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Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rotating Shaft System

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Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rotating Shaft System

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Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

vibration measurement and the linear damage summation law in ships

HyungSuk Han n, KyungHyun Lee, SungHo Park

Naval System Research Team, Busan Center, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, 525-2,Gwangan 1 dong, Suyeong-gu, Busan 613-808, Republic of

Korea

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 7 December 2014

Accepted 14 July 2015

Available online 26 August 2015

Most ships use a diesel engine for the propulsion system. Since a diesel engine is operated by the force of

the cylinder from the explosion of the gas, the torsional vibration from the uctuation torque is bigger

than that of other types of engines, such as gas-turbine and electrical propulsion motors. Therefore, the

propulsion shafts in ships frequently fail due to the extreme torsional vibration from diesel engines.

Ships that require high power and revolution speed usually have V-type, 4-stroke diesel engines and

reduction gears to increase the output torque. Therefore, a robust design of the shaft is required for this

type of vessel. In this research, the fatigue stability and life cycles of the shaft are estimated with

Soderberg's safety evaluation method and the linear damage summation law based on the torsional

vibration data. When estimating them, non-standard sailing conditions such as starting the engine and

zigzag maneuvers are included in addition to normal sailing conditions such as straight maneuvers.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Rain ow cycle counting

Linear damage summation law

Torsional vibration

1. Introduction

Diesel engines are widely used as low-speed propulsion

engines on ships. Since diesel engines operate from the explosive

force of the cylinder connected to the crank shaft, the vibratory

torque of the diesel engine is larger than that of other types of

engines such as gas turbines and electric motors. Ships that

require high speed and torque usually use V-type, 4-stroke,

high-speed engines, and reduction gear is adopted in order to

obtain high torque. The propulsion shaft of this type of engine can

fracture due to the high torque and speed. Many studies have been

conducted on shaft fractures due to dynamic loads at high-stress

areas such as the llet, chamfer, and keyway.

Okubo et al. (1968) performed the torsional fatigue test with

2 different test keyway shaft specimens with various llet radiuses

of the key and the keyway and suggested stress concentration

factors. The test results showed that the stress concentration factor

of the end of the key was larger than that of the keyway. In

addition, the researchers suggested the stress concentration factor

of the keyway could be modied by decreasing the rigidity caused

by the addition of the keyway to the shaft. Pedersen (2010)

suggested shaping the llet of the keyway in a super ellipse and

found from nite element analysis (FEM) that the stress

E-mail address: daerihan@hanmail.net (H. Han).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.07.023

0029-8018/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

circular llet. Bhaumik et al. (2002) investigated the fracture of the

stage helical gearbox of a low-speed hollow shaft transmitting the

engine load through the key and keyway and used visual inspection and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to nd that

fracture was caused by torsional fatigue. He reported that the

fracture of the shaft was caused by the small llet radius under

specication, improper machining, and MnS included in the

material lattice. JianPing, and Guang (2008) reported the fracture

of the gear shaft of the extruder. By measuring the torsional

vibration of the gear shaft, they found the root cause of the

fracture was the extreme static load and veried it with nite

element analysis and Goodman fatigue criteria. Parida et al. (2003)

studied the root cause of fatigue fracture for the keyway of the ball

and race-type coal pulverizer and, using SEM analysis and

mechanical tests such as the tensile and Charpy impact tests,

found that the fracture was caused by anon-standard heat treatment process that reduced the endurance and toughness of the

material. Goksenli and Eryurek (2009) investigated the fracture of

the drive shaft of the elevator with a keyway and estimated the

fracture was caused by the combined effect of repetitive torsion

and a bending load. The stability of the shaft was evaluated with

the Goodman criteria, and the life cycle of the shaft was estimated

with the SN curve reecting the mean stress, and the fatigue limit,

which includes shaft size changes and surface modication factors,

was recalculated. In the investigation, the fracture was caused by

the stress concentration at the small llet at the end of the

increase llet radius at the keyway, which was veried with FEM

analysis. Han et al. (2012) investigated the root cause of the

fracture of the coupling that connects the gas turbine and the

reduction gear in a ship. In the investigation, the fracture was not

caused by the misalignment of the shaft itself but by the

independent movement of the gas turbine and reduction gear

supported by the independent resilient mounting system when

the ship was sailing in rough seas. Therefore, a corrective action

was suggested to add horizontal mounts that can reduce the

movement of the gas turbine and reduction gear. In these studies,

the shaft fractured frequently in the industrial eld, and had

various root causes such as design error, manufacturing error,

extreme operating conditions, and other external causes. Ma and

Wang (2006) researched the propeller shaft for the high speed

craft whose material is SUS630. He found out that the fracture of

the propeller shaft was caused by pitting corrosion and the life

cycle was reduced about maximum 27%. Arisoy et al. (2003)

