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1, 2007

SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO STATE

GALADIMA, I. & YUSHAU, M.A.

Department of Education, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

This paper investigated the Mathematics performance of Senior Secondary School

students in Mathematical concepts, principles, terms and symbols as contained in

Algebra. Trigonometry and Statistics. The study covered all the Senior Secondary two

students in Sokoto State who were found to have covered adequate content of algebra,

trigonometry and statistics of SS II mathematics curriculum. A sample of 368 students

were involved in the study, comprising of 187 boys and 181 girls. The instrument adapted

for the study was a standardized text constructed and validated in Malaysia by a research

group called Diagnostic Technologic Malaysia (1987).Percentage, means, standard

deviations and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine and

compare performance of students at = 0.05. All the 2 hypotheses tested were not

rejected showing no significant differences between the group means. The paper proffers

some recommendations among which included investigations of students learning

difficulties should be taken seriously by teachers and be seen as a special tool for

checking the level of difficulties among the students.

INTRODUCTION

One of the aims of mathematics education is surely successful learning for all

students, yet it seems to be a fact of reality that, while few students prosper in the

learning of mathematics, much greater number of them find mathematics difficult. Over

the years, mathematics educators have identified various causes of difficulties in learning

mathematics. Among these factors include; physiological, social, emotional, intellectual

and pedagogical in nature (Howell, 2000; Geary, 1999; Inekwe, 1977; Wright, 1996;

Galadima, 1988 and Bruckner, and Bond, 1955).

Poor students performance in Mathematics has posed major concern to

mathematics educators. This is because, the teaching and learning of mathematics in

secondary schools in Nigeria have a significant role towards understanding the subject as

well as science and technology related courses.

According to Adegboye (1991) Mathematics is one of the core subjects in both

Junior and Senior Secondary School curricula in Nigeria, which justifies the recognition

of Mathematics as being essential in the development of technological advancement in

Nigeria.

technological development of a nation, students performance in the Nigerian institutions

has not been encouraging (Adeyebe, 1993).

Contributing on under achievement, Fajemidagbe (1997) says attempts have been

made by researchers in Mathematics education to deal with the problem of achievement

in school mathematics, but up till now there is more to be done.

While Korau (2006) opines several variables ranging from the learners

themselves, the teachers, the textbooks, the curricula, school environment to have been

responsible for students poor achievement in school Mathematics.

Therefore, a successful teacher should always be prepared to assess the students

abilities, values and levels of difficulties so as to make the necessary adjustment in

remedial teaching. The level of students performance in Mathematics determines the

level of her/his difficulties in learning. For instance, if a students score in Mathematics is

very low, it indicates the level of his/her learning difficulty in the subject.

Thus, this study investigated Mathematics performance of Senior Secondary

School Students to determine their level of learning difficulties in Sokoto State.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In spite of the universal recognition of the importance of mathematics and the

tremendous efforts being made by educationists, mathematicians, mathematics teachers

and researchers towards improving both the quantity and quality of teaching and learning

of mathematics in secondary schools, yet the students achieved very poorly. For instance

in the research on areas of difficulties among JSS three students on Algebraic content,

Galadima (1988) found, the performance of boys and girls to be generally low as a result

of lack of proper understanding of the basic concepts and processes. Similarly, Inekwe

(1997) while investigating algebraic and geometric reasoning difficulties affecting

remediation at the secondary levels, found that, the general performance was below 30 %

mean score and more than 50 % of the students have:

i.

Answer consciousness

ii.

Poor inductive reasoning ability, and

iii.

Poor intuitive problem solving ability due to deliberate avoidance of nonnumerical variables.

But on gender performance, Onabanjo (2000) and Ojo (2004) found that boys

performed significantly better than girls in SSS Mathematics.

Buxton (1980) feels that, algebraic symbols can themselves be great inhibitor to

Mathematics learning, due to their nature and notations. Examples of these symbols

include < (less than), > (greater than), < (less than or equal to), > (greater than, or equal

to), = (equivalent to), = (equal to), # (not equal to) others include parentheses ([]),

brackets ( ) {}, curly brackets, and horizontal bar (-) (vincula), a2 + b2 = c2, x + y = z =

10, xy = y2 etc. Hart (1981) discovered a common pitfall in manipulating and interpreting

25

algebraic expression; a tendency to mix numbers and letters. These imply that secondary

school students are encountering difficulties in learning of Mathematics.

