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TECNOLGICO NACIONAL DE MXICO

Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

GUA DE EXAMEN DE INGLS

INSTITUTO TECNOLGICO DE ACAPULCO

EXAMEN GLOBAL
DE INGLS
Examen tipo ejemplo

Para presentar el Examen de Ingls en su modalidad de evaluacin de las


siguientes competencias:
a) Habilidades de comprensin auditiva y de lectura
b) Expresin escrita y oral de temas tcnicos-cientficos relacionados con
el perfil profesional.

Acapulco, Gro., Marzo 2016

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Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

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INFORMACIN E INSTRUCCIONES SOBRE EL EXAMEN.
1.- En el da y hora asignados para el examen, debers presentarte con bolgrafo (tinta
negra) y una identificacin oficial, de preferencia tu credencial de elector (IFE).
Identificarse plenamente es indispensable. No identificarse, ser motivo para no permitir
realizar el examen.
2.- El examen se hace en dos partes:
Primera parte:
Se te har entrega del artculo escrito en ingls.
a) Consiste en una serie de preguntas de opcin mltiple relacionadas con el tema o
temas del artculo. La puntacin total para esta parte es del 25 %.
b) Consiste en elaborar un resumen en espaol con una extensin mnima de una
cuartilla sobre la informacin ms importante del tema contenido en el artculo.
Esta tiene un valor del 25%.
Segunda parte:
c) Consiste en escuchar un tema en ingls, posteriormente responder una serie de
preguntas de opcin mltiple. La puntacin total para esta parte es del 25 %.
a) Se te realizarn unas preguntas en ingls y responders las preguntas en ingls.
La puntacin total de esta seccin ser del 25%. .

3.- La duracin del examen de la primera parte es de 1:30 horas, contadas a partir del
momento marcado para dar inicio al examen y la segunda parte es de 1:30 horas.
4.- No se permite el uso de telfonos celulares, tablet, PC, etc.
5- El examen es individual.
6.- Debes guardar silencio, para concentrarse en el examen es necesario un ambiente
tranquilo.

TECNOLGICO NACIONAL DE MXICO


Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

GUA DE EXAMEN DE INGLS


ESTRATEGIAS RECOMENDADAS PARA RESOLVER EL EXAMEN.
1.- Lee cuidadosamente el texto completo del artculo, antes de proceder a contestar las
preguntas que se te hacen y antes de hacer la traduccin.
2.- Lo mismo aplica para las preguntas de opcin mltiple. Lee cada pregunta
atentamente, hasta que tengas en claro la respuesta.
3.-Para la traduccin, Identifica cada frase u oracin (donde inicia, donde termina) del
texto a traducir, teniendo siempre presente la idea principal del tema completo. Si
encuentras palabras cuyo significado te sea desconocido, traduce de acuerdo al contexto,
sin cambiar completamente el significado de la frase u oracin respectiva.

Los siguientes son EXMENES- MUESTRA (EJEMPLOS) que te ser til resolver,
respondiendo las preguntas y haciendo la traduccin por escrito al espaol. Cada
Ejemplo-muestra, incluye primero el artculo, luego las preguntas. La traduccin intenta
hacerla por tu cuenta y compara con la que se te ofrece como correcta o aceptable.

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Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

GUA DE EXAMEN DE INGLS

INSTRUCTIONS:
Read carefully the following extract from the article titled Agile Development; answer the
questions formulated on part I of the exam and on part II write a summary in spanish
language. Part I has a value of 60 points and part II of 40 points. In part I, select from the
options given the answer(s) that best reflect the articles main ideas, or write the answer
accordingly.
PART I
AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
No matter how far down the wrong road youve gone, turn back. Turkish proverb.
That Turkish proverb above is both simple and obviousyoud think it would be a guiding
force for software development. But all too often, developers (including your humble
authors) continue down the wrong road in the misguided hope that it will be OK somehow.
Maybe its close enough. Maybe this isnt really as wrong a road as it feels. We might even
get away with it now and then, if creating software were a linear, deterministic process
like the proverbial road. But its not. Instead, software development is more like surfing
its a dynamic, ever-changing environment. The sea itself is unpredictable, risky, and there
may be sharks in those waters. But what makes surfing so challenging is that every wave
is different. Each wave takes its unique shape and behavior based on its localea wave in
a sandy beach is a lot different from a wave that breaks over a reef, for instance. In
software development, the requirements and challenges that come up during your project
development are your wavesnever ceasing and ever-changing. Like the waves, software
projects take different shapes and pose different challenges depending on your domain
and application. And sharks come in many different guises. Your software project depends
on the skills, training, and competence of all the developers on the team. Like a successful
surfer, a successful developer is the one with (technical) fitness, balance, and agility.

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Agility in both cases means being able to quickly adapt to the unfolding situation, whether
its a wave that breaks sooner than expected or a design that breaks sooner than
expected.
The Agile Manifesto
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan.
That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
See agilemanifesto.org for more information
The Spirit of Agility
So what is agility, exactly, and where did this whole agile software development movement
come from? In February 2001, seventeen interested persons (including Andy) got together
in Snowbird, Utah, to discuss an emerging trend of what was loosely being called
lightweight processes. We had all seen projects fail because of ponderous, artifact-heavy,
and results-light processes. It seemed like there should be a better way to look at
methodologya way to focus on the important stuff and deemphasize the less important
stuff that seemed to take up a lot of valuable time with little benefit. These seventeen folks
coined the term agile and published the Agile Manifesto to describe a refocused approach
to software development: an approach that emphasizes people, collaboration,
responsiveness, and working- The agile approach combines responsive, collaborative
people with a focus on demonstrable, concrete goals (software that actually works). Thats
the spirit of agility. The practical emphasis of development shifts from a plan-based
approach, where key events happen in individual, separate episodes, to a more natural,
continuous style. Its assumed that everyone on the team (and working with the team) are
professionals who want a positive outcome from the project. They may not necessarily be
experienced professionals yet, but they possess a professional attitudeeveryone wants
to do the best job they can. If you have problems with absenteeism, slackers, or outright
saboteurs, this is probably not the approach for you. Youll need something more heavyhanded, slower, and less productive. Otherwise, you can begin developing in the agile
style. That means you dont leave testing to the end of the project. You dont leave
integration to the end of the month or stop gathering requirements and feedback as you
begin to code.

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Instead, you continue to perform all these activities throughout the life cycle of the project.
In fact, since software is never really done as long as people continue to use it, its
arguable that these arent even projects anymore. Development is continuous. Feedback
is continuous. You dont have to wait for months to find out that something is wrong: you
find out quickly, while its still relatively easy to fix. And you fix it, right then and there.
Thats what its all about.
This idea of continuous, ongoing development is pervasive in agile methods. It includes
the development life cycle itself but also technology skills learning, requirements gathering,
product deployment, user training, and everything else. It encompasses all activities, at all
levels. Why? Because developing software is such a complex activity, anything
substantive that you leave until later wont happen, wont happen well, or will grow worse
and fester until it becomes unmanageable. A certain kind of friction increases, and things
get harder to fix and harder to change. As with any friction, the only way to fight it
effectively is to continually inject a little energy into the system.
QUESTIONS: SELECT FROM THE OPTIONS GIVEN THE ANSWER(S) THAT BEST
REFLECT THE ARTICLES MAIN IDEAS, OR WRITE THE ANSWER ACCORDINGLY.
(25%)
1. Why the proverb mentioned above is not a guiding force for software development?
a. Because the time and money invested on the project avoids this from
happening.
b. Because quality isnt a matter for most development teams.
c. Because rectification of the wrong way is embarrassing.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
2. Creating software is:
a. A nonlinear, nondeterministic process.
b. Is a misguided road.
c. A linear, deterministic process.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
3. In software development:
a. The requirements and challenges never cease and never change.
b. The requirements and challenges ever cease and ever change.
c. The requirements and challenges never cease and ever change.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
4. Your software projects depends on:
a. The budget, your relationship with the client and money from investors.
b. The skills, training and competence of all the developers on the team.
c. The coordination between your team members and the clients employees.
d. All of the above.

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e. None of the above.
5. Agility means:
a. Quickly adapt to the unfolding situation whether your requirements break or
your design breaks.
b. Quickly evaluate the situation and talk with the client to agree more time
and money.
c. Quickly hire expert software engineers to avoid technical problems.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
6. In the Agile manifesto:
a. We value individuals, working software, customer collaboration, and
response to change.
b. We value groups, working software, customer collaboration, and response
to change.
c. We value individuals, working software, customer interaction, and response
to change.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
7. Agility started because seventeen interested people saw that projects failed
because:
a. Processes were enormous, artifact-heavy and result lightly.
b. Processes were ponderous, artifact-heavy and result lightly.
c. Processes were ponderous, artifact-light and result heavy.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
8. Agility attempts to:
a. Focus on the important
b. Deemphasize to the less important.
c. Remove all that took up a lot of valuable time.
d. Ignore everything that provided little benefit.
e. All of the above.
f. None of the above.
9. The agile approach combines:
a. Responsive collaborative people.
b. Rigid project management methods.
c. Demonstrable and concrete goals.
d. People with high spirit.
e. All of the above.
f. None of the above.
10. Explain with your own words, what does the Turkish proverb means when applied
to software development.
PART II.- WRITE A SYNTHESIS IN SPANISH ABOUT THE ARTICLES MAIN IDEAS.
DONT EXCEED ONE PAGE. (25%)

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Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

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Read carefully the following extract from the article titled Design and Implementation of a
Wideband Channel Sounder for Low-Voltage Powerlines; answer the questions
formulated on part I of the exam, and on part II write a synthesis in the Spanish language.
Each part (I and II) has a value of 50 points each.
Name:____________________________________________
Control
Number:__________

I.

MOTIVATION

This workshop presents Service-Oriented Programming (SOP), which is a new


programming methodology that permits the development of software applications by
connecting and composing existing services, thus facilitating software reuse. SOP builds
on object-oriented programming (OOP), as services are developed in an object-oriented
(OO) fashion and then wrapped as Web services. OOP provides the basis to model and
implement software components as objects, while SOP permits modeling and
implementing software systems as web-accessible services, and has attracted attention
from the industry as it substantially improves software reuse. SOP leverages the webs
communication infrastructure to provide easier access to existing software components.
Consequently, more and more companies have begun to offer their business
functionalities via web services. Some search engines have been developed specifically
for finding existing web services. For example, www.programmableweb.com indexes over
5814 web services and 6610 mashups (which are applications, built on web services).
Other search engines, such as www.webservicelist.com and www.biocatalogue.org, list
web services by application domains.
This workshop is broadly divided into two major parts. In the first part, the presenters will
describe the problem areas and motivation underlying the SOP paradigm, the techniques
of designing and implementing services, and the techniques for developing applications
using services. Topics covered include service-oriented architecture, web services, service
description and discovery, service invocation, service composition architecture, and core
SOP protocols, e.g., Web Services Description Language (WSDL), Universal Description
Discovery and Integration (UDDI), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), and
Representational State Transfer (REST). Participants will also be provided guidance to
develop and deploy web services in a stepwise fashion, and be split into small groups for
an activity, e.g., to compare OOP and SOP. In the second part, participants will be
introduced to the developed teaching materials, including a demo of the SOP framework
that exemplifies SOP techniques. Participants will again work in groups and discuss issues
about how to incorporate SOP course modules into their existing courses. This workshop
is in line with the goals because it aims to introduce new software development
methodology into existing curricula.
II.

WORKSHOP LEARNING OUTCOMES

The workshops learning outcomes are as follows:

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Attendees will explain the main issues and concepts in SOP.


Attendees will solve a problem using SOP techniques.
Attendees will have in-depth experience with SOP.
Attendees will explain and apply SOP teaching materials, including the SOP
framework and course modules, developed by the presenters.

Among other outcomes, the presenters will make their SOP curricular materials available
to the participants.
III.

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE PRESENTERS

Of the five authors, the three who will be presenting this workshop are Rajendra K. Raj,
Tom Reichlmayr and Alex Pantaleev. Professors Raj and Reichlmayr are faculty members
at Rochester Institute of Technology and Dr. Pantaleev is a faculty member at SUNY at
Oswego.
Rajendra K. Raj is a professor in RITs Computer Science department, and his current
research interests currently include in large-scale data management, distributed/mobile
computing, security, and critical infrastructure protection. He is also interested in
computing education methodologies, and is involved in program assessment, evaluation
and accreditation. Dr. Raj teaches courses in database systems, cloud and largescale
data management, distributed systems, and security. Prior to RIT, he was a software
designer, developer, architect and manager in the Information Technology Division at
Morgan Stanley & Co., where he architected, built and managed globally distributed
database infrastructures for financial applications handling big data. He received his PhD
in Computer Science from the University of Washington, Seattle. Tom Reichlmayr is an
associate professor in RITs Software Engineering department. He has extensive
experience in curriculum development and cooperative learning. He has developed and
coordinated an introductory software engineering course as well as advanced courses in
software engineering design and process. He has actively converted software engineering
courses from traditional lecture/lab format to studio classroom delivery. Alex Pantaleev is
an assistant professor in SUNY Oswegos Computer Science department that offers
degrees in Computer Science, Information Systems and Software Engineering. His current
research interests include service oriented architecture, computer science education, and
distributed computing, especially as it applies to computer game development. Dr.
Pantaleevs work has appeared in conferences such as ASEE and ITiCSE. He has
developed two new courses and redesigned several others at SUNY Oswego including
CS2 and web services. He is the major creator of a new concentration in the Computer
Science major at Oswego. All presenters are experienced teachers who use active
learning techniques extensively and teach in multiple settings including traditional
classroom or blended settings.