reported the fracture of the 174 ph precipitation hardening

stainless steel propeller shaft installed in a sailboat working in

marine environment. He found out that the fracture of the

propeller shaft was broken because the stress corrosion cracking

which is progressed transgranulary in the martensitic matrix was

occurred in the propeller shaft under the serious vibratory torque.

Fonte et al. (2011) performed the failure analysis of two helical

gear wheels of a ducted azimuth thruster. Through SEM (scanning

electron microscope), it can be found out that the fracture was

caused by fatigue and the root cause of this fatigue fracture is the

inappropriate lubricating of the gear shaft.

In this study, effective experimental evaluations of shaft safety

for torsional vibration are described with the input shaft of the

reduction gear connected to the diesel engine. The torsional

vibration was measured directly with a strain gauge and a

telemetry system. The life cycles under the measured stress

conditions were estimated using rain ow cycle counting and

the linear damage summation law, and the results were compared

to a standard stability evaluation method such as the Soderberg

criteria. In this investigation, transient and non-standard ship

sailing conditions such as zigzag maneuvers and engine starting

were also examined in order to evaluate the safety of the shaft.

213

Fig. 1. Telemetry system measuring TV, (a) test setup, (b) schematic diagram of the

telemetry system.

Table 1

Test system.

Test system

Maker

Model

FFT Analyzer

Strain gauge

Telemetry

Tachometer

B&K

MM

Binsfeld engineering Inc.

Monarch instrument

Pulse 3053-B12/0

CEA-06-250US-350

TT 10K-LP

ROLS-P

The fatigue stability is generally dependent on the static as well

as alternating stress. The static stress of the propulsion shaft is

caused by the mean torque of the engine and the alternating

torque of it is caused by the vibratory torque of the engine. Since a

diesel engine is operated by the force of the cylinder from the

explosion of the gas, the vibratory torque of the diesel engine is

bigger than that of the other type of engines such as gas turbine

and electric motor. The alternating stress as well as the vibratory

torque of the shaft system is called torsional vibration and it

should be restricts to avoid torsional fatigue failure. The torsional

vibration can be measured and evaluated by the elector torsiograph, laser torsiograph, strain gauge and so on. In this research,

the vibratory torque of the reduction gear input shaft connected to

the diesel engine was measured with a full bridge shear strain

gauge and a telemetry module as shown in Fig. 1, and the rotating

speed (rpm) of the shaft was measured simultaneously. The

telemetry system is consists of the transfer and receiver module.

The full bridge shear strain gauge is connected to the transfer

module through the Wheatstone bridge and the strain data is

transferred to the receiver module as shown in Fig. 1(b). The data

system. The specications of the strain gauge, telemetry module,

and data acquisition system are shown in Table 1.

2.2. Measurement of torsional vibratory torque and engine vibration

Since the exhaust pipe of the diesel engine discussed in this

research is installed near the free surface of the sea as shown in

Fig. 2, the torsional vibratory torque can be increased when the

back pressure varies more than the specied limit because of

variations in the draft line, for example, in rough seas. This kind of

design of the exhaust line for the diesel engine is usually applied

to the special ship such as naval vessel.

Changes in the torsional vibration of the engine caused by

changes in the back pressure have been studied for submarines in

snorkeling conditions (Mann, 2011; Hield, 2011). Studies showed

that the torsional vibration varied according to the wave height

and period because the exhaust pipe of the diesel engine is located

under the free surface.

