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Soil Treatment

Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders

Soil Treatment

Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders

Wirtgen GmbH
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strasse 2 53578 Windhagen Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 26 45/131-0
Fax: +49 (0) 26 45/131-242

Introduction

Soil Treatment and Base Layers with Hydraulic


Binders is a manual intended as a useful tool to
support design engineers, executing companies
and supervisors in their daily work.

Our special thanks go to Holcim (Sddeutschland)


GmbH who have kindly provided us with the
entire contents of the manual on Soil Treatment
and Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders.

The manual presents the different standards,


specifications, directives, codes of practice and
own knowledge in such a way that the contents
are made available, in readily understandable form,
in a single, application-based work.

This manual has been translated from German


into English.

The manual has been compiled based on the


German body of rules and regulations and on the
authors many years of experience. It makes no
claim to be complete or entirely free of errors.

Contents

1 Soil Treatment 
1.1

Definition of terms

11
12

1.1.1 Definitions according to the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures
of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01) 

12

1.1.2

Terms and body of rules and regulations for soil treatment

14

1.1.3

Correlating rules and regulations with the different layers

16

1.2

Definition of terms in soil treatment

18

1.2.1

Soil stabilization

18

1.2.2

Soil improvement

18

1.2.3

Qualified soil improvement

18

1.2.4

Base layers with hydraulic binders

18

1.3

Geotechnical investigations

19

1.3.1 General

19

1.3.2

Description of soil types according to DIN EN ISO 14688-1 (old: 4022, Part 1)

19

1.3.3

Soil classification according to DIN 18196

20

1.3.3.1

Soil groups 

20

1.3.3.2

Principles of soil classification

21

1.3.3.3

Coarse-grained soils

22

1.3.3.4

Mixed-grained soils

22

1.3.3.5

Fine-grained soils

22

1.3.3.6

Organogenic and organic soils

22

1.3.3.7 Chart

23

1.3.3.8

24

Classifying soils according to their plastic properties

1.3.3.8.1 Determining consistency

24

1.3.3.8.2 Plasticity chart for classification of fine-grained soils

25

1.3.3.9

Classifying soils according to DIN 18196

26

1.4

Frost susceptibility of soils and rock of variable strength

30

1.4.1

Classifying soil groups in accordance with frost susceptibility

30

1.4.2

Frost susceptibility after soil improvement with binders

31

1.5 Application

32

1.5.1

Soil improvement

32

1.5.2

Qualified soil improvement

32

1.5.2.1

Reducing pavement thickness by means of qualified soil improvement

34

1.5.2.2 Requirements on qualified soil improvement at subgrade level


1.5.3
Soil stabilization
1.5.3.1 Soil stabilization not counting toward the pavement
1.5.3.2 Soil stabilization counting toward the pavement
1.5.3.3 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 1
1.5.3.4 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 2
1.6
Basic principles of earthworks
1.6.1 Compaction
1.6.2
Compaction requirements on subsoil and subgrade
1.6.3
Requirements on the subgrade
1.6.4
Deformation modulus on the subgrade (minimum 10 percentile)
1.6.5
Requirements on compaction characteristics
1.7
Quality assurance
1.7.1
Tests to be performed prior to construction
1.7.1.1 Tests to be performed by the client
1.7.1.2 Tests to be performed by the contractor
1.7.1.3 Testing specifications for mix designs
1.7.2
Tests to be performed during construction
1.7.2.1 Type and scope of tests to be performed in soil treatment operations
1.7.2.2 Testing methods and testing procedures
1.7.2.2.1 Testing methods for testing compaction characteristics
1.7.2.2.2 Testing procedures for determining compaction parameters
1.7.2.2.3 Testing deformation modulus, correct vertical and horizontal position
and evenness on the subgrade
1.8 Soils and mineral construction materials for soil treatment
1.8.1
Suitable soils (according to DIN 18196)
1.8.2
Soils (according to DIN 18196) and construction materials suitable to a limited extent
1.8.3
Non-suitable soils
1.8.4
Natural and artificial aggregates and recycled construction materials
1.8.5
Sulphate influence
1.9 Binders
1.9.1
General 

35
36
36
37
38
40
42
42
42
43
44
45
46
46
46
46
49
50
50
52
53
54
57
58
58
58
58
59
59
60
60

Contents

1.9.2
Types of binder
1.9.3
Mode of binder action
1.9.3.1 Building limes
1.9.3.2 Cements
1.9.3.3 Mixed binders
1.9.4
Binders with special properties
1.9.4.1 Low-dust binders
1.9.4.2 Hydrophobic binders
1.9.5
Binder applications 
1.9.6
Binder processing times
1.9.7
Binder reaction times
1.10
Water
1.11
Effects of weather 
1.11.1 Precipitation
1.11.2 Wind
1.11.3 Temperature
1.12
Soil treatment Construction 
1.12.1
Mixing procedures
1.12.2
Mixed-in-plant process
1.12.3
Mixed-in-place process
1.12.3.1 Principles of construction for the mixed-in-place process (all fields of soil treatment)
1.12.4
Requirements for soil treatment
1.12.4.1 Binder quantity
1.12.4.2 Compaction characteristics
1.12.4.3 Verification of binder quantity
1.12.4.4 Surface
1.12.4.5 Evenness
1.12.4.6 Paving thickness
1.13
Structural backfills
1.13.1 Terms
1.13.2
Construction materials
1.13.2.1 Drainage area
1.13.2.2 Backfill and cover fill areas

60
60
60
62
62
63
63
63
64
66
66
68
70
70
70
71
72
72
72
74
74
80
80
80
82
82
82
82
84
84
84
84
84

1.13.3 Compaction

85

1.14

86

Refilling utility trenches

1.14.1 General

86

1.14.2

86

Working in the binder

1.14.3 Compaction
2 Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders

86
91

2.1 General

91

2.2 Terminology

92

2.3 Base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance with the Additional technical
conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB) and soil stabilization in accordance
with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in
road construction (ZTV E-StB)

93

2.4

94

Principles of production

2.4.1 General

94

2.5

Tests Definitions

95

2.5.1

Initial testing (mix design)

95

2.5.2

Factory production control

95

2.5.3

Internal control testing

97

2.5.4

Compliance testing

97

2.6

Construction materials

98

2.6.1

Soils and aggregates for soil stabilization

98

2.6.2

Aggregates and construction material mixtures for hydraulically bound base layers

2.6.3

Aggregates and construction material mixtures for concrete base layers

102

2.6.4

Hydraulic binders

103

99

2.6.5 Water

104

2.6.6

Concrete admixtures/Concrete additives

104

2.7

Requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders

105

2.7.1 Design

105

2.7.2

105

Pavement layers with binders

Contents

2.7.3

Minimum paving thicknesses

105

2.7.3.1

Stabilized layers

105

2.7.3.2

Hydraulically bound base layers

105

2.7.3.3

Concrete base layers

106

2.7.4

Edge design of base layers

106

2.7.4.1

Details of edge design 

107

2.7.5

Drainage of base layers

108

2.7.6

Execution at low/high temperatures and frost

108

2.7.7

Correct vertical and horizontal position

108

2.7.8 Evenness

108

2.7.9

Tolerances of paving thickness

109

2.7.10

Grooves or joints

109

2.7.11 Curing

110

2.7.11.1 Table: Summary of requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance
with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction
of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB)
112
2.8

Producing stabilized layers 

114

2.8.1

Requirements on paving mixes for stabilized layers

114

2.8.2

Production 

114

2.8.3

Mixed-in-place process

114

2.8.4

Mixed-in-plant process

115

2.8.5

Placing and compaction

116

2.8.6

Requirements on the degree of compaction

116

2.9

Producing hydraulically bound base layers

117

2.9.1

Requirements on the paving mix

117

2.9.2

Production, transport and placing

117

2.9.3

Requirements on the finished layer

118

2.10

Producing concrete base layers

118

2.11

Type and scope of testing

119

2.11.1

Initial testing for stabilized layers

119

2.11.2

Initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers

121

2.11.3

Initial testing for concrete base layers

122

2.11.4

Internal control and compliance testing for stabilized layers

122

2.11.5

Internal control and compliance testing for hydraulically bound base layers

124

2.11.6

Internal control and compliance testing for concrete base layers

125

2.12 Using reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
in base layers with hydraulic binders 

126

2.12.1

General

126

2.12.2

Source materials Aggregates 

126

2.12.3

Additives

126

2.12.4

Storing reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials 

2.12.5

Construction material mixtures

2.12.6

Requirements 

127

2.12.7

Initial testing

127




127
127

References128
Body of technical rules and regulations

129

1. Soil Treatment
General
Soil treatment with binders (soil improvement and
soil stabilization) comprises a range of proven
construction methods which, from the mid-1950s,
gained increasing economic importance in earthworks.
The investigations carried out then were the basis
for developing the current body of rules and
regulations and still form the basis of construction
today.
The continued development in earthworks entailing
very short construction times, higher loads (heavyvehicle traffic, rapid-transit railway systems etc.)
and the saving of resources whilst complying with
the provisions of the Closed Substance Cycle and
Waste Management Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsund Abfallgesetz [KrW-/AbfG]) has changed the
boundary conditions of earthwork operations.

The environmental responsibility to reduce CO2


emissions has an additional impact on framework
conditions in the construction industry.
These developments require building in poor
weather conditions using the native soils, or the
environmentally compatible use of soils, aggregates and recycled construction materials.
Soil treatment offers just the right solutions and
ideal economic conditions to meet these challenges.
The soil-binder mixtures lead to a permanent
increase in bearing capacity (even in the event of
water ingress), significantly improve shear strength
and considerably reduce settlement behaviour.
These properties enable them to be used in many
areas of earthworks and road construction.

10 // 11

1.1 Definition of terms


1.1.1 Definitions according to the Directives for the standardization of the
superstructures of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01)
Pavement
Surfacing plus one or several base layers.

Concrete surfacing
Single-layer or dual-layer concrete surfacing.

Fully bound pavement


Asphalt pavement: asphalt surfacing and base
layer on subgrade.
Concrete pavement: concrete surfacing, fibre mat
and base layer with hydraulic binder directly on
subgrade.

Stone paving
Paving blocks, paving bedding and jointing.

Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt binder course plus overlying asphalt
surface course or asphalt surface course only.

Embankment

Slab paving
Slabs, slab bedding and jointing.
Combined base and surface course
Single-layer asphalt course which has the dual
function of surfacing and base layer.

Cut

Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt base layer or base layer
with hydraulic binder
Gravel or crushed-stone base
Frost blanket
Subsoil/subgrade (possibly stabilized)
Subgrade
Pavement
Shoulder

Subgrade

q 2.5%
after soil treatment
q 4.0%
for soils susceptible
to water

q 4.0%
at crown

Subsoil

Base layer
Base underlying the surfacing and, depending on
formulation, distinguished into:
 ase layer without binder
B
- Frost blanket
- Crushed-stone base
- Gravel base

Subsoil
Soil or rock lying immediately below the pavement
or subgrade.
Subgrade
Artificial earth structure between subsoil and
pavement.

 ase layer with binder


B
- Stabilized layer with hydraulic binders
- Hydraulically bound base
- Concrete base
- Asphalt base
 ase layer with special properties
B
- Roller-compacted concrete base
- Porous concrete base

12 // 13

1.1.2

Terms and body of rules and regulations for soil treatment

Subsoil / Subgrade

Area of application

Soil treatment

Generic term

Terms

Correlation with
rules and regulations

Soil improvement

Qualified soil improvement

ZTV E-StB 1)
Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabilization with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)

ZTV E-StB 1)
Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabilization with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)

Increase of bearing capacity


of subgrade

Increase of bearing capacity


of subgrade

Application and
resulting reduction
Reduction of pavement
thickness by means of
qualified soil improvement
at subgrade level
F2 / F3 soil

1)
2)
3)

Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements

Attribution of terms

Pavement

Base layers with


hydraulic binders

Hydraulically bound
base layers

Soil stabilization
F1 soil

F2 / F3 soil

RStO 2)
ZTV Beton-StB 3)

RStO 2) ZTV E-StB 1)


Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabilization with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)

Increase of bearing
capacity of coarsegrained soils; counting toward pavement

Reduction of pavement
thickness by means of
stabilizing the F2 / F3 soil

Stabilized layer with


hydraulic binders

RStO 2)
ZTV Beton-StB 3)

Reduction of layer thickness


of asphalt pavement

No reduction of pavement
thickness in case of fully
bound pavement

14 // 15

1.1.3

Correlating rules and regulations with the different layers

Surfacing (asphalt / concrete)

Asphalt base
and / or

Base layer with hydraulic binder

Gravel or crushed-stone base


and / or frost blanket or layer of
frost-resistant material

Subsoil / subgrade possibly stabilized


or qualified soil improvement

Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for


the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements
2)
Technical delivery terms for asphalt mix for the construction of
paved traffic areas
3)
Technical delivery terms for construction materials and
construction material mixtures for base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements
4)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives
for the construction of unbound granular layers in road
construction
5)
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction
6)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for
earthworks in road construction
7)
Technical delivery terms for soils and construction materials in
earthworks for road construction
8)
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces
1)

ZTV Beton-StB 1)

TL Asphalt-StB 2)
TL Beton-StB 3)

ZTV Beton-StB 1)

TL Beton-StB 3)

RStO 8)

ZTV SoB-StB 4)

TL Gestein-StB 5)

ZTV E-StB 6)

TL BuB E-StB 7)

16 // 17

1.2 Definition of terms in soil treatment

Soil treatment is a generic term for processes in


which soils are modified to meet certain specified

1.2.1

Soil stabilization

Soil stabilization comprises a range of processes


in which binders are added to the existing soil to
increase its resistance to stresses caused by

1.2.2

compactability of existing soils and facilitate the


execution of construction work.

Qualified soil improvement

Qualified soil improvement comprises a range of


soil improvement processes complying with more

1.2.4

traffic loading and climate, thus creating permanent bearing capacity and frost resistance.

Soil improvement

Soil improvement comprises a range of processes


which improve both the suitability for placing and

1.2.3

properties. It is distinguished into soil stabilization


and soil improvement.

stringent requirements in terms of, for example,


frost resistance and bearing capacity.

Base layers with hydraulic binders

Base layers with hydraulic binders comprise concrete base layers according to DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2 and hydraulically bound base layers
produced in-plant for use in the pavement, as well
as stabilized base layers (hydraulically stabilized
base) produced either in-place or in-plant for use
in the pavement or on the subgrade in earthworks.
Hydraulic base layers transfer the static and dynamic
loads acting on the surfacing into the subsoil or
subgrade respectively.

They count toward the overall pavement thickness.


The most important design parameter for base layers is layer thickness. It is determined based on:
t he traffic volume;
the bearing capacity of the subgrade; and
the requirements placed on frost resistance.

1.3 Geotechnical investigations


1.3.1 General
The soil must be investigated and tested well in
advance with regard to
its properties;
its suitability as subsoil or construction material;
any fills; and
any contamination with harmful substances
so that the findings can be considered
in the planning process;
for design-related conclusions; and
in the concept of construction and construction
sequence.

1.3.2

Soils reclaimable from excavations, side cuts and


borrow pits require testing for their possible use.
This enables other investigations and tests required during construction to be determined well
in advance.
Geotechnical investigations required for invitations
to tender have to be performed by the client.
If the construction project is executed on the basis
of an alternative tender, feasibility and fitness for
purpose have to be verified in supplementary
investigations to be performed by the contractor.

Description of soil types according to DIN EN ISO 14688-1 (old: 4022, Part 1)

Inorganic soils are classified and designated


according to the standards specified in the following table.
Soils composed of several particle size ranges are
also designated in accordance with this table.
Composite soils are designated by means of
 noun for the major fraction; and
a
one or several adjectives for the minor fractions.
The following basic rules apply:

Minor fractions are those fractions which do not


determine but may nevertheless influence the
properties of the soil.
For coarse-grained and mixed-grained soils, minor
fractions having
 inor influence are characterized by the prefix
m
slightly; and
major influence are characterized by the prefix
highly.
If two major determining fractions of approximately
equal proportions are present in coarse-grained
soils, both are designated using the conjunction
and.

Major fraction is defined as


t he largest mass fraction; or
the fraction determining the properties of the
soil.

18 // 19

Letter symbol
DIN EN 14688

Letter symbol
DIN 4022

Blocks

Bo

> 200 mm

Stones

Co

from > 63 mm to 200 mm

Coarse gravel
Medium gravel
Fine gravel

Gravel

Gr (Gravel)
CGr
MGr
FGr

G
gG
mG
fG

from > 2 mm to 63 mm
from > 20.0 mm to 63.0 mm
from > 6.3 mm to 20.0 mm
from > 2.0 mm to 6.3 mm

Sand
Coarse sand
Medium sand
Fine sand

Sa (Sand)
CSa
MSa
FSa

S
gS
mS
fS

from > 0.06 mm to 2 mm


from > 0.6 mm to 2.0 mm
from > 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm
from > 0.06 mm to 0.2 mm

Silt
Coarse silt
Medium silt
Fine silt

Si (Silt)
CSi
MSi
FSi

U
gU
mU
fU

from > 0.002 mm to 0.06 mm


from > 0.02 mm to 0.06 mm
from > 0.006 mm to 0.02 mm
from > 0.002 mm to 0.006 mm

Cl (Clay)

Range / Designation

Coarse
aggregate
range

Fine
aggregate
range

1.3.3

Clay
(ultra-fines)

Particle size range [mm]

< 0.002 mm

Soil classification according to DIN 18196

1.3.3.1 Soil groups


For the purpose of describing the civil engineering
properties and suitability according to DIN 18196,
the different types of soil are classified into

main groups and into groups with approximately


the same material composition and similar properties.

