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Chapter 8 Reading Question

1. What is a periodic property of an element?


something that relates to the number of neutrons an atom has
something that is predictable based on the element's position on the periodic table
something that changes over a certain period of time
something that occurs only occasionally, during certain periods

2. Like a good theory should, Mendeleev's periodic table made some testable
predictions mentioned by the text. Which of the following were predicted by
Mendeleev's table?
the properties of gallium and germanium, which had not been discovered at the time
the periodic law
the electron configuration of tellurium
the existence of the proton and neutron, which had not been discovered at the time

3. According to the Pauli exclusion principle, why is it that any given orbital can hold
no more than two electrons?
Electrons have to spin in the same direction.
There are only two possible values for electron spin, so there are only two possible unique
sets of quantum numbers describing the electrons in a given orbital.
Too much energy would be required if there were three electrons in the same orbital.

The orbitals in a multielectron atom do not have the same energy, so there is space for only
two electrons in an orbital.

4. Why is the energy of the 2s orbital lower than the energy of a 2p orbital?
An electron in a 2p orbital has a greater probability of being closer to the nucleus than an
electron in a 2s orbital, which raises the energy of the 2p orbital.
The energy of an s orbital is always lower than a p orbital in the same shell.
A 2p orbital can hold more electrons that repel each other and make the orbital have higher
energy.
The 2s orbital penetrates closer to the nucleus and experiences more of the nuclear charge.

5. Why do elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical
properties?
They all have filled core orbitals.
They all have the same complete electron configurations.
They have unfilled outermost principal energy levels.
They all have the same number of valence electrons.

6. Why are the halogens among the most reactive nonmetal elements?

They have a tendency to form ions with a 1 charge.


They're far to the right of the periodic table.
The halogens need to gain only one valence electron to have a completely filled outer
energy level.
The halogens are diatomic gases in their elemental state.

7. Why does atomic radius decrease as you go from left to right across a period?
Because the value of the principal quantum number decreases from left to right, the
electrons are closer to the nucleus.
The addition of more valence electrons makes the atom smaller because the outermost
electrons do not shield each other.
The number of protons increases from left to right, but the number of shielding electrons
does not. This increases the effective nuclear charge, which attracts the electrons more strongly.
As the number of protons increases across a period, the attractive force on the electrons
increases.

8. Why is the ionization energy of nitrogen higher than that of oxygen, in contrast to
the general trend seen for ionization energy?
Oxygen is more likely to pick up two electrons to take on a noble gas configuration than it
is to lose one.
Nitrogen has a stable half-filled 2p sublevel, whereas oxygen has one set of paired
2p electrons, making it less stable.
Oxygen is a smaller atom, and thus the electrons are not held as tightly as those of
nitrogen.

Nitrogen has a larger effective nuclear charge than oxygen, which attracts electrons more
strongly.

9. Why are transition metal ions often paramagnetic?


When these ions are placed in a magnetic field, they are attracted to it.
In forming the ion, electrons are removed from the 4s orbital instead of the 3d orbital.
Hund's Rule implies that these ions often have unpaired electrons in the d sublevel.
The magnetic field causes electrons to jump to higher energy orbitals.

10. Why does electron affinity tend to become more exothermic as you move right
across a period?
As you move right across the period, metallic character decreases, meaning that the atom
or ion is more likely to gain electrons than lose electrons.
The effective nuclear charge increases as you move right across the period, resulting in
greater attraction for an electron.
As you move right across the period, you have a greater likelihood of pairing electrons in
an orbital, which is a more stable configuration.
The trend in electron affinity is just the opposite of that for first ionization energy, since

the two processes are the opposite of each other.