Figs. 3 and 4 show the torsional vibratory torque during

straight maneuver sailing conditions as well as zigzag maneuver

214

bar

0.14

Back Pressure[bar]

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

60

80

100

time[s]

kNm

Alternating Torque[kNm]

110

100

90

80

70

60

80

100

time[s]

Fig. 5. Backpressure and torsional vibration at the propeller shaft at the straight

maneuver condition, (a) back pressure, (b) vibratory torque at the propeller shaft.

10). In PCL 49, the torsional vibratory torques of the straight and

zigzag maneuvers are almost the same. However, the torque

increased dramatically at the PCL 10 of the zigzag maneuver and

varied with time. This situation may occur because the back

pressure variations are larger than specied. In the zigzag maneuver, the inclination of the ship varies, and the exhaust pipe can

be located under and above the free surface repeatedly. Therefore,

variation in the back pressure of the exhaust pipe at the zigzag

maneuver can be higher than that during straight maneuvers.

Figs. 5 and 6 show the back pressure in the exhaust pipe of the

diesel engine as well as the torsional vibration of the propeller

shaft at straight and zigzag maneuver conditions respectively.

When the ship sails straight, the back pressure is constant and

the torsional vibration of the propeller shaft is also constant as

shown in Fig. 5(a) and (b). However, as shown in Fig. 6(a) and (b),

it can be found that the back pressure in the exhaust pipe of the

diesel engine varied dramatically when the ship sails zigzag and

with back pressure variation. In Fig. 6, it can be found that the

mean torque of the propeller shaft is reduced due to the reduction

power of the diesel engine caused by increasing back pressure. In

addition, it can be found that the alternating torque is increased

dramatically when this mean torque and back pressure are varied

instantaneously.

In addition to the backpressure, the variation of the propeller

exciting force at zigzag maneuver condition can affect the variation of the torsional vibration of the shaft. However, it is very

difcult to classify how much affect the variation of the engine

exciting force caused by the backpressure and that of propeller

exciting force at zigzag maneuver condition to the torsional

vibration respectively.

In this research, it is assumed that the variation of the torsional

vibration from the propeller exciting force variation occurs together

with that from the backpressure variation when the ship sails zigzag.

Therefore, the resultant torsional vibration when the backpressure

variation increases at zigzag maneuver condition includes the torsional vibration caused by the variation of the propeller excited force

even though it cannot be identify separately.

215

bar

0.14

Back Pressure[bar]

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

20

40

time[s]

kNm

Alternating Torque[kNm]

110

100

90

Fig. 8. Vibration velocity of the engine at straight maneuver, (a) transverse, (b) vertical.

80

70

20

40

time[s]

Fig. 6. Backpressure and torsional vibration at the propeller shaft at the zigzag

maneuver condition, (a) back pressure, (b) vibratory torque at the propeller shaft.

straight and zigzag maneuvers. In Fig. 7, the variation in rotating

speed during the zigzag maneuver is larger than that during the

straight maneuver, and could be caused by the back pressure

variation. Figs. 8 and 9 are the vibration spectra of the diesel engine.

The accelerometers are attached on the diesel engine to measure the

Fig. 9. Vibration velocity of the engine at Zigzag maneuver, (a) transverse, (b) vertical.

216

conditions (e.g., zigzag maneuver and engine starting condition).

3. Investigation

3.1. Fatigue stability of the shaft

Based on the measured torsional torque, the mean stress and

the alternating stress of the shaft should be calculated to evaluate

the fatigue stability of the shaft. In this research, the mean stress

and the alternating stress are calculated following the procedure

in MIL G 17859D Appendix D (D.o.D, 1993).

The mean stress (Sr) of the shaft from static torque of the diesel

engine can be written as given in Eq. (1) (Fonte et al., 2011)

according to the maximum shear stress theory.

Sr

Fig. 10. The variation of the vibration of the diesel engine, (a) transverse, (b) vertical.

q

K f ;c USc 2 2 UK f ;Ts U Ss 2 ; Sc

Tt

d =4

2

of the spectra for 60 s are depicted together in Figs. 8 and 9. In

Figs. 8 and 9, the vibration velocity at the zigzag maneuver is much

larger than that at the straight maneuver below 10 Hz and it can be

estimated that it is the result of the variation of the torsional vibration

of the shaft caused by the back pressure variation.