1.3.3.2 Principles of soil classification


For civil engineering purposes, soil is classified according to its material composition based on:
 article size range;
p
plastic properties; and
organic constituents.
The different types of soil are designated by letter
symbols, the first letter signifying the major constituent and the second letter signifying the minor
constituent, where
G = gravel
O = organic matter
S = sand
H = peat, humus
U = silt
F = digested sludge
T = clay
K = lime
Z = degraded peat
N = marginally degraded peat

Grading is designated as follows:


W = wide grading
E = narrow grading
I = gap grading
The plastic properties are designated as follows:
L = low plasticity
M = medium plasticity
A = high plasticity

20 // 21

1.3.3.3 Coarse-grained soils


Gravels and sands with a maximum content of
fines < 0.06 mm of 5% by mass constitute coarsegrained soils.

1.3.3.4 Mixed-grained soils


Mixtures of gravel, sand, silt and clay with a content of fines < 0.06 mm ranging between 5% by

mass and 40% by mass constitute mixed-grained


soils.

1.3.3.5 Fine-grained soils


Fine-grained soils are classified according to their
plastic properties.
Plasticity is the relevant criterion.

It is assessed based on the water content at the


liquid limit wL and plasticity index Ip.

1.3.3.6 Organogenic and organic soils


Silts and clays: organogenic soils and soils containing organic matter are classified according to
the plasticity chart. They are below the A-line.

Coarse-grained and mixed-grained soils: they are


distinguished based on the type of matter contained (humic, calcareous, siliceous).

1.3.3.7

Chart

Coarse-grained soils

Coarse-grained soils

Fine-grained soils

Soil classification based


on grading

Soil classification based on grading


and plastic properties

Soil classification based on plastic properties only (consistency


limits according to DIN 18122)

non-cohesive

slightly cohesive

Grain-to-grain contact
Fines < 0.063 mm:
< 5% by mass
Frost-proof
Low compressibility

Grain-to-grain contact
Fines < 0.063 mm:
5% to 15% by mass
Slightly frost-susceptible
Low compressibility

Organic soils

cohesive

highly cohesive

cohesive-loose

No grain-to-grain
contact
Coarse grain floats in
fine-grained matrix
Fines < 0.063 mm:
15% to 40% by mass
Highly frost-susceptible
Properties of fine grain
are dominant

Parallel
structure

Fibrous structure

Honeycomb Lump
structure
structure

Highly frost-susceptible

Micropore
Macropore

Large pore spaces


High or relatively high
water permeability, low
water-binding capacity

Large pore spaces


High water permeability,
low water-binding
capacity

Small pore spaces


Low water permeability,
medium water-binding
capacity

Small pore spaces


Very low water permeability,
high to very high water-binding
capacity

Gravels and sands

Clayey-silty gravels and sands

Silts and clays

Fines < 0.063 mm:


< 5% by mass

Fines < 0.063 mm: < 5% by mass

Fines < 0.063 mm:


> 40% by mass

Particle size fraction


< 2 mm
> 40% by
mass

< 40% by
mass

GE

SE

GW

SW

GI

SI

< 15% by mass

Small pore spaces


Very low water permeability and very high
water-binding capacity

Peat, humus,
digested sludge

> 15% by mass

Particle size fraction < 2 mm


> 40% by mass

< 40% by mass

GU

SU

GT

ST

GU*

SU*

GT*

ST*

IP 4% or
below the
A-line

IP 7% or
above the
A-line

UL

TL

UM

TM

UA

TA

22 // 23

1.3.3.8 Classifying soils according to their plastic properties


1.3.3.8.1 Determining consistency
Consistency limits and consistency ranges

Consistency range

Consistency range

liquid
IC=0
mushy
IC=0.50

Soil is easy to knead

soft
IC=0.75

Soil is difficult to knead but can be rolled into


3 mm thick rolls by hand without tearing or
crumbling

Soil crumbles when trying to roll into 3 mm


thick rolls but is moist enough for moulding
into a lump

Soil can no longer be kneaded but can


only be crushed

Liquid limit wL
Water content at the point
of transition from liquid to
plastic state
Plasticity range with plasticity index Ip

Soil creeps out between the fingers when


pressing together by making a fist

Liquid
limit wL

stiff
IC=1.00

Plastic
limit wP

IC=ws

Shrinkage
limit wS

Plastic limit wP
Water content at the point of
transition from plastic
to semi-firm state

semi-firm

firm

Shrinkage limit wS
Water content at the point
of transition from semi-firm
to firm state

At the point of transition from the semi-firm to firm state,


the soil is in the optimum water content range, i.e., it is ideal
for placing and compacting.

1.3.3.8.2 Plasticity chart for classification of fine-grained soils


(according to DIN 18196, 10.88 edition)

50

40

0)

Clays of high
plasticity TA

0.

73

(w

-2

30

lin
e

IP

Clays of medium
plasticity TM

A-

Plasticity index IP in %

Sand-silt
mixtures SU

20
Clays containing organic matter,
organogenic clays OT and silts of
high compressibility UA

Clays of low
plasticity TL

Sand-clay
mixtures ST

10
7

Intermediate range1)

Sand-silt
mixtures SU
0

10

20

Silts containing organic


matter and
organogenic
silts OU and
silts of medium
plasticity UM
30 35 40

50

60

70 80

Liquid limit wL in %
Tests performed to determine the plasticity index of soils having a low liquid limit give inaccurate results. Soils in the intermediate range
must therefore be classified into the clay and silt ranges by means of other processes, for example, in accordance with DIN 4022,
Part 1, 09.87, section 8.5 to section 8.9.

1)

24 // 25

1.3.3.9 Classifying soils according to DIN 18196


Soils are classified in accordance with their suitability for civil engineering purposes using DIN 18196.

2
3
4
5

Coarse-grained soils

1
60%

< 5%

> 60%

6
7
60%

9
10
11
12

Mixed-grained soils

8
5 - 15%

Letter symbol
Group symbol

Main groups

Line

Definition and designation


Particle size fraction Plasticity
index and
in % by mass
position
relative to
Particle size
A-line
(see chart)
0.06 mm 2 mm
Narrow-graded gravels

GE

Wide-graded gravel-sand mixtures

GW

Gap-graded gravel-sand mixtures

GI

Narrow-graded sands

SE

Wide-graded sand-gravel mixtures

SW

Gap-graded sand-gravel mixtures

SI

Gravel-silt mixtures

GU

Gravel-clay mixtures

Sand-silt mixtures

5% to 15%
by mass 0.06 mm

Frostsusceptibility
class)

F1

GT
F2*)
SU

> 60%

60%
15 - 40%

Sand-clay mixtures

ST

Gravel-silt mixtures

GU*

Gravel-clay mixtures

13

Sand-silt mixtures

15% to 40%
by mass 0.06 mm

GT*
F3
SU*

> 60%
14
15

17
18
19
20

Silts of low plasticity


Fine-grained soils

16

ST*

Sand-clay mixtures

IP 4% or
below the
A-line

Silts of medium plasticity


Silts of high plasticity

> 40%

Clays of low plasticity


IP 7% and
above the Clays of medium plasticity
A-line
Clays of high plasticity

wL < 35%

UL

35% wL 50%

UM

wL > 50%

UA

wL < 35%

TL

35% wL 50%

TM

wL > 50%

TA

In accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB)
*) To be classified as F1 if, where U 15.0, the fines content (d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the fines content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass. Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm permissible for classifying as
F1 may be interpolated linearly (see chart).

1)

F3

F2

Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
Dry strength

Response to
vibration testing

Plasticity in
kneading test

Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range


Continuous grading curve extending over several particle size ranges
Mostly staggered grading curve due to lack of one
or several particle size ranges
Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range

River gravel and beach gravel


Terrace gravel
Volcanic slag
Dune sand and drifting sand, quicksand, Berlin
sand, basin sand, tertiary sand

Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range


Moraine sand, terrace sand, granitic sand
Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
silty

Fines content is

clayey

Wide-graded
or gap-graded
grading curve

low

quick

silty

Moraine gravel
Weathered gravel
Talus deposits
Boulder clay

clayey
silty

Tertiary sand

clayey

Alluvial loam, sandy loess

silty

Tertiary sand, creeping sand

clayey

Boulder clay, glacial till

none to low

Loess, alluvial loam

low to medium

slow

low to medium

Lacustrine clay, basin silt

high

none to slow

medium to high

Volcanic soils, pumice soils

medium to high

none to slow

none to low

Glacial till, varved clay

high

none

none to low

Loess loam, basin clay, saliferous clay,


lacustrine clay

very high

none

none to low

Trass, Lauenburg clay, basin clay

26 // 27

1.3.3.9 Classifying soils according to DIN 18196


Soils are classified in accordance with their suitability for civil engineering purposes using DIN 18196.

Particle size
0.06 mm 2 mm

Plasticity
index and
position
relative to
A-line
(see chart)

IP 7%
and below
the A-line

> 40%

23

Silts containing organic


matter and organogenic
silts
Clays containing
organic matter and
organogenic clays

22

Organogenic soils and soils


containing organic matter

21

Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing humic matter
< 40%

Letter symbol
Group symbol

Particle size fraction


in % by mass

not flammable
or smoulderable

Main groups

Line

Definition and designation


Frostsusceptibility
class )

35% wL 50%

OU

F3

wL > 50%

OT

OH

OK

25

Non-degraded to moderately degraded peats


(humus)

HN

26

27

Degraded peats

Muds as a collective term for digested


sludge, organic silt,
gyttja, dy, sapropel

flammable
or smoulderable

Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing calcareous,
siliceous formations

Organic soils

24

F2

HZ

) In accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB)
) Soils formed as a result of microorganism action
*) To be classified as F1 if, where U 15.0, the fines content (d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the fines content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass. Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm permissible for classifying as F1 may be
interpolated linearly (see chart).

Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
Dry strength

Response to
vibration testing

Plasticity in
kneading test

medium

slow to very quick

medium

Lacustrine marl
Diatomaceous earth
Topsoil

high

none

high

Alluvial mud
Tidal mud
Tertiary carboniferous clays

Contains organic matter, mostly dark in colour, musty smell,


loss on ignition of up to approx. 20% by mass

Topsoil
Palaeosol

Contains non-organic matter, mostly light in colour,


low weight, high porosity

Calcareous sand
Tuffaceous sand
Bog lime

Degree of degradation 1 to 5, fibrous,


rich in wood, light brown to brown in colour
Native humus
formations
Degree of degradation 6 to 10, blackish-brown
to black

Underwater (sedimentary) muds consisting of organic matter, faeces


and microorganisms, frequently interspersed with sand, clay and lime,
blue-black or greenish to yellow-brown, occasionally dark grey-brown to
blue-black, springy, soft-spongy

Fen peat
Raised bog peat
Fen-wood peat

Organic silt
Digested sludge

28 // 29

1.4 Frost susceptibility of soils and rock


of variable strength
In terms of frost susceptibility, the soil groups are
distinguished in accordance with the classification
specified in the table below.

F1

F2

F3

Classifying soil groups in accordance with frost susceptibility

Frost
susceptibility

Soil groups
(DIN 18196)

not susceptible
to frost

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE

low to medium
susceptibility to
frost

highly susceptible
to frost

TA
OT, OH, OK
ST, GT 1)
SU, GU

TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU
ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*

Percentage d 0.063 mm (% by mass)

1.4.1

The susceptibility to frost of the weathered product is the relevant criterion for rock of variable
strength.

ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*
TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU
15
ST, GT
SU, GU
TA
OT, OH
OK

F2
10

ST, GT
SU, GU
F1

5
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE

F1

0
1) To be classified as F1 if, where U 15.0, the fines content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the fines
content (d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass.
Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm
permissible for classifying as F1 may be interpolated linearly
(see chart).

1 5 10
d60
Coefficient of uniformity U=
d10

15

1.4.2

Frost susceptibility after soil improvement with binders

Soil groups TL, TM, UL, UM, UA, ST*, SU*, GU*
are classified into frost-susceptibility class F2 if the
requirements specified for qualified soil improvement are complied with (see section 1.5 Application 1.5.2 Qualified soil improvement).

Re-classification leads to a reduction in design


strength according to the Directives for the
standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01).
This is tantamount to substantial reductions in
the pavement cost.

30 // 31

1.5 Application
1.5.1

Soil improvement

In the construction of roads and traffic surfaces,


soil improvement is used in earthworks at subgrade or subsoil level.
Examples: construction of embankments, embankment shoulders, backfills, refills, site transport
roads or similar.

Soil improvement with binders enables wet, insufficiently compactable soils:


t o be turned into a condition suitable for placing
and compacting;
to be given a higher bearing capacity; and
to be given improved weather resistance.
When used on subgrades, embankment shoulders
and other surfaces, soil improvement with binders
offers improved protection from exposure to erosion and weather.

1.5.2

Qualified soil improvement

In the construction of roads and traffic surfaces,


qualified soil improvement can be used in earthworks at subgrade or subsoil level.
Examples: construction of embankments, embankment shoulders, backfills, subgrade area.
Qualified soil improvement
improves bearing capacity;
minimizes settlements and deformations;
improves shear strength; and
has a positive influence on the soils
susceptibility to frost.
Qualified soil improvement allows certain soils of
frost-susceptibility class F3 to achieve the properties required of soils of frost-susceptibility class
F2.

Re-classification leads to a reduction in design


strength according to the Directives for the
standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01).
This is tantamount to substantial reductions in
the pavement cost.

Road embankment with raised bridge abutment,


backfilled with improved soil.

Qualified soil improvement


Graded binder contents in the area of
the bridge abutments

Qualified soil
improvement
adding, for
example, 3%
by mass of
binder

Bridge
with raised abutments

Qualified soil improvement adding,


for example, 5% by
mass of binder
Qualified soil improvement
adding, for example, 7%
by mass of binder

Stepped subsoil
Qualified soil improvement adding,
for example, 7% by mass of binder
Example of application of qualified soil improvement

32 // 33

1.5.2.1 Reducing pavement thickness by means of qualified soil improvement

Qualified soil improvement carried out at a


minimum layer thickness of 25 cm enables the
subsoil or subgrade to be classified into frostsusceptibility class F2.
The parameters specified for soils of frostsusceptibility class F2 (see the Directives for

the standardization of the superstructures of


trafficked surfaces [RStO 01], Table 6) may be
used as baseline values for designing the minimum thickness of a frost-resistant pavement if
a deformation modulus of Ev2 70 MN/m has
been verified on the subgrade.

Directives for the standardization of the


superstructures of trafficked surfaces
(RStO 01), Table 6
Baseline values for determining the minimum
thickness of a frost-resistant pavement
Thickness in cm for construction class
SV / I / II
III / IV
V / VI

Line

Frost-susceptibility class

F2

55

50

40

F3

65

60

50

Example: Reducing the thickness of a frost-resistant pavement by 10 cm in accordance with Table


6 of the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01),
Construction class III IV, by means of qualified soil improvement

Baseline values for determining the thickness of a frost-resistant pavement of construction class III / IV (Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces [RStO 01], Table 6)
Pavement thickness
50 cm

Pavement thickness
60 cm

Pavement thickness
50 cm
Reduction
by 10 cm

Subgrade

EV2 > 45 MN/m2

EV2 > 45 MN/m2

F2 soil

F3 soil

EV2 > 70 MN/m2

F2 soil

EV2 > 45 MN/m2

1.5.2.2 Requirements on qualified soil improvement at subgrade level


- Binder content 3% by mass.
- Unconfined compressive strength according to
the Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part
B 11.3, 0.5 N/mm; specimens stored for a
period of 28 days.
- The loss in strength after soaking in water for
24 hours must not exceed 50%.

Alternatively:
- CBR according to the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB), Part B 7.1, 40%; specimens
stored for a period of 28 days.
-T
 he loss in strength after soaking in water for
24 hours must not exceed 50%.
-T
 he test may also be performed after 7 days
and/or at other testing times.

34 // 35

1.5.3

Soil stabilization

Soil stabilization is performed in the upper part


of the subgrade or subsoil of roads and traffic
surfaces. Soil stabilization improves the bearing
capacity and therefore traffickability of the pavement, increasing its frost resistance.

Examples of traffic surfaces: rural roads, bicycle


paths and footpaths, airfields, container storage
areas, industrial sites.

1.5.3.1 Soil stabilization not counting toward the pavement


F2 and F3 soils:
Construction methods involving a fully bound
pavement enable soil stabilization of the subsoil
or subgrade to be performed at a minimum layer

thickness of 15 cm in case of poor bearing capacity and unfavourable water conditions.


This type of soil stabilization does not count
toward the overall pavement thickness.

1.5.3.2 Soil stabilization counting toward the pavement


F2 and F3 soils:
The thickness of the frost-resistant pavement may
be reduced by 20 cm if:
t he upper zone of the subsoil or subgrade is stabilized in accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for
earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB).
F1 soils:
If the subsoil or subgrade immediately underlying
the pavement is an F1 soil (e.g. narrow-graded
sands) of limited bearing capacity or traffickability,
then:
t he frost blanket may be omitted if soil stabilization is performed in accordance with the
Additional technical conditions of contract and
directives for the construction of base layers
with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(ZTV Beton-StB).
The F1 soil must have a minimum thickness in this
design corresponding to that of the frost blanket
overlying an F2 or F3 soil.
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces (RStO),
Figure 5: Construction methods on F1 soil
stabilized in accordance with the Additional
technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(ZTV Beton-StB):

1)
2)

Choice of pavement in accordance


with RStO 2) as from top edge of
stabilized layer in:
Chart 1, lines 2.2 and 2.3
Chart 2, lines 1.2 and 1.3
Stabilized layer in accordance with
ZTV Beton-StB1)
Thickness in accordance with
RStO2), Chart 1 or Chart 2:
15 to 25 cm

Subsoil / Subgrade
F1 soil of sufficient thickness

This type of stabilized layer forms part of the pavement of traffic areas and is dealt with in the Additional
technical conditions of contract and directives for the
construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB).

 dditional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
A
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces

36 // 37

1.5.3.3 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 1
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying an
asphalt surfacing
Line

(Thickness in cm;
Ev2 minimum values in MN/m2)

Construction class
Equivalent 10-tonne axle loads
in millions

SV

Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement 1)

> 32
55

65

75

85

Asphalt base and base with hydraulic


Asphalt surface course

Chart 1: Asphalt surfacing design for pavements on F2 and F3 subsoil / subgrade

4
8

Asphalt binder course

14

Asphalt base

2.1 Hydraulically bound base

15

120
Frost blanket

41

45

Thickness of frost blanket

342)

Asphalt surface course


Asphalt binder course

2.2

4
8

Asphalt base

14

Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)

15

- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material

45

45

104) 204)

30

18

Asphalt base
Stabilized layer
If values deviate, the layer thicknesses of the frost blanket or frostresistant material respectively have to be determined by taking the
difference.
2)
Applicable with round aggregates only if proven locally.
3)
Applicable only with crushed aggregates and if proven locally.
4)
To be executed only if the frost-resistant material and material to be
stabilized can be placed as a single layer.