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PART I.- SELECT TE CORRECT OPTION(s) FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
ABOUT THE FORMER ARTICLE YOU HAVE READ. (60%)
1. SOP
is
the
acronym
for
_________
and
the
concept
of________________________:
a. Sockets Oriented Peripherals. A new type of peripherals which support high
data through output.
b. Software Oriented Programming. A new type of module programming
methodology that permits the development of software applications by
connecting and composing existing services.
c. Service Original Programming. A new programming methodology that
permits the development of software applications by connecting and
composing existing services.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
2. SOP is built on:
a. Sockets developed for network access layer of the OSI layer.
b. Object oriented programming, as services are developed in an objectoriented (OO) fashion and then wrapped as Web services.
c. Web services for any platform on procedural programming languages.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
3. SOP
a. Helps re-utilize your web infrastructure to provide a cheaper solution for
software components.
b. Is a java web technology created by oracle corporation to eliminate
software compatibility problems.
c. Leverages the webs infrastructure to provide easier access to existing
software components.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
4. In the first part of the workshop:
a. The participants will be provided with guidance to develop and deploy web
services in a stepwise fashion, and be split into small groups for an activity.
b. The presenters will describe the problem areas and motivation underlying
the SOP paradigm.
c. The participants will provide the techniques of designing and implementing
services, and the techniques for developing applications using services.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
5. Who is the professor whose current research interests are service oriented
architecture, computer education and distributed computing, especially as it applies
to computer game development.
a. Alex Pantaleev.
b. Rajendra K. Raj

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c. Tom Reichmayr.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
6. Which professors are faculty members at Rochester Institute of technology?
a. Alex Pantaleev.
b. Rajendra K. Raj
c. Tom Reichmayr.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
7. Which professor has extensive experience in curriculum development and
cooperative learning?
a. Alex Pantaleev.
b. Rajendra K. Raj
c. Tom Reichmayr.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
8. Select the professors name who had been architect and manager in the
information technology division at morgan stanly & co.
a. Alex Pantaleev.
b. Rajendra K. Raj
c. Tom Reichmayr.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
9. The presenters will not make their SOP curricular materials available to the
participants.
a. True
b. False
10. Who is the professor whose current research interests include large-scale data
management, distributed/mobile computing, security and critical infrastructure
protection?
a. Alex Pantaleev.
b. Rajendra K. Raj
c. Tom Reichmayr.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
PART II.- WRITE A SYNTHESIS IN SPANISH ABOUT THE MAIN ARTICLES IDEAS.
DONT EXCEED ONE PAGE. (40%)

Read carefully the following extract from the article titled Design and Implementation of a
Wideband Channel Sounder for Low-Voltage Powerlines; answer the questions

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formulated on part I of the exam, and on part II write a synthesis in the Spanish language.
Each part (I and II) has a value of 50 points each.
Name:____________________________________________
Control
Number:__________
INTRODUCTION
IN THE LAST FEW years powerline technology has become a commercially attractive
alternative to wireless technology for in-home applications requiring high speed data
communications. This success has fostered research in wideband communications over
low voltage powerlines and, in particular, has motivated the interest in a deeper
understanding of the properties of their propagation medium. Unfortunately, the properties
of real world powerline channels are substantially different from those of their wireless
counterparts in terms of system functions and noise; for instance, the frequency response
of such channels is usually periodic, so that standard methods for wireless channel
sounding cannot be adopted for its measurement. This raises the problem of developing
new channel sounding tools. Even if some powerline channel emulators have been
proposed or have been made available on the market, the problem of designing and
implementing technical solutions for wideband sounding of powerline channels has not
been tackled yet in the technical literature. This paper aims at filling this gap by providing
some design guidelines for powerline channel sounding and by describing a specific low
cost FPGA-based implementation of a powerline channel sounder. This manuscript is
organized as follows. In Section II some design requirements for powerline channel
sounding are provided. The architecture of the developed channel sounding tool
is described in Section III. Various technical details about such a tool are provided in
Sections IV, V and VI, which focus on its analog front-end, FPGA processing and graphical
user interfaces, respectively. Some experimental results are illustrated in Section VII,
where specific applications of the developed tool are taken in consideration; in particular,
its use for acquiring the time-variant transfer function of an indoor powerline channel and
the power spectral density of the noise affecting it are discussed. Finally, some
conclusions are given in Section VIII.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SOUNDING OF WIDEBAND POWERLINE
CHANNELS
Channel sounding tools commonly rely on simple theoretical principles. In fact, the
response of a given communication channel can be usually related to its excitation through
a specific system function (e.g., the channel transfer function) in a simple fashion. Then, if
the excitation (i.e., the probing signal) is properly selected, in principle an estimate of the
involved system function can be easily extracted from a set of samples of the channel
response. However, when applied to wideband sounding of powerline channels, the
implementation of this procedure on a digital hardware platform requires addressing
carefully various technical issues; these lead to various design requirements, as discussed
in detail below.
Signal Generation and Acquisition: The probing signal generated by a channel sounder is
employed to scan a specific portion of the available frequency spectrum. In powerline

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communications two different bands have been standardized; one consists of the
frequencies lower than 500 kHz (allocated mainly for home and building automation as
well as for applications related to the smart grid), whereas the other one covers the
frequency range 1.830 MHz (devoted to high data rate applications). The target of our
work has been to sound powerline channels up to 30 MHz. This entails that, if a digital
hardware platform is used for the generation of a probing signal, it has to be equipped with
a digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) device operating at a frequency not smaller than
MHz. In practice, in our channel sounding tool the frequency MHz has been selected; note
that this frequency is also employed by an analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) device when
acquiring the channel response to the probing signal.

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the developed channel sounder.


Another important technical issue concerning the probing signal is represented by the
selection of its duration. In fact, powerline channels are linear and periodically time-varying
(LPTV); in addition, their variations are synchronous to the mains [10] and are
characterized by a period ms (if the mains frequency is equal to 50 Hz). Therefore, the
duration of the probing signal depends on both the desired frequency resolution and the
periodicity of time variations; in practice, one or more periods (i.e., samples or a multiple of
this quantity) need to be acquired in each measurement interval [1], so that the selected
hardware platform has to be endowed with a fast memory access and a proper data
storage capability. To address all the above mentioned technical issues, an FPGA Stratix
III Digital Signal Processing development board [11] has been employed in the
implementation of our tool. This board is based on an EP3SL150F1152 FPGA,which is
able to operate at a maximum internal clock speed equal to 600 MHz and a maximum
clock speed equal to 400 MHz in interfacing with its DDR2 memory [12]. In addition, the
employed board is equipped with: a) one bank of DDR2 memory able to store 1 GByte and
two DDR2 memory chips able to store 32 MBytes each (additional details about this are
provided in Section V); b) a GigaBit Ethernet port for exchanging data with a personal
computer. Coupling of the Channel Sounder With Powerlines: The topology and the
properties of cabling in low-voltage powerlines are usually unknown; in addition, the input
impedance of the loads (e.g., home appliances) connected to them exhibit an
unpredictable frequency dependent behavior. For these reasons, the impedance of
powerlines is usually unknown and may undergo significant time variations (due to
connection/disconnection of power loads), and, consequently, the output (input)
impedance of the channel sounder cannot be matched to the input (output) impedance of
the communication medium. This problem has to be carefully taken into account when
designing the analog coupling circuit connecting the channel sounder to a power network.
In particular, a good protection of the low voltage circuitry of the sounder has to be

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guaranteed and low noise amplification has to be employed in signal acquisition, since
probing signals may experience a deep attenuation.
ARCHITECTURE OF THE DEVELOPED CHANNEL SOUNDER
The architecture of the channel sounding tool implemented in our labs is shown in Fig. 1.
Our tool consists of the following blocks: a power analog front-end (PAFE), an interface for
ADC and DAC, an FPGA development board and a personal computer. A description of
the tasks accomplished by each block is provided below.
Personal Computer: The personal computer provides the FPGA board with a sampled
version of the probing signal and processes the samples of the corresponding response
acquired by the board itself. A software application based on Matlab and running on the
personal computer has been developed to ease the use of the channel sounder. This
application provides various simple graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for handling different
high level tasks (e.g., generation of an arbitrary probing signal, start and stop of the
measurement procedure and plot of the acquired data).
Development Board: All real-time critical tasks of the channel sounding procedure are
directly managed by the FPGA development board. In particular, during this procedure the
FPGA feeds the data conversion interface with the samples of the probing signal to be
sent over a powerline channel and at the same time stores in a DDR2 memory the
samples of the channel response acquired by the interface itself in one or more
consecutive periods (each lasting ms). At the end of each measurement, the acquired data
are moved from the FPGA board to the personal computer through its Gigabit Ethernet
interface.
PART I.- SELECT TE CORRECT OPTION FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ABOUT
THE FORMER ARTICLE YOU HAVE READ.
11. In terms of what are the substantial differences between the properties of real
world powerlines channels from their wireless counterparts?
a. System restrictions and vibration.
b. System functions and noise.
c. System frequency response and security.
d. None of the above.
12. This paper aims to provide some design guidelines for powerline channel sounding
and by describing a specific high cost FPGA-based implementation of a power line
channel sounder.
a. True.
b. False.
13. The response of a given communication channel can be usually related to:
a. Its wave longitude and distance.
b. Its coding algorithm.
c. Its excitation through a specific system function.
d. All of the above.
14. Frequencies lower than 500 kHz are allocated for:

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a. Mainly for home and building automation as well as for applications related
to the smart grid.
b. Mainly for office and plant level wireless communications.
c. Mainly for defense and medical equipment.
d. None of the above.
15. The target of this paper has been to sound powerline channels up to:
a. 30 MHz.
b. 100 MHz.
c. 300 MHz
d. 10 MHz
e. All of the above.
16. Powerline channels are non-linear and periodically time-varying.
a. True.
b. False.
17. The duration of the probing signal depends on the desired frequency resolution
and the periodicity of time variations.
a. True.
b. False.
18. The impedance of powerlines is usually unknown and may undergo significant time
variations due:
a. To connection/disconnection of power tools.
b. To connection/disconnection of power loads.
c. To connection/disconnection of frequency tools
d. To connection/disconnection of frequency loads.
19. The personal computer provides the FPGA board with sampled version of
a. The probing signal and frequencies of the samples of the corresponding
response acquired by the board itself.
a. The probing signal and processes the samples of the corresponding
response acquired by the tools.
b. The probing signal and processes the samples of the corresponding
response acquired by the board itself.
c. None of the above.
20. All real time critical tasks of the channel sounding procedure are directly managed
by:
a. FPGA duration times.
b. FPGA frequencies board.
c. FPGA development board.
d. None of the above.
PART II.- WRITE A SYNTHESIS IN SPANISH ABOUT THE MAIN ARTICLES IDEAS.
DONT EXCEED ONE PAGE.

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ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT


Since the beginning of the century that have been presented numerous analysis with
respect to sustainability, the decline of the planet and the devastating consequences that
would bring our actions.

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First we will analyze the end to complete the relevant valuation. In the first chapter the
concept of Sustainable Development was raised along with his principles and the
corresponding background. This chapter will try to arrive at a value-based connotation of
the concept, analyzing the different situations and changes we have been experiencing
both in relation to the environment and in relation to ourselves as people.
Development " means "to move toward the best." Your own meaning is optimistic
philosophy of the nineteenth century and is closely linked with the concept of Progress .
This ultimately means two things:
A series any facts that develop in desirable direction
The belief that the events in the story unfold in the most desirable direction, making an
increasing perfection.
In the first sense is spoken, for example, the "Progress of the chemical or Technical
progress" In the second sense, the word refers not only a balance of past history, but also
a prophecy for the future.
As made clear above, sustainable development is a proposal in 1987 by the World
Commission on Environment and posed an ethical principle strategy: "Is one that fosters
the development of the present generation without compromising the ability of future
generations to satisfy them needs". Or in other words, is the way in which men and women
can use these resources that are the heritage of humanity, without wasting them, so that
our descendants will find a world at least similar to what we have. The key question is: Are
we doing? The answer is NO, or individual, regional, national or global level.
Sustainable development, as we have said and repeated, is closely associated with
protecting the "Environment" in the ordinary meaning of the term, is the set of relationships
between the natural world and living things, which influences the life and behavior of the
living being itself.
History shows a tendency to the progress of human society taken as a whole. The pace of
progress has varied over different periods, starting from the fifteenth century when the
intensity of the economic and social life begins to accelerate with the great scientific
discoveries such as gunpowder, printing and the compass needle especially since the
eighteenth century to the present day. Technological advances have brought devastating
consequences in some respects, as were military related issues, such as nuclear
weapons, which cause great environmental damage. But we must emphasize that not only
are negative consequences for the environment, but also has its positive side, they are
these technological advances which provide much of the economic development.
Analyzing the history of mankind, we see the change we have experienced over time. The
people who lived after World War II, had the opportunity to meet durable products, good
quality, not crumbled in his hands. The world had experienced a major crisis and the need
to protect what was obvious to those who had suffered the lack of everything. Young

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people however, we live in an age where everything is disposable, running the risk of
saying that even human relationships fall into this "disposable rating. Today, the man is
immersed in the ambition to be getting bigger and powerful, equipping themselves with
science and the mechanical arts as an expression of harmony with nature, leading to a
culture of waste. Thus, the development of science has further increased the gap between
the haves and have-nots, as the fifth of humanity lives in poverty.
The relationship of man with nature today leads to a clearly suicidal race as we destroy in
the name of "Development, exerting pressure on a wild planet's resources. Many claim
that this is due to excessive exploitation overpopulation. This position is called Neo
Malthusian and clearest reflection is in poor countries, where the population suffers from
policies that seek to reduce the birth rate, when one of the older man's wealth has always
been its workforce. The problem is that men take a wage to support themselves and their
families, and computerized machines can replace them with much economic benefit.
Many environmental groups that lean primarily for the protection of nature, which has been
destroyed due to over , deforestation and even natural causes that man cannot be
controlled , even reaching some thoughts as macabre as self-destructive " massive human
die-offs would be good our task is to cause them is the task of our species, in relation to
the whole, eliminating 90 percent of our figures . . ." Even some have welcomed AIDS as a
way to achieve this, while the information of the radical organization Earth First! has called
for an investigation into a specific virus" that could destroy humanity.
The environmental and social damage caused by a wide range of economic factors, and
partly aggravated by the activities of own subsistence poverty, prevent our countries from
achieving adequate standards of living. We seek a consistent, ethical and moral response
to that development and voracious predator that destroys our planet. Poverty and
environmental degradation continue while not change the irrational way of producing and
distributing wealth, this will be possible with profound changes in the centers of political
and economic power.
Now men living in subhuman conditions. Consider the concentration of our great cities, the
slums, lack of space, air and weather, gloomy streets and yellow lights that confuse day
with night. Consider our dehumanized factories, our unsatisfied senses, our women
workers, and our estrangement from nature. The life in that environment has no
meaning... However we call it progress.

I)

PART ONE:
VALUE
A) CIRCLE THE POINT THAT ANSWER CORRECTLY

60 %

1. The analysis of the term in Sustainable Development, which are two of the issues that
are valued
a) The Global Economy and the Environment deteriorated.
b) Environmental Pollution and poorly paid employment.

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c) The different situations and changes we have been experiencing.
d) The progress of the chemical and technical progress.
2. Term development refers to:
a) The relationship ourselves as people.
b) The movement for the better.
c) Growth of the internal parts of a company.
d) Unfolding from childhood.
3. Sustainable development is a proposal in 1987 by the World Commission on
Environment and posed as an ethical principle strategy:
a) " Is that impedes the development of the present generation without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
b) " Is that fosters the development of the present generation without concern for the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs"
c) " Is that fosters the development of the next generation without compromising the ability
of present generations to meet their own needs"
d) " Is that fosters the development of the present generation without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
4. The set of relationships between the natural world and living things, which influences
the life and behavior of the living being itself.
a) The Global Economy.
b) Naturism.
c) The Environment.
d) The Family.
5. Technological advances have brought devastating consequences, such as issues
related to war, causing major environmental damage, such as:
a) Improving the Global Economy.
b) Conservation of Nature.
c) Increased Environmental Protection.
d) Development and indiscriminate use of nuclear weapons

B) ANSWER FALSE ( F) TRUE OR ( T ) THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS :


(

) The meaning of development is closely linked with the concept of progress.

( ) The document ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT


says the rating and Sustainable Development concept is discussed

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(
) Sustainable development is a proposal at the end of World War II, the World
Commission strategy for the Middle Atmosphere
(

) Sustainable development applies only to individuals and where they live.

(
) Technological advances have brought devastating consequences, such as war related issues such as nuclear weapons, which cause significant environmental damage.

II)

PART TWO
VALUE
40 %
A) WRITE IN YOUR OWN WORDS ABOUT WHAT YOU JUST READ.
TRANSLATE THE TEXT IN ORDER IS WRITTEN

Mechanical energy and Work


1.- Energy gives us one more tool to use to analyze physical situations. When forces and
accelerations are used, you usually freeze the action at a particular instant in time, draw a
free-body diagram, set up force equations, figure out accelerations, etc. With energy the
approach is usually a little different. Often you can look at the starting conditions (initial
speed and height, for instance) and the final conditions (final speed and height), and not
have to worry about what happens in between. The initial and final information can often
tell you all you need to know. Whenever a force is applied to an object, causing the object

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to move, work is done by the force. If a force is applied but the object doesn't move, no
work is done; if a force is applied and the object moves a distance d in a direction other
than the direction of the force, less work is done than if the object moves a distance d in
the direction of the applied force.
Work can be either positive or negative: if the force has a component in the same direction
as the displacement of the object, the force is doing positive work. If the force has a
component in the direction opposite to the displacement, the force does negative work.
If you pick a book off the floor and put it on a table, for example, you're doing positive work
on the book, because you supplied an upward force and the book went up. If you pick the
book up and place it gently back on the floor again, you're doing negative work, because
the book is going down but you're exerting an upward force, acting against gravity. If you
move the book at constant speed horizontally, you don't do any work on it, despite the fact
that you have to exert an upward force to counter-act gravity.