Fig. 10 shows the variation of the overall vibration level for the

diesel engine during the straight maneuver and the zigzag

maneuver. In Fig. 10, the variation in the vibration increases when

the ship maneuvers in the zigzag condition.

In these investigations, it can be found that the increasing

torsional vibration during the zigzag maneuver condition is caused

by variations in the back pressure in the exhaust pipe.

When the diesel engine starts, the torsional vibration increases

dramatically within a short period and then becomes steady state,

as shown in Fig. 11. Therefore, the engine starting condition is

dened as a non-standard operating condition in addition to the

zigzag maneuver condition.

In this research, the fatigue stability and life of the reduction gear

input shaft of the diesel engine were investigated at standard operating

axial direction, Ss is the shear stress from torsion, QT is the mean

torque of the diesel engine, Zt is the polar modulus of the shaft

section, Kf,c is the effective stress concentration factor for the

compressive force and Kf,Ts is the effective stress concentration

factor for the mean torque.

The stress concentration factor under the static load for the

ductile material is not usually applied since the strain hardening

occurs near the stress concentration point by the plastic ow.

Therefore, in MIL G 17859D, the stress concentration factor of the

compressive force and the mean torque are ignored (Kf,c, Kf,Ts 1.0).

However, the stress concentration factor cannot be ignored under

the yield stress where the plastic slip does not occur. Therefore,

the stress concentration factor for the static load under the yield

stress is partially applied in this research.

The real stress concentration can be written as in Eq. (2)

K f 1 qK t 1

QT

d

; Zt

Zt

16

; Ss

concentration factor and q is notch sensitivity index.

The engine and the reduction gear studied in this research

transfer the engine torque to the reduction gear by the key and the

keyway of the input shaft as shown in Fig. 12, where d 130 mm,

r 0.59 mm, b 31.9 mm, and t1 10.85 mm. When the key and

the keyway are applied to the shaft, the stress concentration factor

K t;B 1:426 0:1643

0:1

0:1

0:0019

r=d

r=d

2

; 0:005 r r=d r 0:04; d r 165:1 mm

3

K t;T 1:953 0:1434

0:1

0:1

0:0021

r=d

r=d

4

where K t;B is the ideal stress concentration factor for the bending

moment, K t;T is the ideal stress concentration factor for the

torsion, r is the llet radius, and d is the shaft diameter.

Through Eqs. (3) and (4), the stress concentration factor of the

reduction gear input shaft can be calculated as 4.12 for bending

and 4.093 for torsion.

In Eq. (2), the real stress concentration factor can be obtained

by dening the notch factor, which is dened from 0.0 to 1.0. In a

static load, the notch factor is 0.0 if the stress concentration factor

is ignored, and the real stress concentration factor becomes

1.0 from Eq. (2).

When the material is brittle (elongation o 5%), the stress

concentration factor should be considered even though the load

is static. In this case, a notch factor of about 0.150.25 is applied

(Peterson, 1953). When the maximum stress is calculated with

FEM for the reduction gear input shaft with and without a keyway,

how much stress is increased by adding the keyway to the shaft is

found, as shown in Fig. 13. Assuming that the ratio of the stress for

the shaft with and without the keyway is the stress concentration

factor under the static load, it can be dened as 1.93 based on the

FEM results in Fig. 13 and the notch factor under a static load can

be calculated to 0.3 from Eqs. (2) and (4).

When the load alternates, the stress concentration should be

considered, and the notch factor becomes almost 1.0. The resulting

alternating stress can be written as Eq. (5)

Sar

The notch factor under alternating bending and axial loads can

be represented as given in Eq. (6), and the alternating torsional

load can be represented as given in Eq. (7) (Peterson, 1953)

q

1

; for bending & axial loading

1 =r

1

; for torsional loading

1 0:6=r

2

; 0:005 r r=d r 0:07

q

M

d3

Ta

; Sas

K f ;B Sb 2 2 U K f ;T Sas 2 ; Sb b ; Z

Ss

Z

32

T max

217

is 0.0025, annealed and normalized steel is 0.01, and aluminum

alloys is 0.025.The notch factor of the reduction gear input shaft in

this research can be estimated to 0.903 for bending and 0.939 for

torsion respectively from Eqs. (6) and (7).