2.3

Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)


- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material

40
4
8

Asphalt surface course


Asphalt binder course

1)

44

20
45
54)

50
154)

25

35

I
> 10 and 32
55

65

75

85

II

III

IV

VI

> 3.2 and 10

> 1.8 and 3.2 /


> 1.0 and 1.8

> 0.3 and 1.0

0.3

0.3

55

65

75

85

45

55

65

75

45

55

65

75

35

45

55

65

35

45

55

65

binder on top of frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material

120

4
8

4
8

10

15

15

120

45

38

48

302)

40

4
8

4
8

14

10

41

24

34

44

184)

94)

194)

29

38

48
4
8

14

10

39

342)

42

45
23

33

43

263)

36

10
15

46

32

42

164)

29
45

163)

26

36

36

4
4
10

26

36

10

10

15

15

15

29
45

26

163)

10

45

22

15

100

29

29

33

124)

15

100

45

4
4

46

64)

29
45

164)

26

36

64)

164)

26

36

10

10

10

15

15

15

29

29

29

20

20

134)

44

45

28

4
10

45

37
45

4
8

46

4
10

29

31

15

14

45

50

4
10
15

120

45

15

45

15

120

45
283)

144)

35

37

4
4

38
45
74)

45
174)

27

37

164)

45
26

36

46

64)

45
164)

26

36

64)

164)

26

36

38 // 39

1.5.3.4 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 2
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying a
concrete surfacing
Line

(Thickness in cm;
Ev2 minimum values in MN/m2)

Construction class
Equivalent 10-tonne axle
loads in millions

SV
B

Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement 1)

> 32
55

65

75

85

Base with hydraulic binder on top of

Chart 2: Concrete surfacing design for pavements on F2 and F3 subsoil / subgrade

Concrete surfacing

1.1
If values deviate, the layer thicknesses of the frost blanket or frostresistant material respectively have to be determined by taking the
difference.
2)
Applicable with round aggregates only if proven locally.
3)
Applicable only with crushed aggregates and if proven locally.
4)
To be executed only if the frost-resistant material and material to be
stabilized can be placed as a single layer.

27

Hydraulically bound base

15

1)

120
Frost blanket

Thickness of frost blanket

The additional conditions of contract for the


German States (Bundeslnder) have to be
complied with.

332)

Concrete surfacing

1.2

Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant
material (F1)
- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material

Soil treatment can be used as a safeguarding


measure for soils of paving class 2.
Reference is made to the Code of practice on
the treatment of soils and construction materials with binders to reduce the leachability of
environmentally relevant substances (Merkblatt
ber die Behandlung von Bden und Baustoffen
mit Bindemitteln zur Reduzierung der Eluierbarkeit umweltrelevanter Inhaltsstoffe).

42

45

27

20
47

45
84)

184)

28

Concrete surfacing

1.3

Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material

43

38

27

25
45
34)

52
134)

23

33

I
> 10 and 32
55

65

75

85

II

III

IV

VI

> 3.2 and 10

> 1.8 and 3.2 /


> 1.0 and 1.8

> 0.3 and 1.0

0.3

0.3

55

65

75

85

45

55

65

75

45

55

65

75

35

45

55

65

35

45

55

65

frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material

15

120

15

120

253)

48

263)

45
36

35

20

273)

37

15

15

15

38

39

45

164)

26

45
36

46

74)

174)

27

37

25

24

23

20

20

20

45

30

23

45

45
104)

24

40

25

46

25

45
154)

38

45
35

15

120

39

40
45

23

24

25

40

44

45
11

21

31

41

43

45
24)

124)

22

32

40 // 41

1.6 Basic principles of earthworks


1.6.1 Compaction
At the start of compaction, the contractor has to
complete a trial field to verify that the compaction
requirements will be met.

Special conditions for compaction or construction


apply to embankment shoulders. This may influence the bulk width of an embankment in case of
soil stabilization or stabilization of the pavement.

The maximum bulk thickness (or maximum thickness of the improved layer respectively) must be
such that the specified degree of compaction is
achieved over the entire layer thickness.

1.6.2

When placing weather-sensitive construction


materials, the bulk surfaces have to be built with a
cross slope of no less than 6%.

Compaction requirements on subsoil and subgrade

The subsoil or subgrade of roads and paths has


to be compacted so as to meet the following
requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for

the degree of compaction DPr or the maximum


10 percentile for the air voids ratio na respectively.

Area

Soil groups

DPr in %

na in % by
volume

Subgrade to a depth of 1.00 m for


embankments
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

100

1.00 m below grade to embankment base

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

98

Subgrade to embankment base


Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts

GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*


U, T, OU1), OT1)

97

122)

1) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their


suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.

2) If the soils are not improved by means of soil stabilization or qualified soil improvement, a requirement on the maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio is recommended as follows:
8
 % by volume when placing water-sensitive mixed-grained or
fine-grained soils; and
6
 % by volume when placing rock of variable strength.
This has to be indicated in the specification of works.

1.6.3

Requirements on the subgrade

The subgrade must comply with specifications in


terms of correct vertical and horizontal position,
evenness and bearing capacity.
Requirements on the correct vertical and horizontal position:
Deviation:
3 cm from design level
 2 cm if the subgrade is to be
overlaid with a bound base layer
The subgrade must have the following cross slope:
 4.0% for water-sensitive soils and construction

materials
 2.5% after soil treatment with binders
Shoulder

Traffic lane

Reducing the cross slope after soil


treatment results in huge potential savings in
pavement material.

Example: qPavement = 2.5%


qSubgrade = 4.0%

Width of subgrade = 6.00 m

Savings: approx. 0.30 m3/m


At the raised edge of the carriageway, the subgrade has to be designed with a reverse gradient.

Traffic lane

2.5%

12%
1:

Shoulder

6%

1.5

When performing soil improvement operations at


subgrade level, the edge design of embankment
structures may require excess profiling due to the
production methods and equipment used.

42 // 43

1.6.4

Deformation modulus on the subgrade (minimum 10 percentile)

Being the foundation for the roads pavement,


the subgrade must exhibit adequate bearing and
deformation behaviours.

Frost-resistant subsoil or subgrade


(F1 soil)

The static and dynamic deformation moduli can be


inferred from the following table.

Construction class SV, I to IV


Ev2 120 MN/m2
Evd 65 MN/m2

Construction class V to VI
Ev2 100 MN/m2
Evd 50 MN/m2

Frost-susceptible subsoil or subgrade


(F2 and F3 soils)

Construction class SV, I to VI


Ev2 45 MN/m2

Frost-susceptible subsoil or subgrade


(F2 and F3 soils) after qualified soil
improvement

Ev2 70 MN/m2

If the specified deformation modulus on the subgrade cannot be achieved by compacting, one of
the following measures has to be taken:
improve or stabilize the subsoil or subgrade; or
increase the layer thickness of the granular
base.

1.6.5

Requirements on compaction characteristics

Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the degree of compaction DPr or maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio na when improving or stabilizing the subgrade

Subgrade

Cut
Requirements on Ev2
see separate table

0.00m

0.50m

Stabilized
subsoil

Improved
subsoil 1)

DPr 100% for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97% and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU3), OT3)

Embankment
Requirements on Ev2
see separate table

0.00m
0.50m

1.00m

Subgrade

DPr 98%2)
immediately after completion of compaction

Stabilized
subgrade

DPr 98%2)
immediately after completion of compaction

DPr 100% for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97% and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU3), OT3)
Improved
subgrade1)
DPr 98% for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97% and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU3), OT3)
Requirements according to structural
soil analysis

Improved subgrade*

Requirements according to structural


soil analysis

1) Including qualified soil improvement.


2) Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the degree of
compaction of the soil-binder mixture immediately after compaction has been completed.

3) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their


suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.
na air voids ratio

Higher requirements on compaction may be defined


in the specification of works for earth structures exposed to especially high levels of loading (including
partial sections, such as structural backfills).

The edge design of embankments may require


excess profiling when performing soil improvement
operations at subgrade level.

44 // 45

1.7 Quality assurance


1.7.1

Tests to be performed prior to construction

Soil treatment operations require mix designs.

Mix designs, internal control testing and compliance testing are performed in accordance with the
pertinent technical regulations in effect at the time.

1.7.1.1 Tests to be performed by the client


For a reliable assessment of the construction work
to be tendered, the soil or construction material
has to be tested to determine its bearing capacity,
re-usability as embankment fill and suitability for
soil treatment with binders.

These tests have to be arranged for by the client


as part of soil investigation and within the parameters of the preconstruction phase.

1.7.1.2 Tests to be performed by the contractor


Mix designs have to be performed within the
parameters of construction.
The contractor is required to commission a testing laboratory experienced in and certified for
soil treatment, for example, a testing laboratory
approved in accordance with the Directives for
accreditation of test centres for building materials
and building material mixtures in road construction (RAP Stra), with performing the mix design.
The amount of binder determined in the mix
design is specified by the contractor as it is his
responsibility to ensure that the construction work
is completed free of any defects.

The following estimated periods of time are


required for the mix design:
s oil stabilization
approx. 5 weeks
qualified soil
improvement
approx. 2 to 5 weeks
This period may be shorter if an assessment
based on 7-day strengths is also possible.
soil improvement
approx. 1 to 2 weeks
This period may be longer if additional testing is
required. These tests may include:
frost-resistance testing (freeze-thaw test / frost
heaving test); and
proof of compatibility with water-management
requirements.

The mix designs provide information on the type


and amount of binder and water to be added, the
amount of any additives to be used and the fitness
for use of the soils and soil-binder mixtures.

The values given in the following table can be used


to determine the amount of binder to be added in
the mix design.

46 // 47

Table: Soil-specific empirical values for binder quantities in soil stabilization, soil improvement
and qualified soil improvement
Binder content in % by mass

Soil improvement**

Soil stabilization

Soil group

Fine lime
according to
DIN EN 459-1

Hydrated lime
according to
DIN EN 459-1

Cement
according to
DIN EN 197-1
DIN-1164-10

Hydraulic soil
and road binder
according to
DIN 18506

Mixed
binders

Coarse-grained soils
(GE, GW, GI, SE,
SW, SI)

3-7

3-7

3-7

Mixed-grained soils
(GU, GT, SU, ST,
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*)

4-6+*

4-8*

4-12

4-12

4-12

Fine-grained soils
(UL, TL, UM, UA,
TM, TA)

4-6

4-8

7-16

7-16

4-16

Artificial aggregates

5-12

5-12

5-12

Recycled construction materials

4-10

4-10

4-10

Coarse-grained soils
(GE, GW, GI, SE,
SW, SI)

3-6

3-6

3-6

Mixed-grained soils
(GU, GT, SU, ST,
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*)

2 (3)-4

2 (3)-5

3-6

3-6

2 (3)-6

Fine-grained soils
(UL, TL, UM, UA,
TM, TA)

2 (3)-4

2 (3)-5

3-6

3-6

2 (3)-6

* Only in case of sufficiently large fractions of reactive substances in the soil


** Values in parentheses relate to qualified soil improvement

1.7.1.3 Testing specifications for mix designs


Use of hydraulic binders
 or soil stabilization, the mix design is perF
formed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1.
For soil improvement and qualified soil improvement, the mix design is performed in accordance with the Technical testing regulations for
soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3.

Reaction times
The reaction times between mixing and compaction are determined in the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB) as a function of the binder used.
Typical values are:
for hydraulic binders:
1 to 2 hours
for mixed binders:
4 hours
for building limes:
6 hours

Use of building limes


 or soil stabilization, soil improvement or qualiF
fied soil improvement, the mix design is performed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.3.
Use of mixed binders
 or soil stabilization, the mix design is perF
formed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1 or Part B 11.3
depending on the composition of the various
constituents.
For soil improvement and qualified soil improvement, the mix design is performed in accordance with the Technical testing regulations for
soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3.

48 // 49

1.7.2

Tests to be performed during construction

1.7.2.1 Type and scope of tests to be performed in soil treatment operations


The tests are performed for quality assurance purposes, taking into account the testing procedures and testing
methods according to the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB) and the pertinent Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB).
Soil stabilization
Parameter
Binders
Conformity of binder supplied with binder type
and grade agreed

Internal control testing

Compliance testing

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks

Soil
Grading
State variables
Organic constituents
Water content
Proctor density and related water content

every 250 m or 3,000 m


as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required

Soils intended for stabilization


Degree of compaction
Correct vertical and horizontal position

*
3 times every 20 m
every 250 m or 3,000 m

Stabilized layer
Degree of compaction

every 250 m or 3,000 m

Binder quantity
Correct vertical and horizontal position
Evenness

Layer thickness
Layer thickness
Deformation modulus
on the subgrade
Deformation modulus Ev2
Deformation modulus Evd

random checks

random checks

as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m


at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required

as required

every 1,000 m2

according to testing method M1 or M2

* The scope of testing depends on the testing method chosen (method M1, M2 or M3).

Type, scope and frequency of internal control and compliance testing for soil treatment operations:

Qualified soil improvement

Soil improvement

Internal control testing

Compliance testing

Internal control testing

Compliance testing

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks

every 250 m or 3,000 m


as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
-

every 250 m or 3,000 m


as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

random checks

every 250 m or 3,000 m


at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required

according to testing method M1 or M2

according to testing method M1 or M2

50 // 51

Internal control tests and compliance tests for the


stabilized layer are performed jointly by the contractor and the client immediately after compaction.
Internal control tests performed in the presence of
an agent appointed by the client may be acknowledged as compliance tests.
As the processing times of hydraulic binders are
extremely short, internal control tests and compliance tests should be performed jointly by the contractor and the client immediately after completion
of a soil treatment operation.
Binder content, degree of compaction and bearing
capacity cannot be tested at a later date.
Performing these tests at a later date allows any
necessary adjustment of the operation or correction of the layer thickness, evenness or correct
vertical and horizontal position to be effected to a
limited extent only.

Determining the unconfined compressive strength


on core samples or plate samples taken from the
completed layer does not allow any conclusions
to be drawn on compliance with the requirements
of the Additional technical conditions of contract
and directives for earthworks in road construction
(ZTV E-StB).
Compressive strength testing of the completed
stabilized layer has therefore not been specified.
Due to the relatively low strength, it is only rarely
possible to drill out suitable cores. In addition, the
shearing surfaces forming during compressive
strength testing are affected by hairline cracks
beginning to form and by larger single grains
embedded in the layer.
Compressive strength testing is performed as part
of the mix design only to determine the appropriate binder quantity.

1.7.2.2 Testing methods and testing procedures


When performing the tests, a distinction is made
between testing methods and testing procedures.
Testing method: refers to the systematic approach used to verify the intended quality in
accordance with the specified requirements on
compaction characteristics.

Testing procedure: defines and determines the


test criteria. The testing procedures include specific work instructions to determine the compaction characteristics.

1.7.2.2.1 Testing methods for testing compaction characteristics


Method M1: approach in accordance with statistical testing schedule
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 1
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).
Method M1 determines the statistical distribution
of the test criterion within an inspection lot on the
basis of random checking. Based on the sampling
results, the decision is then made whether to accept
or to reject the inspection lot (refer to the Code of
practice for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade
in road construction (Merkblatt fr die Verdichtung
des Untergrundes und Unterbaues im Straenbau).
Method M1 can be used for all types of soil.

Further information can be obtained from the Code


of practice on continuous dynamic procedures for
testing compaction in earthworks (Merkblatt ber
flchendeckende dynamische Verfahren zur Prfung
der Verdichtung im Erdbau) and Code of practice
for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade in road
construction (Merkblatt fr die Verdichtung des
Untergrundes und des Unterbaues im Straenbau).
Method M2 is recommended in particular:
for construction projects with high daily output
rates and soils of largely uniform composition;
for inspection surfaces tested to assess the uniformity of compaction; and
where compaction is to be assessed as an integral
part of the operation.

Method M1 is recommended in particular:


for large inspection lots;
for inspection lots tested to assess the uniformity of compaction; and
for inspection lots tested using quick testing
procedures the results of which are available
immediately.

Method M3: approach for monitoring the


working procedure
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 3
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).

Method M2: approach when applying


continuous dynamic measuring procedures
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 2
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).

Method M3 typically uses trial compaction to prove


the suitability of the compaction procedure used.
A work instruction for compaction is then set up
based on the results of the trial compaction. Compaction of the earth structure tendered is carried out
in accordance with the work instruction. Adherence
to the work instruction must be documented.

Method M2 uses a measuring device installed at the


roller to continuously determine a dynamic measuring value resulting from the interaction between roller
and soil and correlated with the soils stiffness and
degree of compaction. This method performs a full
inspection of the compacted layer (= inspection
surface) by means of an indirect testing procedure
(= dynamic measuring value) based on which a decision is then made whether to accept or reject the
inspection surface (= inspection lot).

Further information can be obtained from the


Code of practice for the compaction of subsoil and
subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr die
Verdichtung des Untergrundes und des Unterbaues
im Straenbau).
Method M3 is recommended, for example, for
smaller construction projects and restricted space
conditions.

52 // 53

1.7.2.2.2 Testing procedures for determining compaction parameters


Sampling and testing are carried out in accordance with the Technical testing regulations for soil
and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB).
1. Degree of compaction DPr
The degree of compaction DPr indicates the percentage of dry density d in the Proctor density Pr
(= 100%) of the soil sample to be tested.

