to supplement
a major view. Pictorial projection, unlike multiview projection, is designed to allow the viewer
to see all three primary dimensions of the object in the projection. Pictorial architectural
drawings and renderings are very easy to understand and are therefore used extensively to depict
a three-dimensional view of an object and for explaining project designs to laymen for salespresentation purposes. In many cases, orthographic (multiview) drawings provide information in
a format that makes it difficult for layman to visualize the total project.
Orthographic/multiview drawings are typically dimensioned and are usually drawn to a
specific scale. Although pictorial drawings may be dimensioned and drawn to scale (considered
being working drawings in that case), their main purpose is to give a three-dimensional
representation of the building or object. As illustrators often take artistic liberties with scale and
proportion, the reader should only use pictorial drawings for general reference because they are
not usually dimensioned and exact scaling is not required. Whereas a multiview drawing is
designed to focus on only two of the three dimensions of the object, a pictorial drawing provides
an overall view. The tradeoff is that a multiview drawing generally allows a less distorted view
of the features in the two dimensions displayed while lacking a holistic view of the object (thus
needing multiple views to fully describe the object). The pictorial representation is a single view
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drawing projected in a single plane of projection by one of the following methods:


Oblique projection
Perspectives projection
Isometric projection
Last being the most suitable.

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Isometric Drawing is the simplest way to give a 3-D (three-dimensional) representation
while using only 2-D commands. This has been the usual way of doing things before CAD
allowed true 3-D work to be done. Many times an isometric drawing is used to compliment a 3
view orthographic drawing. The AutoCAD 2004 drawing area can be prepared for the
construction of isometric drawing as follows:
SETTING UP ISOMETRIC GRID AND SNAP
Right Click on GRID or SNAP in the status bar or Tools Drafting Settings The Drafting
Settings dialog box will be displayed, click on the Snap and Grid Tab.

Figure 10.1: Drafting Settings dialog box with Isometric snap

Under Snap type & style area on the right lower corner, select Isometric Snap. The Grid will
be displayed which will be at an angle of 30.
ISOPLANE command in AutoCAD allows drawing at 30 angle as needed for an isometric
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drawing. To understand the isoplanes, consider a 3D box (Figure 10.2) in the isometric view
showing three surfaces clearly, namely Isoplane Left, Isoplane Right and Isoplane Top.

Figure 10.2: The Grid rotated at 30 and the Isoplanes

But to draw actually, one of the isoplanes (left or right) is assumed as the front view. To
make a 3D drawing, it is needed to switch between these planes in order to draw on the
particular surface.
EXAMPLES OF ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS
EXAMPLE 1
Draw the diagram in First angle of projection as shown in Figure 10.3 then;

Figure 10.3: A first angle orthographic projection


Command: enter snap
Specify snap spacing or [ON/OFF/Aspect/Style/Type] _5_: enter
Enter grid snap style [Standard/Isometric]: enter i (Isometric)

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Specify vertical spacing _5_:

and the drawing area changes, showing the cursor

hairs at an isometric angle (Figure 10.4).

Figure 10.4: The AutoCAD 2004 window set for isometric drawing

ISOPLANES
The cursor hair lines in Figure 10.4 are in an Isoplane Top position. The isoplanes can be
changed either by pressing the function key F5 or the two keys Ctrl+E. These two keying
alternatives toggle the cursor hair lines between Isoplane Top, Isoplane Right and Isoplane Left.
Figure 10.5 shows the effect of these toggles when constructing isometric squares.

Figure 10.5: Squares drawn in the three isoplanes

Figure 10.6: Isocircles drawn in the three isoplanes

The Ellipse tool is used for constructing isometric circles by calling the tool as follows:
Command: ellipse
Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center/Isocircle]: enter i (Isocircle)

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Specify center of isocircle: pick or enter

coordinates
Specify radius of isocircle or [Diameter]: enter the radius and the isocircle is
constructed depending upon which of the isoplane is current at the time. Figure 10.6 shows
isocircles (which are ellipses) in each of the three isoplanes.
EXAMPLE 2 (Figure 10.7)

Figure 10.7: Isometric drawing

Figure 10.8: Isometric drawing first stage

1. Open a new drawing file.


2. Set Snap to Isometric. Toggle with F5 to Isoplane Right.
3. Using the Polyline tool construct the outline given in Figure 10.8. If Ortho is on (F8 key or
click ORTHO button in status bar) the outline will be easier to construct. The front view on
the left of the isometric drawing given in Figure 10.8 shows the dimensions for the outline.
4. Toggle to Isoplane Left and add lines from each corner of the outline as shown in the lefthand drawing of Figure 10.9.
5. Toggle back to Isoplane Right and add plines (right-hand drawing of Figure 10.9).
6. Call the Ellipse tool and with the isoplane in Top, construct an isocircle of radius 30 central
to the horizontal part of the drawing.

Figure 10.9: Isometric drawing second stage

7. With Copy Objects copy the isocircle downwards 20 units.


8. With Trim, trim unwanted parts of the lower isocircle.
9. In Isoplane Right construct isocircles of radius 20 in both the upright parts of the drawing
and copy them backwards by 20 units.
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10. With Trim, trim unwanted parts of these isocircles. Figure 10.7 shows the result.
EXAMPLE 3 (drawing 14 of Figure 10.10)

Figure 10.10: Isometric drawing stages 1314

Draw the diagram shown in Figure 10.11. This, more advanced example, shows the
construction of an isometric drawing of the stand shown in the three-view first angle of
projection given in Figure 10.11. The numbered isometric drawings in Figures 10.10, 10.12
10.14 refer to the numbers of the corresponding step number. Dimensions of the drawings are
taken from the drawing in Figure 10.11.

Figure 10.11: Isometric drawing first angle drawing

Figure 10.12: Isometric drawing stages 16

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Figure 10.12. In Isoplane Left construct two isocircles.