When the steady stress and the alternating stress are calculated, the fatigue stability of the shaft under repetitive load can be

dened using the Goodman, Soderberg, and Geber criteria, which

shown in Fig. 14. In this research, the Soderberg method was

adopted since MIL G 17859D suggested the method for evaluating

shaft stability under repetitive load as given in Eq. (8). In Fig. 14, it

can be known that the Soderberg criterion is the most conservative one among those 3 criteria

S:F S

Sar

SY SF

r

fatigue limit.

MIL-G-17859D requires a safety factor in Eq. (8) of 1.75 for

surface ship and 2.0 for submarine. Fig. 15 shows the safety factor

of the input shaft of the reduction gear for the diesel engine

according to the sailing condition and speed. Fig. 15(a) shows the

result when the stress concentration factor for the static load is

ignored, and Fig. 15(b) shows the result when the stress

bending stress caused by weight of the shaft and lateral vibration

of it, Sas is the shear stress from alternating torsional vibratory

torque, Kf,B and Kf,T is the real stress concentration factor from

bending and torsional stress respectively, Mb is the bending

moment caused by lateral vibration and shaft weight, Z is the

modulus of the shaft section and Ta and Tmax are the alternating

and maximum steady torque respectively.

Fig. 14. Goodman, Soderberg and Gerber Criteria for the Fatigue Stability (SF :

Fatigue limit, SY :Yield stress,SU : Ultimate stress, Sar : Alternating stress,Sr : Mean

stress, S.F: Safety factor).

Max. stress

Fig. 13. Maximum stress for the shaft with keyway estimated by FEM.

218

shaft of the navy vessel is MIL 167-2, Type III (D.o.D, 1976). In MIL

167-2, Type III, the limit of the stress from the vibratory torque is

1/25 of the ultimate tensile stress for steel and 1/6 of the fatigue

limit for nonferrous metal. However, the denition of the maximum stress does not describe whether it is pure torsional or vonMises stress. In addition, there is no denition of the maximum

stress whether stress concentration factor is applied or not.

If the limit of the stress is von-Mises stress and includes the

stress concentration factor, it is a very severe specication. However, it is the opposite if the limit is pure torsional stress and does

not include the stress concentration factor.

IACS M68 (2012) suggested vibratory torsional stress in the

propulsion shafts such as intermediate and propeller shafts as

given in Eqs. (9) and (10), and global shipping registries such as

ABS, DNVGL, and Lloyd also restrict vibratory torsional stress same

as Eqs. (9) and (10)(ABS, 2014; DNVGL, 2014; LLOYD, 2014).

c

c

Fig. 15. Safety factor for straight and zigzag maneuver for a typical ship (a) qs 0

and (b) qs 0.3.

B 160

18

B 160

18

C k C D 3 2 for o 0:9

2

9

10

In Eqs. (9) and (10), c is the allowable limit of the shear stress

in continuously operating condition (Mpa), B is specied minimum tensile strength in Mpa of the shaft material, Ck is factor for

the particular shaft design features ( 1.45/scf), CD is size factor

0:2

( 0:35 0:93 d0 ), do is the shaft outside diameter in mm, scf is

stress concentration factor, is the speed ratio, n is the speed in

revolutions per minute under consideration and n0is the speed in

revolutions per minute of shaft at rated power.

Fig. 16 is the pure shear stress of the reduction gear input shaft

shown in Fig. 1 caused by the torsional vibration and depicted with

the allowance limits of MIL 167-2 Type III and IACS M68 together.

The stress level of the reduction gear input shaft is lower than the

limit of the MIL 167-2 Type III assumed that the specied stress is

the pure shear stress of the shaft and ignored the stress concentration factor. If the stress is dened to include the stress

concentration factor as shown in Fig. 16, the stress level under

almost all conditions(within the 9001350 rpm range) cannot be

satised with the suggested level according to MIL 167-2 A Type

III. When the limit of IACS M68 is applied, the shear stress level at

the maximum speed under the zigzag operating condition is not

satised by the suggested limit. In IACS M68, the maximum

ultimate stress is used until 800 MPa even though the shaft used

the material with ultimate tensile strength over than 800 MPa.

