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LTE Overview

Nigel Chan ()
Head of Solution Engagement, Network System THM
10 June 2010

Nokia Siemens Networks

Contents

Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE Market Overview


LTE Standardisation and Architecture
Radio Access Technology
Core Network Technology
LTE-Advance

Our market vision 2015 the world connected


A major opportunity for everyone
Applications predominantly
in the Internet

Multitude of business
models

5 billion people
connected

Broadband everywhere
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Internet as the
heartbeat of a
modern society

but there are big challenges ahead of us


Stagnating voice revenues
Exploding mobile traffic
Significant cost pressure

How to maintain
profitable business?

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5 billion people
connected

Key challenges for mobile data


The challenge

The Users expectation

..leads to the operators challenges

Best price, transparent flat rate


Full Internet
Click-bang responsiveness

reduce cost per bit


provide high data rate
provide low latency

Devices & applications drive


traffic growth

Reduction of network cost is


necessary to remain profitable

Traffic
Revenue
Profitability

Voice dominated

Data dominated

Time
Source: Light Reading (adapted)

LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
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/bit

Traffic volume

Revenues and Traffic


decoupled

and a truly E2E LTE solution is needed

Energy Efficient
Multi-Radio BTS

Market leading
application platform
for rich
value-added services

Smooth Evolution
from GSM / WCDMA
/ HSPA to LTE
End-user
terminals

OSS system for


multi-technology
management

Proven managed
services,
consulting, and
implementation
support
Proven
interoperability with
leading terminal
providers

Nokia Siemens Networks

Internet

Mobile backhaul
solution for LTE

Flat network
architecture
experience for LTE

Subscription
management and
charging systems

Market trends and operator success factors


Market Trend

GSM,EDGE,
EDGE evolution
WCDMA, HSPA,
HSPA evolution
LTE
LTE

Technology
evolution

Total
Cost of
Ownership

Growth
in
data traffic

Higher data rates marketing

Green
values

WiMAX

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accelerate NW evolution
HSPA and in future LTE
services serving premium
customers are source of
operator revenue growth
Maintain optimum services
for most demanding
customer segment

Operator opportunities/
challenges for success

How to cater for 100X


traffic growth
and maintain
operator profitability ?

Revenues and traffic are


becoming decoupled by
the introduction of flat-rates
Automation of operational
processes for increased
efficiency and lower cost
Operators have both GSM/EDGE
and WCDMA/HSPA networks.
Smoothest evolution path to LTE
required.
Migration from CDMA to 3GPP
technologies is accelerating

How to ensure

Growing awareness of green

How to achieve the

values in developed markets


Pressure from nongovernmental environmental
organizations e.g. WWF

investment protection
with an unbeatable
network evolution ?

greenest network?

2010 LTE is becoming reality

59 LTE network operator


commitments in 28
countries
Up to 22 LTE networks
expected to be
commercially launched by
end 2010
(and 37 LTE networks in
service by end 2012)
380 million subscribers by
2015
Forecast for LTE lead markets
by Research and Markets

Nokia Siemens Networks

Market Situation: LTE Launches

Current Status on LTE launches:


TeliaSonera LTE service launch in Stockholm and
Oslo on Dec. 14, 2009, as first network in the
world.
TS launching pilots in Finland within 1Q/2010, &
Denmark shortly after (license in April 2010)
Verizon Wireless released some details on LTE
plans: launch 25..30 markets in 2010; Double
within 15 months. Entire current 3G footprint to be
covered by LTE end-of-2013.
NTT DoCoMo will launch Dec.2010

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coverage area of TeliaSonera launch


Downtown Stockholm area, launch on Dec.14, 2009
Initially 100 selected users, from Jan.14 general access
(terminal delivery starts for ordinary people having been on
waiting list since launch )

Key architectural concept.