D = x 100 [%]
Pr

hat. Pr

The Proctor density has to be determined for each


soil sample from the field.
For soils and construction materials of uniform
composition, it is also possible to use the Proctor
density determined in the mix design or during trial
compaction.
2. Dry density d and voids ratio n
The dry density d and voids ratio n may be defined as substitute parameters for materials which
do not allow a reliable determination of the Proctor density (e.g. rock of variable strength, stony
ground, recycled construction materials, certain
industrial by-products etc.).
The specification values have to be agreed between the client and contractor based on:
local experience; or
investigations performed previously.

Voids ratio n= 1- s [-]


d = particle density of the native soil
3. Air voids ratio na
The air voids ratio is calculated from the results of
the density measurement and determination of the
water content.
The air voids ratio may be defined as an additional
characteristic for compaction.

Air voids ratio na=


d

1 - w x d - s [-]

4. Indirect testing procedures for the degree of


compaction
For coarse-grained soils (GE, GW, GI, SE, SW,
SI) and mixed-grained soils with a fines content
< 15% by mass (GU, GT, SU, ST), the following
substitute procedures may be used to determine
the degree of compaction:

s tatic plate bearing test according to DIN 18134;


and
dynamic plate bearing test in accordance with
Part B 8.3 of the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction (TP BFStB).
Calibration tests must be performed to determine
the correlation between the indirect testing method
chosen and the degree of compaction.

Relation between DPr and Evd


100
90
80

Evd [MN/m2]

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
95 96 97 98 99 100
101
102 103
DPr [%]

54 // 55

For coarse-grained soils, the following correlation applies according to the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB):
Guideline values for correlating the static deformation modulus Ev2 and the ratio Ev2/Ev1 with the
degree of compaction DPr in coarse-grained soils:
Soil group

Static deformation
modulus
Ev2 in MN/m2

Ratio
Ev2/Ev1

Degree of compaction
DPr in %

GW, GI

100
80

2.3
2.5

100
98

GE, SE, SW, SI

80
70

2.3
2.5

100
98

An even higher Ev2/Ev1 ratio is permissible if Ev1 reaches 60% of the Ev2 value specified.

Guideline values for correlating the dynamic deformation modulus Evd with the degree of
compaction DPr in coarse-grained soils:
Soil group

Dynamic deformation
modulus
Evd in MN/m2

Degree of compaction
DPr in %

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE

50
40

100
98

1.7.2.2.3 Testing deformation modulus, correct vertical and horizontal position and
evenness on the subgrade
On the subgrade, the bearing and deformation
behaviour must be verified by means of the deformation modulus Ev2 or the dynamic deformation
modulus Evd.
The following methods and procedures must be
used:
Testing method M1 (statistical testing schedule)
Testing is conducted by means of:
- the static plate bearing test according to
DIN 18134; and
- the dynamic plate bearing test according to
the Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part
B 8.3.
Testing method M2 (continuous dynamic measuring procedure) to the extent that it is suitable
for use in terms of soil mechanics
The test results have to be calibrated to the
deformation modulus Ev2 or Evd respectively
(see Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction [TP BF-StB], Part
E 4).
Testing method M3 (monitoring the working procedure by means of single testing) according to
DIN 18134 or the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB), Part B 8.3.

56 // 57

1.8 Soils and mineral construction materials for


soil treatment
The suitability of soils for soil treatment (depending on the binder used) must be verified within the
scope of a mix design.

1.8.1

The soils to be treated should be available in a


largely homogeneous quality.

Suitable soils (according to DIN 18196)

 oarse-grained soils with a maximum particle


C
size of 63 mm

GE, GW, GI, SE, SW, SI

Fine-grained and mixed-grained soils

SU, ST, GU, GT, SU*, ST*, GU*, GT*, UL, UM,
UA, TL, TM

1.8.2 Soils (according to DIN 18196) and construction materials suitable to


a limited extent
 lays of high plasticity to the extent that they
C
are of soft to stiff consistency and can be
sufficiently crushed

TA
Mixed-grained soils containing stones larger
than 63 mm to the extent that these can be
removed or crushed if in weathered state
Soils containing organic matter and organogenic
soils

1.8.3

Soils of varying composition or nature


Recycled and manufactured aggregates
Rocks of variable strength (siltstones and clay
stones) if they can be sufficiently crushed and
have a sufficiently high water content to allow
compaction (reduction of air voids ratio)

Non-suitable soils

Non-suitable soils include soils which cannot


be substantially improved (suitability for placing,
compactability) or sufficiently stabilized (bearing
capacity, frost resistance) by adding high binder
contents and using standard equipment.

 lays of high plasticity and semi-firm to firm


C
consistency
TA
Rocks of variable strength (siltstones and clay
stones) if they cannot be sufficiently crushed
Organic soils

1.8.4

Natural and artificial aggregates and recycled construction materials

Natural aggregates are classified based on grading


in accordance with DIN 18196.
Artificial aggregates and recycled construction
materials must comply with both environmentally
relevant and water-management requirements.
These requirements are stipulated, for example,
in the Directives for the environmentally compat-

1.8.5

ible use of industrial by-products and recycled


construction materials in road construction
(RuA-StB), Directives for the environmentally
compatible use of reclaimed materials containing tar-bound matter and for the use of reclaimed
asphalt in road construction (RuVA-StB) and
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road
construction (TL Gestein-StB).

Sulphate influence

Heaving may destroy the structure as a result of


chemical reactions of the sulphates and sulphides
(pyrite) with the free calcium contained in the
lime or cement (or both substances when using a
mixed binder).
In the process, volumetric strains ranging from
10% to 30% develop at swelling pressures of
up to 5 MPa caused by ettringite or thaumasite
growth.
Caution should generally be exercised with all
sulphate-bearing soils or waters, pyrite, gypsum
and anhydrite in combination with free calcium at a
pH value > 10.5.

A mineralogical analysis of the soil should always


be performed on critical soil types in order to avoid
exposure of the structure to any risk.
Ettringite or thaumasite reaction is, among other
things, additionally influenced by the following
factors:
t emperature (reaction requires temperatures
< 15C);
dry-wet cycles;
pore size of soil mixture (compaction);
sulphate type and solubility; and
clay content of soil (clay content < 10%
unproblematic).

Criteria for assessing native soils


 o risk: electrical conductivity of soil saturation
N
extract < 200 S/cm
Low risk: sulphate content between 3,000 ppm
and 5,000 ppm
Medium to high risk: sulphate content between
5,000 ppm and 8,000 ppm
Soil not suitable for soil treatment: sulphate
content > 8,000 ppm

Recycled construction materials intended for


use in soil treatment must always be tested for
sulphates!

58 // 59

1.9 Binders
1.9.1 General
The purpose of construction and goal of soil
treatment should be defined prior to selecting the
binder to be used.
This requires an investigation of the native soil
and its properties and of the requirements on the
structure in terms of soil analysis.
In the next step, tests have to be performed in
order to determine the means (soil improvement,
qualified soil improvement) by which and degree
to which the properties and soil characteristics can
be improved.

1.9.2

The mechanical properties of the treated soil


should be defined and determined to allow selection of the binder and mixing procedure to be
used.
The criteria to be determined include shear
strength, stiffness, swelling or shrinkage properties and durability in order to obtain a sustainable
structure.
The type, method and formula to be used for soil
treatment can be determined by means of mineralogical and soil-mechanical investigations.

Types of binder

The following binders may be used for soil treatment without requiring further agreement provided
they comply with the pertinent standards:

of contract and directives for earthworks in road


construction (ZTV E-StB).

 ements according to DIN 197-1 and DIN 197-4


C
Cements according to DIN 1164-10
Building limes according to DIN EN 459-1

 ydraulic soil and road binders according


H
to DIN 18506
Mixed binders produced from standard hydraulic
binders or their major hydraulic constituents

In addition, these must comply with supplementary requirements in terms of reactivity and grading
according to the Additional technical conditions

Other binders may be used provided that their


suitability has been verified and their use has been
agreed upon between the client and contractor.

1.9.3

Mode of binder action

1.9.3.1 Building limes


A distinction in the mode of action of fine limes is
made between instantaneous and long-term reaction.
The instantaneous reaction commences within minutes after mixing and is complete after some days.

The long-term reaction commences after some


days and may continue for a period of several
years.
Overall, there is only a moderate development of
strength.

Instantaneous reaction:
Quick reduction of water content in the soilbinder mixture resulting from
- aeration during the mixing process
- the chemical bond of water
- vaporization as a result of the heat generated
during quicklime hydration
Crumbling caused by incipient chemical reactions in the clay minerals and at their contact
surfaces
Aggregation of fine-grained soils
Increase of plastic limit
This leads to an increase of consistency index
Ic and a reduction of plasticity index Ip.

Result:
Improved compactability
Improved plastic properties and thus decreasing
susceptibility to water
Proctor curve shifts to the wet side resulting in
a decrease of the dry density and simultaneous
increase of the optimum water content
This results in an increase of the bearing
capacity

1.85

Dry density [t/m3]

1.80
Clayey soil (TM)
untreated

1.75
97% DPr

treated with 2%
of binder

1.70
97% DPr

treated with
4% of binder

1.65

1.60
wPr

wPr

treated with
6% of binder

1.55
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Water content w [%]

60 // 61

Long-term reaction:
 ozzolanic hardening (chemical conversion of
P
the clay minerals)
Cation exchange
Bridging
Carbonation (with CO2)

Result:
 olume stability, long-term increase in strength,
V
permanent bearing capacity and frost resistance build up over a period of some months to
several years.

Soil types ideal for treatment with lime:


clays of medium to high plasticity

1.9.3.2 Cements
Cement action is based on the binding effects of
the hardened cement paste.
The aggregate is coated and cured, and the reaction takes place with the pore water.

Soil types ideal for treatment with cement:


coarse-grained soils with a very low silt content

Strength development is high caused by the formation of the hardened cement paste.

1.9.3.3 Mixed binders


Mixed binder (lime-cement products) action is
based on the synergistic effects of fine lime and
cement, using all of the positive properties offered
by both products.
As a result, mixed binders can be used for nearly
all types of soil if applied at the appropriate mixing
ratio.

Soil types ideal for treatment with mixed


binders:
clays of low to medium plasticity, mixedgrained soils (of low to medium plasticity),
waterlogged coarse-grained soils

1.9.4

Binders with special properties

1.9.4.1 Low-dust binders


Low-dust binders are used on projects requiring
lower dust levels than is normal for such applications. This is the case in particular in the vicinity of
residential areas, infrastructure facilities, light metal
facades, glazed surfaces or similar sensitive areas.

The binder is treated by means of a special,


patented process which results in a significant
reduction of dust development during spreading
and milling.
Examples of products: all DOROSOL mixtures,
DOROPORT TB N

1.9.4.2 Hydrophobic binders


Hydrophobic binders are used on projects where
the binders cannot be mixed in right after spreading or if a soil treatment operation is scheduled in
a season where rainfall tends to be higher.

The binders hydrophobic action is neutralized


by the milling operation, which extends the time
frame available for processing.

62 // 63

Binder applications

During geotechnical investigations, the main criteria for selecting the binder to be used are typically
grading or the plasticity and water content of the
soil.
a) In soil improvement operations, mixed binders
work most effectively in mixed-grained soils and
in soils of low to medium plasticity.
The natural water content of soils suitable for
this type of treatment is reduced and the bearing capacity improved in a single operation.
Based on the grading curve, the most suitable
binder can be selected in accordance with the
grading chart.
b) The strength of mixed-grained soils and soils
of low plasticity (TL, GU*) is determined by the
hydraulic proportion of the binder while the
overall binder content remains unchanged. The
highest strengths are achieved using a mixed
binder with a high content of cement or a road
binder (cement).
Mixed binders produce the highest strengths
in clays of medium plasticity (TM). With clays
in the transition zone from medium to high
plasticity and with clays of high plasticity (TA),
the highest strengths are achieved when using
mixed binders with a high lime proportion or
lime respectively.
c) Coarse-grained soils are treated using either
mixed binders with a high content of cement or
road binders (cement).
d) Mixed binders with a higher content of lime are
used for soils with a high water content in order
to reduce the water content and obtain a soilbinder mixture of ideal consistency for placing.

The areas of application of the different types of


binders are shown in the grading chart.

Fine aggregate range

100

Silt

Ultrafines

fine

medium

90

Mass fraction of grains < d in % of the total quantity

1.9.5

80

Non-suitable,
not crushable

70

60

Fin

el

50

40

im

Type of soil: TA

30

20
Type of soil: TM, TL, UM
10

0
0.001 0.002

0.006 0.01

0.02

Coarse aggregate range


Sand
coarse

fine

Gravel

medium

fine

coarse

medium

coarse

Stones

Type of soil:
GU*, SU*

Type of soil: GU, SU

Mi

xe

Type of soil: GW, GI

db

ind

er

Ro

ad

bin

de

rs

Non-suitable,
too coarse

0.06 0.1

0.2

0.6 1

10

20

60 100

Particle diameter d [mm]

64 // 65

1.9.6

Binder processing times

The processing time of a binder is the period of


time passing between spreading of the binder
and compaction of the soil (with the exception of
hydrophobic binders).
The following time intervals are permitted for processing the soil-binder mixture:
 se of cement or road binder: measured from
U
commencement of spreading or addition of the
binder until completion of compaction
- maximum 2.0 hours at temperatures of up
to 20C
-m
 aximum 1.5 hours at temperatures above
20C
 se of hydrophobic cement or hydrophoU
bic road binder: measured from mixing of the
binder and soil until completion of compaction
- maximum 2.0 hours at temperatures of up to
20C
- maximum 1.5 hours at temperatures above
20C

1.9.7

 se of mixed binder: measured from comU


mencement of spreading or addition of the
binder until completion of compaction
- maximum 4.0 hours at temperatures of up to
20C
- maximum 3.0 hours at temperatures above
20C
These times are based on the different reaction
behaviours of the binders.
 ement and road binders react upon contact
C
with the moist soil and have fairly short processing times.
Hydrophobic cement and hydrophobic road
binders react only when mixed into the soil.
Mixed binders react upon contact with the moist
soil and have longer processing times than cement.

Binder reaction times

The reaction time of a binder is the period of time


passing between mixing-in of the binder and compaction of the soil.
Modification of the reaction time has a strong influence on Proctor density and strength.

For all binders, extending the reaction time


results in:
 n increase of the optimum water content;
a
a reduction of the Proctor density; and
a reduction in strength of the soil-binder mixture.

Significant reductions in strength occur when extending the reaction time of cement. The reaction
time of one hour specified for soil stabilization in
the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1,
should also be complied with for soil improvement. This approach results in the highest bearing
capacity and lowest sensitivity to water immersion
of the soil-binder mixture.

cal testing regulations for soil and rock in road


construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.3, stipulating a reaction time of six hours produce the most
significant change in the Proctor curve. Factoring
in the development of strength, shorter reaction
times can be chosen also with a view to a way of
working that is more in line with practical requirements.
The following time periods between working in the
binder and compaction should be adhered to:

Longer reaction times are required for white fine


lime. The requirements specified in the Techni-

Binder

Cement
CEM I

Mixed binder

Fine lime
CL90Q

Reaction time

3-5

>6

The reaction times of mixed binders depend on


their hydraulic proportion and have to be set to
between 3 and 5 hours.

Where appropriate, the reaction time of mixed


binders can be adjusted in accordance with their
main binder components.

66 // 67

1.10 Water

The water content of the soil to be treated should


be equivalent to the optimum water content for
placing and compacting.

The water must not contain any substances


and/or impurities that would have a detrimental
effect on the soil treatment process.

If the water content of coarse-grained or mixedgrained soils intended for soil treatment is too low,
water should be added as follows:

If the water content of a mixed-grained or finegrained soil intended for soil treatment is significantly higher than the optimum water content, it
must be reduced by appropriate measures.

 ith fine-grained soils: early enough for the


w
moisture to have penetrated the soil completely
and uniformly when the binder is mixed in; and
with mixed-grained or coarse-grained soils:
shortly after spreading the binder.
As an option, the water to be added can also be
injected into the milling and mixing chamber during the milling operation.

Appropriate measures include, for example, the


use of mixed binders. The fine lime contained in
mixed binders reduces the water content, resulting
in optimum conditions for placing and compacting.
The natural water content of the soil has an influence on the quantity of binder to be added, as has
the Proctor density to be achieved.

Example:

Water content (% by weight)

97% DPr
100% DPr

Binder quantity
at 100% DPr

Binder quantity
at 97% DPr

Optimum
water content

1 2 3 4 5
Addition of binder (% by weight)
= Wnat > Wopt
= Wnat = Wopt
= Wnat < Wopt

Rule of thumb for reduction of the water content:


Cement:
water reduction by approx.

0.3% per 1% of binder

DOROSOL C 30 (example):
water reduction by approx.

0.5 1.0% per 1% of binder

DOROSOL C 50 (example):
water reduction by approx.

1.0 1.5% per 1% of binder

Fine lime:
water reduction by approx.

2.0 2.5% per 1% of binder

68 // 69

1.11 Effects of weather


1.11.1 Precipitation
An effective drainage system must be in place
during construction to prevent any damage from
being caused by standing or running water.
In case of light precipitation, a dry binder must be
milled in sufficiently fast after spreading to avoid
penetration of moisture and, as a result, caking of
the binder. Should any lumps have formed nonetheless, they must be adequately crushed during
milling.

Hydrophobic cements or road binders are usually


not prone to lump formation.
If the water content specified as a requirement for
adequate compaction of the soil is exceeded as a
result of precipitation, meaning that the soil-binder
mixture cannot be sufficiently compacted, the
operation has to be interrupted until the soil has
dried to a sufficient degree.

1.11.2 Wind
Special binders (such as DOROSOL PRO C) can
be used to reduce binder drifts. These binders
significantly reduce the development of dust.

Spreading of the dry binder must be discontinued,


however, if strong winds cause excessive binder
quantities to be blown away so that an unacceptable pollution of the environment occurs or the
safety of road users is put at risk.

1.11.3 Temperature
Soil stabilization and qualified soil improvement
operations should preferably not be carried out at
ground and air temperatures below +5C.
If soil treatment operations are scheduled at
temperatures below +5C, the required protective
measures must be included in the specification of
works. Consideration also needs to be given to the
fact that, in the first three days and for the longest
possible period of time thereafter, the temperature
of the soil-binder mixture should not fall below
+5C. Where appropriate, the next layer can be
placed as a protection for the previously treated
layer.