Therefore, this limit is also shown in Fig. 16.

Comparing Figs. 15 and 16, the result for the Soderberg method

agrees with that from IACS M 68 rather than MIL 167-2, Type III.

Fig. 16. Alternating stress for straight and zigzag maneuver for a typical ship.

concentration factor for the static load is considered (notch

factor0.3). In Fig. 15(a), the shaft is safe in all of the operating

conditions even though it does not have a sufcient margin for the

safety factor (S.F 1.02 at maximum speed, zigzag maneuver).

However, the shaft is not safe at the maximum speed, zigzag

maneuver condition as shown in Fig. 15(b) (S.F0.83) when the

notch factor applied 0.3 is for the static load.

When the 1.75 safety factor limit of MIL G 17859D is included

for the surface ship, the input shaft of the reduction gear for the

diesel engine cannot be satised with the limit at 940 rpm and the

maximum speed ignoring the notch factor in the static load, and it

cannot be satised with a limit from 940 rpm to maximum speed

when the notch factor applied is 0.3.

MIL G 17859D is the specication of the reduction gear for the

propulsion system. The general specication of the propulsion

is calculated with mean static and alternating stress, the force that

occurs instantaneously cannot be considered. Therefore, the fatigue stability for the time recorded stress should be evaluated by

calculating the fatigue damage with each stress data according to

its amplitude and counted cycles.

The rain ow cycle counting method developed by Matsuishi

and Endo (1968) is widely used for counting the time recording

stress signal. The procedure is shown in Fig. 17, which counts the

mean and alternating stress according to their amplitudes. The

peak and valley of the recorded stress are identied and rearranged according to their amplitude as shown in Fig. 17. Then, the

amplitude of the mean and alternating amplitude as well as

repetitive numbers are counted as shown in Fig. 17.

219

3.4. SN curve

Stress

Stress

In Fig. 19, stress amplitude with 103 cycles and 106 cycles is

necessary to draw the SN curve of the material. The 103cycle stress

can be represented as given in Eq. (16):

b

0

log 0F =S0e

103 f USu ; f F 2 103 ; 0F Su 345 Mpa; b

Su

log 2N e

16

N1

N2

N3

Time

Time

Fig. 18. Schematic diagram for calculating the damage with PalmgrenMiner's

linear damage summation law.

The life cycles under fatigue can be broadly estimated using the

linear damage summation law developed by PalmgrenMiner (Miner,

1945). Following this law, the random stress signals are grouped

according to their amplitudes as shown in Fig. 18, and the damage can

be calculated with Eq. (11). In Eq. (11), the damage at a typical stress

can be dened as the ratio of the number of the typical stress and

fatigue failure occurrences. In accordance with this law, the total

damage can be dened as the sum of each type of damage, and if it is

equal to 1.0, fracture occurs.

DT

N

X

N1 N2 N3

Ni

Nf 1 Nf 2 Nf 3

N

i 1 fi

11

1

log 10 SY log 10 S0F

3

Se kS0e ka kb kc kd ke kf S0e

17

ka aSbut

18

kb 1:24d

0:107

1:51d

0:157

2:79 od o51 mm

51 o d o 254 mm

12

13

log 10 B 3a log 10 SY

14

m

USF

S0F 1

SY

15

where SY is the yield stress, SF is the fatigue limit under fully reversed

force and SF' is the fatigue limit under the typical mean stress ( m ).

19

20

0:10410 8 T 3F 0:59510 12 T 4F

accordance with stress i and N is the counting number that fatigue

occurs under the stress i, which the relationships between them are

represented as shown in Eqs. (12)(15)

1

log 10 N f i log 10 i log 10 B

a

where 103 is the stress having 103 fatigue life cycles, 0F is the stress

fractured under 1 cycle fully reversal load, Su is the ultimate tensile

strength,S0e is the fatigue limit( 0.5Su) and Ne is the innite life

cycle( 106 Cycles).

Since the material of the shaft is 826M40(nickel chromium

molybdenum steel) and the ultimate tensile strength measured

with the shaft material is 981 MPa, the 103 fatigue life cycles stress

can be calculated as 795 MPa from Eq. (16).