Draw a line through the diameters of the isocircles.
With Trim, trim the two isocircles into semi-isocircles.
With Trim, trim the line.
Add the end pieces as shown.
With Copy, copy the upper semi-isocircle and the end pieces 50 units backwards. Trim
unwanted parts and add lines to the end pieces as shown.
7. Figure 10.13. In Isoplane Top construct two isocircles of radius 25 central to the end
flanges as shown.
8. Trim away unwanted parts as shown.
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Figure 10.13: Isometric drawing stages 710

Figure 10.14: Isometric drawing stages 1112

9. In Isoplane Right and with Copy Object copy the resulting semiisocircles 10 units
vertically downwards.
10. Add vertical lines at the ends of the flanges and trim unwanted parts. Use the Osnap nearest
to ensure the lines are in correct positions.
11. Figure 10.14. In Isoplane Top add isocircles of radius 10 central to the end flanges. Copy
the two isocircles 10 units downwards and trim unwanted parts.
12. Repeat the stages 112 in the upside down position.
13. Figure 10.10. Move the drawing stage 12 to its correct position in relation to the upper part
already drawn. Some details will require to be trimmed away.
14. Add the base of the stand. The isometric drawing is completed.
EXAMPLES OF ISOMETRIC VIEWS FROM MULTIVIEWS
Figures 10.15-10.18 show examples of isometric drawings from orthographic/multiview ones:

Figure 10.15: A Block

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Figure 10.16: A Bracket

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Figure 10.17: A machine part

Figure 10.18: Another Block

EXERCISES
1. Figure 10.19 is an isometric drawing of the stand shown in the three-view orthographic
drawing in Figure 10.20. Construct a full size 3-view 3rd angle of projection of the stand
without including dimensions. Include suitable borderlines and title block with your
drawing. Construct a full size isometric drawing of the stand.

Figure 10.19: Isometric view of a stand

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Figure 10.20: Orthographic view of a stand

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2. Figure 10.21 is an isometric drawing of the support shown in the 3-view orthographic
projection in Figure 10.22. Construct a 3-view full size 3rd angle of projection of the
support without including dimensions. Construct an isometric drawing of the support.

Figure 10.21: An isometric drawing

Figure 10.22: Orthographic Projection of a stand

3. Construct a full size isometric drawing of the stand shown in three view first angle of
projection in Figure 10.23.
4. Orthographic view of a V-block is shown in Figure 10.24. Draw its Isometric view.

Figure 10.23: Isometric view of another stand

Figure 10.24: Orthographic view of a V-Block

5. A cast iron block is shown in front and side views (Figure 10.25). Draw its isometric view.
6. A rod support is shown in Figure 10.26. Draw its isometric view.

Figure 10.25: 2-views of a cast iron block


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Figure 10.26: 2-views of a rod support


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7. Multiview projection of a crank is shown in Figure 10.27. Draw its isometric view.
8. Draw the isometric view from the three views (Figure 10.28).

Figure 10.27: 2-views of a crank

Figure 10.28: Three views

TIPS
1. Isometric projection is a 3D pictorial method of describing objects.
2. Isoplanes are toggled either by pressing the F5 key or the Ctrl+E keys.
3. In order to draw isometric circles use the Ellipse tool with its i (Isocircle) prompt.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


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Experiment No. 11
FREEHAND SKETCHING
OBJECTIVE

To explain why freehand sketching is important in design.


To draw Freehand sketch lines and curves
To sketch an isometric 3-D projection and an orthographic multiview projection

EQUIPMENT

6H and HB Pencils

A Computer with 32-bit OS

A piece of paper

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
The engineer or designer must understand how to read and write in the graphics language
because they must be able to create idea sketches, calculate stresses, analyze motions, size parts,
specify materials and production methods, make design layouts (see Figure 11.1), and supervise
the preparation of drawings and specifications that will control the numerous details of product
manufacture, assembly and maintenance. To perform or supervise these many tasks, engineers
communicate to others through freehand sketches or drawings created using Computer Aided
Design or Computer Aided Drafting (CAD). Preliminary sketches are followed by more exact
sketches and the drawings as the idea is developed more fully. While CAD has replaced
traditional drafting tools for many design teams, the basic concepts of graphic communication
remain the same.

Figure 11.1: Drawing a line or a curve freehand


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Technical sketching is a disciplined form of art. Objects must be drawn exactly as they are
seen, not as one would like to see them. Neat, accurate sketches are only achieved after plenty of
practice, but there are some guiding rules. Most engineering components have outlines
composed of straight lines, circles and circular arcs: if you can sketch these accurately, you are
halfway towards producing good sketches. You may find the method illustrated in Figure 11.1
helpful. When drawing straight lines, as on the left, rest the weight of your hand on the backs of
your fingers. When drawing curved lines, as on the right, rest the weight on that part of your
hand between the knuckle of your little finger and your wrist. This provides a pivot about which
to swing your pencil. Always keep your hand on the inside of the curve, even if it means moving
the paper around. In this experiment, skill and all the information learned so far on the previous
topics will be used to create freehand drawings such as:

Pictorial sketching (Isometric, Oblique and perspective)


Multiview/Orthographic sketching (Front, top and side views)

PICTORIAL SKETCHING
Freehand pictorial sketching looks very much like isometric drawing. Circles appear as
ellipses and lines are drawn at 30 approx. Circles have been sketched onto an isometric cube as
in Figure 11.2. You can see how these same ellipses appear on sketches of a round bar material.

Figure 11.2: Freehand Circles on isometric cube and cylinder

When sketching, you may find it an advantage to draw a faint box first and draw in the
ellipses afterwards. With practice you should find that you can draw quite a good ellipse if you
mark out its centre lines and the major and minor axes. Although drawing is a continuous
process, the work can be divided into three basic stages.
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STAGE 1: CONSTRUCTION
This should be done with a hard pencil (6H), used lightly, and the strokes with the pencil
should be rapid. Slow movements produce wavy, uncertain lines. Since these constructed lines
are very faint, errors can easily be erased.
STAGE 2: LINING IN
Carefully line in with a soft pencil (HB), following the construction lines drawn in stage 1
(Figure 11.3). The completion of stage 2 should give a drawing that shows all the details and
you may decide, particularly in an examination, not to proceed to stage 3.

Figure 11.3: Sketching in three stages

STAGE 3: SHADING
Shading brings a drawing to life. It is not necessary on most sketches, and in some cases it
may tend to hide details that need to be seen. If the drawings are to be displayed, however, some
shading should certainly be done. Shading is done with a soft pencil (HB). It is very easy to
overshade, so be careful. For the smooth merging of shading, the dry tip of a finger can be
gently rubbed over the area.
EXAMPLES OF FREEHAND PICTORIAL SKETCHING
Figures 11.4 11.7 are examples of freehand pictorial sketching.