It is not permissible to perform soil treatment


operations on frozen ground.
If frost is to be expected, the drainage system
must be sufficiently effective to prevent the stabilized layer from freezing in the water-saturated
state.
At air temperatures above 25C or in case of
exposure to intense sunlight, the water content
has to be adjusted to ensure that the construction
material mixture retains the optimum water content
for compaction.

70 // 71

1.12 Soil treatment Construction


1.12.1

Mixing procedures

A general distinction is made between two different procedures which can be used to produce a
soil-binder mixture.

The mixer travels on the layer prepared for treatment, working in the previously spread binder
and, where appropriate, the required quantity of
water.

Mixed-in-plant process
Where the mixed-in-place process cannot be
used for technical reasons (due to, for example, existing manholes, gullies, road widenings,
structures, trenches etc.) or is uneconomical,
soil-binder mixtures produced using the mixedin-plant process can be placed instead.
In soil treatment operations, it is usually not
economically feasible to produce soil-binder
mixtures using the mixed-in-plant process.

Mixed-in-place process
The mixed-in-place process is the standard
construction method used in soil treatment
operations.

1.12.2

Variations in the sequence of the individual


operational steps are possible depending on the
location of the excavation and paving sites.
Special process
Where the paving site does not allow for a mixer
to be used (in case of road widenings, refilling of
utility trenches or structural backfills, or in areas
or locations where binder drifts must be avoided
etc.), the binder can be spread and mixed in at
the excavation site. The soil-binder mixture is
then transported to the paving site, placed and
compacted.

Mixed-in-plant process

The soil, binder and required quantity of water


are mixed together in a central mixing plant. Both
batch mixers and continuous mixers can be used.
Mobile mixing plants are suitable for use in particular on larger construction projects.
Mixing of the soil and binder needs to continue
until a homogeneous mixture has been produced
(indicated by the uniform colour of the soil-binder
mixture). The finished mixture must then be transported to the paving site (preferably covered to
prevent dehydration) and placed.

The specified layer thickness must be complied


with.
The subsoil or subgrade must be levelled off
to enable the specified thickness and level to
be achieved after the stabilized layer has been
placed.
The subgrade or subsoil must comply with the
specified degree of compaction.

72 // 73

1.12.3

Mixed-in-place process

1.12.3.1 Principles of construction for the mixed-in-place process


(all fields of soil treatment)

Soil stabilization

Qualified
soil improvement

Soil improvement

Preparatory measures
Remove topsoil and organic matter.
Scarify and crush densely packed or semi-firm fine-grained or
mixed-grained soils as required.
Remove stones with a diameter > 63 mm. Profile and thickness
of the stabilized layer have to be maintained.
Fine lime can be added to neutralize excessively acidic soils.
A sufficient reaction time of several days has to be determined by
means of an extended mix design.
For mixed-grained or fine-grained soils of groups GU*, GT*, SU*,
ST*, U, T, OU and OT, the water content has to be adjusted so
as not to exceed the maximum value (maximum 10 percentile) of
12% by volume for the air voids ratio of the compacted soil-binder
mixture (refer to the Additional technical conditions of contract
and directives for earthworks in road construction [ZTV E-StB]).
Prior to spreading the binding agent, the soil must be levelled off
and compacted in accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB).
The level of the pre-compacted subgrade has to be adjusted so
that, taking into account the degree of compaction in the stabilized layer, the actual levels and layer thickness neither exceed nor
fall below the design levels and layer thickness.
The material-specific properties must be taken into account when
using artificial aggregates and recycled construction materials.
The codes of practice applicable in each case have to be complied with.

Soil improvement measures


have to be performed so as to
ensure that adequate compaction and the correct vertical
and horizontal position of the
completed layer are achieved.
The layer to be improved must
be of uniform thickness, requiring the soil to be levelled off
prior to spreading the binder.

Soil stabilization

Qualified soil
improvement

Soil improvement

Preparatory measures
The binder must be spread evenly using appropriate machinery.
Even distribution of the binder is not guaranteed
when using fertilizer spreaders or blowing the
binder from a silo transporter.
The latter is generally ruled out because of the
risk of accidents and pollution of the environment associated with this method. The pertinent
EC safety data sheet has to be complied with
when working with hydraulic binder and building
lime.
The quantity of binder applied must be verified
by means of test sheets placed on the ground
(see the Technical testing regulations for soil
and rock in road construction [TP BF-StB], Part
B 11.2). For the mixed-in-place process, the
amount of binder is specified in kg/m; for the
mixed-in-plant process, it is specified in % by
mass relative to the dry density of the soil.
In areas where access is difficult, it is advisable
to place a soil-binder mixture produced off the
paving site.
Adequate protection against binder drifts must
be ensured during construction. The spreaders should be fitted with appropriate protective
equipment (such as low guards).

In soil improvement operations, dust development caused by wind can be reduced by scarifying the surface prior to spreading the binder. In
addition, binders are available which cause less
dust during processing.
Spreading of the binder and mixing should generally be carried out in quick succession. Hydrophobic cements enable longer processing times
because of their water-repellent properties; their
reaction time does not commence until they are
mixed with the soil.

74 // 75

Soil stabilization

Qualified
soil improvement

Soil improvement

Mixing
For soil stabilization, only high-performance machines (such as
soil stabilizers) may be used which enable proper homogenization
of the soil-binder mixture. Mixing needs to continue until a uniform
colouring, uniform water content and fine, crumbly soil structure
have been achieved over the entire specified layer thickness.

Cultivators, disc harrows and


bulldozers with suitable ancillary equipment have proven to
be effective in stony soils. In
this first machine pass, the soil
is loosened, and larger stones
(boulders) are removed.
Thorough mixing cannot be
achieved through the exclusive
use of graders, bulldozers with
rippers and excavators.

Mixing result after one milling


pass

Mixing result after two milling


passes

Mixing result after three milling


passes

76 // 77

Soil stabilization

Qualified
soil improvement

Soil improvement

Grading and compacting


Different degrees of pre-compaction of the
milled soil and the wheel tracks caused by the
weight of the soil stabilizer have to be removed
prior to grading and compacting.
Stabilized soil should be graded in exceptional
cases and in selective areas only prior to compaction as otherwise continuous layer thicknesses cannot be guaranteed.
Information on compaction and the equipment
to be used can be obtained from the Code
of practice for the compaction of subsoil and
subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr
die Verdichtung des Untergrundes und des
Unterbaues im Straenbau). The equipment
used must be tailored to the type of soil, layer
thickness and number of passes.

The specified degree of compaction has to be


ensured over the entire layer thickness and
across the entire cross-section including the
peripheral areas. The contractor has to perform
a trial compaction at the start of compaction to
verify that the specified requirements are met by
the working procedures selected.
The following details for the working procedure
have to be stipulated in a work instruction:
- the compaction equipment selected;
- the placing method;
- the number of roller passes required; and
- the maximum bulk height of the individual layers to be placed.

Soil stabilization

Qualified
soil improvement

Soil improvement

Curing
Curing is meant to prevent premature drying of
soil stabilized with hydraulic binders.
Stabilized layers need to be kept moist for a period of at least 3 days, for example, by spraying
a fine mist of water.
As an option, a bitumen emulsion (U 60 K) can
be sprayed on the fully compacted, moist layer
until a thin, continuous film has formed. The
quantity to be sprayed needs to be determined
in preliminary tests on a case-by-case basis.

If site vehicles are to drive on the stabilized soil,


the emulsion has to be protected by spreading
chippings (e.g. of grade 1/3 mm or 2/5 mm)
immediately after spraying.
Reference values for the spreading quantity are
approx. 0.7 kg/m for fine-grained soils and approx. 1.1 kg/m for coarse-grained soils.
Curing can be omitted if an additional layer is
placed on top of the still fresh, compacted layer.
Care must be taken, however, that the subsoil or
subgrade is neither disturbed nor squeezed.
Curing is generally not required when carrying
out soil treatment operations using building lime
or soil improvement operations using mixed
binders.

78 // 79

1.12.4

Requirements for soil treatment

Requirements on:

1.12.4.1 Binder quantity


Hydraulic binders and mixed binders

 he compressive strength is based on a specimen diameter of


T
10 cm.
In special cases, the 7-day strength can be tested taking into
account the development of strength of the binder. Hydraulic
binders resulting in a slow development of strength in the soil-binder
mixture may require the compressive strength to be verified after a
period exceeding 28 days.
2)
Compressive strength only is tested if the soil is classified into
frost-susceptibility class F1. Both tests are performed if the soil is
classified into frost-susceptibility class F2.
1)

Fine lime and hydrated lime

1.12.4.2 Compaction characteristics

Soil stabilization
Coarse-grained soils:
The Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB) apply.
Fine-grained or mixed-grained soils:
The binder quantity has to be selected to meet the
following requirements:
Soil groups

Frost resistance (heaving


of specimen)

GU, GT, SU, ST2)

I
1
I

GU*, SU*, UL, UM


GT*, ST*, TL, TM, TA

I
1
I

Recycled and manufactured aggregates

I
1
I

Compressive
strength) (after 28 days)
6.0 N/mm2

6.0 N/mm2

according to the Technical testing regulations for soil


and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.5
Compressive cylinder strength after exposure to frost
> 0.2 N/mm, binder quantity > 4% by mass

Requirement on the layer to be stabilized


(mixed-in-place process only)
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the
degree of compaction DPr or maximum 10 percentile
for the air voids ratio na
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

DPr> 100%

GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*


U, T, OU1), OT1)

DPr> 97%
and na< 12%

Requirements on the degree of compaction of the


stabilized layer immediately after completion of
compaction
1)

 hese requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their


T
suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.

DPr > 98% of the Proctor density of


the soil-binder mixture

Qualified soil improvement

Soil improvement

Binder content 3% by mass


Qualified soil improvement of subgrade
The binder quantity has to be selected to meet the following requirements:
Unconfined compressive strength after 28 days and testing in accordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3, 0.5 N/mm
The loss in strength after soaking in water for 24 hours
must not exceed 50%.
Alternatively: CBR after 28 days and testing in accordance
with the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in
road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 7.1, 40%
The loss in strength after soaking in water for 24 hours
must not exceed 50%.
The test may also be performed after 7 days and/or at
other testing times.
Qualified soil improvement for other applications
Determination of the binder quantity in accordance with
the structural soil analysis.

Requirements on compaction

Requirements on compaction
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the
degree of compaction DPr or maximum 10 percentile for
the air voids ratio na
Area

Soil groups

DPr
in %

na
in %

Subgrade to a depth of
1.00 m for embankments
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

>100

1.00 m below grade to


embankment base

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

>98

Subgrade to embankment GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*


base
U, T, OU1), OT1)
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts

>97

<12

Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the


degree of compaction DPr or maximum 10 percentile
for the air voids ratio na
Soil groups
DPr
na
Area
in %

in %

Subgrade to a depth of
1.00 m for embankments
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

>100

1.00 m below grade to


embankment base

GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST

>98

Subgrade to embankment GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*


base
U, T, OU1), OT1)
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts

>97

<12

80 // 81

Requirements on:

1.12.4.3 Verification of binder quantity

Soil stabilization
Based on the results of the mix design, the contractor specifies the binder quantity:
- in kg/m for the mixed-in-place process
- in % by mass for the mixed-in-plant process
The quantity of binder delivered for the construction lot must not:
- fall below the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 5%
- exceed the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 8%
Binder quantities determined individually (in accordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction
[TP BF-StB], Part 11.2) must not:
- fall below the design value determined in the
mix design by more than 10%
- exceed the design value determined in the mix
design by more than 15%

1.12.4.4 Surface

Max. deviation of the surface from the design


level: 2 cm

1.12.4.5 Evenness

2.0 cm over a measured length of 4 m if the


stabilized layer is the base immediately underlying the pavement

1.12.4.6 Paving thickness

Max. deviation of the paving thickness from the


design value: 10%

Qualified soil improvement

Soil improvement

Based on the results of the mix design, the contractor specifies the binder quantity:
- in kg/m for the mixed-in-place process
- in % by mass for the mixed-in-plant process
The quantity of binder delivered for the construction lot must not:
- fall below the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 5%
- exceed the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 8%
Binder quantities determined individually (in accordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction [TP BF-StB],
Part 11.2) must not:
- fall below the design value determined in the
mix design by more than 10%
- exceed the design value determined in the mix
design by more than 15%

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

Requirements determined by position within the


structure

82 // 83

1.13 Structural backfills


1.13.1 Terms
Backfill area
Drainage area (the drainage area is part of the
backfill area)

1.13.2

Cover fill area

Construction materials

The materials used must be resistant to weathering and must not contain any substances capable
of swelling, sensitive to disintegration or aggressive to the pavement.

The addition of binders enables the bearing ca


pacity of the backfill to be improved and the
inherent settlement to be reduced.

1.13.2.1 Drainage area


The drainage area has to be produced from
coarse-grained soil (DIN 18196).

1.13.2.2 Backfill and cover fill areas


 oarse-grained soils (SW, SI, SE, GW, GI, GE)
C
Mixed-grained soils (SU, ST, GU, GT)
Mixed-grained soils (SU*, ST*, GU*, GT*) and
fine-grained soils (TL, TM, UM, UL) combined
with qualified soil improvement
Manufactured aggregates and recycled construction materials
Coal fly ash, coal host rock and recycled construction materials containing asphalt may be
used outside the drainage area only.

In addition, a soil-binder mixture can be placed


in backfill areas where access is difficult; and
below the horizon underneath of which the
backfill cannot be drained due to a lack of runoff
capability and nearly impermeable subsoil
in order to ensure proper compaction and/or
prevent any accumulation of water.
If mixed-grained soils are used, the structures
require a 1.0 m thick drainage layer.

1.13.3 Compaction
The requirement on the minimum 10 percentile for
the degree of compaction of

DPr = 100%
applies to the
 ackfill area;
b
cover fill area; and
embankment shoulders at the wings of the
structure.

In the backfill and cover fill areas, the construction material must be placed and compacted in
uniform layers of approx. 30 cm in thickness.
Construction of the embankment cones at the
wings of the structure must proceed parallel to the
backfilling or cover-filling operation.
The backfill area must be tied-in with an embankment or cutting slope in a stepped, interlocking
pattern.

84 // 85

1.14 Refilling utility trenches


1.14.1 General
Previously excavated soil has to be used for refilling as required and as appropriate.
Appropriate measures have to be taken to maintain the stockpiled soil in a condition suitable for
placing.

Excavated, excessively wet soil can be treated


with binders to turn it into a condition suitable for
placing.

1.14.2 Working in the binder


The binder is worked in either next to the trench
using a mixing shovel or on a stockyard using a
soil stabilizer.

Binder drifts must be avoided when working in the


immediate neighbourhood of residential areas.
Low-dust binders have to be used where appropriate.

1.14.3 Compaction
The soil used to refill utility trenches in the body of
the road has to be compacted so as to meet the
following requirements on the minimum

10 percentile for the degree of compaction DPr or


the maximum 10 percentile for the air voids ratio na
respectively.

Area

Soil groups

DPr in %

na in % by
volume

Subgrade to a depth of 1.00 m for


embankments
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts

GW, GI, GE, SW, SI,


SE, GU, GT, SU, ST

100

1.00 m below grade to embankment base

GW, GI, GE, SW, SI,


SE, GU, GT, SU, ST

98

Subgrade to embankment base


Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts

GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*


U, T, OU1), OT1)

97

122)

1) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their


suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.

2) If the soils are not improved by means of soil stabilization or


qualified soil improvement, a requirement on the maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio is recommended as follows:
8
 % by volume when placing water-sensitive mixed-grained or
fine-grained soils; and
6
 % by volume when placing rock of variable strength.

A requirement on the minimum 10 percentile for


the degree of compaction of 97% applies for the

embedment of utility trenches in and outside of the


road body.

86 // 87

Introduction

Today, base layers with hydraulic binders comprise


stabilized layers, hydraulically bound base layers
or concrete base layers.
Base layers form the lower part of the roads pavement. The static and dynamic loads acting on the
pavement are transferred through the base and
into the subsoil or subgrade.
This manual addresses soil stabilization with
hydraulic binders and hydraulically bound base
layers.
Other types of base layers are cited for the purpose of completeness only.
The Romans were the first to successfully use
hydraulic binders in road construction.
Base layers consisting of lean concrete built at
the turn of the century can be found under some
of Munichs city-centre streets even today.

In the 1960s, there was a growing recognition in


Germany to manufacture cement-bound construction material mixtures for base layers in accordance with the principles of soil mechanics.
Technical and economic reasons have led to base
layers with hydraulic binders being used to an
ever-increasing extent.
In addition to the benefits of slab action, which
reduces the loads exerted on the subsoil or
subgrade, and their insusceptibility to temperature
fluctuations, base layers with hydraulic binders
offer the following additional advantages:
low susceptibility to long-term load action; no
creeping;
no permanent deformation under load at high
temperatures;
suitable recycled construction materials and
industrial by-products can be used; and
high durability (service life) of the base layer.

Hydraulic binders were used in the construction


of motorways and airport runways even prior to
World War II.

88 // 89

2.

Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders

2.1 General
According to the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces
(RStO), a distinction is made between:
base layers without binders;
base layers with hydraulic binders; and
base layers with special properties.

Paving mixes are construction material mixtures


with binder and water.
The leaching behaviour of harmful substances
must be determined when using construction material mixtures containing recycled material.

Construction material mixtures are mixtures


consisting of aggregates with a defined grading
without binder and water.

90 // 91

2.2 Terminology

Depending on the technology, source material and


mixing process used, base layers with hydraulic
binders are distinguished into:
Stabilized layers with hydraulic binders
Soil stabilization comprises a range of construction processes aiming at increasing the resistance of granular base layers to stresses caused
by traffic loading and climate.
The construction material mixture is compacted
after completion of the stabilizing operation.
In the process, hydraulic binders and water are
added to the soils and/or construction material
mixtures using the mixed-in-place or mixed-inplant process.
- Mixed-in-place process
The mixer travels on the layer prepared for
soil stabilization, scarifying it and mixing in
the specified hydraulic binder and required
quantity of water.