An object has kinetic energy if it has mass and if it is moving. It is energy associated with a
moving object, in other words.

There is a strong connection between work and energy, in a sense that when there is a net
force doing work on an object, the object's kinetic energy will change by an amount equal
to the work done:

Let's say you're dropping a ball from a certain height, and you'd like to know how fast it's
traveling the instant it hits the ground. You could apply the projectile motion equations, or
you could think of the situation in terms of energy (actually, one of the projectile motion
equations is really an energy equation in disguise).
If you drop an object it falls down, picking up speed along the way. This means there must
be a net force on the object, doing work. This force is the force of gravity. The work done
by the force of gravity is the force multiplied by the distance, so if the object drops a
distance h, gravity does work on the object equal to the force multiplied by the height lost.
An alternate way of looking at this is to call this the gravitational potential energy. An object
with potential energy has the potential to do work. In the case of gravitational potential
energy, the object has the potential to do work because of where it is, at a certain height
above the ground, or at least above something.
5.- Spring potential energy
Energy can also be stored in a stretched or compressed spring. An ideal spring is one in
which the amount of the spring stretches or compresses is proportional to the applied
force. This linear relationship between the force stretching force and the displacement are
directly proportional ( Hook's law). This is a restoring force, because when the spring is
stretched, the force exerted by the spring is opposite to the direction it is stretched. This
accounts for the oscillating motion of a mass on a spring. If a mass hanging down from a

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spring is pulled down and let go, the spring exerts an upward force on the mass, moving it
back to the equilibrium position, and then beyond. This compresses the spring, so the
spring exerts a downward force on the mass, stopping it, and then moving it back to the
equilibrium and beyond, at which point the cycle repeats. This kind of motion is known as
simple harmonic motion. In a perfect spring, no energy is lost; the energy is simply
transferred back and forth between the kinetic energy of the mass on the spring and the
potential energy of the spring (gravitational potential energy might be involved, too).
6.- Conservation of energy
We'll take all of the different kinds of energy we know about, and even all the other ones
we don't, and relate them through one of the fundamental laws of the universe.
The law of conservation of energy states that energy can not be created nor destroyed, it
can merely be changed from one form of energy to another. Energy often ends up as heat,
which is thermal energy (kinetic energy, really) of atoms and molecules. Kinetic friction, for
example, generally turns energy into heat, and although we associate kinetic friction with
energy loss, it really is just a way of transforming kinetic energy into thermal energy.
The law of conservation of energy applies always, everywhere, in any situation. There is
another conservation idea associated with energy which does not apply as generally, and
is therefore called a principle rather than a law. This is the principle of the conservation of
mechanical energy: The total amount of mechanical energy, in a closed system in the
absence of dissipative forces (e.g. friction, air resistance), remains constant. This means
that potential energy can become kinetic energy, or vice versa, but energy cannot
disappear. For example, in the absence of air resistance, the mechanical energy of an
object moving through the air in the Earth's gravitational field, remains constant (it is
conserved).

EVALUACIN:
PRIMERA PARTE:
Al final de cada pregunta ( en el espacio subrayado), escribe la letra (A, B o C), que
corresponda a la respuesta correcta.
1.- The Energy methods to analyze physical situations, such as the motion of an object ,
give us a different way for________
A) Freeze the action at a particular instant in time.
B) set up force equations.

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C) solving the motion of the body without knowing what happens in between the
starting and final conditions of the motion.
2.- When a force has a component in the same direction as the displacement of the
object______
A) The work done by the force is negative
B) No work is done by the force at all.
C) The work done by the force is positive.
3.- If you move an object at a constant speed horizontally_______
A) You do negative work on the object.
B) You dont do any work on it.
C) You do positive work on it.
4.- If you drop a ball from a certain height, to figure out the ball velocity for instance, you
could apply the projectile motion equations, or_________
A) you could apply the Archimedes principle.
B) you could think of the situation in terms of energy.
C) you could apply the Hooks Law of strain-stress.

5.- When an object falls down, it picks up speed along his way, the net force acting on
the object, doing work is ___________
A) An electrical force.
B) A magnetic force.
C) The force of gravity.
6.- Gravitational potential energy of an object is named potential , because __________
A) The object is moving with a velocity.
B) it has the potential to do work, due to where it is, at a certain height above
the ground , or at least above something.
C) it has electrical potential.
7.- The Hooks Law states that__________
A) The net work done by a force on an object equals the internal energy change of
the object.
B) Force and displacement are directly proportional.

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C) Energy cant be destroyed nor destroyed.
8.- The spring potential energy is energy stored in_______
A) Boiling water.
B) the burning of the sun.
C) a stretched or compressed spring.
9.- Kinetic friction generally turns energy into heat, although we associate kinetic friction
with energy loss, it is just__________
A) a mass transformation process.
B) a transformation of kinetic energy into heat.
C) the most efficient energy transformation process.
10.- Energy can not be created nor destroyed, is an statement for______
A) The principle of conservation of mechanical energy.
B) The Second law of Newton.
C) The law of energy conservation.

SEGUNDA PARTE. escribir la traduccin al espaol de las secciones 1, 2, 3 y 4


(unicamente) del artculo anterior.
NOTA: Escribir claramente, sin tachaduras, para as poder calificar la traduccin con
dificultades mnimas para el examinador.

How Does an Air Conditioner Work?


Air conditioners and refrigerators work the same way. Instead of cooling just the small,
insulated space inside of a refrigerator, an air conditioner cools a room, a whole house, or
an entire business. Air conditioners use chemicals that easily convert from a gas to a liquid
and back again. This chemical is used to transfer heat from the air inside of a home to the
outside air. The machine has three main parts. They are a compressor, a condenser and
an evaporator. The compressor and condenser are usually located on the outside air
portion of the air conditioner. The evaporator is located on the inside the house,
sometimes as part of a furnace. That's the part that heats your house.

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The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor
squeezes the fluid. This packs the molecule of the fluid closer together. The closer the
molecules are together, the higher its energy and its temperature. The working fluid leaves
the compressor as a hot, high pressure gas and flows into the condenser. If you looked at
the air conditioner part outside a house, look for the part that has metal fins all around. The
fins act just like a radiator in a car and helps the heat go away, or dissipate, more quickly.
When the working fluid leaves the condenser, its temperature is much cooler and it has
changed from a gas to a liquid under high pressure. The liquid goes into the evaporator
through a very tiny, narrow hole. On the other side, the liquid's pressure drops. When it
does it begins to evaporate into a gas.
As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates, it extracts heat from the air around it. The
heat in the air is needed to separate the molecules of the fluid from a liquid to a gas. The
evaporator also has metal fins to help in exchange the thermal energy with the
surrounding air. By the time the working fluid leaves the evaporator, it is a cool, low
pressure gas. It then returns to the compressor to begin its trip all over again. Connected
to the evaporator is a fan that circulates the air inside the house to blow across the
evaporator fins. Hot air is lighter than cold air, so the hot air in the room rises to the top of
a room. There is a vent there where air is sucked into the air conditioner and goes down
ducts. The hot air is used to cool the gas in the evaporator. As the heat is removed from
the air, the air is cooled. It is then blown into the house through other ducts usually at the
floor level.
This continues over and over and over until the room reaches the temperature you want
the room cooled to. The thermostat senses that the temperature has reached the right
setting and turns off the air conditioner. As the room warms up, the thermostat turns the air
conditioner back on until the room reaches the temperature.
Heat Pump.
Imagine that you took an air conditioner and flipped it around so that the hot coils were on
the inside and the cold coils were on the outside. Then you would have a heater. It turns
out that this heater works extremely well. Rather than burning a fuel, what it is doing is
"moving heat." A heat pump is an air conditioner that contains a valve that lets it switch
between "air conditioner" and "heater." When the valve is switched one way, the heat
pump acts like an air conditioner, and when it is switched the other way it reverses the flow
of the liquid inside the heat pump and acts like a heater.
END
EVALUACIN:
PRIMERA PARTE:

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Al final de cada pregunta ( en el espacio subrayado), escribe la letra (A, B o C), que
corresponda a la respuesta correcta.
1.- Refrigerators and Air conditioners work the same way, which means_____
A) They function under the same physical principles.
B) They are very complicated machines.
C) They have nothing in common at all.
2.- Air conditioners use chemicals as working fluids to_______
A) move huge amounts of air.
B) transfer heat from the air inside of a room to the outside air.
C) heat spaces that need to be heated.

3.- An Air conditioner system has three main parts, which are_______
A) A brake, a water pump and a radiator.
B) A compressor, a condenser and an evaporator.
C) Wings, an automatic pilot and a landing gear.

4.- The compressor squeezes the working fluid, which means______


A) The working fluid pressure is raised by the compressor.
B) The working fluid temperature is lowered.
C) The working fluid has less energy.
5.- The working fluid leaves the compressor as a_______
A) compressed liquid.
B) as a hot, high pressure gas and flows into the condenser.
C) as a saturated vapor.
6.- The metal fins all around some condensers help the heat______
A) Keep the working fluid at a constant temperature .
B) Go away, or dissipate, more quickly.
C) Remain stored in the working fluid.
7.- When the working fluid leaves the condenser it has changed to______
A) be a saturated liquid.
B) be a saturated vapor.

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C) a liquid under high pressure.
8.- By the time the working fluid leaves the evaporator, it is ________
A) a cool, compressed liquid.
B) at a very high temperature.
C) a cool, low pressure gas.
9.- The thermostat is a device that turns off_______
A) When the temperature has reached the right setting.
B) When the humidity of an space is too high.
C) When the dry bulb temperature has lowered enough.
10.- A heat pump is an air conditioner that contains a________
A) many shafts and gears inside.
B) microchip to send electronic signals
C) valve that lets it switch between " air conditioner " and a " heater".
SEGUNDA PARTE. escribir la traduccin al espaol del artculo anterior.
NOTA: Escribir claramente, sin tachaduras, para as poder calificar la traduccin con
dificultades mnimas para el examinador.

REFERENCIAS:
http://www.ced.cele.unam.mx/clauto/general/formulario.php
http://www.linguee.es/ingles-espanol/traduccion/lowered.html
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/lowered
http://create.demandstudios.com/spanish-translator/
Laws of thermodynamics
Main article: Laws of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics states a set of four laws that are valid for all systems that fall within the
constraints implied by each. In the various theoretical descriptions of thermodynamics

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these laws may be expressed in seemingly differing forms, but the most prominent
formulations are the following:

Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a
third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

This statement implies that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation on the set
of thermodynamic systems under consideration. Systems are said to be in thermal
equilibrium with each other if spontaneous molecular thermal energy exchanges between
them do not lead to a net exchange of energy. This law is tacitly assumed in every
measurement of temperature. For two bodies known to be at the same temperature,
deciding if they are in thermal equilibrium when put into thermal contact does not require
actually bringing them into contact and measuring any changes of their observable
properties in time.[65] In traditional statements, the law provides an empirical definition of
temperature and justification for the construction of practical thermometers. In contrast to
absolute thermodynamic temperatures, empirical temperatures are measured just by the
mechanical properties of bodies, such as their volumes, without reliance on the concepts
of energy, entropy or the first, second, or third laws of thermodynamics.[49][66] Empirical
temperatures lead to calorimetry for heat transfer in terms of the mechanical properties of
bodies, without reliance on mechanical concepts of energy.
The physical content of the zeroth law has long been recognized. For example, Rankine in
1853 defined temperature as follows: "Two portions of matter are said to have equal
temperatures when neither tends to communicate heat to the other."[67] Maxwell in 1872
stated a "Law of Equal Temperatures".[68] He also stated: "All Heat is of the same
kind."[69] Planck explicitly assumed and stated it in its customary present-day wording in his
formulation of the first two laws.[70] By the time the desire arose to number it as a law, the
other three had already been assigned numbers, and so it was designated the zeroth law.

First law of thermodynamics: The increase in internal energy of a closed system is


equal to the difference of the heat supplied to the system and the work done by it: U
= Q - W [71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81]

The first law of thermodynamics asserts the existence of a state variable for a system, the
internal energy, and tells how it changes in thermodynamic processes. The law allows a
given internal energy of a system to be reached by any combination of heat and work. It is
important that internal energy is a variable of state of the system (see Thermodynamic

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state) whereas heat and work are variables that describe processes or changes of the
state of systems.
The first law observes that the internal energy of an isolated system obeys the principle
of conservation of energy, which states that energy can be transformed (changed from one
form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed.[82][83][84][85][86]

Second law of thermodynamics: Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder


location to a hotter location.

The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of


dissipation of kinetic and potential energy observable in nature. The second law is an
observation of the fact that over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical
potential tend to even out in a physical system that is isolated from the outside
world. Entropy is a measure of how much this process has progressed. The entropy of an
isolated system that is not in equilibrium tends to increase over time, approaching a
maximum value at equilibrium.
In classical thermodynamics, the second law is a basic postulate applicable to any system
involving heat energy transfer; in statistical thermodynamics, the second law is a
consequence of the assumed randomness of molecular chaos. There are many versions
of the second law, but they all have the same effect, which is to explain the phenomenon
of irreversibility in nature.

Third law of thermodynamics: As a system approaches absolute zero the entropy of


the system approaches a minimum value.

The third law of thermodynamics is a statistical law of nature regarding entropy and the
impossibility of reaching absolute zero of temperature. This law provides an absolute
reference point for the determination of entropy. The entropy determined relative to this
point is the absolute entropy. Alternate definitions are, "the entropy of all systems and of all
states of a system is smallest at absolute zero," or equivalently "it is impossible to reach
the absolute zero of temperature by any finite number of processes".
Absolute zero is 273.15 C (degrees Celsius), or 459.67 F (degrees Fahrenheit) or 0 K
(kelvin).

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La ley de la termodinmica
Artculo principal: Leyes de la termodinmica
Termodinmica establece un conjunto de cuatro leyes que son vlidas para todos los
sistemas que caen dentro de las limitaciones implcitas en cada uno. En las distintas
descripciones tericas de la termodinmica estas leyes se pueden expresar en formas
aparentemente diferentes, pero las formulaciones ms prominentes son las siguientes:

Ley cero de la termodinmica : Si dos sistemas estn cada uno en equilibrio trmico
con un tercero, que tambin se encuentran en equilibrio trmico entre s.