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Figure 11.4: Pictorial Sketching Example 1

Figure 11.5: Pictorial Sketching Example 2

Figure 11.6: Pictorial Sketching Example 3

Figure 11.7: Pictorial Sketching Example 4

SKETCHING IN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION


More detail can be seen on an orthographic drawing than on an isometric, mainly because
more than one view is drawn. For this reason it is often advantageous for a draughtsman to make
an orthographic sketch. The views should be drawn in the conventional orthographic positions,
i.e. in third angle projection, a FE, a plan above the FE, and an EE to the left or right of the FE;
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in first angle projection, a FE, a plan below the FE and an EE to the left or right of the FE. These
views should be linked together with projection lines. Figures 11.8 and 11.9 show pictorial and
orthographic sketches of two engineering components. Circles are difficult to draw freehand but
you can use your hand as a compass. Hold your pencil upright and, using your little finger as a
compass point, revolve the paper keeping your hand quite still.

Figure 11.8: Sketch of an engg. component

Figure 11.9: Sketch of an engg. component

WILL FREEHAND SKETCHING EVER BECOME OBSOLETE?


CAD has almost totally eliminated pencil and paper drawings. But what about pencil and
paper freehand sketching? Although many computers and palm-tops offer sketching programs, it
is unlikely that freehand sketching will disappear soon. Just as it is easier to do a calculation in
your head or on a piece of scratch paper rather than finding a calculator and punching in the
numbers, it is easier to sketch an image on a piece of paper than to find a computer, log in, and
start the appropriate paint program. Pencil and paper freehand sketches are quick, efficient,
easily modified and conveyed to others. And all that is needed is a pencil and a scrap of paper.
Even if the pencil and paper are totally replaced by palm-top computers someday, freehand
sketching skills will still be useful. Instead of using a pencil on a piece of paper, we will use a
stylus on a touch screen. The only difference is the medium. The freehand sketching techniques
themselves are unlikely to change much. Perhaps one could imagine sketching software that
assists in generating oblique or isometric sketches as they are drawn at some time in the future.

PROBLEMS
For all of the problems, the items shown in Figure 11.10, Figure 11.11, and Figure 11.12 are
2 inches wide, 1.5 inches high, and 1 inch deep. The holes in Figure 11.10b, Figure 11.10c,
Figure 11.10d, Figure 11.11c, and Figure 11.11d are through holes. The hole in Figure 11.11b is
through the front face only.
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1. Create freehand oblique sketches of the objects in Figure 11.10. (The objects are shown as
oblique projections, so you must simply recreate the drawing by freehand sketching.)
2. Create freehand oblique sketches of the objects in Figure 11.11. (The objects are shown as
isometric projections.)
3. Create freehand oblique sketches of the objects in Figure 11.12. (The objects are shown as
orthographic projections.)
4. Create freehand isometric sketches of the objects in Figure 11.11.
5. Create freehand isometric sketches of the objects in Figure 11.10.
6. Create freehand isometric sketches of the objects in Figure 11.12.

Figure 11.10: Oblique projections of objects

Figure 11.11: Isometric projections of objects

7. Create freehand orthographic sketches of the objects in Figure 11.12. (The objects are
shown as orthographic projections, so you must simply recreate the drawing by freehand
sketching)
8. Create freehand orthographic sketches of the objects in Figure 11.10.

Figure 11.12: Orthographic projections of objects

9. Create freehand orthographic sketches of the objects in Figure 11.11.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


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Experiment No. 12
3D DRAWING
OBJECTIVE

To introduce and describe the use of 3D modeling in AutoCAD 2004.


To learn the use of Properties, Render, move/copy in Z-direction, DDVPOINT,
REVSURF commands in 3D and 3D Objects dialog box.
To learn how to give objects a thickness, how to move them vertically, how to view
your 3D creations and how to use the 3DFACE and SHADE commands.

EQUIPMENT

A Computer with 32-bit OS

AutoCAD Software

THEORY
After the isometric Drawing, now it is time to switch to the 3D drawing. In this experiment,
student will learn the fundamental concepts of producing 3D drawings. It shows to create 3D
drawing coordinates, (user coordinate system), and how to change viewpoints to see the object
in 3D. If you manually drew a house plan or any object, you would have to draw a front
elevation, side elevations, and possibly a perspective view. With one 3-D CAD model, you can
generate views from any angle. AutoCAD uses two types of coordinates:

World coordinate systems (WCS).


User coordinate systems (UCS).

World coordinate system (WCS) represents the XY plane, used as AutoCAD default for all
2D drawings. User coordinate systems (UCS) are the user define coordinates; they help the user
to create his own working plane.
How to change the viewpoints?
Select view from the pull-down menu.
Select 3D viewpoint.
Select SW Isometric and watch the new orientation of your drawing.
How to create a UCS:
Select the command view from the pull-down menu.
Highlight toolbar, and select the UCS.

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There are THREE types of 3D Modeling available in AutoCAD:


a) Wireframe modeling
b) Surface modeling
c) Solid modeling
Wire frame Modeling:
A wire-frame model is assumed to be made by connecting wires to obtain the required
shape. It will not have AREA or VOLUME; therefore, we cannot perform any mass property
calculations. For example, creating a 3D wireframe rectangular prism:
a. Draw a 100 x 50 rectangle in the centre of your screen.
b. Use 3D views from the view pull-down menu, then select SE (south east), to view your
rectangle taking a new orientation.
The Rectangle is taking a new orientation.
c. Type Co for copy at your keyboard; then select the rectangle, then type(0,0,30)
AutoCAD will create a copy of the rectangle 30mm above the original.
d. Use the line command and the object snap to connect the upper and the lower corners.
Surface Modeling:
A surface model is made of surfaces (planes). It has AREA but NO VOLUME; hence, mass
properties cannot be calculated. The procedure is as follows:
a. From the pull-down menu Draw, highlight surfaces, then select the 3D face.
b. AutoCAD will ask you to pick the first point, then the second point, then the third and
fourth points to complete the 3D surface.
c. Use the copy command to copy the surface in the z-direction.
Solid Modeling:
Solid modeling requires combining or subtracting primitive solid objects such as boxes,
cylinders, wedges, cones, to create the final 3D solid model. It gives a 3-D model created using
solid 'building blocks'. This is the most accurate way of representing real-world objects in CAD.
It has both AREA and VOLUME. All Mass/Material Properties can be calculated. AutoCAD
provides two toolbars: SOLIDS and SOLID EDITING toolbars to create a solid model.