- Mixed-in-plant process
The soil or aggregate mixture is mixed with
the specified binder and required quantity
of water (mixing water) in stationary mixing
plants, transported to the construction site
and placed.
Hydraulically bound base layers
(produced using the mixed-in-plant process
only)
Hydraulically bound base layers consist of uncrushed and / or crushed construction material
mixtures and hydraulic binders.
Grading of the construction material mixture
must be within specified grading ranges. The
paving mix must be produced in mixing plants.
Concrete base layers
Concrete base layers are base layers of concrete in accordance with DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.

2.3 Base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance with ZTV Beton-StB1) and soil stabilization in accordance with ZTV E-StB2)

Concrete surfacing

Stone paving

Concrete pavement

Base layers with


hydraulic binders

Stabilization of
subsoil or subgrade

Subsoil
(F2 / F3 soils)

Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt base

Concrete surfacing

Frost-proof design

Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt base

Position of the stabilized layer


in the subsoil or subgrade
according to ZTV E-StB2)

Frost-proof material
[frost blanket]
(paved or native)

1)
2)

Frost-proof design

Position of the base layer with hydraulic binders according


to ZTV Beton-StB1)

Deformation modulus Degree of compaction


of stabilized layer
on subgrade
DPr 98%
Ev2 45 MN/mm

 dditional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
A
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction

92 // 93

2.4 Principles of production


2.4.1 General
Stabilized layers and hydraulically bound base layers are produced in line with the principles of soil
mechanics, meaning that:
t he Proctor density and corresponding optimum
water content are determined from the soilbinder mixture or construction material-binder
mixture by means of the Proctor test;
the required binder content is determined from
the Proctor specimen by means of compressive
testing and frost testing; and

t he degree of compaction is determined from


the Proctor density and field density.
Concrete used for concrete base layers is produced in accordance with DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.
Compressive strength and frost resistance are
tested on cubes.

2.5 Tests Definitions


2.5.1

Initial testing (mix design)

Initial tests are tests that have to be performed by


the contractor. They have to be performed prior to
first use in accordance with the Technical delivery
terms for construction materials and construction
material mixtures for base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB)
and Technical testing regulations for base layers
with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(TP Beton-StB).

rial mixtures and paving mixes for the intended


paving conditions and intended use in accordance
with the requirements stipulated in the building
contract.
Verification has to be provided by submitting test
certificates issued by a testing laboratory certified
for the respective construction materials and construction material mixtures.

Initial tests are performed to verify the suitability of


the construction materials, construction mate-

2.5.2

Factory production control

Factory production control is required for


soils;
construction material mixtures; and
paving mixes

If the soils or the construction material mixtures


and paving mixes are supplied or manufactured by
the paving companies, factory production control
is an integral part of internal control.

delivered by third-party suppliers.


The supplier is obliged to present the results of
factory production controls.

94 // 95

Initial testing and factory production control on stabilized layers and hydraulically bound base
layers:
Type of base layer

Initial testing

Factory production control

Binders
Binder type and grade

stabilized layer and hydraulically bound base

comparison of delivery
notes for each delivery

Soil or construction material mixture


stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound
base

in each instance

for every 2,500 tonnes or


part thereof of quantity delivered, at least once per day

Fines content

stabilized layer

in each instance

as required

Water content

stabilized layer

in each instance

as required, at least once


per day

Proctor density and


optimum water content

stabilized layer

in each instance

Condition of aggregates

hydraulically bound
base

in each instance

visual inspection

Grading

Paving mix
Binder content

stabilized layer and


hydraulically bound base

in each instance

as required, at least once


per day

Proctor density

stabilized layer and


hydraulically bound base

in each instance

Water content

stabilized layer and


hydraulically bound base

in each instance

at least twice per day

Compressive strength
tested on specimen

stabilized layer and


hydraulically bound base

in each instance

as required

Frost resistance

on soils or construction material mixtures


stabilized layer and
with a fines content
hydraulically bound base
0.063 mm between
5% and 15% by mass

Condition of aggregates

hydraulically bound base

visual inspection

2.5.3

Internal control testing

Internal control tests are tests that have to be


performed by the contractor.

These tests are performed to check whether the


properties of
the construction materials;
the paving mixes; and
the finished work
comply with the contractual requirements.

2.5.4

Compliance testing

Compliance tests are tests that have to be performed by the client.


These tests are performed to check whether the
properties of
t he construction materials;
the construction material mixtures and paving
mixes; and
the finished work
comply with the contractual requirements.
Acceptance is based on the results of these tests.

An arbitration investigation is the repetition of a


compliance test in the proper execution of which
the client or contractor have reasonable doubts.
At the request of one of the contractual parties,
it has to be performed by a testing laboratory
approved by the contractor and client which has
not performed the compliance test. The result of
the arbitration investigation replaces the original
test result. The costs are borne by the party to
whose disadvantage the result turns out to be.

96 // 97

2.6 Construction materials


2.6.1

Soils and aggregates for soil stabilization

The following soils and aggregates can be used for


soil stabilization:

Percentage d 0.063 mm (% by mass)

 oarse-grained soils according to DIN 18196


c
mixed-grained soils of groups GU, SU, GT and
ST if they comply with the requirements of frostsusceptibility class F1
aggregates complying with the requirements of
Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB).

ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*
TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU

The quality of soils intended for soil stabilization


is controlled in accordance with the Technical
delivery terms for construction material mixtures
and soils for the production of unbound granular
layers in road construction, Part: Quality control
(TL G SoB-StB).
The use of reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tarbound road construction materials is governed
in Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for
construction materials and construction material
mixtures for base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB).
In addition, compliance with the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) is of particular importance.

15
ST, GT
SU, GU
TA
OT, OH
OK

F2
10

ST, GT
SU, GU
F1

5
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE

F1

0
1 5 10
d60
Coefficient of uniformity U=
d10

15

If the fines content < 0.063 mm ranges between 5% by mass and


15% by mass, adequate frost resistance of the hardened paving mix
must be verified by means of frost testing as part of the mix design
(initial testing).

2.6.2 Aggregates and construction material mixtures for hydraulically


bound base layers
The following soils and aggregates can be used for
hydraulically bound base layers:
 atural, crushed and uncrushed aggregates;
n
aggregates and construction material mixtures
for base layers with hydraulic binders must
comply with the requirements of the Technical
delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB). Their quality is controlled
in accordance with the Technical delivery terms
for construction material mixtures and soils for
the production of unbound granular layers in
road construction, Part: Quality control (TL G
SoB-StB).
artificial aggregates (coal fly ash, blast-furnace
slag, granulated blast-furnace slag, steel slag,
copper slag, foundry/cupola furnace slag, wetbottom boiler slag and volcanic slag) and coal fly
ash as an additive or addition to the construction material mixture. The areas of application
specified in the table on page 98 have to be
complied with when using manufactured or
recycled aggregates and volcanic slags.

r ecycled aggregates in accordance with the


Code of practice for the reuse of concrete from
pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung
von Beton aus Fahrbahndecken) without requiring additional verification provided they are
reclaimed from and placed on the same site.
The use of reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tarbound road construction materials is governed
in Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for
construction materials and construction material
mixtures for base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB).
In addition, compliance with the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) is of particular importance.

98 // 99

Requirements on aggregates in base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance with the
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB):
Property
Material designation
Fines content in aggregate
fractions 0/2 and 0/5
Fines content in aggregate
fractions 2/4 and 32/63

Stabilized layer

Hydraulically bound
base

Concrete base

determination of petrographic attributes according to DIN EN 932-3


f3

has to be specified; permissible fines


contents in the construction material
mixture must not be exceeded

Particle shape of
coarse-grained aggregates

f1

SI50 (FI50)
Grading
GF80 for 0/5

GF85

Aggregate fractions /
aggregate product size

GC80/20 for 5/11, 11/22, 22/32, 32/45 and 45/56

Aggregate fractions /
aggregate product size

GC85/20 for 2/4, 4/8, 8/16, 16/32 and 32/64


GC90/15 for 5/8, 8/11, 11/16 and 16/22

Combined aggregate fractions

if D/d < 4: GTC20/15; if D/d 4: GTC20/17.5;


for aggregates according to DIN EN 13242: GTNR

Grading tolerances

tolerances according to Table 4,


lines 1 + 2 of the Technical delivery
terms for aggregates in road
construction (TL Gestein-StB)

GTANR

Apparent density

to be specified

Absorption of water

Wcm 0.5

Resistance to frost

F4

Sunburn of basalt

SBSZ (SBLA)

Organic impurities

mLPC NR

Decay of dicalcium silicate in blast-furnace slag or foundry/cupola-furnace slag

none

Decay of iron in blast-furnace slag or


foundry/cupola-furnace slag

none

Volume stability of steel slag


Alkali-silica reaction

V5
compliance with the alkali guideline
issued by the German Committee for
Reinforced Concrete (DAfStB)

steel slag not suitable for use


specify alkali-sensitivity classes

Substances disturbing the setting and


hardening process

have to be verified

Environmentally relevant attributes

The requirements on environmentally relevant attributes have to be


complied with when using manufactured aggregates and recycled
construction materials.

Areas of application for manufactured or recycled aggregates:

1)

Construction
materials

Coal fly ash

Blast-furnace slag,
granulated blastfurnace slag, copper
slag, foundry/cupola-furnace slag,
wet-bottom boiler
slag, volcanic slag

Construction class

SV, I to VI

SV, I to VI

SV, I to VI

SV, I to VI

IV to VI

Stabilized layers

as an addition to
the aggregate

as aggregate

as aggregate

as aggregate

to a limited
extent 2)

Hydraulically bound
base layers

as an addition to
the aggregate

as aggregate

as aggregate

as aggregate

3)

Concrete base
layers

as additive

as aggregate

3)

as aggregate

3)

 ecycled aggregates in accordance with the Code of practice for


R
the reuse of concrete from pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung von Beton aus Fahrbahndecken) can be used for base
layers with hydraulic binders without requiring additional verification
provided they are reclaimed from and placed on the same site.

Steel slag

Recycled
construction
materials 1)

Domestic
waste incineration ash

In accordance with the Code of practice on the use of domestic


waste incineration ash in road construction (Merkblatt ber die Ver
wertung von Hausmllverbrennungsasche im Straenbau - M HMV-A).
3)
Not applicable.
2)

100 // 101

2.6.3

Aggregates and construction material mixtures for concrete base layers

Aggregates as described in section 2.6.2,


Aggregates and construction material mixtures for
hydraulically bound base layers, the only restriction being that suitable coal fly ash cannot be used

as an addition to the aggregates but as an additive


only. The grading curves to be complied with are
based on the requirements of DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.

2.6.4

Hydraulic binders

Cements in accordance with DIN EN 197 or


DIN 1164-10 as shown in the table below or
hydraulic soil and road binders in accordance

with DIN 18506 (strength classes 12.5 and 32.5)


are used as binders.

Main types of cement

Designation of cement types

CEM I

Portland cement
Portland blast-furnace slag cement

CEM II

Main constituents

A/B

Portland silica fume cement

A
A/B

Portland fly ash cement

Fly ash

Portland burnt shale cement

A/B

Shale

Portland limestone cement

Portland composite cement

1)
2)

S Granulated blast-furnace slag

Portland pozzolanic cement

A
CEM II-M

CEM III

Blast-furnace slag cement

CEM IV

Pozzolanic cement

CEM V

Composite cement

Silica fume

P/Q

Pozzolans

LL

Limestone

S-D, S-T, S-LL

S-P, S-V

D-T, D-LL, D-P

D-V

T-LL

P-V, P-T, P-LL

V-T, V-LL

S-D, S-T, S-P

D-T, D-P

P-T

P1)

S-P2)

A
B

 pplies only to trass according to DIN 51043 as the main constituent of up to max. 40% by mass
A
Applies only to trass according to DIN 51043 as the main constituent

102 // 103

2.6.5 Water
Any naturally occurring water complying with the
requirements of DIN EN 1008 is suitable for use as
mixing water. For base layers with hydraulic

2.6.6

binders, residual water may be used in accordance


with the provisions specified in DIN EN 206-1, DIN
EN 1008 and DIN 1045-2.

Concrete admixtures/Concrete additives

Concrete admixtures must comply with the requirements of DIN EN 934-2 or must be approved
for use by the supervising authority. DIN V 20000100 has to be complied with when using concrete
admixtures in accordance with DIN EN 934-2.
Concrete additives must comply with the requirements of DIN EN 450 and DIN EN 12620 for fillers

or must be approved for use by the supervising


authority. The provisions specified in DIN EN 206-1
and DIN 10545-2 have to be complied with.
Soils can be improved in terms of grading by adding coal fly ash in accordance with the requirements of DIN EN 450-1.

2.7 Requirements on base layers with


hydraulic binders
2.7.1 Design
The type and thickness of base layers with hydraulic binders which either underlie a concrete
or asphalt surfacing or are part of a fully bound
pavement depend on the construction class and
type of base layer to be built.

2.7.2

Pavement layers with binders

The minimum paving thicknesses of base layers with hydraulic binders are governed in the
Additional technical conditions of contract and

2.7.3

When building a base layer with hydraulic binders,


the asphalt base in construction classes SV, I to IV
is thinner by 8 cm to 4 cm according to the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures
of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01) than an asphalt
base built on top of a frost blanket.

directives for the construction of base layers with


hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV
Beton-StB).

Minimum paving thicknesses

2.7.3.1 Stabilized layers


With stabilized layers, the minimum paving thicknesses depend on the mixing process used and
the maximum particle size of the paving mix.
Stabilized layers must have the following minimum
paving thicknesses:
> 12 cm when using the mixed-in-plant
process
> 15 cm when using the mixed-in-place
process

Depending on the maximum particle size, stabilized layers must have the following minimum
paving thicknesses:
> 12 cm with paving mixes of
particle size 0/32 mm
> 15 cm with paving mixes of
particle size 0/45 mm
> 20 cm with paving mixes of
particle size > 0/45 mm.

2.7.3.2 Hydraulically bound base layers


Each layer of a hydraulically bound base must
have the following minimum layer thickness after
compaction:

> 12 cm with paving mixes of particle size


0/32 mm
> 15 cm with paving mixes of particle size
0/45 mm

104 // 105

2.7.3.3 Concrete base layers


Each layer of a concrete base must have a minimum thickness of 12 cm, or 15 cm when compacted by means of internal vibrators.

2.7.4

Edge design of base layers

If built without edging, base layers have to be


wider (by at least 50 cm) than the surfacing and
must be sloped at the edges.
Widening of the base layer improves the structural
behaviour of the pavement in the peripheral area,
creating a stable base for formwork or for the
contact surface of a slipform paver. If the contact
surface of the slipform paver is wider than 40 cm,

the excess width of the base layer must be at least


as wide as the contact surface plus 10 cm.
Base layers with hydraulic binders require the
lateral excess width at the raised edge of the carriageway to be built with a reverse outside gradient
in order to prevent the ingress of water into the
road structure from the side.

2.7.4.1 Details of edge design

Edge design of concrete surfacing on top of base layer with hydraulic binders:
20 50

100
Concrete surfacing

4%

Fibre mat

1.

Subgrade

1:

Base layer with hydraulic binder

20

Frost blanket
q2.5%

q4%

Edge design of asphalt surfacing on top of base layer with hydraulic binders (hydraulically bound base):
Asphalt surface course

100

Asphalt binder course (where appropriate)

:1

20 10

Asphalt base

4%

Base layer with hydraulic binder


(hydraulically bound base)

1.

1:

Frost blanket

20

Subgrade

q2.5%

q4%

Edge design of asphalt pavement on top of stabilized layer:


100

Asphalt surface course


Asphalt binder course (where appropriate)

4%

:1

20 10

Asphalt base

.
:1

Subgrade
20

Base layer with hydraulic binder


(stabilized layer)
Frost blanket

q4%

q2.5%

106 // 107

2.7.5

Drainage of base layers

The reverse gradient must be designed so as to


extend under the road pavement by up to 1.0 m
measured from the edge of the pavement. Otherwise, special measures must be taken. In addition,

2.7.6

Execution at low/high temperatures and frost

It is not permissible to build a base layer on frozen


subsoil or subgrade or to place frozen construction
material mixtures and paving mixes.
Paving mixes for base layers with hydraulic binders
may only be processed at temperatures of > 5C. If
frost is to be expected within the first 7 days after
production of the base layer, the base layer must be
protected to ensure that no damage is caused.
Paving mixes for concrete base layers may only be

2.7.7

effective draining facilities must be in place which


have to be adjusted and protected and the function of which has to be maintained in accordance
with the progress of construction.

paved if the fresh concrete temperature is higher


than 5C and lower than 30C. If the air temperatures
to be expected during the concreting operation are
lower than 5C or higher than 30C, special measures have to be taken in accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives
for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB).

Correct vertical and horizontal position

The surface of base layers with hydraulic binders


must not deviate from the design level by more
than 1.5 cm.

The surface of base layers with hydraulic binders


underlying a concrete road pavement must not
deviate from the design level by more than
+ 0.5 cm or -1.5 cm.

2.7.8 Evenness
The surface irregularities of stabilized layers and
hydraulically bound base layers must not exceed
1.5 cm over a measured length of 4 m.

The surface irregularities of concrete base layers


must not exceed 1.0 cm over a measured length
of 4 m.

2.7.9

Tolerances of paving thickness

The paving mass (in kg/m2) for


a stabilized layer;
a hydraulically bound base layer; and
a concrete base layer
may be lower than the specified paving mass by
max. 10%.
Determination of the paving mass for each layer is
typically based on the paving mass for the entire
construction lot or, as a minimum, the output of
one working day.
The paving thickness (in cm) must not be lower
than the specified thickness by more than
 .0 cm for a stabilized layer or hydraulic base
3
layer; and
2.5 cm for a concrete base layer.
Paving thickness is considered to be the arithmetic
mean of all single values for the respective layer
over the entire construction lot.