Esta afirmacin implica que el equilibrio trmico es una relacin de equivalencia en el


conjunto de los sistemas termodinmicos que se consideran. Los sistemas se dice que
estn en equilibrio trmico entre s, si los intercambios trmicos moleculares espontneos
de energa entre ellas no conducen a un cambio neto de energa. Esta ley se asume
tcitamente en todas las mediciones de la temperatura. Durante dos cuerpos que se sabe
que en el mismo la temperatura, decidiendo si se encuentran en equilibrio trmico cuando
se ponen en contacto trmico no requiere realmente ponerlos en contacto y medicin de
los cambios de sus propiedades observables en el tiempo. [ 65 ] En los estados
tradicionales, la ley establece una definicin emprica de la temperatura y la justificacin
para la construccin de termmetros prcticos. En contraste con las temperaturas
termodinmicas absolutas, las temperaturas empricas se miden slo por las propiedades
mecnicas de los cuerpos, como su volumen, sin depender de los conceptos de energa,
la
entropa
o
los
primeros
segundos,
o
tercera
leyes
de
la
[ 49 ] [ 66 ]
termodinmica,.
temperaturas
empricos
llevan
a colorimtricas para
la
transferencia de calor en trminos de las propiedades mecnicas de los cuerpos, sin
depender de los conceptos mecnicos de energa.
El contenido fsico de la ley cero ha sido reconocida. Por ejemplo, Rankine en 1853 la
temperatura se define de la siguiente manera: ". se dice que dos porciones de materia a
tener igualdad de temperaturas cuando ni tiende a comunicar calor a la
otra" [ 67 ] Maxwell en 1872 declar una "Ley de Igualdad de temperaturas". [ 68 ] Tambin
dijo: "Todo el calor es de la misma naturaleza". [ 69 ] Planck asume explcitamente y dijo en
su habitual actual redaccin en su formulacin de las dos primeras leyes. [ 70 ] En el
momento surgi el deseo nmero como una ley, los otros tres ya haban sido asignados
los nmeros, por lo que fue designado a laley cero .

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Primera ley de la termodinmica : El aumento de la energa interna de un sistema


cerrado es igual a la diferencia del calor suministrado al sistema y el trabajo realizado
por ella:? U = Q - W[ 71 ] [ 72 ] [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ]

La primera ley de la termodinmica afirma la existencia de una variable de estado de un


sistema, la energa interna, y le dice a la forma en que los cambios en los procesos
termodinmicos. La ley permite que la energa interna de un sistema dado que se lleg a
travs de una combinacin de calor y trabajo. Es importante que la energa interna es una
variable de estado del sistema (consulte el estado termodinmico ), mientras que el calor
y el trabajo son variables que describen procesos o cambios en el estado de los sistemas.
La primera ley seala que la energa interna de un sistema aislado obedece el principio
de conservacin de la energa , que establece que la energa puede ser transformado
(cambiado de una forma a otra), pero no puede ser creada ni destruida. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ]

Segunda ley de la termodinmica : el calor no puede fluir espontneamente de un


lugar fro a un lugar ms caliente.

La segunda ley de la termodinmica es una expresin del principio universal de la


disipacin de la energa cintica y potencial observable en la naturaleza. La segunda ley
es una observacin del hecho de que con el tiempo, las diferencias de temperatura,
presin, y potencial qumico tienden a igualar en un sistema fsico que est aislado del
mundo exterior. La entropa es una medida de la cantidad de este proceso ha
progresado. La entropa de un sistema aislado que no est en equilibrio tiende a aumentar
con el tiempo, acercndose a un valor mximo en el equilibrio.
En la termodinmica clsica, la segunda ley es un postulado bsico aplicable a cualquier
sistema que implica la transferencia de energa trmica; en la termodinmica estadstica,
la segunda ley es una consecuencia de la supuesta aleatoriedad de caos molecular. Hay
muchas versiones de la segunda ley, pero todos tienen el mismo efecto, que es explicar el
fenmeno de la irreversibilidad en la naturaleza.

Tercera ley de la termodinmica : Como sistema se aproxima al cero absoluto la


entropa del sistema se aproxima a un valor mnimo.

La tercera ley de la termodinmica es una ley estadstica de la naturaleza con respecto a


la entropa y la imposibilidad de alcanzar el cero absoluto de temperatura. Esta ley
proporciona un punto de referencia absoluto para la determinacin de la entropa. La
entropa determina en relacin a este punto es la entropa absoluta. Definiciones alternas

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son, "la entropa de todos los sistemas y de todos los estados de un sistema es el ms
pequeo en el cero absoluto", o de manera equivalente "es imposible alcanzar el cero
absoluto de temperatura por un nmero finito de procesos".
El cero absoluto es -273,15 C (grados Celsius), o -459,67 F (grados Fahrenheit) o 0 K
(kelvin).

Referencias
65. Jump up^ Moran, Michael J. and Howard N. Shapiro, 2008. Fundamentals of
Engineering Thermodynamics. 6th ed. Wiley and Sons: 16.
66. Jump up^ Planck, M. (1897/1903), p. 1.
67. Jump up^ Rankine, W.J.M. (1953). Proc. Roy. Soc. (Edin.), 20(4).
68. Jump up^ Maxwell, J.C. (1872), page 32.
69. Jump up^ Maxwell, J.C. (1872), page 57.
70. Jump up^ Planck, M. (1897/1903), pp. 12.
71. Jump up^ Clausius, R. (1850). Ueber de bewegende Kraft der Wrme und die
Gesetze, welche sich daraus fr de Wrmelehre selbst ableiten lassen, Annalen
der Physik und Chemie, 155 (3): 368394.
72. Jump up^ Rankine, W.J.M. (1850). On the mechanical action of heat, especially
in gases and vapours. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 20: 147190.[1]
73. Jump up^ Helmholtz, H. von. (1897/1903). Vorlesungen ber Theorie der Wrme,
edited by F. Richarz, Press of Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, Section 46, pp.
176182, in German.
74. Jump up^ Planck, M. (1897/1903), p. 43.
75. Jump up^ Guggenheim, E.A. (1949/1967), p. 10.
76. Jump up^ Sommerfeld, A. (1952/1956), Section 4 A, pp. 1316.
77. Jump up^ Ilya Prigogine, I. & Defay, R., translated by D.H. Everett
(1954).Chemical Thermodynamics. Longmans, Green & Co., London, p. 21.
78. Jump up^ Lewis, G.N., Randall, M. (1961). Thermodynamics, second edition
revised by K.S. Pitzer and L. Brewer, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 35.

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79. ^ Jump up to:a b Bailyn, M. (1994), page 79.
80. Jump up^ Kondepudi, D. (2008). Introduction to Modern Thermodynamics, Wiley,
Chichester, ISBN 978-0-470-01598-8, p. 59.
81. Jump up^ Khanna, F.C., Malbouisson, A.P.C., Malbouisson, J.M.C., Santana,
A.E. (2009). Thermal Quantum Field Theory. Algebraic Aspects and Applications,
World Scientific, Singapore, ISBN 978-981-281-887-4, p. 6.
82. Jump up^ Helmholtz, H. von, (1847). Ueber die Erhaltung der Kraft, G. Reimer,
Berlin.
83. Jump up^ Joule, J.P. (1847). On matter, living force, and heat, Manchester
Courier, May 5 and May 12, 1847.
84. ^ Jump up to:a b Truesdell, C.A. (1980).
85. Jump up^ Partington, J.R. (1949), page 150.
86. Jump up^ Kondepudi & Prigogine (1998), pages 31-32.

PREGUNTAS DE INTERPRETACIN DE TEXTOS DEL EXAMEN DE INGLS


1. Qu dice la ley cero de la Termodinmica?
R = Si dos sistemas estn cada uno en equilibrio trmico con un tercero, que tambin
se encuentran en equilibrio trmico entre s.
2. Cmo se miden las temperaturas empricas, en contraste con las temperaturas
termodinmicas absolutas?. (prrafo de ley cero de la termodinmica).
R = las temperaturas empricas se miden slo por las propiedades mecnicas de
los cuerpos, como su volumen, sin depender de los conceptos de energa, la
entropa o los primeros segundos, o tercera leyes de la termodinmica
3. La Primera Ley de la Termodinmica afirma la existencia de una variable de
estado de un sistema; cul es sta?
R = La energa
interna
4. Cul es el hecho que observa la Segunda Ley de la Termodinmica?
R = La Segunda Ley es una observacin del hecho de que con el tiempo, las
diferencias de temperatura, presin, y potencial qumico tienden a igualar en un
sistema fsico que est aislado del mundo exterior.
5. En cul de las Tres Leyes de la termodinmica, la Entropa no tiene la posibilidad
de alcanzar el cero absoluto?
R = En la Tercera Ley de la Termodinmica.

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Color in Architecture More Than Just Decoration.


By Frank H. Mahnke. From: http://archinect.com/features/article/53292622/color-inarchitecture-more-than-just-decoration
PROCEED.
Color is an integral element of our world, not just in the natural environment but also in the
man-made architectural environment. Color always played a role in the human
evolutionary process. The environment and its colors are perceived, and the brain
processes and judges what it perceives on an objective and subjective basis.
Psychological influence, communication, information, and effects on the psyche are
aspects of our perceptual judgment processes. Hence, the goals of color design in an
architectural space are not relegated to decoration alone.
Especially in the last eleven decades, empirical observations and scientific studies have
proven that human-environment-reaction in the architectural environment is to a large
percentage based on the sensory perception of color. These studies include the disciplines

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of psychology, architectural psychology, color psychology, neuropsychology, visual
ergonomics, psychosomatics, and so forth. In short, it confirms that human response to
color is total it influences us psychologically and physiologically.
The American Faber Birren, considered the father of applied color psychology (originator
of the OSHA colors) and the first to establish the profession of color consultant in 1936,
proclaimed: The study of color is essentially a mental and psychological science, for the
term color itself refers to sensation.
Color is a sensory perception, and as any sensory perception, it has effects that are
symbolic, associative, synesthetic, and emotional. This self-evident logic has been proven
by scientific investigation. Because the body and mind are one entity, neuropsychological
aspects, psychosomatic effects, visual ergonomics, and colors psychological effects are
the components of color ergonomics. These being design goal considerations that demand
adherence to protect human psychological and physiological well-being within their manmade environment. The color specifier/designer has the task of knowing how the reception
of visual stimulation, its processing and evoked responses in conjunction with the
hormonal system, produces the best possibilities for the welfare of human beings. This is
of utmost importance in varied environments, such as medical and psychiatric facilities,
offices, industrial and production plants, educational facilities, homes for the elderly,
correctional facilities, and so forth. Each within themselves having different task and
function areas.
Color Psychology
One of the most striking results concerning color connotations and color mood
associations is its consistency cross-culturally from one individual to another and group to
group. The great number of studies comparing human subjects worldwide, such as men to
women, children to adults, laymen to architects, and even monkeys to humans show that
color is an international visual language understood by all.
The impression of a color and the message it conveys is of utmost importance in creating
the psychological mood or ambiance that supports the function of a space. A classroom
has a different function than a hospital patient room; an office space is not a production
line, etc.
To mention a few examples concerning colors and what they convey: Pastel yellow gives
the impression of sunny, friendly, soft. The message in the interior space is stimulating,
brightness, coziness.
Red is arousing, passionate, provocative, fiery, and aggressive. The message in the
interior is aggressive, advancing, and dominant.
Green is balancing, natural, calm with the message of simplicity, security, balance.
White expresses open, vast, neutral, and sterile. The message being purity, sterile,
emptiness, and indecisiveness.
Obviously this is a very small example since all colors change their character when
modified in their lightness factor (light to dark) and saturation.

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Architectural Environments Emotions and Psychosomatics
Professor for Architecture Sune Lindstrom remarked in 1987: With every particular
architectural product, it is the spontaneous emotional reaction that is of importance to
us. The environment produces emotions which in turn are linked to psychosomatics.
Psychosomatic medicine emphasizes that physical disorders may originate through
psychological factors, be aggravated by them and vice versa. It is common knowledge that
stress may cause headaches, anxiety makes the heart beat faster, and anger and distress
may affect the stomach, to name the most common occurrences. Of course the list
includes high blood pressure, heart palpitations, migraine headaches, eczema, impotence,
and so forth.
Scientific research has also established the link to PNI Psycho-Neuro-Immunology which
clearly shows that networks of nerve fibers and molecular bridges connect the psyche and
the body with each other and those emotions penetrate completely into the cells of the
organism. Henceforth, research indicates that a positive emotional mood strengthens the
bodys defensive system against illness, whereas a negative emotional frame of mind has
a weakening effect.
Relative to designers is the answer given by David Felten (Professor for Neurobiology and
Anatomy for the School of Medicine at the University of Rochester, New York) to the
question: When does the interaction between the mind and the body connect? Felten
answered: The moment we begin to perceive sensory stimulation.
Visual Ergonomics and Color
Probably one of the least known factors of appropriate color specification is its role in
safeguarding visual efficiency and comfort. The eye's adaptation process involves the
immediate reaction of the eye to changes in the degree of illumination. Lower light
reflectance causes the pupil to dilate, and the reverse is true for higher reflectance. The
eye sees luminous density and not the intensity of luminance. Luminous density is what
the eyes receive when light is reflected from a surface (floors, walls, furniture). If the
differences between the luminous densities within view are too great, the iris muscle is
strained due to constant adjustment, thus causing eye fatigue. Studies have shown that
appropriate differences in luminous density can prevent eye fatigue and raise visual acuity,
and thus also productivity.
The colors of surfaces absorb and reflect a certain amount of light. These measurements
are referred to as light reflection values. Practically all paint companies show them on their
color fan decks under LR or LRV.
The international norms are the 3-1 light reflection ratio within a space. This suggests that
floors should reflect about 20%, furniture 25-40%, walls 40-60%. The 3-1 designation
means the lightest color (60%) divided by the darkest (20%) is a ratio of 3-1. However,
visual ergonomists are not color designers. A yellow wall at 60% is not a yellow anymore
but a tan. The only solution is if the walls are raised to 75% light reflection for example, so
must then be the percentage of floor and furnishings also be raised to insure that there still
exists control of extreme contrasts in dark and light. Interesting fact is that if these rules

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were known by the design community, white walls would not exist only ceilings are
where 80-90% is accepted.
FIRST SECTION (60%) Choose the correct answer for each question. Each correct
answer gives you 3 points of 60. Underline your response.
1. According to paragraph one, why is color important in design?
a) Color is not important.
b) Because color can be used for many things.
c) Because by the use of color we can make things look prettier.
d) Because color is an integral element of natural and man-made world.
2. Human-environment reaction in the architectural environment is based on what of the
following concepts?
a) On the sensory perception of color.
b) It is based on space and scale proportions.
c) On the human scale environment.
d) On the use of plants and nature.
3. Who is considered the father or applied color psychology??
a) Faber Birren
b) The American people
c) The color theory
d) The OSHA colors
4. Because the body and mind are one entity, witch of the following concepts can we say
are the components of color ergonomics?
a) Tone, color, and mixture.
b) Neuropsychological aspects, psychosomatic effects, visual ergonomics and colors
psychological effects.
c) Symbolic, Associative, synesthetic and emotional.
d) Human psychological and physiological.
5. What is the task of the color specifier/designer?
a) The principal task of a color designer is to improve architectural environment by the use
of color.
b) He has to anticipate the reaction or the people to certain scale and proportion used in
the architect world.
c)He has to know how color affects the reaction to any visual stimulation in conjunction
with the hormonal system to produce the welfare of human beings.
d) He has to reproduce some color of the past in order to secure welfare of humans.
6. Why are monkeys mentioned in paragraph one about COLOR PSYCOLOGY?
a) To probe that many studies are made including all kinds of subjects.
b) Because monkeys are very important to color theory.

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c) To probe monkeys can make very reliable subjects.
d) Because humans are like monkeys.
7. What is a psychological mood?
a) The ambiance that a color can convey that supports the function of a space.
b) It is a state of mind.
c) It is a concept shown by the color theory.
d) It is the most important concept to observe when we design a building.