BASIC 3D AND SURFACE MODELING


Although AutoCAD has a number of commands for creating special 3D objects, a lot can be
achieved by changing the properties of basic 2D objects like polylines. Most 2D objects can be
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given a thickness using the thickness option in the Properties (DDCHPROP) command.
Although objects with a thickness can be said to be extruded, this should not be confused with
the EXTRUDE command which creates solid extrusions; giving an object thickness produces a
surface extrusion. All objects can be given an elevation by moving them in the Z direction using
the MOVE command. With a combination of the MOVE and Properties commands you can
quickly create simple 3D drawings.
THE DDVPOINT COMMAND
Toolbar
None
Pull-down menu

View 3D Viewpoint Select

Command:

DDVPOINT

This command can be used to get an axonometric view of drawing. There are a number of
ways to get an axonometric view of AutoCAD drawing but the DDVPOINT command is
probably the easiest and quickest to use. It is, however, buried two layers deep in the pull-down
menu so its often quicker simply to type it at the keyboard, since there is no toolbar button. As
you probably recognize from the command name it is a dialogue box driven command.

Figure 12.1: Viewpoint Presets dialog box

Figure 12.2: Applying thickness to a circle

The Viewpoint Presets dialogue box is illustrated in Figure 12.1. As you can see, you define
a view by specifying two angles. First angle is the rotation from X axis (the horizontal angle).
Second is the angle from XY plane (the vertical angle). Using the dialog box, you can specify an
angle either by picking on the two dials or by entering an angle into each of the two angle edit
boxes. You can even look at your drawing from underneath by specifying a negative vertical
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angle. For most purposes a horizontal angle along one of the diagonals, 45, 135, 225 and 315
and a vertical angle of 30 give the best results.
You can return to a plan view of your drawing by using the PLAN command. To do this, just
enter "PLAN" at the command prompt and then

to accept the "Current UCS" default. You

can also return to any previous view by using the Zoom Previous command option, Z
at the keyboard or

from the Standard toolbar.

THE PROPERTIES COMMAND


Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Modify Properties

Command:

DDCHPROP

(single or multiple objects);

DDMODIFY

(single objects only)

You can use the DDCHPROP command to change the colour, layer, linetype, linetype scale
and thickness of any single or multiple object selection. The DDMODIFY command gives all of
these change options in addition to those which are specific to the object type. DDMODIFY is
always used by AutoCAD as a default for single object selections when the Properties command
is selected from the toolbar or from the pull-down menu.
Command Sequence
Command: DDCHPROP
Select objects: (pick
Select objects:

one or more objects)

The illustration in Figure 12.2, shows the result of applying a thickness to a circle. A circle
with no thickness is shown on the left and a circle with thickness on the right. Effectively a
circle with thickness becomes a cylinder. You can tell by the orientation of the UCS icon in this
illustration that this is an axonometric view.

MOVING IN THE Z-DIRECTION


By now you should have been quite used to using the Move and Copy commands but until
now you've only been moving/copying 2D objects in XY Plane. Move/Copy can just as easily
be used to move a drawing object vertically (perpendicular to XY Plane). You can do this by
using XY and Z co-ordinates or by picking points in 3D space.

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Figure 12.3: A circle moved from base plane of a cube to the top Figure 12.4: Application of 3D Face & Thickness

In Figure 12.3 on the left, a circle has been moved from base plane of a cube to the top face
of a cube. This is done by using the MOVE command (Modify Move from the pull-down or
from the Modify toolbar). Just start the MOVE command, select the circle, pick one of the
lower corners of the cube as the base point (use the end point Osnap!) and then pick the
corresponding top corner as the second point, again using the end point Osnap. If you look at the
circle in plan, there appears to be no difference in its position because it has not been moved in
XY plane but perpendicular to it. You can use the same principle to move any drawing entity.
Bear in mind that you must always use an Osnap when you are picking points in 3D space. If
you do not, the picked point will always be on the base plane, which doesn't make any sense.
One of the problems with this is that you may not realize your mistake until you change your
view position because in the current view, the objects will appear to have been moved normally.
Its a good idea to keep switching your view point as a check.
In the above example the move was fairly easy because we had a cube to use as a guide.
Very often we need to move an object vertically without any guide. In such a case, co-ordinates
should be used. For example, if cube in the illustration above was 40 drawing units high then the
circle could be moved using the following command sequence.
Command Sequence
Command: MOVE
Select objects: (select the circle)
Select objects:
Base point or displacement: 0,0,0
Second point of displacement: 0,0,40

Notice that UCS origin point has been used as a base point here, that's because its standard
practice but in principle it could be any point in space. The most important is that X and Y coordinates should remain the same (because we do not want to move in the XY Plane) and the Z
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co-ordinate must increase/decrease by the distance you want to move up/down respectively.
Using co-ordinate 25,43,16 as the base point and 25,43,56 as the second point would have
resulted in exactly the same move. And to move the circle down by 40 units the second point coordinate would be 0,0,-40.

WHY A 3D FACE?
When you give thickness to an entity like a rectangle, it is given solid sides in the direction
of extrusion but is left open ended like a tube. To add a top and bottom to a box you must use
3D Faces. In Figure 12.4, two boxes have been shaded (after specifying the faces with the help
of 3DFACE command) using the Shade command (proceed for details after 3DFACE command
below), SHADE from the keyboard, View Shade Options from the pull-down or RENDER
from the Render toolbar. The box on the right is a rectangle which has been given a
thickness. As you can see, it does not have a top. A 3D Face has been added to the top of the
box on the left which gives the effect of a solid surface when shaded.
THE 3D FACE COMMAND
Toolbar
Pull-down menu

Draw Surfaces 3D Face

Command:

3DFACE

The 3D Face command is used to draw 3D surfaces with 3 or 4 edges.