2.7.10

Grooves or joints

All base layers with binders must be separated


from permanent fixtures by means of an expansion
joint.
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying an
asphalt surfacing must be grooved or divided into
sections by means of contraction joints.
The grooves or contraction joints are typically
spaced at maximum intervals of 5 m.
A fibre mat has to be laid between a base layer
with hydraulic binders and the concrete surfac-

ing (standard construction method) in order to


prevent reflection cracking in the surfacing as well
as erosion of the base layer. Alternatively, it is also
possible to place an asphalt base.
In special cases where no fibre mat is laid and the
concrete surfacing is placed right on top of the
base layer, the joints and grooves to be cut into
the base are determined by the longitudinal compression joints and transverse contraction joints of
the concrete surfacing.

108 // 109

The grooves must have a minimum depth of 35%


of the specified paving thickness according to the
Additional technical conditions of contract and
directives for the construction of base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV
Beton-StB). In base layers underlying a concrete
surfacing, the grooves must be cut in accordance
with the joint pattern of the concrete surfacing.
Work sections and daily sections have to be
vertical in design over the entire paving thickness.
Working joints have to be designed as compression joints. Expansion joints have to be created
adjacent to structures or around fixtures.

Longitudinal and transverse joints prior to being overlaid with an asphalt surfacing

Special regulations may be required for aircraft


movement areas due to the increased thickness of
the concrete surfacing.

2.7.11 Curing
The stabilized layer must be cured for a minimum
period of 3 days unless the base is overlaid with
an additional layer immediately after placing.
Curing options:
wet curing;
spraying a bitumen emulsion; or
applying a water-retaining cover.
Wet curing requires the stabilized layer to be kept
slightly moist by spraying water for a period of
3 days after placing and compaction.
When using a C60B1-S bitumen emulsion, the
solvent-free emulsion has to be sprayed evenly on
the compacted base layer as soon as the layer has
gone beyond the slightly moist state.

The emulsion is sprayed at a quantity of approx.


0.5 kg/m. A thin, continuous film should be created. Before the bitumen emulsion breaks, the
layer must have been gritted with chippings of
grain size 2/5 mm which have to be pressed down
gently by means of rollers.
If the base layer is to be trafficked at an early
stage, there is the risk of winding or unwinding of
the continuous film.
When applying a water-retaining cover, the compacted, slightly damp, hydraulically bound base
layer has to be covered with a burlap or polyethylene film.
Concrete curing compounds are not suitable for
curing hydraulic base layers.

Curing can be omitted if an asphalt mix is placed


on top of the still fresh, compacted layer. Care
must be taken, however, that the structure of the
base layer with hydraulic binders is not disturbed
in the process.

In addition, the hot mix has a positive effect on


the development of strength in the base layer. A
base layer with hydraulic binders overlaid with an
asphalt base having a minimum thickness of 8 cm
can be opened to traffic immediately.

Wet curing of a finished hydraulic base layer

110 // 111

2.7.11.1 T
 able: Summary of requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance
with ZTV Beton-StBa)
 roctor density
P
Standard requirement
3)
Higher requirement when underlying a concrete pavement
4)
When underlying an asphalt pavement
5)
No requirements when underlying a concrete pavement
6)
Paving thickness is considered to be the arithmetic mean of all
single values of the paving thickness for the respective layer over the
entire construction lot.
7)
Typically the mean value over the entire construction lot; however,
mean values may also be formed for partial sections which, as a
minimum, must equal the output of one working day.
8)
Tested on Proctor specimens with a height of 125 mm and diameter
of 150 mm; when testing on specimens with a height of 120 mm
and diameter of 100 mm, the compressive strength values determined have to be multiplied by 1.25 to be comparable with the
values indicated in the table.
9)
Mean value from three related specimens the single values of which
do not deviate from the mean value by more than 2.0 N/mm.
10)
Single value
11)
Mean value
12)
Binder quantity is considered to be the arithmetic mean of all single
values of the binder quantity in the stabilized layer over the entire
construction lot; excess quantities not exceeding the design value
by more than 15% only may be taken into account for determination of the mean value.
13)
 15 cm if compacted by internal vibrators
14)
The fines content < 0.063 mm determined during initial testing and
increased by the binder content must not be exceeded by more
than 2.0% by mass.
1)
2)

Degree of compaction of the layer to be stabilized


Degree of compaction of the stabilized layer
Deviation of surface from the design level
(correct vertical and horizontal position)
Evenness
Permissible deviation of paving thickness 6)/
paving weight 7)
Compressive strength within the parameters
of initial testing
Compressive strength within the parameters
of compliance testing
Strength class
Frost resistance at a fines content < 0.063 mm
of between 5% and 15% by mass
Minimum binder quantity
Binder quantity within the parameters
of compliance testing 12)

Minimum thickness of each layer

Requirements on grading

Permissible deviation from grading determined in the


mix design (% by mass)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
Compressive strength
Mean compressive strength
d)
Single compressive strength test results
a)

b)
c)

Stabilized layer
Mixed-in-place process

Mixed-in-plant process

100%1)

Hydraulically bound base

Concrete base

98%1)
1.5 cm2)
+ 0.5 cm or -1.5 cm3)
1.5 cm / 4 m
single values 3.0 cm
mean 10%

single values 2.5 cm


mean 10%

7.0 N/mm2 4) 8) 9)
15.0 N/mm2 3) 8) 9)

fckb)

3.5 N/mm2 4) 10)


n = 1 6.0 N/mm2 3) 8) 10)
n 8 8.0 N/mm2 3) 8) 11)
n 9 10.0 N/mm2 3) 8) 11)

fcid) fckb) - 4 N/mm2


fcmc) fckb) + 4 N/mm2

C 12/15 to C 20/25

change of length 1

> 3.0 M.-%

mean -5 to +8% rel.


single values -10 to
+15% rel. 4) 5)

15 cm ( 0/45)
20 cm (> 0/45)

12 cm ( 0/32)
15 cm (0/45)
20 cm (> 0/45)

12 cm (0/32)
15 cm (0/45)

12 cm 13)

< 0.063 mm 15% by mass,


> 2 mm between 55% and 84% by mass,
coarsest fraction 10% by mass,
oversize 10% by mass

according to
DIN 1045 or
DIN EN 206
respectively

for 2 mm, 8 mm and 16 mm


8 < 0.063 mm 14)

112 // 113

2.8 Producing stabilized layers


2.8.1

Requirements on paving mixes for stabilized layers

The paving mix formula has to be determined by


means of initial testing.

2.8.2 Production
In soil stabilization, each layer must be produced
so as to be of consistent quality and comply with
the specified requirements.
Work sections and daily sections have to be vertical in design over the entire paving thickness. Any
loose material has to be removed prior to placing a
layer immediately adjacent to a previously placed,
already hardened stabilized layer.

2.8.3

Additional layers may be applied on top of the


freshly placed stabilized layer provided that the
stabilized layer is not squeezed excessively and is
not deprived of the water required for hardening.
Stabilized layers can be produced using the
mixed-in-place or mixed-in-plant process.

Mixed-in-place process

In a first step, the layer intended for stabilization


has to be levelled off to the cross-section to be
produced. At the same time, the layer has to be
compacted until the specified degree of compaction and required evenness have been achieved.
In the process, care needs to be taken that the
optimum water content for the stabilized layer is
not exceeded and the degree of compaction is not
lower than specified.
In the mixed-in-place process, the compacted
soil or construction material mixture intended
for stabilization is mixed with the required binder
quantity in-situ using a milling machine. A spreader
with metering unit spreads the binder quantity
determined during initial testing.

In the next work step, the binder is mixed into


the soil using suitable high-performance milling
machines. Any additional water must be added no
earlier than after the first mixing pass or during the
mixing pass when using a single-pass stabilizer.
The water is added via sprinkler trucks or a spray
bar installed in the milling rotor housing.
Mixing of the soil intended for stabilization and the
specified binder quantity must be organized and
coordinated in such a way that the stabilized layer
is produced rapidly in the time frame available for
processing the paving mix over the entire crosssection (processing time from adding standard cement to completion of compaction is max. 2 hours
at temperatures of up to 20C and max. 1.5 hours
if temperatures are higher).

Stabilized layers produced in single, adjacent cuts


have to be placed fresh-in-fresh. Each finished
cut has to be milled and compacted together with

2.8.4

the new, adjacent cut at a minimum overlap width


of 20 cm.

Mixed-in-plant process

In the mixed-in-plant process, a compulsory mixer


is used to mix the soil or construction material
mixture with the specified binder quantity and mixing water. It is not permitted to use gravity mixers.
The source material is metered either by weight or
by volume. The mixing plants must have sufficient
capacity to enable rapid placing and compaction.
Mixing of the binder, water and soil or construction material mixture needs to continue until a

homogeneous paving mix of uniform colour has


been produced.
The finished paving mix has to be protected from
the effects of weather and transported to the construction site where it is typically placed by road
pavers. Prior to placing, the subsoil or subgrade
must be levelled off to the specified level and
generally requires moistening in order to prevent
dehydration of the paving mix to be placed.

114 // 115

The paving mix has to be placed evenly in order to


prevent segregation and ensure that the specified

2.8.5

Placing and compaction

If the mixed-in-place process is used, the fresh,


compactable paving mix is produced in-situ on the
paving site. The paving mixes produced in-plant
are transported to the paving site in trucks. In case
of adverse weather or longer transport distances,
the mix needs to be covered with tarpaulins. The
paving mix can be placed using road pavers, graders or bulldozers.
Depending on the maximum particle size and type
of paving mix, the minimum paving thickness for
each layer after compaction must be
12 cm for paving mixes of particle size
0/32 mm;
15 cm for paving mixes of particle size
0/45 mm; and
20 cm for paving mixes of particle sizes
> 0/45 mm.
Concrete base layers must have a minimum
thickness of 12 cm.

2.8.6

layer thickness, surface evenness and degree of


compaction are achieved.

Fresh-in-fresh paving is the method of choice


to achieve a perfect bond between layers. A
compacted, yet still fresh base layer with hydraulic
binders has to be roughened prior to applying the
next layer.
Removing or, even more importantly, applying
fresh paving mixes to produce a surface of correct
vertical and horizontal position should be avoided.
The following compaction equipment (optional
or in combination) is used for compaction of the
paving mixes:
 neumatic-tyred rollers, weight between
p
15 t and 32 t
single-drum compactors, weight between
12 t and 25 t
large surface vibrators

Requirements on the degree of compaction

Layers intended for stabilization using the mixedin-place process must have a minimum degree of
compaction DPr of 100% of the Proctor density of
the soil or construction material mixture.

The compacted, not yet hardened layer must have


a minimum degree of compaction DPr of 98% of
the Proctor density of the paving mix.

2.9 Producing hydraulically bound base layers


2.9.1

Requirements on the paving mix

The optimal paving mix formula has to be determined within the parameters of initial testing.
When placing the paving mix, the optimum water
content must not be exceeded and the degree of
compaction must not be lower than specified.

2.9.2

Compared with initial testing, the aggregate fractions in the paving mix larger than 2 mm, 8 mm
and 16 mm may be higher or lower by no more
than 8% by mass relative to the dry construction
material mixture. The fines content < 0.063 mm of
the dry construction material mixture must not be
exceeded by more than 2.0% by mass.

Production, transport and placing

The paving mix for hydraulically bound base layers is produced in-plant in accordance with initial
testing.
The paving mix is transported to the paving site in
trucks. In the event of adverse weather or longer
transport distances, it needs to be covered with
tarpaulins.
The paving mix has to be conveyed and placed in
such a way that no segregation occurs.

The following compaction equipment (optional


or in combination) is used for compaction of the
paving mixes:
 neumatic-tyred rollers, weight between
p
12 t and 25 t
single-drum compactors, weight between
12 t and 18 t
large surface vibrators

The paving mix is typically placed by road pavers.


If new cuts are produced adjacent to the existing
cuts of a hydraulically bound base layer, vertical
joints have to be created, and any loose material
having accumulated along the edges of the hardened base layer has to be removed.
Additional layers may be applied on top of the
base layer provided that the paving process
does not cause any excessive squeezing in the
hardening base layer and that the base layer is not
deprived of the water required for hardening.

116 // 117

2.9.3

Requirements on the finished layer

A compacted hydraulically bound base layer that


has not yet hardened must have a degree of compaction of no less than 98%.
When underlying a concrete surfacing, the compressive strength of a hydraulically bound base
layer must not be lower than
 .0 N/mm for each single value; and
6
8.0 N/mm in the mean calculated from less
than 9 related single values; or
10.0 N/mm in the mean calculated from more
than 8 related single value

When underlying an asphalt surfacing, the compressive strength of a hydraulically bound base
layer must not be lower than
 .5 N/mm for each single value; and
3
8.0 N/mm in the mean calculated from less
than 9 related single values; or
10.0 N/mm in the mean calculated from more
than 8 related single values
determined after 28 days within the parameters of
compliance testing using specimens with a height
of 125 mm and diameter of 150 mm.

determined after 28 days within the parameters of


compliance testing using specimens with a height
of 125 mm and diameter of 150 mm.

2.10 Producing concrete base layers


The concrete must comply with strength classes
C12/15 to C20/25 in accordance with DIN EN
206-1.
Concrete base layers have to be produced in
accordance with DIN 1045-3 and have to be cured
for a minimum period of 3 days.
Road pavers are typically used to place the concrete uniformly, fully compacting it in the paving
process. Paper layers or polyethylene films underlying the concrete base layer may be omitted.

Where appropriate, the subsoil or subgrade below


the concrete base layer has to be moistened if
there is a risk of dehydration of the concrete base
layer. Additional layers may be applied on top of
the base layer provided that it has hardened sufficiently.

2.11 Type and scope of testing


2.11.1

Initial testing for stabilized layers

Soils and construction material mixtures with a


maximum particle size of up to 63 mm are suitable
for use in stabilized layers. The fines content
< 0.063 mm must not exceed 15% by mass.
If the fines content < 0.063 mm ranges between
5% by mass and 15% by mass, adequate frost
resistance of the hardened paving mix must be
verified as part of initial testing. Adequate frost resistance has been achieved if the change of length
of the hardened paving mix during frost resistance
testing does not exceed 1.
The binder quantity has to be selected to ensure
that, during initial testing, the mean compressive
strengths of three related test specimens (diameter
= 150 mm, height = 125 mm) are
7.0 N/mm when underlying an asphalt
surfacing; and
 15.0 N/mm when underlying a concrete
surfacing.

The following requirements must be complied with


during initial testing:
 he minimum binder quantity is 3.0% by mass of
T
the dry soil or construction material mixture.
For a stabilized layer underlying an asphalt layer,
the mean compressive strength of three related
test specimens must be 7 N/mm. If the compressive strength of 7 N/mm is exceeded at the
minimum binder quantity of 3.0% by mass, the
minimum binder content is applicable.
For a stabilized layer underlying a concrete
surfacing, the mean compressive strength of three
related test specimens must not be lower than
15 N/mm.
The single compressive strength values for each
binder quantity selected must not be higher or
lower than the related mean value by more than
2.0 N/mm.
The change of length determined during frost
resistance testing must not exceed 1. If a
higher binder quantity is determined as a result of
frost resistance testing, the higher binder quantity
is applicable.

Criteria for determining the binder quantity during initial testing of paving mixes for
stabilized layers:
Type of soils and/or
construction material
mixtures

Frost resistance
Change of length
[]

Fines contents in soils


and/or construction
material mixtures
5% by mass
Fines contents in soils
and/or construction
material mixtures
> 5% by mass and 15%
by mass

Compressive strength
after 28 days
under asphalt layers
[N/mm2]

under concrete surfacings


[N/mm2]

15.0

l 1.0

The requirements on compressive strength relate to a test specimen with a height A of 125 mm and diameter
D of 150 mm.

118 // 119

Flow chart for determining the minimum


binder quantity:

Soils or construction
material mixtures
Fines content < 0.063 mm
5% by mass

Compressive strength after 28 days


Asphalt design
7 N/mm

Concrete design
15 N/mm2

Soils or construction
material mixtures
Fines content < 0.063 mm
> 5% by mass and 15% by mass

Compressive strength after 28 days


Asphalt design
7 N/mm

Concrete design
15 N/mm2

Frost testing
l 1

Binder content from initial testing


3% by mass
(standard case)

3% by mass
(special case)

Minimum binder
quantity
3.0% by mass

Binder content for construction

2.11.2

Initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers

Construction material mixtures with a maximum


particle size of up to 31.5 mm or 45 mm are suitable
for use in hydraulically bound base layers. The aggregate fraction larger than the maximum particle
size must not exceed 10% by mass, and the fines
content 0.063 mm must not exceed 15% by mass.
In addition, the aggregate fraction 2 mm must be
between 16% by mass and 45% by mass, and the
aggregate fraction passing the next smaller sieve
than the maximum particle size (22.4 mm or
31.5 mm respectively) must be lower than 90% by
mass. The binder quantity must not be lower than
3.0% by mass relative to the dry construction material mixture.
The binder quantity has to be determined by means
of interpolation. If the fines content 0.063 mm
ranges between 5% by mass and 15% by mass,
adequate frost resistance of the hardened paving
mix must be verified as part of initial testing.
The binder quantity has to be selected to ensure
that, during initial testing, the mean compressive
strengths of three related test specimens
(diameter = 150 mm, height = 125 mm) are

The following requirements must be complied with


during initial testing:
 he minimum binder quantity is 3.0% by mass
T
of the dry construction material mixture.
For a hydraulically bound base layer underlying
an asphalt layer, the mean compressive strength
of three related specimens must be 7 N/mm.
If the compressive strength of 7 N/mm is
exceeded at the minimum binder quantity of
3.0% by mass, the minimum binder content is
applicable.
For a hydraulically bound base layer underlying
a concrete surfacing, the mean compressive
strength of three related test specimens must
not be lower than 15 N/mm.
The single compressive strength values for each
binder quantity selected must not be higher or
lower than the related mean value by more than
2.0 N/mm.
The change of length determined during frost
resistance testing must not exceed 1. If a
higher binder quantity is determined as a result
of frost resistance testing, the higher binder
quantity is applicable.