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8. According to the reading, what color brings us the idea of coziness?
a) Red
b) White
c) Yellow
d) Pastel Yellow
9. What is the most provocative and aggressive color?
a) Red
b) Green
c) White
d) Yellow
10. What psychological mood can we stimulate if we use green?
a) Dominant
b) Security
c) Sterile
d) Emptiness
11. What color shall you use if you were asked to design an environment of opened
spaces and neutral?
a) White
b) Green
c) White
d) Yellow
12. Who is Sune Lindstrom?
a) An architect.
b) The inventor of psychosomatic theory.
c) A professor for Architecture.
d) The reading does not say.
13. What is the principle that psychosomatic medicine emphasizes on?
a) That physical disorders are originated by organic factors only.
b) That psychology is the principal cause of diseases.
c) That physical and psychological factors cannot be linked to each other when we talk
about human welfare.
d) That physical disorders may originate through psychological factors, be aggravated by
them and vice versa.
14. How does the text affirm that the psyche and the body are connected?
a) The text says that psyche and the body cant be connected with each other.
b) The body and the psyche are connected by cells.

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c) Networks of nerve fibers and molecular bridges connect the psyche and the body with
each other and those emotions penetrate completely into the cells of the organism.
d) Human beings do not have psyche.
15. According to researches mentioned in the reading, why is it important to design an
environment with positive emotional mood?
a) Because this kind of environment helps the development of trouble between humans.
b) Because a positive emotional mood strengthens the bodys defensive system against
illness.
c) Because a good emotional mood is a good defense of the body.
d) Because sad and angry people are more healthy.
16. How does the human pupil react to light?
a) Lower light reflectance causes the pupil to dilate, and the reverse is true for higher
reflectance.
b) Human pupil does not react to light.
c) Strong light helps human pupil to identify colors.
d) Soft light is the best to apply in reading environments.
17. What is luminous density?
a) Luminous density is the fragmentation that can be appreciated in a ray of light.
b) Luminous density is not mentioned in the reading.
c) Luminous density is the intensity of a ray of light.
d) Luminous density is what the eye receives when light is reflected from a surface.
18. What is the meaning for LR or LRV?
a) Light red or light red values
b) Light Reflection on light reflection values.
c) Light Re-direction or light re-direction values.
d) Light Revolving or light revolving values.
19. What does the international norms 3-1 reflection ratio means?
a) The 3-1 reflection radio means that luminosity should be divided by 60%
b) It means that reflection should fluctuate above 5%
c) The 3-1 designation means the lightest color (60%) divided by the darkest (20%) is a
ratio of 3-1.
d) It means that visual ergonomist are not color designers.
20. What does the last paragraph affirm about color white?
a) It says that, if designers knew the rulers of reflection radio, color white would never be
used in walls.
b) It says that color white leaves a mood of comfort.
c) It says that white should only be used in walls, but not in ceilings.
d) The paragraph does not mention color white.

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SECOND SECTION (40%) Write a translation to Spanish about
Color in Architecture More Than Just Decoration.

WHEN ANSWERING THIS GUIDE PLEASE HAVE IN CONSIDERATION THAT THE


REAL EXAM CONTAINS ONLY ONE ARTICLE, AND 20 TO 25 QUESTIONS AS WELL
AS AN ESSAY SECTION WHERE YOU WILL HAVE TO WRITE ABOUT A TOPIC
RELATED TO THE CARREER YOU STUDY.
Answer the questions according to the reading passage.

Stonehenge Monument
Stonehenge is an ancient monument situated about ten miles north of Salisbury in
England. It was built about 4500 years ago, but by whom and for what purpose remains a
mystery. The builders must have known of geometry. They may have been influenced by
the Mycenaeans, whose architecture was similar. Some of the stones must have been
brought from West Wales, over 135 miles away. These stones weigh more than fifty tons.
They may have been brought on rafts and rollers. Experts say that it must have taken
1500 men more than five years to transport them. Stonehenge was probably built in three
stages. First, settlers from continental Europe built a temple for sun worship. Later the
"Beaker" people added the stone circles. Finally, people of the Wesse Culture transformed
Stonehenge into an observatory. They could calculate the exact time of Midsummer and
Midwinter and of equinoxes.
1. We understand from the passage that the construction of the Stonehenge ----.
A) began 135 miles away from Salisbury
B) is thought to have taken place in more than one stage
C) was first documented by the Mycenaeans
0) is not a mystery that needs to be solved
E) was completed in less than five years
2. It is pointed out in the reading that the Stonehenge ----.
A) was built by the Mycenaeans, who were very advanced in geometry
B) probably has religious origins, possibly for worship of the sun

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C) had no astrological purposes
D) was erected thousands of years ago in West Wales
E) is still used to calculate the changes of the seasons
3. According to the passage, there is no certainty about ----.
A) where the Stonehenge was built
B) what kind of stones were used in the construction of the Stonehenge
C) how to calculate the exact time of Midsummer and Midwinter and of
equinoxes
D) how the stones used in the construction of the Stonehenge were
transported
E) whether some of the stones are in position to reflect the movements of the sun
and the moon
CORRECT ANSWERS ARE:
1.B
2.B
3.D
Write in your own words about what you just read.

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Is Too Much Togetherness Annoying?
I've heard of the problems, newly retired men and their wives face because of too much
togetherness. And I was always amused, the way they so often get on each other's
nerves. I never thought I'd face such a problem, but it's been two months now, and matters
around are pretty bad. I ran out of patience. As soon as our son, Mike, leaves home, Dave
busies himself by following me around, inquiring into my household routines. I have tried to
interest him in any number of activities, with little success. "What you really need is a job "I
told him, knowing he would never be able to find one at this age. You'd think that someone
with so much intelligence, someone I truly love, would not be totally annoying when faced
with a change in routine.
1. The author says that before she faced the same thing, ----.
A) she always belittled couples who tended to be nagging at each other
all the time
B) she hardly believed that retirement could reverse nice relations in a
marriage
C) her husband always seemed to be a potential problem for their happy
family
D) she couldn't understand how much happiness her husband's retirement
would bring
E) she knew exactly which problems were waiting for them

2. As it is said in the passage, she cannot help getting nervous at her husband ----.
A) who is constantly trying to intervene in her house-hold affairs
B) who needs to rest now, which he really deserves after years of working
C) because he is an intelligent man and loving husband
D) although she loves Dave who hates being hurt
E) for the fact that he couldn't get accustomed to living idly

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3. The writer is surprised to see that ----.
A) her husband is very helpful
B) she will not have to bare her fussy husband any more
C) she will be counting the days to sen d Mike to school
D) she loves him more than she thought
E) change of routine affects someone so much

CORRECT ANSWERS ARE:


1.B
2.A
3.E
Write in your own words about what you just read.

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Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium (or simply Wembley) is a football stadium located in Wembley, north
west London, which opened in 2007 on the site of the old Wembley stadium. The 90,000
capacity venue is second largest stadium in Europe, and serves as England's national
stadium. It is the home venue of the England national football team, and hosts the latter
stages of the top level domestic club cup competition, the FA Cup. It is owned by English
football's governing body, the Football Association (The FA) through their subsidiary
Wembley National Stadium Ltd (WNSL). The old Wembley stadium, which opened in 1923
as the Empire Stadium, often referred to as "The Home of Football", was one of the world's
most famous football stadiums until its demolition in 2003.
Designed by Foster and Partners and Populous, the new Wembley is the largest and
tallest stadium in the world, and includes a partially retractable roof. A signature feature of
the stadium, following on from the the old Wembley's distinctive Twin Towers, is the 134
metres (440 ft) high Wembley Arch. With a span of 317 metres (1,040 ft), this steel arch is
the longest single span roof structure in the world. The stadium was built by Australian firm
Multiplex at a cost of 798 million. The old Wembley closed in October 2000, with
demolition originally intended for that December and the new stadium due to open in 2003.
After delays to the project, the old Wembley was not completely demolished until 2003,
with the new stadium scheduled to open in time for the 2006 FA Cup Final. After further
delays, the stadium was delivered nearly a year late, leading to legal disputes between
WNSL and Multiplex, who ultimately made a significant loss on the project. The stadium
was handed over on 9 March 2007, in time to host the 2007 FA Cup Final.
In international football, the stadium is a central component of the English 2018 and 2022
FIFA World Cup bids. In 2012 it will also host the football finals of the London Olympics. In
club football, the stadium also hosts the showpiece season opening game the FA
Community Shield match, played in August between the winners of the FA Cup and the
top-level Premier League. In February, it also hosts the final of the England's other top
level cup tournament, the Football League Trophy. At the end of the domestic season the
stadium also hosts the latter stages of the Football League play-offs. In European football,
it is due to host the 2011 Champions League Final. In friendly tournaments, since 2009 it
has been the venue of the summer Wembley Cup. Outside of football, the stadium also
hosts major rugby games, such as the Rugby League Challenge Cup. The stadium is also
an annual regular season venue for the American National Football League's International
Series, the first such venue outside North America. Non-sporting uses include large
concerts by artists such as U2 and Madonna, as well as hosting in July 2007 the Concert
for Diana and Live Earth.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from
the Wikipedia article "Wembley Stadium". You can explore more on the Wikipedia
website. The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes.

Questions about the text


1. For its capacity, Wembley Stadium is the
largest stadium in the world.
second largest stadium in the world.
second largest stadium in Europe.
2. The old stadium was demolished in 2003.
True.
False.
We don't know.
3. The stadium will be used in the 2018 Olympics.
True.
False.
We don't know.
4. All the Football League matches are held there.
True.
False.
We don't know.
5. Rugby is also played there.
True.
False.
We don't know.

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CORRECT ANSWERS:
1. For its capacity, Wembley Stadium is the
second largest stadium in Europe.
2. The old stadium was demolished in 2003.
True.
3. The stadium will be used in the 2018 Olympics.
False.
4. All the Football League matches are held there.
False.
5. Rugby is also played there.
True.

Write in your own words about what you just read.

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Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall was a defensive fortification in Roman Britain. Begun in AD 122, during the
rule of emperor Hadrian, it was the first of two fortifications built across Great Britain, the
second being the Antonine Wall, lesser known of the two because its physical remains are
less evident today.
The wall was the most heavily fortified border in the Empire. In addition to its role as a
military fortification, it is thought that many of the gates through the wall would have served
as customs posts to allow trade and levy taxation.
A significant portion of the wall still exists, particularly the mid-section, and for much of its
length the wall can be followed on foot by Hadrian's Wall Path or by cycle on National
Cycle Route 72. It is the most popular tourist attraction in Northern England. It was made a
UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. English Heritage, a government organisation in
charge of managing the historic environment of England, describes it as "the most
important monument built by the Romans in Britain".
Hadrian's Wall was 80 Roman miles (73 statute miles or 120 km) long, its width and height
dependent on the construction materials which were available nearby. East of River Irthing
the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres (9.7 ft) wide and five to six
metres (1620 ft) high, while west of the river the wall was made from turf and measured 6
metres (20 ft) wide and 3.5 metres (11.5 ft) high. This does not include the wall's ditches,
berms and forts. The central section measured eight Roman feet wide (7.8 ft or 2.4 m) on
a 10-foot (3.0 m) base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 10 feet
(3.0 m).
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from
the Wikipedia article "Hadrian's Wall". You can explore more on the Wikipedia website.
The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes.

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Questions about the text
Now, answer the questions about the text.
1. Hadrian's Wall was built during Roman times.
True.
False.
We don't know.
2. Antonine Wall was built before Hadrian's Wall.
True.
False.
We don't know.
3. The wall gates were used as customs posts.
True.
False.
We don't know.
4. Nowadays tourists can walk on the wall.
True.
False.
We don't know.
5. Hadrian's Wall was 120km long.
True.
False.
We don't know.

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CORRECT ANSWERS
1. Hadrian's Wall was built during Roman times.
True.
2. Antonine Wall was built before Hadrian's Wall.
False.
3. The wall gates were used as customs posts.
True.
4. Nowadays tourists can walk on the wall.
True.
5. Hadrian's Wall was 120km long.
True.

Write in your own words about what you just read.


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________

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Genetically modified food.

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Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods produced from organisms that have
had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new traits as well as a far greater
control over a food's genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as
selective breeding and mutation breeding.
Commercial sale of genetically modified crops began in 1994, when Calgene first
marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato. To date, most genetic modification of
foods have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean,
corn, canola, and cotton seed oil. These have been engineered for resistance to
pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been
experimentally developed, although as of November 2013 none are on the market.
There is broad scientific consensus that food on the market derived from GM crops poses
no greater risk to human health than conventional food. However, opponents have
objected to GM foods on several grounds, including safety issues, environmental
concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact that GM seeds (and potentially
animals) that are food sources are subject to intellectual property rights owned by
corporations.
Genetically engineered plants are generated in a laboratory by altering their genetic
makeup and are tested in the laboratory for desired qualities. This is usually done by
adding one or more genes to a plant's genome using genetic engineering techniques. Most
genetically modified plants can be modified in a directed way by gene addition (cloning) or
gene subtraction (genes are removed or inactivated). Plants are now engineered for insect
resistance, fungal resistance, viral resistance, herbicide resistance, changed nutritional
content, improved taste, and improved storage.
Once satisfactory plants are produced, sufficient seeds are gathered, and the companies
producing the seed need to apply for regulatory approval to field-test the seeds. If these
field tests are successful, the company must seek regulatory approval for the crop to be
marketed (see Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms). Once that
approval is obtained, the seeds are mass-produced, and sold to farmers. The farmers
produce genetically modified crops, which also contain the inserted gene and its protein
product. The farmers then sell their crops as commodities into the food supply market, in
countries where such sales are permitted.
Fruits and vegetables
Papaya has been genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus. 'SunUp' is a transgenic
red-fleshed Sunset cultivar that is homozygous for the coat protein gene of PRSV;

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'Rainbow' is a yellow-fleshed F1 hybrid developed by crossing 'SunUp' and nontransgenic
yellow-fleshed 'Kapoho'. The New York Times stated that "in the early 1990s, Hawaiis
papaya industry was facing disaster because of the deadly papaya ringspot virus. Its
single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus. Without it, the
states papaya industry would have collapsed. Today, 80% of Hawaiian papaya is
genetically engineered, and there is still no conventional or organic method to control
ringspot virus.
The New Leaf potato, brought to market by Monsanto in the late 1990s, was developed for
the fast food market, but was withdrawn from the market in 2001 after fast food retailers
did not pick it up and food processors ran into export problems.
In October 2011, BASF requested the European Union Food Safety Authority's approval
for cultivation and marketing of its Fortuna potato as a feed and food. The potato was
made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, originating
from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. In February 2013, BASF withdrew
its application. In May 2013, the J.R. Simplot Company sought USDA approval for its
"Innate" potatoes, which contain 10 genetic modifications that prevent bruising and
produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes. The inserted genetic
material comes from cultivated or wild potatoes, and leads to RNA interference, which
prevents certain proteins from being formed.
As of 2005, about 13% of the zucchini grown in the US was genetically modified to resist
three viruses; the zucchini is also grown in Canada.
As of 2012, an apple that has been genetically modified to resist browning, known as the
Nonbrowning Arctic apple produced by Okanagan Specialty Fruits, was awaiting
regulatory approval in the US and Canada. A gene in the fruit has been modified such that
the apple produces less polyphenol oxidase, a chemical that manifests the browning.
In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R.
Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce
less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause
new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA
interference.
Milled corn products
Corn used for food has been genetically modified to be resistant to various herbicides and
to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills certain insects. About 90% of the
corn grown in the US has been genetically modified.