Command Sequence
Command: 3DFACE
First Point: (pick point)
Second Point: (pick point)
Third Point: (pick point)
Fourth Point: (pick point or
Third Point: (start another 3D

for only 3 edges)


Face or
to end)

THE SHADE COMMAND


Toolbar
Pull-down menu

View Shade Options

Command:

SHADE

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SHADE command can be used to give solid look to a 3D perspective view. It works by
shading every 3D face with a solid colour.

Figure 12.5: A cylinder before and after being SHADED

The illustration on the left in Figure 12.5 shows view of a cylinder as it would look in an
AutoCAD drawing. The cylinder on the right has been shaded using the SHADE command.
Notice that all hidden lines are obscured by the shaded faces, giving a solid effect. When you
have shaded a view, you cannot pick drawing entities, nor can you use the ZOOM command. A
shaded view is just like a photograph of the original drawing, it cannot be modified. To return to
normal viewing mode you must use the REGEN command to regenerate the drawing. The
shaded view will then disappear and you can continue as normal.
THE SHADEDGE VARIABLE
You can change the shaded effect that the Shade command gives to your drawing using the
SHADEDGE variable. To change the SHADEDGE variable just enter "SHADEDGE" at the
keyboard and enter a value between 0 and 3. The default value for SHADEDGE is 3. The
shaded cylinder above was shaded with SHADEDGE set to 3. You can also use the SHADE
command with preset SHADEDGE values from the View pull-down (View/Shade/options). The
following list describes how each SHADEDGE value affects the shaded image and indicates the
corresponding option from the pull-down.
SHADEDGE = 0 gives a shaded colour surface with no lines, "256 Color" (Figure 12.6, left).
SHADEDGE = 1 gives a shaded colour surface with lines, "256 Color Edge Highlight". This
tends to give the best overall results (Figure 12.6, centre).
SHADEDGE = 2 gives a background colour surface which creates a similar effect to the HIDE
command, "16 Color Hidden Line" (Figure 12.6, right).
SHADEDGE = 3 gives a block colour surface, "16 Color Filled", this is the AutoCAD default.

Figure 12.6: All the three SHADEDGE values

Remember, using the Shade command, don't forget to use the Regen command to get back to
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the wireline drawing. AutoCAD does not allow you to pick points on a shaded drawing.
For complicated shapes, you may need to use a number of 3D Faces to fill a surface.
Fortunately, extruded circles are automatically given a solid top and bottom so you don't need
any 3D Faces. If you do need to use a complex of faces to fill a surface there is a way to hide the
join lines between faces. If you type "I"

and before the first pick point of any edge, that

edge will be made invisible. If you are careful, you can easily fill a complicated surface with
many 3D Faces which will simply appear as a single continuous surface. If you need to create a
very complex surface, it may be better to use the EXTRUDE command which creates solid
extrusions i.e. they already have top and bottom surfaces.

EXAMPLE 1
The exercise (Figure 12.7) is designed to practice all of the new commands and techniques
outlined above. It is a simple table composed of 9 main elements, 4 legs, 4 rails, and a top all of
which are drawn using Rectangle command, RECTANG from keyboard or Draw Rectangle
from pull-down menu. Remember, rectangles are just 4 sided closed polylines, so if you prefer
using the PLINE command, then feel free. These rectangles will be given a thickness using the
Properties command and an elevation using the COPY command. Some 3D Faces are used for
finishing touches using the 3DFACE command.
DRAWING THE TABLE
Step 1
First of all draw the tables plan using the dimensions and inset detail in Figure 12.7. All
dimensions are in millimetres. The plan is composed of nine rectangles. You may need to use
other commands like Line

and Offset

to construct the rectangles. Alternatively you can

work out the rectangle co-ordinates and construct them manually. Remember to use the Copy
and/or Mirror

commands to duplicate identical objects. For example, its really only

necessary to draw one leg since they are all the same.

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Figure 12.7: A tables plan for 3D drawing

Figure 12.8: The 3D table drawing at the end

Step 2
Next, using the Properties

command, select the four table legs & rails and give them a

thickness of 700 & 100 respectively. Copy the rails vertically through 600 with the COPY
command using a co-ordinate value of 0,0,0 for the base point and 0,0,600 for the second point.
Finally use the Properties command a third time to give the table top a thickness of 40 and use
MOVE again to give the top an elevation of 700. Now look at what you have created using the
DDVPOINT command, View 3D Viewpoint Select from the pull-down or DDVPOINT at
the keyboard. Use the SHADE

command (Flat Shaded) to see the solid effect, View Shade

Options from the pull-down or SHADE at the keyboard.


Step 3
As you will have noticed, the table does not yet have a solid top. You can achieve this using
3D Face. You can start the 3D Face command from the pull-down, Draw 3D Surfaces 3D
Face, from the Surfaces toolbar

, or from the keyboard, 3DFACE. 3D Faces are defined by

picking the four points of a rectangle in either a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. Start the
3D Face command and using the endpoint Osnap, select the four upper corners of the table top.
Use the Shade command again to see the effect. You can use more 3D Faces to complete the
model. By looking at the table from various angles you will notice that the undersides of the
rails, the legs and the table top all need 3D Faces in order to create a completely solid model.
Now that you have completed your model, experiment with the Shade command and the
various shade edge settings.

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Step 4
The drawing should end up looking something like the one shown in Figure 12.8. The vase
was created using the REVSURF command as detailed below:
USING REVSURF COMMAND
Start the REVSURF command, Draw Surfaces Revolved Surface from the pull-down or
from the Surfaces toolbar. Select the polyline you drew to represent the vase profile when
prompted for the path curve and then pick the axis. Accept the command defaults and a 3D vase
will be generated.

3D OBJECTS
In addition to the simple 3D objects you can create by giving objects thickness and adding
3D Faces, AutoCAD provides a number of ready-made 3D objects. These objects can be chosen
from the 3D Objects dialogue box. As is clear from Figure 12.9 (3D Objects dialog box), you
can create very simple objects like a box and complex ones like the torus.