Flat and cost effective Mobile Network
Access

Core

Control

MGW

GSM/EDGE/

2G BTS

MSC

BSC

UMTS/HSPA
RNC

SGSN

GGSN

W-CDMA BTS
MGW
IMS

LTE / SAE
LTE BTS (eNodeB)

Improved flexible radio technology

New air I/F providing higher data throughputs


LTE provides flexibility for spectrum re-farming
and new spectrum
LTE can operate in a number of different
frequency bands
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HLR/HSS

MME
SAE-GW

Simpler architecture for reduced OPEX

Simplified, flat network architecture based on IP


reduces operators cost per bit significantly
Interworking with legacy systems is an integral
part of service continuity
Re-use of existing equipment as much as
possible

Radio technology roadmap converging to LTE

Cellular
Networks

GSM/EDGE
WCDMA/HSPA

evolution
evolution

LTE
CDMA

2007

2008

2009

2010

LTE as global cellular mobile-broadband technology


Smooth interworking with existing cellular networks
assures service continuity
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2020

Answering the challenges

Easy and efficient evolution?


Offer new services when needed?

Data Growth
SW-based evolution to LTE
Superior throughput from LTE
Shortest time to revenue via smooth
upgrade path

Best re-use of existing sites?


Easy and efficient site evolution?

Investment protection
One all purpose BTS

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LTE Solution
Cost awareness
10% higher staff-efficiency for network operation from NetAct and SON
25% less site visits for maintenance and upgrades
30-50% lower power consumption with credibility
How to increase operational efficiency?
How to increase resource efficiency?

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LTE Standardisation and Architecture

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Requirements setup for LTE standardization


and design choices by 3GPP
Packet switched domain optimized

Flat dual node architecture, Node B controlled RRM


One way (radio) delay below 5 ms
Fast scheduling in UL and DL supported (granularity 1 ms)
Ensure good level of mobility and security
Reusing and adapting principles from UMTS
Improve terminal power efficiency
SC-FDMA for UL, advanced DRX/DTX functions
Frequency allocation flexibility
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz allocations specified
Performance
Peak rates uplink/downlink 50/100 Mbps
Higher radio capacity: Depending on the case 3-4 times higher capacity
expected than with Release 6 HSDPA/HSUPA reference case

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LTE standardization

End of 2004
March 2005
December 2005
March 2006
September 2006
December 2007
March 2009

3GPP workshop on UTRAN long term evolution


Study item started
Multiple access selected
Functional split between radio and core agreed
Study item closed, work item agreed
1st version of radio specs approved
Backwards compatibility started (ASN.1 frozen)

Rel-9
started
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Rel-10 LTE-A
started

LTE TDD and FDD in one specification


With 2 frame structure options

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3GPP R8 network architecture


Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Radio Access Network
Other access networks

HSS

AAA PCRF

IMS Operator services

BSC
SGSN

2G
RNC

SAE Gateway
SGSN

Internet

3G
Serving
GW

LTE
eNode-B

MME
ePDG

Untrusted Non-3GPP IP Access


Trusted Non-3GPP IP Access

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PDN
GW

Company intranets
Control plane
User plane

Non-3GPP

17

Services in Packet
Data Network

Network evolution towards LTE flat architecture


HSPA
3GPP R6

Direct tunnel
HSPA
3GPP R7

Internet HSPA
HSPA
3GPP R7

GGSN

GGSN

GGSN

SGSN

Direct
tunnel

RNC

RNC

Node-B

Node-B

= control plane
= user plane

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SGSN

Nokia Siemens Networks

SGSN

Direct
tunnel

Node-B
with RNC
funct.

LTE R8

GGSN
SAE GW

SGSN/
MME

eNode-B

LTE/SAE Overview
Only one Network Element in Radio
and Core each
Focus is on enhancement of Packet
Switched technology
high data rates, low latency, packet
optimised flat IP system
Comprehensive Security

Access

Mobility Concept with tight


Integration for 3GPP accesses
Streamlined SAE Bearer Model with
Network Centric QoS Handling
On/Offline & Flow Based Charging

Core Switching & Transport

Core Control
PCRF

LTE BTS
(eNodeB)