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Human-grade corn can be processed into grits, meal, and flour.
Grits are the coarsest product from the corn dry milling process. Grits vary in texture and
are generally used in corn flakes, breakfast cereals, and snack foods. Brewers grits are
used in the beer manufacturing process.
Corn meal is an ingredient in several products including cornbread, muffins, fritters,
cereals, bakery mixes, pancake mixes, and snacks. The finest grade corn meal is often
used to coat English muffins and pizzas. Cornmeal is also sold as a packaged good.
Corn flour is one of the finest textured corn products generated in the dry milling process.
Some of the products containing corn flour include mixes for pancakes, muffins,
doughnuts, breadings, and batters, as well as baby foods, meat products, cereals, and
some fermented products. Masa flour is another finely textured corn product. It is produced
using the alkaline-cooked process. A related product, masa dough, can be made using
corn flour and water. Masa flour and masa dough are used in the production of taco shells,
corn chips, and tortillas.
Milled soy products
About 90% of the planted area of soybeans in the US are genetically modified varieties.
Soybean seeds contain about 20% oil. To extract soybean oil from the seeds, the
soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solventextracted with commercial hexane. The remaining soybean meal has a 50% soy protein
content. The meal is 'toasted' (a misnomer because the heat treatment is with moist
steam) and ground in a hammer mill. Ninety-eight percent of the U.S. soybean crop is
used for livestock feed. Part of the remaining 2% of soybean meal is processed further into
high protein soy products that are used in a variety of foods, such as salad dressings,
soups, meat analogues, beverage powders, cheeses, nondairy creamer, frozen desserts,
whipped topping, infant formulas, breads, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pet foods.
Processed soy protein appears in foods mainly in three forms: soy flour, soy protein
isolates, and soy protein concentrates.
Soy protein isolates
Food-grade soy protein isolate first became available on October 2, 1959 with the
dedication of Central Soya's edible soy isolate, Promine D, production facility on the
Glidden Company industrial site in Chicago.22728 Soy protein isolate is a highly refined
or purified form of soy protein with a minimum protein content of 90% on a moisture-free
basis. It is made from soybean meal which has had most of the nonprotein components,

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fats and carbohydrates removed. Soy isolates are mainly used to improve the texture of
processed meat products, but are also used to increase protein content, to enhance
moisture retention, and are used as an emulsifier.
Soy protein concentrates
Soy protein concentrate is about 70% soy protein and is basically soybean meal without
the water-soluble carbohydrates. Soy protein concentrate retains most of the fiber of the
original soybean. It is widely used as a functional or nutritional ingredient in a wide variety
of food products, mainly in baked foods, breakfast cereals, and in some meat products.
Soy protein concentrate is used in meat and poultry products to increase water and fat
retention and to improve nutritional values (more protein, less fat).
Soy flour is made by grinding soybeans into a fine powder. It comes in three forms: natural
or full-fat (contains natural oils); defatted (oils removed) with 50% protein content and with
either high water solubility or low water solubility; and lecithinated (lecithin added). As soy
flour is gluten-free, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture. Soy grits
are similar to soy flour except the soybeans have been toasted and cracked into coarse
pieces. Kinako is a soy flour used in Japanese cuisine.
Textured soy protein
Textured soy protein (TSP) is made by forming a dough from soybean meal with water in a
screw-type extruder, and heating with or without steam. The dough is extruded through a
die into various possible shapes and dried in an oven. The extrusion technology changes
the structure of the soy protein, resulting in a fibrous, spongy matrix similar in texture to
meat. TSP is used as a low-cost substitute in meat and poultry products.

Answer the question about the article (60 Puntos)


1. - Explain in your own words the meaning of genetically modified food.
2. - Explains the advantages of genetically modified plants
3. - Explains that way genetically modified plants.
4. - Explains the benefits of genetically modified potatoes
5. - Explains how to do the textured soy protein.
6. - what is its function of the genes, blb1 and blb2

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7. - an apple that has been genetically modified to
a) made resistant to late blight
d) none of the above.

b) resistance to pathogens

c) resist browning

8. - As of 2005, about ----------- of the zucchini grown in the US was genetically modified
to changed nutritional content.
a) 13%
b) 25%
c) 29 %
d none of the above
9. polyphenol oxidase is a
a) Gen
d) none of the above.

b) virus

c) chemical

b) virus

c) chemical

10.- acrylamide is a
a) Gen
d) none of the above.

11. - Corn used for food has been genetically modified to


a) Be resistant to various herbicides and to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis
that kills certain insects.
b) Be modified
such that the corn produces less polyphenol oxidase, a chemical that manifests the
browning.
c) Prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide
when fried than conventional potatoes.
d)
None of the above
12. - what percentage of the corn grown in the US has been genetically modified
a) 50 %
the above.

b) 60%

c) 80%

d) none of

Translate the article. (40 Puntos)


WHEN ANSWERING THIS GUIDE PLEASE HAVE IN CONSIDERATION THAT THE
REAL EXAM CONTAINS ONE ARTICLE, AND 20 TO 25 QUESTIONS AS WELL AS
AN ESSAY SECTION WHERE YOU WILL HAVE TO WRITE ABOUT A TOPIC
RELATED TO THE CARREER YOU STUDY.

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Fish meal
Fish meal, or fishmeal, is a commercial product made from both whole fish and the bones
and offal from processed fish. It is a brown powder or cake obtained by rendering pressing
the cooked whole fish or fish trimmings to remove most of the fish oil and water, and then
ground. What remains is the "fishmeal".
Fishmeal is a nutrient-rich feed ingredient used primarily in diets for domestic animals and
sometimes used as a high-quality organic fertilizer. It is a high protein supplement made
by either cooking, pressing, drying and grinding of fish or fish waste to which no other
matter has been added. It is a solid product from which most of the water is removed and
some or all of the oil is removed.
The use of fish by-products is not a new idea; it has been used in previous times to feed
poultry, pigs and other farmed fish. A primitive form of Fishmeal is mentioned in the
Travels of Marco Polo at the beginning of the fourteenth century: 'they accustom their
cattle, cows, sheep, camels and horses to feed upon dried fish, which being regularly
served to them, they eat without any sign of dislike. The utilization of herring as an
industrial raw material actually started as early as about 800 AD in Norway. A very
primitive process of pressing the oil out of herring by means of wooden boards and stones
was employed.
Fishmeal can be made from almost any type of seafood but is generally manufactured
from wild-caught, small marine fish that contain a high percentage of bones and oil, and is
usually deemed not suitable for direct human consumption. The fish caught for Fishmeal
purposes solely are termed industrial. Other sources of Fishmeal is from by-catch of
other fisheries and by-products of trimmings made during processing (fish waste or offal)
of various seafood products destined for direct human consumption. Virtually any fish or
shellfish in the sea can be used to make Fishmeal, although there may be a few rare
unexploited species which would produce a poisonous meal
Any complete diet must contain some protein, but the nutritional value of the protein
relates directly to its amino acid composition and digestibility. The amino acid profile of
Fishmeal is what makes this feed ingredient so attractive as a protein supplement .Highquality Fishmeal normally contains between 60% and 72% crude protein by weight.
Typical diets for fish may contain from 32% to 45% total protein by weight. Another very
important reason why Fishmeal is sought after as an ingredient in aquaculture diets is
because it contains certain compounds that make the feed more acceptable and
agreeable to the taste (palatable). This property allows for the feed to be ingested rapidly,
and will reduce nutrient leaching. It is thought the non-essential amino acid glutamic acid is
one of the compounds that imparts to Fishmeal its palatability.
Fish lipids are also highly digestible by all species of animals and are excellent sources of
the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in both the omega-3 and omega-6

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families of fatty acids. The predominant omega-3 fatty acids in Fishmeal and fish oil are
linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Essential
fatty acids are necessary for normal larval development, fish growth, and reproduction.
They are important in normal development of the skin, nervous system, brain, and visual
acuity. PUFAs appear to assist the immune system in defense of disease agents and
reduce the stress response. Fishmeal also contains valuable phospholipids, fat-soluble
vitamins, and steroid hormones.

Such high digestibility of fish lipids means they can provide lots of usable energy. If a diet
does not provide enough energy, the fish or shrimp will have to break down valuable
protein for energy, which is expensive and can increase production of toxic ammonia.
Fishmeal is considered to be a moderately rich source of vitamins of the B-complex
especially cobalamine (B12), niacin, choline, pantothenic acid, and riboflavin.
Fishmeal in diets increase feed efficiency and growth through better food palatability and
enhances nutrient uptake, digestion and absorption. The balanced amino acid composition
of Fishmeal complements and provides synergistic effects with other animal and vegetable
proteins in the diet to promote fast growth and reduce feeding costs.
High quality Fishmeal provides a balanced amount of all essential amino aids,
phospholipids and fatty acids required for optimum development, growth and reproduction
especially of larvae and broodstock. The nutrients in Fishmeal also aid in disease
resistance by boosting and helping to maintain a healthy functional immune system. It also
allows for formulation of nutrient-dense diets, which promote optimal growth. [6]
Incorporation of Fishmeal into diets of aquatic animals helps to reduce pollution from the
waste water effluent by providing greater nutrient digestibility. The incorporation of highquality Fishmeal into feed imparts a 'natural or wholesome' char

Now, answer the questions about the text.


1. - Fishmeal is obtained:

a) From top quality fresh fish.

b) From frozen fish fillet.

c) From fresh fish fillet

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d) From low-value fish and filleting waste

2.-Fishmeal is used to:

a) Human consumption.

b) make protein diets for babies.

c) make protein diets for seniors.

d) For poultry food and fertilizer.

3.-Fishmeal is rich in:

a) Protein.

b) Vitamins.

c) Lipids.

d) Carbohydrates.

CORRECT ANSWERS ARE:


1. d
2. d
3. a

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Write in your own words about what you just read.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human Resource Management (HRM), a relatively new term, that emerged during the
1930s. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles, such as Personnel
Administration or Personnel Management. But now, the trend is changing. Human

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Resource Management helps an organization select, recruit, train and develop the
workforce.
Human Resource Management is a basic tool of people who manage organization.
The functions and principles are applied to retaining, training, developing, and
compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business
organizations, such as education, healthcare etc. Human Resource Management is
defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize
both
organizational
as
well
as
employee
effectiveness
The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management,
Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that
randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured
format.
TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in
training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made.
There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth.
The modern approach of training and development is that Organizations have realized
the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention
tool than a cost. The training system in the Industry has been changed to create a
smarter workforce and yield the best results
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
There are four principal objectives of training and development to make sure the
availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization.
Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn,
enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing
individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the
organizations needs.
Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to
the needs and challenges of the society.

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BENEFITS OF TRAINING YOUR STAFF
Skilling your staff is good for your business and good for your workforce.
Good for your business
Training can improve business performance, profit and staff morale. Advantages to your
business include:

You choose what new skills your workforce gains.


Training your staff can result in better customer service, better work and productivity
improvement.
Good for your workers
They acquire new skills, increasing their contribution to the business and building their
self-esteem.

the training they do can take them into other positions within the organisation
theyre upskilled to do new and different tasks, which keeps them motivated
TRAINING METHODS
1. Technology-Based Learning.
A trainer also gets more of the learner''s involvement than in any other environment and
trainees have the benefit of learning at their own pace.

2. Simulators. Simulators are used to imitate real work experiences for certain jobs, like
learning to fly a 747.

3. Coaching/Mentoring. Coaching/mentoring gives employees a chance to receive training


one-on-one from an experienced professional.

4. Case Studies They provide trainees with a chance to analyze and discuss real
workplace issues. Also they develop analytical and problem-solving skills, and provide
practical illustrations of principle or theory.

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I. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS. (60 POINTS)

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT,


DIVISIONS INCLUDED IN HRM, TRADITIONAL APPROACH OF TRAINING, MODERN
APPROACH OF TRAINING, INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES, ORGANIZATIONAL
OBJECTIVES, FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES, COACHING, CASE STUDIES.

1.

THEY MAINTAIN THE DEPARTMENTS CONTRIBUTION TO THE


ORGANIZATIONS NEED
__________________________________________________________________
________

2. THEY PROVIDE TRAINEES WITH A CHANCE TO ANALYZE AND DISCUSS


REAL WORKPLACE ISSUES.
__________________________________________________________________
3. THEY ASSIST THE ORGANIZATION WITH ITS PRIMARY PURPOSE BY
BRINGING INDIVIDUAL
EFFECTIVENEES_________________________________________________
4. THE TRAINING SYSTEM HAS BEEN CHANGED TO CREATE A SMART
WORKPLACE AND YIELD THE BEST RESULTS.
___________________________________________________
5. THEY HELP EMPLOYEES IN ACHIEVING THEIR PERSONAL GOALS
_____________________
6. IT IS A SET OF ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DESIGNED TO MAXIMIZE BOTH
ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS
______________________________________________
7. IT GIVES EMPLOYEES A CHANCE TO RECEIVE TRAINING FROM AN
EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONAL
____________________________________________________________
8. RECRUITMENT, PAYROLL, PERFORMANCE, AND MANAGEMENT TRAINING
__________________________________________________________________
_______
9. MOST OF THE ORGANIZATIONS BEFORE, NEVER USED TO BELIEVE IN
TRAINING.
__________________________________________________________________
_______

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10. IT ENSURES THAT RANDOMNESS IS REDUCED AND LEARNING OR
BEHAVIORAL CHANGE TAKES PLACE IN STRUCTURED FORMAT.
_______________________________________

II. Instructions. Do a summary into Spanish of this reading. (40 points)

I.