Figure 12.9: The 3D Objects dialog box

Figure 12.10: A 3D Tree

You must invoke the 3D objects dialogue box from the pull-down menu, Draw 3D
Surfaces 3D Objects as there is no keyboard equivalent. Alternatively you can select
individual 3D Object commands from the Surfaces toolbar. Each 3D Object requires different
input from the user but the command line is quite explicit so you shouldn't have any problems.
One of the most useful objects is the Sphere. In Figure 12.10, a 3D tree has been created
using a circle with thickness as the trunk and a sphere as the canopy. One thing to bear in mind
when creating spheres is that the centre of the sphere will be on the ground plane. Therefore,
half of the sphere is below ground level and half above. If you want the sphere to sit on the
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ground plane, all you have to do is move it up through a distance which is the same as its radius.
Another concern when creating spheres and some of the other shapes is number of segments
to use. It is very tempting to use a lot and create a smooth shape but this does take lots of
drawing memory so go carefully. The default value (16) is usually adequate for most purposes.
Command Sequence
Invoke the dialogue box from the pull-down menu (Draw 3D Surfaces 3D Objects),
pick the sphere icon and then the "OK" button or pick

from the Surfaces toolbar.

Center of sphere: (pick point)


Diameter/<radius>: (pick point or enter value)
Number of longitudinal segments<16>: (enter number or
Number of latitudinal segments<16>: (enter number or

)
) and the Sphere is drawn.

EXAMPLE 2
The REVSURF command enables to create a surface, based on revolution of a curve about
an axis. The curve can be a line, spline, polyline, arc, circle, ellipse, or elliptical arc.
SURFTAB1 and SURFTAB2 system variables control no. of divisions in the final 3D mesh.
The procedure is as:
1. Draw the profile (Figure 12.11) in AutoCAD. The drawing consists of a vertical line and a
closed area built of lines and arcs.

Figure 12.11: A 2D closed profile

Figure 12.12: The SE Isometric View

2. Switch the shade mode to Gouraud Shaded, Edges On from View Shade Options from
the pull-down menu or SHADE at the keyboard.
3. Alter the value of SURFTAB1 system variable to 36.
Command: surftab1
Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>:

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106

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Invoke PEDIT.
Select one of the arcs. Enter Y and then press Enter to convert the arc to a polyline.
Select Join then select all the objects. The objects to the left are converted to a polyline.
Press Enter to end the PEDIT command.
Set the view to SE Isometric [Figure 12.12].

Command: -view
Enter an option [?/Orthographic/Delete/Restore/Save/Ucs/Window]:

seiso

9. Invoke REVSURF (Draw > Surfaces > Revolved Surface).


10. Select the polyline as the path curve and the line as the axis of revolution.
11. The start and end angles of revolved surface are 0 and 360 respectively [Figure 12.13].

Figure 12.13: Object after revolution

Figure 12.14: Surface after SURFTAB2 to 12

12. Erase the new 3D mesh.


13. Alter SURFTAB2 to 12.
14. Create the surface again. The quality of the surface is better now.

EXERCISES
Draw the following diagrams in 3-dimensional space with AutoCAD.
1. Use REVOLVE command to generate a 3D model of engine piston shown in Figure 12.15
on right from 2D profile given on left:

Figure 12.15: The engine piston


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2. Draw the Isometric View given below using extrude, hide, line, trim and arc commands
etc. from the orthographic views given in Figure 12.16.

Figure 12.16: A bracket (Isometric View on left & Orthographic Views on right)

3. Draw the Figures 12.17-12.24 as are shown below using AutoCAD:

Figure 12.17

Figure 12.18

Figure 12.19

Figure 12.20

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Figure 12.21

Figure 12.23

Figure 12.22

Figure 12.24

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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APPENDICES

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APPENIX A
Types of lines in engineering graphics:

1. Dimension line: dark, thin and continuous


2. Extension line: dark, thin and continuous
3. Visible line: dark, thick and continuous
4. Hidden line: dark, medium and Dashed
5. Center line: Dark, thin long dashed and small dashed
6. Section line: Dark, thin and continuous
7. Cutting plane line: dark, thick long dashed and small dashed

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APPENIX B
Type of holes used in engineering graphics:

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APPENIX C
AutoCAD drawing and editing commands are as listed below:

2D TOOLS
ABOUT Brings the About AutoCAD bitmap on screen
ADCENTER Brings the DesignCenter palette on screen
APPLOAD Brings the Load/Unload Applications dialog to screen
ARC (A) Creates an arc
AREA States in square units the area selected from a number of points
ARRAY (AR) Creates Rectangular or Polar arrays in 2D
ASE Brings the dbConnect Manager on screen
ATTDEF Brings the Attribute Definition dialog on screen
ATTEDIT Allows editing of attributes from the Command line
AUDIT Checks and fixes any errors in a drawing
BHATCH (H) Brings the Boundary Hatch dialog on screen
BLOCK Brings the Block Definition dialog on screen
BMAKE (B) Brings the Block Definition dialog on screen
BMPOUT Brings the Create Raster File dialog
BOUNDARY (BO) Brings the Boundary Creation dialog on screen
BREAK (BR) Breaks an object into parts
CAL For the calculation of mathematical expressions
CHAMFER (CHA) Creates a chamfer (to cut sharp corners) between two entities
CHPROP (CH) Brings the Properties window on screen
CIRCLE (C) Creates a circle
COPY (CO) Creates single or multiple copies of selected entities