MME
SAE-GW

IMS

HSS/AAA

PCRF: Policy and Charging Control Function


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Nokia Siemens Networks

3GPP Supported FDD Frequency Bands


Total [MHz] Uplink [MHz]
1
2x60
1920-1980
2
2x60
1850-1910
3
2x75
1710-1785
4
2x45
1710-1755
5
2x25
824-849
6
2x10
830-840
2x70
2500-2570
7
2x35
880-915
8
9
2x35
1749.9-1784.9
10
2x60
1710-1770
11
2x20
1427.9-1447.9
12
2x18
698-716
13
2x10
777-787
14
2x10
788-798
17
2x12
704-716
18
2x15
815-830
19
2x15
830-845
20
2x30
832-862
21
2x15
1447.9-1462.9
22
2x90
3410-3500
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Downlink [MHz]
2110-2170
1930-1990
1805-1880
2110-2155
869-894
875-885
2620-2690
925-960
1844.9-1879.9
2110-2170
1475.9-1495.9
728-746
746-756
758-768
734-746
860-875
875-890
791-821
1495.9-1510.9
3510-3600

Europe
/Asia

Japan

Americas
UMTS core
US PCS
1800
US AWS
US 850
Japan 800
2600
900
Japan 1700
Extended AWS
Japan 1500
US700
US700
US700
US700
Japan new 800
Japan new 800
EU800
Japan 1500 ext
3500

3GPP Supported TDD Frequency Bands


Total [MHz]
33
20
34
15
35
60
36
60
37
20
38
50
40
39
100
40

21

Uplink [MHz]
1900-1920
2010-2025
1850-1910
1930-1990
1910-1930
2570-2620
1880-1920
2300-2400

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China / Asia Europe

Americas
UMTS band
UMTS band
USA
USA
USA
2600 mid
China
China/Asia

Functional Split between E-UTRAN and EPC

eNode-B hosts the following functions:

Radio Resource Management


IP header compression and encryption
Selection of an MME at UE attachment;
Routing of User Plane data towards SAE Gateway;
Scheduling and transmission of paging messages and broadcast information
Measurement and measurement reporting configuration for mobility and scheduling

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MME hosts the following functions:


Distribution of paging messages to the eNBs
Idle state mobility control
Ciphering and integrity protection of NAS
signalling

SAE Gateway hosts the following functions:


Termination of U-plane packets for paging reasons
Switching of U-plane for support of UE mobility.

Radio Access overview

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Multiple Access Methods


TDMA
Time Division

OFDMA

FDMA

CDMA

Frequency Division

Code Division

Frequency Division
Orthogonal subcarriers

f
User 1

User 2

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s
e
d
co

24

User 3

User ..

Downlink - OFDM
Subchannels / Tones (each 15 kHz)
1.4 MHz = 72 Tones

User 1

20 MHz = 1200 Tones

User 2
User 3

tim
e

User ..

1 TTI
= 1ms

1 PRB = 2 Slots = 2 * 0.5 ms

1 PRB (Physical Resource Block) = 12 Subcarriers = 180 kHz

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Uplink Single Carrier FDMA


Subchannels / Tones (each 15 kHz)
1.4 MHz = 72 Tones

User 1

20 MHz = 1200 Tones

User 2
User 3

tim
e

User ..

1 TTI
= 1ms

1 PRB = 2 Slots = 2 * 0.5 ms

1 PRB (Physical Resource Block) = 12 Subcarriers = 180 kHz

SC-FDMA: PRBs are grouped to bring down Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
> better power efficiency at the terminal

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The Beauties of LTE


TX
Fast Link
Adaptation
due to
channel
behaviour
scalable

DL: OFDMA

64QAM
Modulation

RX
MIMO
Tx Channel Rx

Advanced
Scheduling
Time & Freq.