Fatigue limits with 106 cycle stress can be represented as given

in Eqs. (17)(22)

0:81 99%; 0:75 99:9%; 0:7 99:99%

21

22

b 0.086 for grounded steel), kb is the size modication factor, kc

is the load modication factor(1.0 when using the effective von

Mises stress), kd is the temperature modication factor(1.0 here), ke

is the reliability factor(1.0 here), kf is the miscellaneous-effects

modication factor(1.0 here), Se is the rotary beam test specimen

endurance limit and Se is the endurance limit at the critical location of

a machine part in the geometry and condition of use.

In this research, the surface and size modication factors are

included, and the reliability and temperature modication factors

are ignored. When the reliability modication factor is considered,

the fatigue limit decreases additionally as increasing the probability of the fatigue fracture. Since the fatigue limit becomes so

220

Fig. 20. Soderberg plot for straight and zigzag maneuver at the max. speed for a

typical ship (qs 0), (a) straight maneuver(qs 0), (b) zigzag maneuver(qs 0).

Fig. 21. Soderberg plot for straight and zigzag maneuver at the max. speed for a typical

ship (qs 0.3), (a) Straight maneuver (qs0.3), (b) Zigzag maneuver (qs 0.3).

not applied in this research and ke is set to 1.0.

Since the von-Mises stress already considered the load modication factor for torsion, the load modication factor is not

applied to calculate the fatigue limit. Therefore, the fatigue limit of

the reduction gear input shaft in this research can be calculated as

304 MPa from Eq. (17).

When the measured torque is transferred to the stress as given

in Eqs. (1) and (3), the stress amplitudes can be counted by

counting the rain ow cycle, and the total damage can be

calculated with the linear damage summation law as described

in Sections 3.1 and 3.2. The SN curve dened in Section 3.4 is used

to calculate the damage from the linear damage summation law.

In this section, the fatigue stability is investigated with the

Soderberg plot and then, the total damage of the reduction gear

input shaft is calculated with the stress data measured in straight

and zigzag maneuver conditions under various speeds including

the engine starting condition.

Figs. 20 and 21 are the Soderberg plots for the stress data

recorded in 60 s under straight and zigzag maneuver conditions at

maximum speed that include the stress concentration factor of the

mean stress or not, respectively.

In Fig. 20, the shaft is safe under all operating speeds in the

straight maneuver condition even though the shaft does not

satisfy the required safety factor in MIL G 17859D (S.F 41.75).

However, the shaft is not safe when sailing at maximum speed

under zigzag maneuver condition.

Table 2

Estimation of the life cycle of the shaft.

PCL

Starting

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Life time[H]

Straight maneuver

Zigzag maneuver

qs 0

qs 0.3

qs 0

qs 0.3

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

858.3

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

Innite

16.6

In Fig. 21, the plot moves to the right side when a notch factor

of 0.3 is applied, and the unsafe region in the zigzag maneuver

condition increases.

Table 2 shows the life cycles calculated with the linear damage

summation law for the engine starting, straight, and zigzag

maneuver conditions that include the stress concentration factor

for the mean stress or not. In Table 2, the shaft does not have

innite life cycles under the zigzag maneuver condition at the

maximum sailing speed. In addition, the life cycle that includes the

stress concentration factor for mean stress is decreased about 11

times lower than the life cycle that ignores the stress

very conservative when the stress concentration factor for static

mean stress is included.

These investigations showed that evaluating the safety of the

shaft with the Soderberg method is very difcult when the mean

stress and the alternating stress vary randomly. Therefore, in this

case, the rain ow cycle counting method is very useful for

classifying these randomly varied stress signals. In addition, the

life cycle can be estimated with the linear damage summation law

when the safety factor is less than 1.0.

221

conservative evaluation of the safety of the shaft can be made.

Acknowledgment

This research was performed in the Defense Agency of Technology and Quality, and DTAQ veried that it did not contain any

information related to military security.

Reference

4. Conclusion

The safety and life cycles of the reduction gear input shaft for

diesel engines were investigated with the Soderberg plot, rain ow

cycle counting, and linear damage summation law for ships. The

following conclusions are derived from this study.