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COPYCLIP (Ctrl+C) Copies a drawing, or part of a drawing, for inserting into a document
from another application
COPYLINK Forms a link between an AutoCAD drawing and its appearance in another
application such as a word processing package
CUSTOMIZE Brings the Customize dialog to screen, allowing the customization of toolbars,
palettes, etc.
DBLIST Creates a database list in a Text window for every entity in a drawing
DDATEXT Brings the Attribute Extraction dialog on screen
DDATTDEF (AT) Brings the Attribute Definition dialog to screen
DDATTE (ATE) Edits individual attribute values
DDCOLOR (COL) Brings the Select Color dialog on screen
DDEDIT (ED) Select text, and the Text Formatting dialog box appears
DDIM (D) Brings the Dimension Style Manager dialog box on screen
DDINSERT (I) Brings the Insert dialog on screen
DDMODIFY Brings the Properties window on screen
DDOSNAP (OS) Brings the Drafting Settings dialog on screen
DDPTYPE Brings the Point Style dialog on screen
DDRMODES Brings the Drafting Settings dialog on screen
DDUNITS (UN) Brings the Drawing Units dialog on screen
DDVIEW (V) Brings the View dialog on screen
DEL Allows a file (any file) to be deleted
DIM Starts a session of dimensioning
DIM1 Allows the addition of a single dimension to a drawing
DIST (DI) Measures the distance between two points in coordinate units
DIVIDE (DIV) Divides an entity into equal parts
DONUT (DO) Creates a donut
DSVIEWER Brings the Aerial View window on screen
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DTEXT (DT) Creates dynamic text. Text appears in drawing area as it is entered
DXBIN Brings the Select DXB File dialog on screen
DXFIN Brings the Select File dialog on screen
DXFOUT Brings the Save Drawing As dialog on screen
ELLIPSE (EL) Creates an ellipse
ERASE (E) Erases selected entities from a drawing
EXIT Ends a drawing session and closes AutoCAD 2004
EXPLODE (X) Explodes a block or group into its various entities
EXPLORER Brings the Windows Explorer on screen
EXPORT (EXP) Brings the Export Data dialog on screen
EXTEND (EX) To extend an entity to another
FILLET (F) Creates a fillet (to convert sharp corners to round corners) between two entities
FILTER Brings the Object Selection Filters dialog on screen
GROUP (G) Brings the Object Grouping dialog on screen
HATCH Allows hatching (to place section lines) by the entry responses to prompts
HATCHEDIT (HE) Allows editing of associative hatching
HELP Brings the AutoCAD 2004 Help: User Documentation dialog on screen
HIDE (HI) To hide hidden lines in 3D models
ID Identifies a point on screen in coordinate units
IMAGEADJUST (IAD) Allows adjustment of images
IMAGEATTACH (IAT) Brings the Select Image File dialog on screen
IMAGECLIP Allows clipping of images
IMPORT Brings the Import File dialog on screen
INSERT (I) Brings the Inert dialog on screen
INSERTOBJ Brings the Insert Object dialog on screen
ISOPLANE (Ctrl/ E) Sets the isoplane when constructing an isometric drawing
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LAYER (LA) Brings the Layer Properties Manager dialog on screen. It allow you to
separate entities on your drawing.
LAYOUT Allows editing of layouts
LENGTHEN (LEN) Lengthen an entity on screen
LIMITS Sets the drawing limits in coordinate units
LINE (L) Creates a line
LINETYPE (LT) Brings the Linetype Manager dialog on screen
LIST (LI) Lists in a text window details of any entity or group of entities selected
LOAD Brings the Select Shape File dialog on screen
LTSCALE (LTS) Allows the linetype scale to be adjusted
MEASURE (ME) Allows measured intervals to be placed along entities
MENU Brings the Select Menu File dialog on screen
MENULOAD Brings the Menu Customization dialog on screen
MIRROR (MI) Creates an identical mirror image to selected entities around a 90 axis
MLEDIT Brings the Multiline Edit Tools dialog on screen
MLINE (ML) Creates mlines
MLSTYLE Brings the Multiline Styles dialog on screen
MOVE (M) Allows selected entities to be moved
MSLIDE Brings the Create Slide File dialog on screen
MSPACE (MS) When in PSpace changes to MSpace
MTEXT (MT or T) Brings the Multiline Text Editor on screen
MVIEW (MV) To make settings of viewports in Paper Space
MVSETUP Allows drawing specifications to be set up
NEW (Ctrl_N) Brings the Select template dialog on screen
NOTEPAD For editing files from the Windows 95 Notepad
OFFSET (O) Offsets (to create parallel lines or arcs) select entity by a stated distance
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OOPS Cancels the effect of using Erase


OPEN Brings the Select File dialog on screen
OPTIONS Brings the Options dialog to screen
ORTHO Allows ortho (to draw perpendicular lines) to be set ON/OFF. F8 key turns the
orthogonal ON or OFF.
OSNAP (OS) Brings the Drafting Settings dialog to screen
PAGESETUP Brings either the Page Setup Model or Page Setup
Layout1 dialog to screen for setting print/plot parameters
PAN (P) Pans the AutoCAD 2004 drawing editor in any direction
PBRUSH Brings Windows Paint on screen
PEDIT (PE) Allows editing of polylines. One of the options is Multiple allowing continuous
editing of polylines without closing the command
PLINE/POLYLINE (PL) Creates a polyline (to draw a series of segments as one line).
PLOT (Ctrl_P) Brings the Plot dialog to screen
POINT (PO) Allows a point to be placed on screen
POLYGON (POL) Creates a polygon
PREFERENCES Brings the Options dialog on screen
PREVIEW (PRE) Brings the print/plot preview box on screen
PROPERTIES (PR) Brings the Properties palette on screen
PSFILL Allows polylines to be filled with patterns
PSOUT Brings the Create Postscript File dialog on screen
PURGE (PU) Purges unwanted data from a drawing before saving to file
QSAVE Quicksave. Saves the drawing file to its current name in AutoCAD 2004 format
QUIT Ends a drawing session and closes down AutoCAD 2004
RAY A construction line from a point
RECOVER Brings the Select File dialog on screen to allow recovery of selected drawings as
necessary
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RECTANG (REC) Creates a pline rectangle


REDEFINE If an AutoCAD command name has been turned off by
Undefine turns the command name back on
REDO Cancels the last Undo
REDRAW (R) Redraws the contents of the AutoCAD 2004 drawing area
REDRAWALL (RA) Redraws the whole of a drawing
REGEN (RE) Regenerates the contents of the AutoCAD 2004 drawing area
REGENALL (REA) Regenerates the whole of a drawing
REGION (REG) Creates a region from an area within a boundary
RENAME (REN) Brings the Rename dialog on screen
REPLAY Brings the Replay dialog on screen from which bitmap image files can be selected
SAVE (Ctrl_S) Brings the Save Drawing As dialog box on screen
SAVEAS Brings the Save Drawing As dialog box on screen
SAVEIMG Brings the Save Image dialog on screen
SCALE (SC) Allows selected entities to be scaled in size smaller or larger
SCRIPT (SCR) Brings the Select Script File dialog on screen
SETVAR (SET) Can be used to bring a list of the settings of set variables into an AutoCAD
Text window
SHAPE Inserts an already loaded shape into a drawing
SHELL Allows MS-DOS commands to be entered
SKETCH Allows freehand sketching
SOLID (SO) Creates a filled outline in triangular parts
SPELL (SP) Brings the Check Spelling dialog on screen
SPLINE (SPL) Creates a spline curve through selected points
SPLINEDIT (SPE) Allows the editing of a spline curve
STATS Brings the Statistics dialog on screen
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STATUS Shows the status (particularly memory use) in a Text window