Do a summary into Spanish of this reading what you understand about it. (60
points)

ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT

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Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition
of needs, values and interests between people working together. Conflict takes many
forms in organizations. There is the inevitable clash between formal authority and power
and those individuals and groups affected. There are disputes over how revenues should
be divided, how the work should be done, and how long and hard people should work.
There are jurisdictional disagreements among individuals, departments, and between
unions and management. There are subtle(sutiles) forms of conflict involving rivalries,
jealousies, personality clashes, role definitions, and struggles for power and favor. There is
also conflict within individuals between competing needs and demands to which
individuals respond in different ways
PERSONAL CONFLICT.
A conflict between two people, most often from a mutual dislike or personality clash.
According to Boston University FSAO, "Causes for workplace conflict can be personality or
style differences and personal problems such as substance abuse, childcare issues, and
family problems. Organizational factors such as leadership, management, budget, and
disagreement about core values can also contribute."
Conflict styles are typically seen as a response to particular situations. By contrast, we
argue that individual conflict styles may shape an employee's social environment, affecting
the level of ongoing conflict and thus(asi) his or her experience of stress. Using data from
a hospital-affiliated clinical department, we find that those who use a more integrative style
experience lower levels of task conflict, reducing relationship conflict, which reduces
stress. Those who use a more dominating or avoiding style experience higher levels of
task conflict, increasing relationship conflict and stress. We conclude that an employee's
work environment is, in part, of his or her own making.
Intragroup conflict research has shown that conflict can be beneficial for the performance
of student groups (Jehn, 1994) as well as organization groups , if the conflict is taskfocused. . More recently, research on organizational conflict has focused primarily on three
types of conflict: relationship, task, and process. There are four conflict dimensions
(emotions, importance, resolution efficacy, and norms; (Jehn et al. 2008b). Relationship
conflicts reflect disagreements and incompatibilities among group members about
personal issues that are not task related, such as social events gossip, and world news.
We argue that conflict management styles can have a pervasive effect on work life in
organizations, by impacting the degree to which an employee experiences ongoing
conflict.
Conflict levels, in turn, affect the amount of stress felt by individual employees. Previous
research has shown that people with different dispositions tend to create different social
environments for themselves. Thus, a person's "situation" depends not only on external

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conditions, but also on his or her own approach to people and problems. Similarly,
experience of conflict is not just a function of external conditions, but also of the conflict
management styles that people bring to bear on problems at work.
Organizational conflict at the interpersonal level includes disputes between peers as well
as supervisor-subordinate conflict. Party-directed mediation is a mediation approach
particularly suited for disputes between co-workers, colleagues or peers, especially deepseated interpersonal conflict, multicultural or multiethnic disputes. The mediator listens to
each party separately in a pre-caucus or pre-mediation before bringing them into a joint
session. Part of the pre-caucus also includes coaching and role plays. The idea is that the
parties learn how to converse directly with their adversary in the joint session. Some
unique challenges arise when organizational disputes involve supervisors and
subordinates. The negotiated performance appraisal is a tool for improving communication
between supervisors and subordinates and is particularly useful as an alternate mediation
model because it preserves the hierarchical power of supervisors while encouraging
dialogue and dealing with differences in opinion.
Role conflict
Each member of the organization belongs to a role set, which is an association of
individuals who share interdependent tasks and thus perform formally defined roles, which
are further influenced both by the expectations of others in the role set and by one's own
personality and expectations. The system of roles to which an individual belongs extends
outside the organization as well, and influences their functioning within it. .
As a consequence, there exist opportunities for role conflict as the various roles interact
with one another. Other types of role conflict occur when an individual receives
inconsistent demands from another person; for example, they are asked' to serve on
several time-consuming committees at the same time that they are urged to get out more
production in their work unit. Another kind of role strain takes place when the individual
finds that they are expected to meet the opposing demands of two or more separate
members of the organization. Such a case would be that of a worker who finds himself
pressured by their boss to improve the quality of their work while their work group wants
more production in order to receive a higher bonus share.
In western culture, winning is more acceptable than losing, and competition is more
prevalent than cooperation, all of which tends to intensify intragroup conflict. Group
meetings are often conducted in a win-lose climate that is, individual or subgroup
interaction is conducted for the purpose of determining a winner and a loser rather than for
achieving mutual problem solving.
I. ACCORDING TO THE PREVIOUS READING ANSWER THE NEXT QUESTIONS (forty
points)

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1. Whats an organizational conflict?

2. What are the forms that the conflict takes in the organization?
3. Whats a personal conflict?

4. What do we find in the conflict styles experience in the hospital-affiliated clinical


department?

5. What has Intragroup conflict research shown?

6. Where has recently research on organization conflict focused?


7. What do relationship conflict reflect?
8. What can the conflict management styles have?

9. Whats the role of the mediator in the conflict?

10. Whats the situation within the group in Western Culture'

I.

INSTRUCTIONS: TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH THE ARTICLE.

Administrative functions in a business environment


Administrative functions in a business environment are handled by services
managers. They also have the responsibility to coordinate and direct the support
services so that organizations can operate efficiently.

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These administrative functions are performed by different types of managers according to
their level of responsibility and authority. In a business environment, administrators are
assigned common set of functions to meet the organization's goals which are:
Planning
The most important administrative function in a business environment is planning.
Planning is defined by the decision made at the initial level at which the administrator has
to decide what to do to fulfill a goal. What are the different ways and means to do it and
who are the right person to perform that job. In planning, the first step is to arrange the
functions, people or components involved into a proper working order. The next thing is to
find out the specific steps the people involved must take to complete the job. The planning
part should also include the details of the equipment, time and manpower needed for a
particular job.
Organization
Organizing means the administrator has to identify various jobs and the right person which
can perform those jobs efficiently. The administrator has to identify which can take the
responsibility and can manage a team of people to complete a job. Such responsible
persons are further grouped together to create departments or divisions. Such different
departments are combined together or inter related to each other to create a bigger
division. Such departments interact with each other in an organized manner to complete
various tasks. The organized divisions should coordinate with each other so that different
tasks can be performed easily.

Staffing
This administrative function is very important in a business environment because it deals
with filling up of job positions in an organization. The job positions should be filled by
taking care of the requirement, time and the type of man power required. The administrator
should check the staffing needs from time to time so that number of employees are always
sufficient and up to the mark.
Directing
It is very important for organization because it deals with handling people in such a way so
that they help in every possible way to achieve the goals of the organization. To make the
direction efficient, it is important that the allocation of resources is done very carefully. It
also helps the system to perform better by providing a complete and effective support and
backup system at the backend. The administrators fulfilling the direction role should have
strong communication skills and has the conviction to judge and convince people in a
positive way. They have to keep a perfect balance between the requirements and financial
status of the organization.

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Controlling
Controlling is the function which deals with the continuous evaluation of the organization
goals. If the goals are not achieved then controlling administrator has to detect potential or
actual difference in the achieved and original plan of the organization. This helps in
improving the system for betterment so that deviation in the goal achieved is minimum. By
controlling information management it is possible to measure the performance of the
system and to apply corrective actions to increase the efficiency. There are many types of
controlling functions which are associated with evaluations in organizations. Some of the
examples are: evaluation of marketing efforts, evaluation of employee performance and
program evaluations.
Budgeting
After the jobs are planned and resources are organized, the next important administrative
function in business environment is to manage the funds efficiently. Budgeting
administrators are responsible for analyzing the requirements of funds for the resources
and man power to achieve goals and tasks. All the financial statements are monitored and
checked from time to time to avoid any financial problems. All types of financial statements
like balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statements are prepared, checked
and managed by the administrator.

II. ACCORDING TO THE PREVIOUS READING, ANSWER THE NEXT QUESTIONS.


1.Whats the topic of the reading?
2.- What responsibility do services managers have?
3.- How is planning defined?
4.- What does organization mean?
5.- Why staffing is a very important function in a business environment?
6. What should administrators fulfilling the direction role have?
7.- Whats the concept of controlling?
8.- What are some examples of types of controlling functions?
9.-Whats the next administrator function after the jobs are planned?
10.- Whats the responsibility of a budgeting administrator?
Write in your own words about what you just read.

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INSTRUCTIONS: FIRST, READ ALL OF THE QUESTIONS. COMPLETE THE READING


ABOUT:
JOB ANALYSIS

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Job analysis is defined as a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of
activities involved and attributes or job requirements needed to perform the activities. Job
analyses provide information to organizations which helps to determine which employees
are best fit for specific jobs. Through job analysis, the analyst needs to understand what
the important tasks of the job are, how they are carried out, and the necessary human
qualities needed to complete the job successfully. The information of job analysis may be
used to develop programs to recruit, select, train, and appraise people for the job in the
future.
One of the first psychologists to introduce job analysis was Morris Viteles. In 1922, he
used job analysis in order to select employees for a trolley car company. Job analysis was
also conceptualized by two of the founders, Frederick Winslow Taylor and Lillian Moller
Gilbreth in the early 20th century.
PURPOSE OF JOB ANALYSIS
One of the main purposes of conducting job analysis is to prepare job descriptions and job
specifications which helps hire the right quality of workforce into an organization,
including: a job domain; description of a job; development of performance appraisals,
personnel selection, promotion criteria, and compensation plans.
JOB ANALYSIS AIMS TO ANSWER QUESTIONS SUCH AS:
Why does the job exist?
What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake?
When is the job to be performed?
Where is the job to be performed?
How does the worker do the job?
What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
PROCEDURES
There are two ways to approach building the theory, meaning there are two different
approaches to job analysis.
TASK-ORIENTED. Task-oriented procedures focus on the actual activities involved in
performing work. This procedure takes into consideration work duties, responsibilities, and
functions. The job analyst then develops task statements which clearly state the tasks that
are performed with great detail.

WORKER-ORIENTED.
Worker-oriented procedures aim to examine the human attributes needed to perform the
job successfully. These human attributes have been commonly classified into four
categories: knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAO). Knowledge is the

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information people need in order to perform the job. Skills are the proficiencies needed to
perform each task. Abilities are the attributes that are relatively stable over time. Other
characteristics are all other attributes, usually personality factors.
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES TO GATHER INFORMATION OF JOB ANALYSIS.
Over the years, experts have presented several different systems and methods that can
be chosen to measure and accomplish those KSAOs of job analysis, including: interviews
with incumbents and supervisors, questionnaires (structured, open-ended, or both),
observation, critical incident investigations, hierarchical task analysis, and gathering
background information. In job analysis conducted by HR professionals, it is common to
use more than one of these methods.
1. Observation: This was the first method of job analysis used by psychologists. The
process involves simply watching incumbents perform their jobs and taking notes.
Sometimes they ask questions while watching, and commonly they even perform
job tasks themselves.
2. Interviews: It is essential to supplement observation by talking with incumbents.
These interviews are most effective when structured with a specific set of questions
based on observations.
3. Critical incidents and work diaries: The critical incident technique asks subject
matter experts to identify critical aspects of behavior or performance in a particular
job that led to success or failure.
4. Questionnaires and surveys: Expert supervisors often respond to questionnaires
or surveys as a part of job analysis. These questionnaires include task statements
in the form of worker behaviors.

I. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS. (60 POINTS)
JOB ANALYSIS DEFINITION, JOB ANALYSIS PURPOSE, OBSERVATION,
INTERVIEWS, QUESTIONARIES AND SURVEYS, CRITICAL INCIDENTS AND WORK
DAIRIES, KNOWLEGE, SKILLS, ABILITIES, OTHER CHARACTERISTICS.

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1. IT IS THE INFORMATION PEOPLE NEED IN ORDER TO PERFORM THE JOB
__________
2. THE PROCESS INVOLVES SIMPLY WATCHING INCUMBENTS PERFORM
THEIR
JOBS
AND
TAKING
NOTES
_________________________________________________________
3. THEY
REFER
TO
ALL
FACTORS________________________

USUALLY

PERSONALITY

4. TO PREPARE JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND JOB SPECIFICATION WHICH HELP


TO
HIRE
THE
RIGHT
WORKFORCE
___________________________________________________
5. THEY ARE THE PROFIENCIES NEEDED TO PERFORM EACH TASK
________________
6. THEY MORE EFFECTIVE WHEN ESTRUCTURED WITH A SPECIFIC SET OF A
QUESTIONARY
BASED
ON
OBSERVATIONS.
_____________________________________________
7. IT IS A FAMILY OF PROCEDURES TO IDENTIFY THE CONTENT OF A JOB.
__________________________________________________________________
__
8. THEY ARE THE ATTRIBUTES THAT ARE RELATIVELY STABLE OVER TIME.
__________________________________________________________________
9. THEY INCLUDE TASK STATEMENTS IN THE FORM OF WORKER BEHAVIORS.

10. THIS TECHNIQUE ASKS SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS TO IDENTIFY


ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE IN A PARTICULAR JOB.

II. Instructions. Do a summary into Spanish of this reading. (40 points)


INSTRUCTIONS: TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH THIS ARTICLE.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION. (By Lacey Halpern)

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The challenge of how to retain valuable employees is one of the biggest concerns
companies in the competitive marketplace. As a result, employers must look at what they
are doing to attract, and retain the talent they had been fortunate to preserve during the
recession.
One way many organizations have chosen to hang on to their top talent is by re-investing
in their human capital -the specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities of a companys
workforce. After making the initial investment of hiring these employees, companies are
now looking to provide their workforce with the tools needed to grow and develop as
contributors to the growth of the company.

Companies have found that investment in their human capital in the form of training and
development yields high returns. According to an article by Chris Taylor in Training and
Development Magazine ("Recession Survivors: Training to the Rescue," October 2003), a
knowledgeable workforce may ensure a company's survival. The article profiles four
companies that survived the economic impact of September 11, 2001, and a business
climate marked by recession and corporate scandals.
These companies - Southwest Airlines, Viacom, Dell, and Guardsmark - all consider
employee training an investment in company growth and stability. Instead of cutting back
their training budgets during hard times, these companies chose to invest in the
development of new skills and knowledge within their workforce. They showed a
commitment to their employees and gave them the educational background necessary to
increase both productivity and effectiveness in their markets. Their employees, supported
these companies and ensured their survival through a difficult chapter in our countrys
history.
Many employers are choosing to empower their employees and are creating learning
organizations. Employers are communicating the expectation for continuous learning
within their employee-base. They offer work time support for learning, and make online
learning and reading a part of every employees regular day-to-day job duties. Employers
are utilizing outside training resources and are sending employees off-site for training.

STEPS OF DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

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Developing an effective employee training program is vital to the long-term success of
any business. Training programs provide multiple benefits for employees and the
company, but only if they are carefully planned and properly implemented. Clear
understanding of policies, job functions, goals and company philosophy lead to increased
motivation, morale and productivity for employees, and higher profits for your business.
Training is a means to a specific end, so keeping goals in mind during the development
and implementation stages of your training program will assist in creating a clearly defined
and effective program.
Step 1
Define the needs of your company by identifying weak areas where training would prove
beneficial. Examples may include how to use machinery, office equipment or a process
(hard skills), or time management, conflict resolution, harassment or company policies
(soft skills).
Step 2
Define short- and long-term goals of the company, and identify possible training to meet
those goals. Examples may include increasing productivity, enhancing customer service or
improving employee relations.
Step 3
Develop individual training modules based on your defined needs and goals. Trainings
may be purchased from training companies, or developed by a member of your staff
educated in employee training.

Step 4
Plan your training by identifying individuals or groups likely to benefit. Skill-based training,
such as how to use a piece of equipment or perform a specific job duty.
Step 5
Create a spreadsheet ("training matrix,)" with each employee's name on the left column,
and individual training modules across the top row. Use color-coded boxes next to the
employee names under the training modules the employee is required to take.
I. According to the previous reading answer the next questions in a complete form. (40
points)

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1. Whats the biggest concern of companies in the competitive marketplace?

2. What must employers look in this competitive marketplace?

3. What are the companies making after hiring their employees?

4. What have many companies found to ensure the survival?

5. What did the companies do instead of cutting back in training?


6. What did the companies give to their employees?

7. What are many employers doing to empower their employees?


8. What do the training programs provide to the business?

9. What does the training program increase for employees and business?

10. According to the reading, What steps do you have to follow when you develop and
implement an effective training program?

Management engineering is a branch of engineering that focuses on optimizing complex


processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, implementation
and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information,
equipment, energy, materials and/or processes. Management engineers strive to improve
upon existing processes, products or systems. Management Engineering draws upon the
principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as the
mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of
engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such

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systems or processes. Unlike many other engineering disciplines, Management
Engineering puts a focus on the social impact of the product, process or system that is
being analyzed.
Examples of where management engineering might be used include designing an
assembly workstation, strategizing for various operational logistics, consulting as an
efficiency expert, developing a new financial algorithm or loan system for a bank,
streamlining operation and emergency room location or usage in a hospital, planning
complex distribution schemes for materials or products (referred to as Supply Chain
Management), and shortening lines (or queues) at a bank, hospital, or a theme park.
Management engineers typically use computer simulation (especially discrete event
simulation), along with extensive mathematical tools and modeling and computational
methods for system analysis, evaluation, and optimization.