Howel (2000), discovered difficulties with Mathematical concepts, term and

symbols arise from the realm of Mathematical thinking.

The problem of this study is therefore concerned with investigating Senior

secondary School Students performance in Mathematical concepts, principles, terms and

symbols as contained in Algebra, trigonometry and Statistics in Sokoto State.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this study in specific terms are:

1.

To identify the Mathematics performance of senior secondary school

students in mathematical concepts, principles, terms and symbols as

contained in secondary mathematics curriculum in Sokoto State.

2.

To identify who performs better in Mathematical concepts, principles,

terms and symbols among boys and girls in senior secondary schools of

Sokoto State.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were used in the conduct of this study:

i.

Is there any difference in performance in Mathematical concepts,

principles, terms and symbols among senior secondary schools students of

Sokoto State?

ii.

Is there any sex - difference in learning mathematical concepts, principles,

terms and symbols among senior secondary school students of Sokoto

State?

HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were tested and used to answer the research questions

raised earlier.

Ho1: There is no significant difference in performance in Mathematical concepts,

principles, terms and symbols among senior secondary school students of Sokoto

State.

Ho2: There is no significant sex difference in Mathematical concepts, principles,

terms and symbols among senior secondary school students of Sokoto State.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study employed a quasi-experimental design using pre-test and post-test

control group design. Questions administered were from the areas of concepts, principles,

terms and symbols as contained in Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics only. The

researchers had conducted a survey to find out the schools and the students that had

covered topics in Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics. From the result of the survey,

26

only six schools with students population of about one thousand three hundred and forty

eight (1348) satisfied the condition.

POPULATION AND SAMPLE

There are forty eight (48) senior Secondary Schools in Sokoto State with an

estimated population of Nine Thousand Four Hundred and eighty six (9,486) students in

SS 2. Out of the 48 senior secondary schools in the state, 23 schools are situated within

Sokoto metropolis with an estimated population of Six Thousand five hundred and sixty

seven (6,567) students in SS 2. However, only six schools satisfied the criteria mentioned

above. Therefore, a sample of all the six schools were taken, been the only option left

which is in accordance with the advice of Fox (1969) on purposeful sampling technique.

A sample of 368 students were randomly selected from an estimated population of

1,348 students, which is in accordance with Morgan and Krejcie (1971) table for

determining sample size from a given population.

In order to have a fair representation of the characteristics of the parent

population, both boys and girls were given equal opportunities. Thus, using proportionate

allocation. Table 1 below provides the information.

Table 1:

Sokoto metropolis

S/No.

Name of Schools

Type Total Number Sample

of Students in size in

SS 2

1.

Nana Girls Secondary School Sokoto

Girls

398

84

2.

Government Girls College Sokoto

Girls

340

72

3.

Sultan Attahiru Ahmadu Secondary Boys

375

79

School Sokoto

4.

Sani Dingyadi Secondary School Sokoto

Boys

399

84

5.

Government Day Secondary School Mixed

190

40

Arkilla, Sokoto

6.

Usmanu Danfodiyo Model Secondary Mixed

45

9

School, Sokoto

1384

368

27

INSTRUMENT

The study adapted forty (40) test items designed by the Diagnostic and Remedial

Mathematics Group of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The reliability and validity of the

instrument before adaptation indicated that 7 questions out of 40 had D<0.25, of these

two had a low P index and were too good discriminators. Questions were selected and

modified from three (3) topics as follows:

TOPIC 1:

Algebra (Questions 1 14, Q. 35, 36)

TOPIC 2:

Trigonometry (Questions 15 21, Q. 33, 39)

TOPIC 3:

Statistics (Questions 22 32, Q. 37, 38, 40)

This instrument consists of 90 minutes 40 item multiple choice examination

that test students skills in Mathematical concepts, principles, terms and symbols as

contained in algebra, trigonometry and statistics.

However, when testing the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument

preliminary investigation provides the following: Eleven (11) questions out of 40 had

D<0.25, of these five (5) questions had a low P index and were too difficult, the other six

(6) questions had a high P index and were too easy. Twenty nine (29) questions out of

forty (40) were good discriminators.