Short TTI = 1 ms
Transmission
time interval
ARQ
Automatic Repeat
Request

UL: SC-FDMA

Channel only changes amplitude and phase of subcarriers


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LTE Radio principles

Downlink:
OFDMA

Uplink:
SC-FDMA

Improved spectral efficiency


Reduced interference
Very well suited for MIMO

Power efficient uplink increasing battery lifetime


Improved cell edge performance by low peak to average ratio
Reduced Terminal complexity

Enabling peak cell data rates of 173 Mbps DL and 58 Mbps in UL *


Scalable bandwidth: 1.4 / 3 / 5 / 10 /15 / 20 MHz also allows deployment
in lower frequency bands (rural coverage, refarming)
Short latency: 10 20 ms **
* At 20 MHz bandwidth, FDD, 2 Tx, 2 Rx, DL MIMO, PHY layer gross bit rate
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** roundtrip ping delay (server near RAN)

Peak data rates will continue to grow


3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel6

k rate
a
e
p
k
n
i
l
ow n

3GPP Rel7

42 Mbps2
28 Mbps1

14 Mbps

14 Mbps
0.4 Mbps
rate
k
a
e
p
k
n
i
l
Up

3GPP Rel8

11 Mbps

173 Mbps3
58 Mbps3

11 Mbps
5.7 Mbps
1With

2x2 MIMO and 16QAM


2x2 MIMO or DC-HSPA
and 64QAM
3 in 20 MHz spectrum allocation
2With

HSPA downlink data rate increases with 2x2 MIMO or DC-HSPA and 64QAM
up to 42 Mbps and uplink data rate with 16QAM up to 11 Mbps
LTE supports data rates of 173 Mbps and 58 Mbps respectively (respective
coded rates: approx. 150 and 50 Mbps) for most demanding customer segment
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Comparison of Throughput and Latency


Max. peak data rate**

Average call throughput (macro cell, 20 MHz**

350

60

300

MHz/cell

250

Mbps

50

Downlink
Uplink

200
150

40

Downlink
Uplink

30
20

100

10

50

0
HSPA R6

HSPAevo (Rel.
7/8, 2x2 MIMO)

LTE 2x20 MHz


(2x2 MIMO

HSPA R6, 4
carriers
(5MHz)

LTE 2x20
MHz (4x4
MIMO

Latency (Rountrip delay)*

HSPAevo Rel8,
4 carriers
(5MHz)

LTE (2x2
MIMO), 20 MHz
carrier

LTE 4x4 MIMO,


20 MHz carrier

VoIP capacity
70

GSM/
EDGE

Calls/MHz/cell

60

HSPA
Rel6
HSPAevo
(Rel8)

50

Downlink
Uplink

40
30
20
10

LTE
min max

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on operator)


* Server near RAN
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200 ms

HSPA R6
** LTE values acc. to 3GPP R1-072580 case 1
(macro cell, full buffer, 500m ISD)

LTE

Large step from GSM to UMTS device;


Smaller step from UMTS to LTE device
GSM Device

UMTS Device

200 kHz bandwidth


TDMA / FDMA
GMSK modulation / FDD
Digital Processing

Voice / SMS

High effort bandwidth


5MHz at frequencies up
to 2.1GHz
High effort modulation
CDMA / Rake Receiver
High effort protocols
RLC / RRM / MAC / IP
High effort Digital
Processing
High effort display
development
High effort talk/standby
power consumption

Multimedia starts
From coverage to capacity

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LTE Device
Bandwidth & frequency
well known
Modulation OFDM well
known, simpler Rx
design (FFT)
Reuse of protocols
(3GPP evolution),
display, power concepts
Simplification of QoS
parameter set for Ue

Ready for high data


rate applications

LTE UE support Peak data rates above 100 Mbps

All categories support 20 MHz


64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5)
2x2 MIMO in other classes except Class 1
Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Class 5

10/5 Mbps

50/25 Mbps

100/50 Mbps

150/50 Mbps

300/75 Mbps

RF bandwidth

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

Modulation DL

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

Modulation UL

16QAM2

16QAM2

16QAM2

16QAM2

64QAM

Yes1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

1-4 tx

1-4 tx

1-4 tx

1-4 tx

1-4 tx

Optional

2x2

2x2

2x2

4x4

Peak rate DL/UL

Rx diversity
BTS tx diversity
MIMO DL
1Performance
2No
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64QAM