Areas of management engineering


Operations research and supply chain management
Operations research deals with quantitative models of complex operations and uses these
models to support decision-making in any sector of industry or public services. Supply
chain management is the process of planning, implementing and managing the flow of
goods, services and related information from the point of origin to the point of
consumption.[1]
Information technologies
The information technologies theme focuses on how technology is designed and managed
to support effective decision-making. Topics deal with technical applications in software
design and development, data mining and telecommunication as well as the organizational
and social issues associated with the use of information technologies.[1]
Decision engineering
Decision engineering seeks to use engineering principles in the creation of a decision,
which it views as an engineering artifact in its own right. From this point of view, the
creation of a decision includes agreeing to objectives, developing a detailed specification,
and then creating a decision model, which captures the key cause-and-effect elements of
the decision environment (a systems thinking approach) with a focus on the particular
decision, instead of the entire system (which can be otherwise intractable). Like other
engineered artifacts, a decision model can be subject to Quality assurance review, andsince it is documented-is amenable to Process improvement over time. Decision
engineering models draw from the information technologies described above for data

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supporting the decision, but are distinguished from IT in that they model the decision, not
just the data supporting it.
Management of Technology
The Management of Technology theme builds on the foundation of management topics in
accounting, finance, economics, organizational behavior and organizational design.
Courses in this theme deal with operational and organizational issues related to managing
innovation and technological change.[1]
Difference Between Management Engineering and Industrial Engineering
Industrial Engineering is a mature field. However, with the permeation of computing
technology, information systems, and analytical problem solving methods, a new breed of
professional with both management abilities and a thorough understanding of modern
technologies is required. Management Engineers apply many of the same tools and
techniques that are used by Industrial Engineers. However, the core of the Management
Engineering program has greater depth of training in modern information systems,
operations research and general management.
II. According to the previous reading, answer the next questions.
1. Whats the concept management engineering?
2. Whats the difference between operation research and the supply chain
management?
3. What topics are associated with the use of information technology?
4. Whats the difference between management engineering and industrial
engineering?
5. Whats the core of the management engineering?
6. Where management engineering might be used?
7. What does decision engineering seek?
8. What does the creation of a decision include?
9. Whats the foundation of management of technology?
10. Where does management engineering focus?
Write in your own words about what you just read.

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ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES
There are general rules that govern the field of accounting. These general rulesreferred
to as basic accounting principles and guidelinesform the groundwork on which more
detailed, complicated, and legalistic accounting rules are based. For example, the
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) uses the basic accounting principles and
guidelines as a basis for their own detailed and comprehensive set of accounting rules and
standards.

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The phrase "generally accepted accounting principles" (or "GAAP") consists of three
important sets of rules: (1) the basic accounting principles and guidelines, (2) the detailed
rules and standards issued by FASB and its predecessor the Accounting Principles Board
(APB), and (3) the generally accepted industry practices.
If a company distributes its financial statements to the public, it is required to follow
generally accepted accounting principles in the preparation of those statements. Both the
company's management and the independent accountants must certify that the financial
statements and the related notes to the financial statements have been prepared in
accordance with GAAP.
Basic Accounting Principles and Guidelines
Since GAAP is founded on the basic accounting principles and guidelines, we can better
understand GAAP if we understand those accounting principles. The following is a list of
the ten main accounting principles and guidelines.
1. Economic Entity Assumption
The accountant keeps all of the business transactions of a sole proprietorship separate
from the business owner's personal transactions. For legal purposes, a sole proprietorship
and its owner are considered to be one entity, but for accounting purposes they are
considered to be two separate entities.
2. Monetary Unit Assumption
Economic activity is measured in U.S. dollars, and only transactions that can be expressed
in U.S. dollars are recorded. Because of this basic accounting principle, it is assumed that
the dollar's purchasing power has not changed over time. As a result accountants ignore
the effect of inflation on recorded amounts.
3. Time Period Assumption
This accounting principle assumes that it is possible to report the complex and ongoing
activities of a business in relatively short, distinct time intervals such as the five months
ended May 31, 2013, or the 5 weeks ended May 1, 2013.
4. Cost Principle. From an accountant's point of view, the term "cost" refers to the amount
spent (cash or the cash equivalent) when an item was originally obtained, whether that
purchase happened last year.
5. Full Disclosure Principle.
If certain information is important to an investor or lender using the financial statements,
that information should be disclosed within the statement or in the notes to the statement.
It is because of this basic accounting principle that numerous pages of "footnotes" are
often attached to financial statements..
6. Going Concern Principle

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This accounting principle assumes that a company will continue to exist long enough to
carry out its objectives and commitments and will not liquidate in the foreseeable future.
7. Matching Principle
This accounting principle requires companies to use the accrual basis of accounting. The
matching principle requires that expenses be matched with revenues. For example, sales
commissions expense should be reported in the period when the sales were made (and
not reported in the period when the commissions were paid).
8. Revenue Recognition Principle
Under the accrual basis of accounting (as opposed to the cash basis of accounting),
revenues are recognized as soon as a product has been sold or a service has been
performed, regardless of when the money is actually received.
9. Materiality
Because of this basic accounting principle or guideline, an accountant might be allowed to
violate another accounting principle if an amount is insignificant.
.10. Conservatism.If a situation arises where there are two acceptable alternatives for
reporting an item, conservatism directs the accountant to choose the alternative that will
result in less net income and/or less asset amount.

I. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE RIGHT BASIC ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES AND
GUIDELINES.
(60 POINTS)

ECONOMIC ENTITY ASSUMTION, MONETARY UNIT ASSUMPTION, TIME PERIOD


ASSUMTION, COST PRINCIPLE, Full Disclosure Principle, Going Concern Principle,
Matching Principle, Revenue Recognition Principle, Materiality, Conservatism.

1. From an accountant's point of view, the term "cost" refers to the amount spent, when an
item was originally obtained, whether that purchase happened last year.
______________________________________________________________________
2. The accountant keeps all of the business transactions of a sole proprietorship separate
from the business owner's personal transactions.

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_______________________________________________________________________
3. Economic activity is measured in u.s. dollars, and only transactions that can be
expressed in u.s. dollars are recorded.
_______________________________________________________________________
4. They are recognized as soon as a product has been sold or a service has been
performed, regardless of when the money is actually received.
________________________________________________________________________
5. Because of this basic accounting principle or guideline, an accountant might be allowed
to violate another accounting principle if an amount is insignificant.
________________________________________________________________________
.6. If a situation arises where there are two acceptable alternatives for reporting an item, it
directs the accountant to choose the alternative that will result in less net
income._________________________________________________________________
7. This accounting principle requires companies to use the accrual basis of accounting.
The matching principle requires that expenses be matched with revenues.
________________________________________________________________________
________
8. This accounting principle assumes that it is possible to report the complex and ongoing
activities of a business in relatively short, distinct time intervals.
________________________________________________________________________
_______
9. This accounting principle assumes that a company will continue to exist long enough to
carry out its objectives and commitments and will not liquidate in the foreseeable future.
________________________________________________________________________
_______
10. If certain information is important to an investor or lender using the financial
statements, that information should be disclosed within the statement or in the notes to the
statement.
________________________________________________________________________
________

II. Instructions. Do a summary into Spanish of this reading. (40 points)

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COST ACCOUNTING
Cost accounting is a process of collecting, analyzing, summarizing and evaluating
various alternative courses of action. Its goal is to advise the management on the most
appropriate course of action based on the cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting
provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current
operations and plan for the future.
Since managers are making decisions only for their own organization, there is no need for
the information to be comparable to similar information from other organizations. Instead,
information must be relevant for a particular environment. Cost accounting information is

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commonly used in financial accounting information, but its primary function is for use by
managers to facilitate making decisions.
Unlike the accounting systems that help in the preparation of financial reports periodically,
the cost accounting systems and reports are not subject to rules and standards like the
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. As a result, there is wide variety in the cost
accounting systems of the different companies and sometimes even in different parts of
the same organization.
ORIGINS
All types of businesses, whether service, manufacturing or trading, require cost accounting
to track their activities. Cost accounting has long been used to help managers understand
the costs of running a business. Modern cost accounting originated during the industrial
revolution, when the complexities of running a large scale business led to the development
of systems for recording and tracking costs to help business owners and managers make
decisions.
In the early industrial age, most of the costs incurred by a business were what modern
accountants call "variable costs" because they varied directly with the amount of
production. Money was spent on labor, raw materials, power to run a factory, etc. in direct
proportion to production. Managers could simply total the variable costs for a product and
use this as a guide for decision-making processes.
Some costs tend to remain the same even during busy periods, unlike variable costs,
which rise and fall with volume of work. Over time, these "fixed costs" have become more
important to managers. Examples of fixed costs include the depreciation of plant and
equipment, and the cost of departments such as maintenance, tooling, production control,
purchasing, quality control, storage and handling, plant supervision and engineering. In the
early nineteenth century, these costs were of little importance to most businesses.
However, with the growth of railroads, steel and large scale manufacturing, by the late
nineteenth century these costs were often more important than the variable cost of a
product, and allocating them to a broad range of products lead to bad decision making.
Managers must understand fixed costs in order to make decisions about products and
pricing.
DIFFERENCE OF
ACCOUNTING

USE

BETWEEN

COST

ACCOUNTING

AND

FINANCIAL

Financial accounting aims at finding out results of accounting year in the form of
Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet. Cost Accounting aims at computing
cost of production/service in a scientific manner and facilitate cost control and cost
reduction.

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Financial accounting reports the results and position of business to government,


creditors, investors, and external parties.
Cost Accounting is an internal reporting system for an organizations own
management for decision making.

ELEMENTS OF COST
1. Raw materials, 2. Labor and 3. Indirect expenses
CLASSIFICATION OF COSTS. Classification of cost means, the grouping of costs
according to their common characteristics.
1. By Functions: production,administration, selling and distribution, R&D.
2. By Time: Historical Costs and Predetermined costs. Historical costs re costs
incurred in the past. Predetermined costs are computed in advance on basis of
factors affecting cost elements. Example: Standard Costs.
3. By Decision making Costs: These costs are used for managerial decision making.
STANDARD COST ACCOUNTING. In modern cost account of recording historical costs
was taken further, by allocating the company's fixed costs over a given period of time to
the items produced during that period, and recording the result as the total cost of
production. This allowed the full cost of products that were not sold in the period they were
produced to be recorded in inventory using a variety of complex accounting methods,
which was consistent with the principles of GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting
Principles). It also essentially enabled managers to ignore the fixed costs, and look at the
results of each period in relation to the "standard cost" for any given product.
An important part of standard cost accounting is a variance analysis, which breaks down
the variation between actual cost and standard costs into various components (volume
variation, material cost variation, labor cost variation, etc.) so managers can understand
why costs were different
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THROUGHPUT ACCOUNTING. As business became more
complex and began producing a greater variety of products, the use of cost accounting to
make decisions to maximize profitability came into question. Management circles became
increasingly aware of the Theory of Constraints in the 1980s, and began to understand
that "every production process has a limiting factor" somewhere in the chain of production.
I ACCORDING TO THE PREVIOUS READING ANSWER THE NEXT QUESTIONS IN A
COMPLETE FORM.(40 POINTS)
1. Whats cost accounting, and whats its goal?

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2. What does cost accounting provide to the management?

3. Whats cost accounting information primary function?


4. Are accounting systems subject to rules and standard of GAAP?

5. Is there a wide variety in the cost accounting systems?

6. When and why did cost accounting originate?

7. Where was money spent?

8. What do fixed costs include?

9. Whats the difference between cost accounting and financial accounting?

10. Whats an important part of standard cost accounting?

THE TECHNOLOGY'S ROLE IN ACCOUNTING'S FUTURE


The next decade will see industries transition to a Cloud-enabled world where work can be
accomplished anywhere, and anytime. This will especially be true of the accounting
profession, according to Intuit, as such tools as Cloud-connected smartphones and tablets
will enable firms to provide clients with an "accountant in their pocket" at all times.
In its recently released study Intuit 2013 Future of Accountancy Report the online
accounting software company provided a view of the demographic, economic, social, and
technology trends that will shape the accounting profession in the next ten years.

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Prepared by research and consulting firm Emergent Research in partnership with Intuit
and thirty-seven top influencers in accounting from around the world, the new report is an
update to the Intuit 2020 Report: Future of the Accounting Profession report released in
2011.
"With increased competition, technology advances, globalization, and demographic shifts,
trust will remain paramount in the relationship between accounting professionals and the
clients they serve," Jill Ward, senior vice president and general manager of the Intuit
Accountant and Advisor Group, said in a written statement. "The trends happening within
the industry provide several opportunities for accountants to deliver the service their clients
expect and demand."
According to Intuit, technology will increasingly be woven into the fabric of the accounting
industry in the next decade. The profession will be reshaped as accounting firms use
Cloud computing platforms and applications, combined with advanced analytical tools,
large data sets, and social and mobile computing.
Small businesses are confronting a massive shift in technology, and they must adopt those
technologies into their business processes to effectively compete in the marketplace," Joe
Woodard, founder of accounting and software consulting firm Woodard Consulting Group,
said in a written statement.
"To best serve their clients, accounting professionals need to embrace new technologies
quickly, understand the best way to incorporate those technologies into the small business
process, and proactively guide their clients through to full adoption," Woodward said.
Woodard hosts Scaling New Heights, a conference conducted in cooperation with Intuit
that provides training on Intuit QuickBooks and selected products that integrate with
QuickBooks. "As an industry, we must take the lead and be out in front of the coming
changes."
Smartphones, tablets, notebooks, and other mobile devices will become the main tools
accounting professionals will use to manage their workloads and client services.
These technologies will allow for more flexibility around when, where, and how work is
done.
"Being on-site will become much less important, and these tools will enable and often
require anytime, anywhere work," Intuit noted in the report. "Cloud services and products
will also allow accounting professionals to interact virtually with clients on a 'same data,
same time' basis, eliminating many of the bottlenecks associated with PC or server-based
data that is only easily accessible in one location."
By using Cloud technology and advanced computing tools, accounting firms will realize
effective automation of data collection, improved data quality, and a reduction in the time
required for data validation, according to Intuit.
"These productivity improvements will shift the focus of accounting from computation to
consulting as clients increasingly rely on their accounting professionals to analyze

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business information, support decisions, and provide strategic advice," the report stated.
"Greater automation, coupled with a growing interest on the part of businesses to
outsource part and even all of their bookkeeping and financial operations, will also create
new opportunities for accounting firms to take over these functions for their clients."
"Just as consumers use websites and social media to compare and review products,
potential clients are already going online to choose their accounting service providers,"
While personal client interaction will continue, virtual accounting services will become
more of an industry norm.
"Clients will expect real-time support that is delivered when, where, and how they want it,"
the report stated. "Online customer relationship management and support systems will
grow in importance. High-touch, face-to-face client contact will not go away, but it will be
augmented by virtual support and collaboration systems. The use of customer relationship
management systems will also increase and automate simpler support tasks and provide
clients with self-serve options."
II.

ACCORDING TO THE PREVIOUS READING, ANWER THE NEXT QUESTIONS


IN A COMPLETE FORM. (60 POINTS)

1.- What will the next decade see?

2. In what profession this will be true?

3.- which devices will be used in the accounting field?

4.- What did the online accounting software provide to the company

5. In what year did Intuit release the report of accountancy future?

6. What did Jill Ward say in his written statement?

7. How will the accounting professions be reshaped?

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Instituto Tecnolgico de Acapulco

GUA DE EXAMEN DE INGLS

8. What did Joe Woodward say in his written statement?

9. Which productivity improvements will shift in the accountings future?

10. What will be the advantages of the virtual accounting service?

PART III.- WRITE A SYNTHESIS IN SPANISH ABOUT THE MAIN ARTICLES IDEAS.
DONT EXCEED ONE PAGE. (40 POINTS)