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# TRANSFER FUNCTION

CHAPTER 1

DEFINITION OF TRANSFER
FUNCTIONS
Convenient representation of a linear, dynamic model.

Chapter 2

x t

X s

system

y t

Y s

x

input

output

forcing function

response

cause

effect

## Let G(s) denote the transfer function between an input, x, and an

output, y. Then, by definition

where:

Y ( s)
G ( s)
X ( s)
Y ( s) L y (t )

X ( s) Lx(t )
Y(s)

X(s)

G(s)
G(s) is the dynamic model of the process

Chapter 2

EXERCISE 5:
A CONTINUOUS BLENDING SYSTEM
Assumption:
1. Density and volume are
constant
2. Flowrate, w, w1, w2, are
constant.
3. Compositions, x1 and x2 are
varies.

CONTINUE
a) Develop dynamic mathematical model for this process: dx/dt =
b) Write the equation at steady state condition : dx/dt = 0
c) Write in terms of deviation variable: dx/dt =
d) Laplace transform: dx(s)/dt =

## e) Determine the transfer function between the exit and inlet

composition.
f) Simplified equation in (e) for constant x1.
g) Determine the final value of x(t) to a step change in x1 from 0.05 to
0.075. The nominal steady state conditions are w1=600 kg/min, w2=2
kg/min, x1=0.05, x2=1.
Hint: Refer to A continuous blending system example in textbook (pg.
43 and 44)

CONTINUE
1. The TF model enables us to determine the output response
(x) to any change in an input, (x1 and x2)
2. Use deviation variables to eliminate initial conditions for
TF models.

EXERCISE 6: STIRRED
TANK HEATING SYSTEM
Answer the following questions:
a) Develop dynamic mathematical model for
this process: dT/dt
b) Write the equation at steady state condition
(assume constant volume) : dT/dt = 0
c) Write in terms of deviation variable (assume
constant volume) : dT/dt .
d) Laplace transform: dT(s)/dt =
e) Determine the transfer function between
output (T) and input variables (Ti and Q).

## Recall the previous dynamic model, assuming constant liquid

holdup and flow rates:

= +

## Suppose the process is initially at steady state:

T 0 T , Ti 0 Ti , Q 0 Q
Suppose the process is at steady state:

But,

Chapter 2

Take L of (4):

Chapter 2

## Rearrange to solve for

where

1
K
wC
Process
gain

w
Time
constant

Chapter 2

T (s)=G1(s)Q(s) G2(s)Ti(s)
G1 and G2 are transfer functions and independent of
the inputs, Q and Ti.
Note G1 (process) has gain K and time constant .
G2 (disturbance) has gain=1 and time constant .
Both are first order processes.

## If there is no change in inlet temperature (Ti= 0),

then Ti(s) = 0.
System can be forced by a change in either Ti or Q

Chapter 2

## STIRRED TANK HEATING

SYSTEM
The stirred tank process operated at
steady state with an inlet temperature at
70oF and a heater input of 1920
Btu/min. The input flowrate is 200
lb/min, the liquid has constant density (
= 62.4 lb/ft3) and specific heat (0.32
Btu/lb. oF), and the liquid volume is
constant at 1.6 ft3. Then the inlet
temperature is changed to 90oF and the
heater input is changed to 1600
Btu/min. Calculate the output
temperature response.

## SURGE TANK IN SERIES

EXAMPLE 3.4
Two surge tanks are
placed in series as shown
in figure below. The outlet
flowrate from each tank is
proportional to the height
of the liquid in the tank.
Find the transfer function
relating changes in
flowrate from the second
tank , q2(s) to changes in
flowrate into first tank,
q1(s).

CONTINUE
Material balance for tank 1

Linear correlation

## Transfer function relates h1(s) to qi(s)

()

=
=
() + +

CONTINUE
Material balance for tank 2

Linear correlation
=

()

=
=
() + +

CONTINUE

+ +

+ +

## TWO IMPORTANT PROPERTIES

(LAPLACE TRANSFORM)
Chapter 2

A. Multiplicative Rule

PROPERTIES OF TF MODELS
Chapter 2

The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steadystate change in an output due to a steady-state change in
the input. For example, suppose we know two steady states
for an input, u, and an output, y. Then we can calculate the
steady-state gain, K, from:
y2 y1
K
u2 u1

(4-38)

## For a linear system, K is a constant. But for a nonlinear

system, K will depend on the operating condition u , y .

Chapter 2

## Note: Some TF models do not have a steady-state gain (e.g.,

integrating process in Ch. 5)