The test was administered to all the sampled students on the same day with the

assistance of three research assistants and mathematics teachers of the sampled schools.

After marking the scripts for all the sample students, the raw scores were

converted into percentage scores. The means and standard deviation for boys and girls

were calculated in each topic of the test as well as the total scores for the overall

performance. For further analysis of the data, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test

as statistical tool for comparing among and within the group-means at 0.05 level of

significance were used.

RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION

The data collected were presented and analysed as follows, taking each hypothesis

one at a time.

HYPOTHESIS ONE (HO1):

There is no significant difference in performance in mathematical concepts,

principles, terms and symbols among senior secondary school two (SS II) students of

Sokoto State.

The table below shows the general performance of boys and girls in Mathematical

concepts, principles, terms and symbols.

28

Table 2:

Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Boys and Girls

Gender

Number of

Mean Scores

Standard

Students

Deviation

Boys

187

24.67

11.81

Girls

181

21.13

9.54

Mixed

368

23.02

10.98

The table above shows that, both boys and girls performed equally poor in the

mathematical concepts, principles, terms and symbols. The data in Table 2 was further

subjected to analysis to find significant difference using One-way Analysis of Variance.

The result is presented in table 3 below.

One-way Analysis of Variance of Students Performance on Algebra,

Trigonometry and Statistics

Source of variance

SS

Df

MS

F

Between Group

7893

2

3946.5

0.83

Within Group

1730275.6

365

4740.48

Total

1738168.6

367

NB: Group means for AT & S = 26.93.15.96.24.07 respectively. Level of Significance

= 0.05

Table 3:

Table 3 above presents the result of analysis of variance employed to test the

difference in performance among Ss II students in mathematical concepts, principle,

terms and symbols. It also shows that, an F value of 0.83 was obtained which was less

than a critical value of 3.02 at p < 0.05. This implies that, there was no significant

difference in Mathematics performance among Senior Secondary School students in

Sokoto State. The hypothesis tested was therefore retained.

HYPOTHESIS TWO (HO2)

There is no significant sex-difference in Mathematics performance among senior

secondary students of Sokoto State.

To test this hypothesis, a descriptive statistical technique was employed and the

summary is given in table 4 below.

29

Table 4:

Sex

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Boys

Girls

74.4933

70.5567

3

3

97.6456

95.8221

Std. Error

Mean

56.3757

55.3229

Table 4 above shows the means, the standard deviations, and the standard error of

mean for both boys and girls. This was used to find whether there was any significant

difference between boys and girls in their mean scores. T-Test was employed at 0.05

level of significant. A summary of the analysis of the t-test is presented in the table 5

below.

Table 5:

Summary of T-test Analysis

Variables

N

X

S2

Boys

187

24.67

11.81

Girls

181

Not significant at 0.05

21.13

Df

Cal t

Critical t

0.05

3.596

4.30

09.54

From the table above it was found that, there was no significant difference

between boys and girls performance at 0.05 level of significance, the calculated t-value

(3.596) was found to be less than the table value of 4.30. Thus, the hypothesis tested was

retained, implying that there was no significant sex difference in mathematics

performance among Senior Secondary School students of Sokoto State.

DISCUSSION

The findings of this study indicated that, boys and girls performed very poorly in

the test administered.

The findings also confirmed no significant sex difference in learning

mathematical concepts, principles, terms and symbols among senior secondary school

two (SS II) students of Sokoto State. Thus, confirming and supporting the findings of

Galadima (188) who worked on the overall performance of boys and girls in the

Algebraic content of JSS three school Mathematics.

The findings of the study further confirmed the findings of Inekwe (1997) that,

both boys and girls were equally poor in geometric reasoning ability, and the diagnostic

group of University Taknologi Malaysia (1989) who reported that, students have

difficulties in learning concepts, principles, terms and symbols based on the overall

analysis they have made.

30

The above findings revealed the existence of learning difficulties among senior

secondary schools of Sokoto State in Mathematics. This is a pointer to the fact that,

investigation of students learning difficulties may not have been carried out by

Mathematics teachers in secondary schools of Sokoto State.

SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS

From the analyses and findings of this study, it is possible to make a summary of

the major findings.

1.

There was no significant difference in performance of Mathematical concepts,

principles, terms and symbols among Senior Secondary School students of

Sokoto State.

2.