Nokia Siemens Networks

requirements are based on 2-rx, but 2-rx is not mandated directly

Upgrade Concepts 3G to LTE


Focus on investment protection
re-use of site installations
Antenna, Feeder in spectrum re-farming scenarios
Backhaul sharing between LTE and 2G/3G
NSN installed base: adding LTE, reuse of 3G base station
with Flexi BS deployed: Rel2.1 System and RF Module are LTE ready
In other cases: adding LTE Flexi BS in existing footprint

LTE

LTE
LTE

3G/CDMA

Existing RNC
(for CS)
and Core

3G
CDMA

add-on
BTS/NodeB

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Other BTSs

Existing RNC
(for CS)
and Core

Migration Scenario: W-CDMA BTS LTE


Antenna
Panel

2.1GHz or
multiband
1.7-2.7GHz
antenna

2.1GHz or
multiband
1.7-2.7GHz
antenna

Tower
Mounted
Amplifier
Feeder
Cable

Antenna
Panel

Antenna
Panel

Remote Radio
Head or
RF-module
(feederless site)

Tower
Mounted
Amplifier
Feeder
Cable

Combining
Flexi RF Module

BTS

Combining

Flexi System

Flexi System

BTS

BTS

BTS

Option 2

Option 3

Flexi RF Module
Flexi System

Migration
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Option 1

Core Technology overview

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Core Technology Overview


Mobility Management Entity
C-Plane Part of aGW
Session & Mobility management
Idle mode mobility management
Paging
AAA Proxy
Serving Gateway

User plane anchor for mobility between the


2G/3G access system and the LTE access
system.
Lawful Interception
Packet Data Network Gateway
Gateway towards Internet/Intranets

Access Gateway decomposition

HLR/HSS
(AAA)

MME

SAE-GW
PCEF

User plane anchor for mobility between 3GPP


and non-3GPP access systems (HA).
Charging Support
Policy and Charging Enforcement (PCEF) *)
Packet Filtering
Lawful Interception

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PCRF
PDN

Serving
GW

PDN
GW
IMS

SAE-GW: System Architecture Evolution Gateway


= S-GW+PDN-GW
*) PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules Function communicates with
PCEF: Policy and Charging Enforcement Function within PDN SAE GW

Mobility
Access Specific Local Mobility
UE 3GPP IP PoA

Access Independent
Global Mobility
UE Global IP PoA

RNC/BSC

UE Identifier
Global IP Address

SGSN*
MME

BTS/NB

PDN
GW (HA)

GTP
GTP

HLR/HSS
(AAA)

DNS

GTP

eNode B

Service Layer

MIP

Serving
GW
I-WLAN

BS
DNS: Domain Name Server
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(FA)

ePDG for I-WLAN

CDMA2000

PDSN for CDMA2000

WiMAX

ASN-GW for WiMAX

GTP: GPRS Tunnel Protocol MIP: Mobile IP SGSN*: upgraded 2G/3G SGSN ( LTE capable)

IMS
Operator Servicesx

Internet /
Corporate Services

Quality of Service in LTE


Substantially optimized bearer handling compared to 3G networks
Reduced QoS parameter set for reduced implementation complexity compared to 3G
Network centric QoS scheme reduces the complexity of terminal implementations
3G QoS relies on QoS aware
terminals - terminal requests
QoS level that is appropriate
for the application:
Residual BER
SDU error ratio
Delivery of erroneous SDUs
Maximum SDU size

Label
Bearer type (Guaranteed or nonguaranteed Bit Rate)
Packet Delay
Packet Loss

Delivery order

Guaranteed Bit Rate (uplink/downlink)

Transfer delay

Maximum Bit Rate (uplink/downlink)

ARP
Traffic class
THP
Maximum bitrate UL/DL
GBR (EL/DL)

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LTE applies Network Centric QoS with a


reduced set of parameters:

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Allocation/Retention Priority (connection


setup priority among subscribers when
the network is congested)

Potential voice evolution steps in LTE


1. LTE used for high speed packet data access only

Operator voice service provided over CS network

2. Fallback to CS voice

LTE network is used for data only


Terminal is simultaneously registered to both LTE and 2G/3G CS network
Voice calls are initiated and received over CS network