STRETCH (S) Allows selected entities to be stretched
STYLE (ST) Brings the Text Styles dialog on screen
TABLET (TA) Allows a tablet to be used with a pointing device
TBCONFIG Brings the Customize dialog on screen to allow configuration of a toolbar
TEXT Allows text from the Command line to be entered into a drawing
THICKNESS (TH) Sets the thickness for the Elevation command
TILEMODE Allows settings to enable Paper Space
TOLERANCE Brings the Geometric Tolerance dialog on screen
TOOLBAR (TO) Brings the Toolbars dialog on screen
TRIM (TR) Allows entities to be trimmed up to other entities
TYPE Types the contents of a named file to screen
UNDEFINE Suppresses an AutoCAD command name
UNDO (U) (Ctrl+Z) Undoes the last action of a tool
VIEW Brings the View dialog on screen
VPLAYER Controls the visibility of layers in Paper Space
VPORTS Brings the Viewports dialog on screen
VSLIDE Brings the Select Slide File dialog on screen
WBLOCK (W) Brings the Create Drawing File dialog on screen
WMFIN Brings the Import WMF File dialog on screen
WMFOPTS Brings the Import Options dialog on screen
WMFOUT Brings the Create WMF dialog on screen
XATTACH (XA) Brings the Select Reference File dialog on screen
XLINE Creates a construction line
XREF (XR) Brings the Xref Manager dialog on screen
ZOOM (Z) Brings the Zoom tool into action
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3D TOOLS
3DARRAY Creates an array of 3D models in 3D space
3DFACE (3F) Creates a 3- or 4-sided 3D mesh behind which other features can be hidden
3DMESH Creates a 3D mesh in 3D space
3DORBIT (3DO) Allows manipulation of 3D models on screen
3DSIN Brings the 3D Studio File Import dialog on screen
3DSOUT Brings the 3D Studio Output File dialog on screen
ALIGN Allows selected entities to be aligned to selected points in 3D space
AMECONVERT Converts AME solid models (from Release 12) into AutoCAD 2004 solid
models
BOX Creates a 3D solid box
CONE Creates a 3D model of a cone
CYLINDER Creates a 3D cylinder
DDUCS (UC) Brings the UCS dialog on screen
EDGESURF Creates a 3D mesh surface from four adjoining edges
EXTRUDE (EXT) Extrudes a closed polyline
INTERFERE Creates an interference solid from selection of several solids
INTERSECT (IN) Creates an intersection solid from a group of two or more solids
LIGHT Brings the Lights dialog on screen
MATLIB Brings the Materials Library dialog on screen
MIRROR3D Mirrors 3D models in 3D space in selected directions
MVIEW (MV) When in PSpace brings in MSpace objects
PFACE Allows the construction of a 3D mesh through a number of selected vertices
PLAN Allows a drawing in 3D space to be seen in plan (UCS World)
PSPACE (PS) Changes MSpace to PSpace
RENDER Brings the Render dialog on screen
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REVOLVE (REV) Forms a solid of revolution from outlines


REVSURF Creates a solid of revolution from a pline
RMAT Brings the Materials dialog on screen
RPREF (RPR) Brings the Rendering Preferences dialog on screen
RULESURF Creates a 3D mesh between two entities
SCENE Brings the Scenes dialog on screen
SECTION (SEC) Creates a section plane in a 3D model
SHADE (SHA) Shades a selected 3D model
SLICE (SL) Allows a 3D model to be cut into several parts
SOLPROF Creates a profile from a 3D solid model drawing
SPHERE Creates a 3D solid model sphere
STLOUT Saves a 3D model drawing in ASCII or binary format
SUBTRACT (SU) Subtracts one 3D solid from another
TABSURF Creates a 3D solid from an outline and a direction vector
TORUS (TOR) Allows a 3D torus to be created
UCS Allows settings of the UCS plane
UNION (UNI) Unites 3D solids into a single solid
VPOINT Allows viewing positions to be set from x,y,z entries
VPORTS Brings the Viewports dialog on screen
WEDGE (WE) Creates a 3D solid in the shape of a wedge

INTERNET TOOLS
BROWSER Brings www.autodesk.com page on screen
ETRANSMIT Brings the Create Transmittal dialog to screen
PUBLISH Brings the Publish to Web dialog to screen

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D. AUTOCAD FUNCTION KEYS


Many of the modes described above can be controlled quickly using the keyboard function
keys. In most cases this is quicker than using a pull-down menu or the command line. The
function keys are arranged along the top of your keyboard. AutoCAD uses function keys F1 to
F11. The use of function keys is described below.
FUNCTION KEY

DESCRIPTION

F1

AutoCAD Help

F2

flips between the graphics screen and the AutoCAD Text Window

F3

Toggles (turns ON and OFF) the Object Snap ON/OFF

F4

Tablet mode ON/OFF (if attached)


Cycles through the Isoplanes, this only has an effect if "Isometric

F5

Snap/Grid" mode is on. The options are Left, Top and Right

F6

Coordinate display ON/OFF

F7

Grid ON/OFF

F8

Ortho ON/OFF

F9

Snap ON/OFF

F10

Polar Tracking ON/OFF

F11

Object snap tracking ON/OFF

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E. DRAWING ASSIGNMENTS
FIGURE NO.

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

2.1

Practice of Line Command

15

2.3

Practice of Polyline Command

16

2.4

Application of Rectangle Command

16

3.16

Exercise of Text & Hatching

28

Plates 1-8

1st & 3rd angles of projections exercise

33-34

Plates 1-18

Exercise of Orthographic Views

35-37

Plates 1-13

Exercise of Geometric Construction

44-46

7.16

Practice on variety of hatch patterns

58

7.17, 7.19

Hatching Exercises 1 & 2

59

7.31

Multiple Hatches exercise

63

7.32-7.42

Sectioning Exercises

63-64

8.16-8.21

Exercises of Auxiliary Views

72-73

Plates 1-4

Exercises of Surface Intersection

10.20, 10.22-10.28

Exercises of Isometric Views

11.10-11.12

Exercises of Freehand Sketches

12.15-12.24

3D Drawing Exercises

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87-89
95
107-109

123