There was no significant sex-difference in Mathematics performance among

senior secondary school students of Sokoto State.

IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY

The results of this study reveals that more than 75 % of the students had scored

low marks in Mathematical areas of Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics as a results of

lack of proper understanding of the basic concepts, principles, terms and symbols

involved. This has a lot of implication for the educational requirements of higher

institutions where credit passes are the basic considerations for further learning in the

areas of science and technology. Hence, majority of the students may not be eligible to

read science, technology and related course. This implies that Sokoto State would

continue to be left behind in the areas of science and technology where knowledge of

mathematics happened to be the foundation of learning.

The poor performance of students revealed in the study may be as a result of the

neglect of teachers for not carrying our performance test in difficult topics of

mathematics.

RECOMMENDATION

Considering the poor performance manifested by the students in Mathematics and

the great demand of the Mathematical knowledge in the educational system and its

practical application in the fields of science and technology etc, the following

recommendations are made for the improvement of teaching and learning of Mathematics

in the State;

teachers and be seen as a special tool for checking the level of difficulties among

students.

subtopic wise and remediation should be given immediately after the difficulties

have been identified.

31

Teachers should always provide remedial class of the difficult exercises and

assignments as well as mark them. Teachers should always create friendly

atmosphere during lesson presentations, this will promote interest in the subject

among students.

Teachers should always remember and use during every classroom presentation

the four phases of learning as postulated by Gane (1970);

i.

The apprehending phase.

ii.

The acquisition phase.

iii.

The storage phase and

iv.

The retrieval phase.

REFERENCES

Mathematics Education in Nigeria: Kwara State as a Case Studies. ABACUS: The

Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 21 (1): 69 92.

Adeyegbe, S. O. (1993). The SSS Science Curriculum and Candidates

Performance. An Appraisal of the First Cycle of Operation. Journal of Science Teachers

Association of Nigeria, STAN, 28 (2).

Brueckner, L. J. & Bond, G. L. (1955). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Learning

Difficulties; Appleton Century crafts, New York.

Ekenstan, A. & Careger, K. (1983). Some aspects of Childrens ability to solve

Mathematical problems. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 14 (1): 469 384.

Fajemidagbe, (1997). Secondary School Mathematics Relative Difficulty

Importance of Mathematics Learning Items, ABACUS: The Journal of Mathematical

Association of Nigeria, 24 (1): 51 61.

Franic, H. & Athoen, S. C. (1994). Statistic concepts and application. Cambridge

University Press.

Gagn, R. M. (`1970). The condition of Learning, Holt Rinehart and Winston Inc,

New York, (2nd ed.).

Galadima, I. (1988). Comparative performance by gender in subtopics of Junior

Secondary School Algebra in Sokoto State (M.Ed.) Dissertation, Ahmadu Bello

University, Zaria.

32

University Press, London.

Howell, P. (2000). Mathematics Difficulties. The de Parl School: Internet

Educational

Information

on

Diagnosis.

http://www.DepaulSchool.org.Learning/Mathematics/html.

Inekwe, O. I. (1997). Algebraic and Geometric Reasoning Difficulties Affecting

Remediation at the Secondary Level: Journal of Sokoto Educational Review, 4 (1): 83

92.

Korau, Y. K. (2006). A Systematic Attempt to Establish the Fear and Poor

Performance of Senior secondary School Students in geometry and Trigonometric

Concepts. A Case Study of WAEC candidates. A paper presented at the 43rd Annual

Conference of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, held at A. T. B. U. Bauchi.

Krejcie, R. V. and Morgan, S. W. (1971). Determining Sample Size for Research

Activities, Education and Psychological Measurement, 30: 607 610.

Ogunleye, A. O. (2000). An Introduction to Research Methods in Education and

Social Sciences: Sunshine International Publications (Nig.) Ltd. Illupeju Lagos.

Ojo, J. O. (2004). Relative Effects of Self-Regulatory and Cooperative Learning

Strategies on Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools Mathematics in Ibadan North,

Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan.

Onabonjo, I. O. (2000). Peer Tutoring Assisted Instruction, Parent Supportiveness

and Students Locus of Control as Determinants of Learning Outcomes in Senior

Secondary School Mathematics. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan.

Sambo, A. A. (2005). Research Methods in Education: Sterling Horden

Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Ibadan, Oyo State.

33

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