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Homework #9

1. Frequency dependence of the electrical conductivity.


Use the equation
m( dv / dt + v / ) = eE for the electrical drift velocity v to show that the
conductivity at frequency is
1 + i
( ) = (0)
,
2
1 + ( )
where (0) = ne 2 / m .
Solution:
For E = E0 e it , v = v0 e it . Then m( dv / dt + v / ) = eE becomes
eE
e E
m( iv + v / ) = eE , or v =
.
=
m( i + 1 / )
m(1 i )
1 + i
ne 2
nev
(0)
The conductivity is ( ) =
=
=
= (0)
.
2
E
m(1 i ) 1 i
1 + ( )

2. Dynamic magnetoconductivity tensor for free electrons.


A metal with a
concentration n of free electrons of charge e is in a static magnetic field Bz . The
electric current density in the xy plane is related to the electric field by
jx = xx E x + xy E y ;
j y = yx E x + yy E y .
Assume that the frequency >> c and >> 1 / , where c eB / mc and is the
collision
time.
(a)
Solve
the
drift
velocity
equation
r r r
r
r
m(dv / dt + v / ) = e( E + B v / c ) to find the components of the magetoconductivity
tensor:
xx = yy = i p2 / 4 ;
xy = yx = c p2 / 4 2 ,
where p2 = 4ne 2 / m . (b) Note from the Maxwell equation that the dielectric
function tensor of the medium is related to the conductivity tensor as
r
= 1 + i ( 4 / ) . Consider an electromagnetic wave with wavevector k = kz .
Show that the dispersion relation for this wave in the medium is
c 2 k 2 = 2 p2 c p2 / .
At a given frequency there are two modes of propagation with different wavevectors
and different velocities. The two modes correspond to circularly polarized waves.
Because a linearly polarized wave can be decomposed into two circularly polarized
waves, it follows that the plane of polarization of a linearly polarized wave will be
rotated by the magnetic field.
Solution:
r r r
r
r
(a) For E = E0 e it , v = v0 e it . Then m(dv / dt + v / ) = e( E + B v / c ) becomes

r r r
r r
m( iv + v / ) = e( E + B v / c )

or

c eB / mc is the cyclotron frequency.

r
r
e r
(1 i )v + Cz v =
E
m

The equation in x, y, and z directions are:


(1 i )v x + cv y = eE x / m

cv x + (1 i )v y = eE y / m

(1 i )v z = eE z / m

Solving these three equations gives the solution:


e [(1 i ) E x cE y ]

v x = m[(1 i ) 2 + ( ) 2 ]
c

e [ cE x + (1 i ) E y ]

v y =
m[(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

eE z

vz =

m(1 i )

r
r
With j = nev , we have

ne 2 [(1 i ) E x cE y ]
j
=
x
m[(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

ne 2 [ cE x + (1 i ) E y ]

jy =
m[(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

ne 2E z

j
=
z

m(1 i )

Then
p2 (1 i )
ne 2 (1 i )
xx = yy =
=
m[(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ] 4 [(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

p c
ne 2 c 2
=
=
2
2
m[(1 i ) + ( c ) ]
4 [(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]
2

xy = yx

p
ne 2
=
m(1 i ) 4 (1 i )
Here p2 = 4ne 2 / m is the plasmon frequency.
2

zz =

With the condition of >> c and >> 1 / ,

xx = yy

p2i
4 ( ) 2

xy = yx
zz

i p2
4

i p2
4

p2 c 2
p2 c
=
4 ( ) 2 4 2

where

(b) = 1 + i ( 4 / ) gives the dielectric tensor of

p2

0
2


2
4i yy
i p c
1+
0
= 3

4i zz
0
1+

r
For an EM wave with wavevector k = kz , E z = 0 . The

4i xx
1 +

4i yx
=

4i xy

i p2 c

p2
1 2

0
r
r
D = E

p2
1 2

becomes
0

i p2 c
p2

E
3
Dx 1 2

x
=
2
2

D y i p c 1 p E y

3
2

The two eigen modes are determined by

2
i p2 c

1 p

3
2

det
=0
2
p2
i p c
1 2
3

p2 p2 c
1 2 3 = 0

p2 p2 c
= 1 2 3

Note = ck / . We then have c 2 k 2 = 2 = 2 p2 c p2 /


p2 p2 c

, solving the original equation gives E y = iE x , D y = iDx .


2
3
p2 p2 c
For = 1 2 +
, solving the original equation gives E y = iE x , D y = iDx .

For = 1

These two modes then correspond to left and right circularly polarized light.
3. Static magnetoconductivity tensor.
For the drift velocity theory of
r r r
r
r
r
m(dv / dt + v / ) = e( E + B v / c ) , with B = Bz , show that the static current
density can be written in matrix form as
0
jx
1 c
E x

1
0
jy =
E y .
2 c
1
(

)
+
c
2
j
0
0
1 + ( c ) E z
z

In the high magnetic field limit of c >> 1 , show that

nec
= xy
B
= 0 , to order 1 / c . The quantity yx is called the Hall

yx =

In this limit xx
conductivity.

Solution:
From the result of the last problem, we have
p2 (1 i )
xx = yy =
4 [(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

xy = yx
zz =

p2 c 2
=
4 [(1 i ) 2 + ( c ) 2 ]

p2

4 (1 i )
At = 0 , the result is

xx = yy

p2
0
=
=
2
4 [1 + ( c ) ] 1 + ( c ) 2

xy = yx =

p2 c 2
0 c
=
2
4 [1 + ( c ) ]
1 + ( c ) 2

p2
= 0
zz =
4
p2 ne 2
=
.
Here 0 =
4
m
r
r
Then the j = E can be written as
0
E x
1 c
jx

1
0
E y .

jy =
c
2
2
j 1 + ( c ) 0
0
1 + ( c ) E z

z
In the high magnetic field limit of c >> 1 ,

xx = yy

0
( c ) 2

xy = yx

0 c
0
ne 2 / m
nec
=

=
2
c
eB / mc
B
( c )

4. Maximum surface resistance. Consider a square sheet of side L, thickness d, and


electrical resistivity . The resistance measured between opposite edges of the sheet
is called the surface resistance: Rsq = L / Ld = / d , which is independent of the
area L2 of the sheet. ( Rsq is called the resistance per square and is expected in ohms

per square, because / d has the dimensions of ohms.) If we express by


= m / ne 2 , then Rsq = m / nde 2 . Suppose now that the minimum value of the
collision time is determined by scattering from surfaces of the sheet, so that
d / vF , where vF is the Fermi velocity. Thus the maximum surface resistivity is
Rsq mv F / nd 2 e 2 . Show for a monatomic metal sheet one atom thickness that
Rsq h / e 2 = 4.1k , where 1k is 103 ohms.

Solution:
For 2D system,

F
S 2pdp
S 2md S 4m F
= 2
=
2
0
0
0
h
h2
h2
S 4m mv F2 S 2m 2 v F2 Sm 2 v F2
=

=
=
2
2h 2
h2
h2
h 2N
.
vF =
m
S

N =

Dd =

Rsq mv F / nd 2 e 2 = m

h
m

1
h
N
2 2 =
2S nd e
nd 2 e 2

2N
.
S

1
N 1
~ , n ~ 3 , and d ~ a , we have
a
S
a
1.05 10 34
h
h
Rsq ~
= 2 =
= 4.1 10 3 = 4.1k .
19 2
3
2 2
(1 / a )a e a e
(1.6 10 )

With