1) When the backpressure in the exhaust pipe of the diesel engine

is dramatically increased depending on the sailing condition, it

can be found that the variations in the torsional vibration,

revolution speed of the shaft and acceleration of the diesel

engine are also increased. Therefore, sailing conditions in

which the back pressure varies dramatically should be minimized and avoided if possible by reducing the ships speed.

2) When the stress concentration factor (qs 0.3) was considered

for static mean stress, the safety factor from the Soderberg

evaluation method decreased 1.1 times, which varied from 1.02

to 0.83, and the life cycles decreased 52 times, which varied

from 858.3 h to 16.6 h.

3) In the zigzag maneuver condition at maximum speed, the

Soderberg safety factor could be less than 1.0 depending on

the sea conditions. When the stress was evaluated with IACS

M68, this condition was unsafe.

4) The Soderberg evaluation method is difcult to apply when the

amplitude of the mean stress and the alternating stress varies

randomly. Evaluating the safety of the shaft with IACS M68 may

be very effective.

5) Estimates of the life cycle with the linear damage summation

law with rain ow cycle counting of the stress data can be used

to evaluate the safety of the shaft and nd how long it can

endure the condition under torsional vibration. Since this

Arisoy, C.F., Basman, G., Sessen, M.K., 2003. Failure of 17-4 Stainless steel sailboat

propeller shaft. Eng. Fail. Anal. 10 (6), 711717.

Bhaumik, S.K., Rangaraju, R., Parameswara, M.A., Venkataswamy, M.A., Bhaskaran,

T.A., Krishnan, R.V., 2002. Fatigue failure of a hollow power transmission shaft.

Eng. Fail. Anal. 9, 457467.

DNVGL, 2014. Rules for classication of ships.

D.o.D, 1993. MIL-G-17859D(SH): Gear Assembly, Production (Naval Shipboard Use).

D.o.D, 1976. MIL 167-2: Mechanical Vibration of Shipboard Equipment (Reciprocating Machinery and Propulsion System and Shafting).

Fonte, M., Reis, L., Freitas, M., 2011. Failure analysis of a gear wheel of a marine

azimuth thruster. Eng. Fail. Anal. 18 (7), 18841888.

Goksenli, A., Eryurek, I.B., 2009. Failure analysis of an elevator drive shaft. Eng. Fail.

Anal. 16, 10111019.

Han, H.S., Lee, K.H, Park, S.H., 2012. Analysis for the effect of the misalignment of

the power line from the displacement caused by the ship motion of the main

propulsion system. Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng. 22 (1), 4652.

Hield P., 2011. DSTO-TR-2531: the effect of back pressure on the operation of a

diesel engine, Defense Science and Technology Organization.

IACS, 2012. M68: Dimension of propulsion shafts and their permissible torsional

vibration stresses.

JianPing, J., Guang, M., 2008. Investigation on the failure of the gear shaft connected

to extruder. Eng. Fail. Anal. 15, 420429.

LLOYD, 2014. Rules and regulations for classication of naval ships.

Ma, F.Y., Wang, W.H., 2006. Fatigue crack propagation estimation of SUS 630 shaft

based on fracture surface analysis under pitting corrosion condition. Mater. Sci.

Eng.: A 430 (12), 18.

Mann, J.W., 2011. Twin-turbocharged diesel performance under snorkeling conditions, UDT 2011 in London.

Matsuishi, M., Endo, T., 1968. Fatigue of Metals Subjected to Varying Stress.

Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Jukvoka.

Miner, M.A, 1945. Cumulative damage in fatigue. J. Appl. Mech. 67, A159A164.

Okubo, H., Hosono, K., Sakaki, K., 1968. The stress concentration in keyways when

torque is transmitted through keys. Exp. Mech. 8 (8), 375378.

Parida, N., Tarafder, S., Das, S.K., Kumar, P., Das, G., Ranganath, V.R., Bhattacharya, D.

K., 2003. Failure analysis of coal pulverizer mill shaft. Eng. Fail. Anal. 10,

733744.

Pedersen, N.L., 2010. Stress Concentration in Keyways and Optimization of Keyway

Design. J. Strain Anal. 45, 593604.

Peterson, R.E., 1953. Stress Concentration Design Factors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

New York.

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