3. Single radio Voice Call Continuity (VCC)

Operator provides VoIP over LTE


IMS acts as control machinery
Voice calls can be handed over to CS network

4. All-IP network

39

Operator provides VoIP over LTE


IMS acts as control machinery
Voice calls can be handed over to other packet switched networks

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LTE voice evolution


LTE used for high speed packet data access only

Fallback to CS when voice needed

Voice service provided over CS network


Laptop with
LTE data card

MME

Data

Internet
SAE GW

LTE radio
network

2G/3G
terminal

LTE ps with
capable

Internet
SAE GW

LTE radio
network

Operator
IP network

CS voice

MME

Data

Operator
IP network
SGs

CS voice
2G/3G CS
network

2G/3G radio
network

MSC Server System

MSC Server System

All-IP network

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


LTE primary VoIP service provided via IMS/NVS

LTE PS/VoIP
capable

VoIP
MME

O perator
V oIP control
machinery

IMS

Internet

LTE PS/VoIP
capable

VoIP
MME
LTE radio
network

LTE radio
network

SV

SAE GW
Operator
IP network

VoIP

MSC Server System

SGSN/GGSN

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Internet

Operator
IP network
IMS/ IMS centralized
of VoIP and
NVS control
CS voice services

CS voice
2G/3G CS
network

3G HSPA
network

40

SAE GW

LTE- Advanced (3GPP Rel. 10)

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LTE for IMT-Advanced

Bandwidth Extension

100 MHz

8x

Smooth
migration from
LTE to LTE-A

MIMO

Backward
compatible
to LTE

4x

Cooperative Systems

Relaying
Mobility

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LTE-Advanced - (3GPP Rel. 10)


A technology candidate for IMT-advanced
LTE introduction

Upcoming key technologies

IMT-A

Bandwidth
Extension

8x

4x MIMO
Smooth evolution

LTE

Backwards compatibility

Cooperative
Systems

1st worldwide trials


Berlin, Nov. 2007

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Relaying

Global platform
for the next
generations
of mobile services
IMT-A / LTE-A

Bandwidth Extension
LTE introduction

IMT-A

Upcoming key technologies

Bandwidth
Extension
Global platform
for the next
generations
of mobile services

8x

4x MIMO
Smooth evolution

LTE

Backwards compatibility

IMT-A
up to 100
MHz / LTE-A
Flexible component carrier aggregation
different frequency bands

Cooperative
Systems

asymmetric in UL/DL
Component Carrier
(LTE rel. 8 Carrier)
10 MHz

20 MHz

1st worldwide trials


Berlin, Nov. 2007

Aggregated BW: 30MHz

Relaying

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

20 MHz

Aggregated BW: 5x20MHz = 100MHz

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MIMO Extension
LTE introduction

Upcoming key technologies

IMT-A

Bandwidth
Extension
8x
4x

MIMO

Smooth evolution

LTE

Backwards compatibility

Cooperative
Systems

1st worldwide trials


Berlin, Nov. 2007

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Relaying

Global platform
for the next
generations
of mobile services
IMT-A / LTE-A

Cooperative Systems
LTE introduction

IMT-A

Upcoming key technologies


Bandwidth
Extension

Global platform
for the next
generations
of mobile services

8x

4x MIMO
Smooth evolution

LTE

Backwards compatibility

Cooperative
Systems

IMT-A
LTE-A of multiple
Cooperation
of /antennas
sectors / sites
Interference free

by coordinated
transmission /
reception
Highest

performance
potential
1st worldwide trials
Berlin, Nov. 2007

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Relaying

Service Area

International Mobile Telecommunications


Advanced
LTE introduction

Upcoming key technologies

IMT-A

Bandwidth
Extension

8x

4x MIMO
Smooth evolution

LTE

Backwards compatibility

Global platform
for the next
generations
of mobile services
FastIMT-A
deployment
IMT-A
/ LTE-A
/ LTE-A
Coverage with low

infrastructure costs

Cooperative
Systems

TR
36.913
1st worldwide trials
Berlin, Nov. 2007

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Relaying

Thank You

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Nokia Siemens Networks