7.0 N/mm when underlying an asphalt


surfacing; and
 15.0 N/mm when underlying a concrete
surfacing.

120 // 121

Criteria for determining the binder quantity during initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers:
Type of soils and/or
construction material
mixtures

Frost resistance
Change of length

Frost resistance
Change of length

[]
Fines contents in soils
and/or construction
material mixtures
5% by mass
Fines contents in soils
and/or construction
material mixtures
> 5% by mass and
15% by mass

under asphalt layers


[N/mm]

under concrete
surfacings [N/mm2]

15.0

l 1.0

The requirements on compressive strength relate to a test specimen with a height A of 125 mm and diameter
D of 150 mm.

2.11.3

Initial testing for concrete base layers

The concrete must comply with compressive


strength classes C 12/15 to C 20/25. In initial

2.11.4

testing, verifications have to be provided in accordance with DIN EN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2.

Internal control and compliance testing for stabilized layers

The process of paving base layers with hydraulic


binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.

Type and scope of the tests to be performed can


be inferred from the following table.

1. Stabilized layer
Internal control testing

Compliance testing

Paving mix
a) Conformity with initial testing

comparison of delivery notes


or visual inspection for each
delivery

b) C
 ompressive strength or
binder content

at least every 500 m or part


thereof, or every 6,000 m of
base layer

When overlaid with an asphalt


layer, the binder content may be
tested instead of compressive
strength.

at least every 100 m or part


thereof, or every 1,000 m,
but at least once per day

On the layer prepared for soil stabilization by means of the mixed-in-place method
a) Degree of compaction

every 250 m or part thereof, or


every 3,000 m or part thereof

b) C
 orrect vertical and horizontal
position

as required

c) Binder quantity

as required

On the stabilized layer


(immediately after compaction regardless of the construction method
used and type of overlying layer)
a) Layer thickness

as required

at least every 100 m or part


thereof, or every 1,000 m

b) C
 orrect vertical and horizontal
position and evenness

as required

at intervals not exceeding 50 m

at least every 250 m or part


thereof, or every 3,000 m

at least every 500 m or part


thereof, or every 6,000 m, but at
least once per day

c) Degree of compaction

122 // 123

2.11.5

Internal control and compliance testing for hydraulically bound base layers

The process of paving base layers with hydraulic


binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.

Type and scope of the tests to be performed can


be inferred from the following table.

2. Hydraulically bound base


Internal control testing

Compliance testing

On the paving mix or on the finished work


a) Conformity with initial testing

comparison of delivery notes or


visual inspection for each delivery
as required, at least every 6,000 m
of base layer or part thereof

b) Grading

c) Proctor density

at least twice per day

d) Compressive strength tested on


specimen (diameter D = 150 mm,
height H = 125 mm)
e) Condition of aggregate

f) Water content

as required, at least every 6,000 m


of base layer or part thereof
visual inspection
every 3,000 m or part thereof,
but at least twice per day
On the finished work
every 250 m or part thereof,
or every 3,000 m or part thereof

at least every 100 m or part thereof,


or every 1,000 m

b) Correct vertical and horizontal


position and evenness

as required

at intervals not exceeding 50 m

c) Degree of compaction
(of the not yet hardened layer)

at intervals of less than 500 m, but


at least every 6,000 m
or part thereof

as required, at least every 6,000 m


of base layer or part thereof

a) Paving thickness / Paving weight

2.11.6

Internal control and compliance testing for concrete base layers

The process of paving base layers with hydraulic


binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.

Type and scope of the tests to be performed can


be inferred from the following table.

3. Concrete base
Internal control testing

Compliance testing

On the paving mix or on the finished work


a) Conformity with initial testing

comparison of delivery notes or


visual inspection for each delivery

b) Consistency and apparent density


of the fresh concrete

at least every 3,000 m

c) W
 ater-cement ratio of the fresh
concrete

at least every 3,000 m

d) Compressive strength and apparent density of the hardened


concrete

at least every 3,000 m

every 3,000 m or part thereof

e) Paving thickness

at least every 3,000 m

every 3,000 m or part thereof

as required

at intervals not exceeding 50 m

f) C
 orrect vertical and horizontal
position and evenness

as required

124 // 125

2.12 Using reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed


tar-bound road construction materials in base
layers with hydraulic binders
2.12.1 General
This section provides additional details on the use of
construction material mixtures containing more than
30% by mass of reclaimed asphalt and on the use of
reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials in
base layers with hydraulic binders.
Reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
can be used for stabilized layers or hydraulically
bound base layers because processing with hydraulic binders combined with proper paving and compaction in accordance with requirements significantly
reduces the leachability of harmful substances from
the finished layer. This is based on the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed materials containing tar-bound matter and for the use
of reclaimed asphalt in road construction (Richt

2.12.2

linien fr die umweltvertrgliche Verwertung von


Ausbaustoffen mit pechhaltigen Bestandteilen sowie
die Verwertung von Ausbauasphalt im Straenbau
[RuVA-StB]).
They have to be complied with.
Reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials have to be mixed with binder and water using
the in-plant mixing process in accordance with the
Code of practice for the use of reclaimed tar-bound
road construction materials and reclaimed asphalt in
bituminous base layers by cold processing in mixing
plants (Merkblatt fr die Verwertung von pechhaltigen Straenausbaustoffen und von Asphaltgranulat
in bitumengebundenen Tragschichten durch Kaltaufbereitung in Mischanlagen [M VB-K]).

Source materials Aggregates

Mixing reclaimed tar-bound road construction


materials with non-tar-bound materials should be
avoided.
A maximum quantity of 15% by mass of new aggregates in accordance with the Technical delivery
terms for aggregates in road construction (TL
Gestein-StB) relative to the dry aggregate mixture
and/or additives may be added to the tar-bound
materials in order to achieve an impermeable structure of the highest possible density. Where appropriate, adequate frost resistance has to be verified.

A minimum quantity of 25% by mass of the aggregate mixture used must pass the 2 mm sieve.
The maximum particle size is limited to 45 mm.
An oversize percentage of 10% by mass is permissible
for a particle size of up to 56 mm. Reclaimed asphalt
must comply with the Technical delivery terms for
reclaimed asphalt (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr
Asphaltgranulat [TL AG-StB]). It has to be reclaimed
and stocked in accordance with the Code of practice
for the use of reclaimed asphalt (Merkblatt fr die
Verwertung von Asphaltgranulat [M VA-G]).

2.12.3 Additives
Suitable additives (filler) are filler aggregates in
accordance with the Technical delivery terms for

aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB)


or coal fly ash in accordance with DIN EN 450.

2.12.4

Storing reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials

During (intermediate) storage, reclaimed tar-bound


road construction materials must be protected
from water ingress in order to prevent any leakage
of soluble harmful substances. If not stored under
cover, the materials may only be stockpiled on a

2.12.5

watertight surface with seepage water collection.


They must be protected against the penetration of
moisture by means of a watertight cover. The safe
disposal of any seepage water has to be ensured.

Construction material mixtures

In addition to the civil engineering requirements


to be considered during initial testing, the use of
reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
requires the amount of hydraulic binder and/or
the additives content to be selected so as to
ensure that the structure is sufficiently dense to

comply with the requirements of the Directives for


the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) in terms of the leachability of harmful
substances.

2.12.6 Requirements
When using reclaimed tar-bound road construction
materials, the percentage < 2 mm of the aggregate
mixture must not be higher or lower by more than

2.12.7

8% by mass than the value specified in the mix


design.

Initial testing

If reclaimed asphalt or reclaimed tar-bound road


construction materials recycled on a trial basis are
used for initial testing, grading has to be varied so
as to cover the full grading range possible during
the actual recycling process.
In addition to these tests, the use of tar-bound
materials requires leaching tests to be performed
in accordance with Part 7.1.2 of the Technical
testing regulations for aggregates in road con-

struction (TP Gestein-StB) in order to verify the


reduction of harmful substances.
The eluates are obtained from compacted Proctor specimens after 28 days using the trough
method and are tested for polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons according to EPA. The phenol index
is determined in accordance with the Technical
delivery terms for aggregates in road construction
(TL Gestein-StB).

126 // 127

References

Eifert, H.; Vollpracht, A.; Hersei, O.:


Straenbau heute Betondecken, 2004
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH, Dsseldorf

Kalk Kompendium, Bodenverbesserung,


Bodenverfestigung mit Kalk
Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V.
www.kalk.de

Eifert, H.:
Straenbau heute Tragschichten, Planung und
Ausfhrung, 2006
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH

Die Reaktionsfhigkeit von Mischbindemitteln


im Vergleich zu Kalk und Zement
Hans-Werner Schade, Institut fr Materialprfung
Dr. Schellenberg, Leipheim
Lecture at the 3rd specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bodenverbesserung in Stuttgart, 2008

Hersei, O.; Drrwang, R.; Hotz, C.:


Zementstabilisierte Bden Anwendung, Planung,
Ausfhrung, 2007
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH

Bodenbehandlung im Straenbau
Oliver Kuhl, Hessisches Landesamt fr Straenund Verkehrswesen, Wiesbaden
Lecture at the 4th specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bodenverbesserung in Walsrode, 2009

Gemische fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen


Bindemitteln
Zement Merkblatt Straenbau p. 3, 6.2007
Helmut Eifert, Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V.,
Dsseldorf www.vdz-online.de

Erwnschte und unerwnschte Reaktions


mechanismen bei der Bodenstabilisierung mit
Bindemitteln
Karl-Josef Witt, Bauhaus-Universitt, Weimar
Lecture at the 4th specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bodenverbesserung in Walsrode, 2009

Der Bau von Tragschichten mit hydraulischen


Bindemitteln
Zement Merkblatt Straenbau p. 3, 6.2007
Helmut Eifert, Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V.,
Dsseldorf www.vdz-online.de
Lohmeyer, G.; Ebeling, K.:
Betonbden fr Produktions- und Lagerhallen,
2006
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH, Dsseldorf

Body of technical rules and regulations

DIN 1)
Source:

) Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstr. 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany


Phone: +49 (0) 30 - 26 01-22 60; Fax: +49 (0) 30 - 26 01-12 60
E-mail: info@beuth.de; Internet: www.beuth.de

VOB/B German construction contract procedures - Part B: General conditions of contract relating to the
execution of construction work DIN 1961 (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen Teil B:
Allgemeine Vertragsbedingungen fr die Ausfhrung von Bauleistungen DIN 1961)
VOB/C German construction contract procedures - Part C: General technical specifications in construction
contracts (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertrags
bedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV])
DIN 1045 Concrete and reinforced concrete; design and execution (Beton und Stahlbeton; Bemessung und Ausfhrung)
DIN 1048
Testing concrete (Prfverfahren fr Beton)
DIN 1164 Special cement composition, requirements and conformity evaluation (Zement mit besonderen Eigenschaften Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen, bereinstimmungsnachweis)
DIN 4020 Geotechnical investigations for civil engineering purposes (Geotechnische Untersuchungen fr bautechnische Zwecke)
DIN 4030 Assessment of water, soil and gases for their aggressiveness to concrete (Beurteilung betonangreifender
Wsser, Bden und Gase)
DIN 4123 Excavations, foundations and underpinnings in the area of existing buildings (Ausschachtungen, Grndungen und Unterfangungen im Bereich bestehender Gebude)
DIN 4124 Excavations and trenches Slopes, planking and strutting breadths of working spaces (Baugruben und
Grben Bschungen, Verbau, Arbeitsraumbreiten)
DIN 4301 Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical slag for civil engineering and building construction use (Eisenhttenschlacke und Metallschlacke im Bauwesen)
DIN 18121 Soil, investigation and testing Water content (Baugrund Untersuchung von Bodenproben Wassergehalt)
DIN 18125 Soil, investigation and testing Determination of density of soil (Baugrund, Untersuchung von Bodenproben Bestimmung der Dichte des Bodens)
DIN 18127 Soil, investigation and testing Proctor test (Baugrund Untersuchung von Bodenproben Proctorversuch)
DIN 18134 Soil Testing procedures and testing equipment Plate load test (Baugrund; Versuche und Versuchsgerte Plattendruckversuch)
DIN 18196 Earthworks and foundations Soil classification for civil engineering purposes (Erd- und Grundbau
Bodenklassifikation fr bautechnische Zwecke)
DIN 18299 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specifications in construction
contracts General rules applying to all types of construction work (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Allgemeine Regelungen fr Bauarbeiten jeder Art)
DIN 18300 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specifications in construction
contracts Earthworks (VOB - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen
[ATV] Erdarbeiten)
DIN 18311 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specifications in construction
contracts Dredging work (VOB - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen
[ATV] Nassbaggerarbeiten)
DIN 18315 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specifications in construction contracts Road construction Surfacings without binder (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Verkehrswegebauarbeiten Oberschichten ohne Bindemittel)

128 // 129

DIN 18316 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specifications in construction
contracts Road construction Surfacings with hydraulic binders (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Verkehrswegebauarbeiten Oberbauschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln)
DIN 18506 Hydraulic soil and road binders Composition, specifications and conformity criteria (Hydraulische
Boden- und Tragschichtbinder Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien)
DIN 18915 Vegetation technology in landscaping Soil working (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau Bodenarbeiten)
DIN 18916 Vegetation technology in landscaping Plants and plant care (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau
Pflanzen und Pflanzarbeiten)
DIN 18920 Vegetation technology in landscaping Protection of trees, plantations and vegetation areas during
construction work (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau Schutz von Bumen, Pflanzenbestnden
und Vegetationsflchen bei Baumanahmen)
DIN 50929 Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from the
outside (Korrosion der Metalle, Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe bei uerer
Korrosionsbelastung)
Parts 1 and 3 Part 1: Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from
the outside; general (Teil 1: Korrosion der Metalle; Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe
bei uerer Korrosionsbelastung; Allgemeines)
Part 3: Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from
the outside; buried and underwater pipelines and structural components (Teil 3: Korrosion der Metalle;
Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe bei uerer Korrosionsbelastung; Rohrleitungen
und Bauteile in Bden und Wssern)
DIN EN 206-1 Concrete Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity (Beton Teil 1: Festlegung,
Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Konformitt)
DIN EN 197-1 Cement Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements
(Zement Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien von Normalzement)
DIN EN 197-4 Cement Part 4: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for low early-strength blast-furnace
cements (Zement Teil 4: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien von Hochofenzement mit niedriger Anfangsfestigkeit)
DIN EN 459-1 Building lime - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria (Baukalk Teil 1: Definitionen,
Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien)
DIN EN 1097-6 Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates Part 6: Determination of particle density and
water absorption (Prfverfahren fr mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskrnungen Teil 6: Bestimmung der Rohdichte und der Wasseraufnahme)
DIN EN 1367-1 Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates Part 1: Determination of resistance to
freezing and thawing (Prfverfahren fr thermische Eigenschaften und Verwitterungsbestndigkeit von
Gesteinskrnungen Teil 1: Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Frost-Tau-Wechsel)
DIN EN 12350 Testing fresh concrete (Prfung von Frischbeton)
DIN EN 12390 Testing hardened concrete (Prfung von Festbeton)
DIN EN 13055-2 Lightweight aggregates Part 2: Lightweight aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments
and for unbound and bound applications (Leichte Gesteinskrnungen Teil 2: Leichte Gesteinskrnungen fr Asphalte und Oberflchenbehandlungen sowie fr ungebundene und gebundene Verwendung)
DIN EN 14227-1 Hydraulically bound mixtures Specifications Part 1: Cement bound granular mixtures (Hydraulisch
gebundene Gemische Anforderungen Teil 1: Zementgebundene Gemische)
DIN EN ISO 14688 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identification and classification of soil (Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Boden)
DIN EN ISO 14689 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identification and classification of rock (Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Fels)
DIN EN ISO 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Kompetenz von Prf- und Kalibrierlaboratorien)

DIN EN ISO 22475 Geotechnical investigation and testing Sampling methods and groundwater measurements (Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung Probenentnahmeverfahren und Grundwassermessungen)
DIN EN ISO 22476 Geotechnical investigation and testing Field testing (Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung
Felduntersuchungen)
DIN report
Geotextiles and geotextile-related products On-site quality control (Geotextilien und geotextilCEN/TR 15019
verwandte Produkte Baustellenkontrolle
FGSV 2)
Source:

) FGSV Verlag GmbH, Wesselinger Str. 17, 50999 Kln, Germany


Phone: +49 (0) 22 36 - 38 46 30; Fax: +49 (0) 22 36 - 38 46 40
E-mail: info@fgsv-verlag.de; Internet: www.fgsv-verlag.de

ATV General technical specifications in construction contracts (Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen


fr Bauleistungen [FGSV 024])
DBT Code of practice for porous concrete base layers (Merkblatt fr Drnbetontragschichten [FGSV 827])
FDVK Continuous dynamic compaction control (Flchendeckende Dynamische Verdichtungskontrolle [FGSV
547])
HBS Manual for the design of road traffic systems (Handbuch fr die Bemessung von Straenverkehrsanlagen
[FGSV 299])
H GeoMess Guidelines for the use of geotechnical and geophysical measuring procedures in road construction (Hinweise zur Anwendung geotechnischer und geophysikalischer Messverfahren im Straenbau [FGSV 558])
MAFS-H Code of practice for asphalt base layers in hot-application (Merkblatt fr Asphaltfundationsschichten im
Heieinbau [FGSV 759])
MBEB Code of practice for the structural maintenance of concrete traffic areas (Merkblatt fr die Bauliche Erhaltung von Verkehrsflchen aus Beton [FGSV 823])
MFP1 Code of practice for stone pavings and slab pavings, Part 1: Standard construction method (unbound
design) (Merkblatt fr Flchenbefestigungen mit Pflasterdecken und Plattenbelgen, Teil 1: Regelbauweise (Ungebundene Ausfhrung) [FGSV 618/1])
MGUB Code of practice on geotechnical investigations and designs in road construction (Merkblatt ber geotechnische Untersuchungen und Berechnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 511])
MKRC Code of practice on in-situ cold recycling in the road pavement (Merkblatt fr Kaltrecycling in situ im
Straenoberbau [FGSV 636])
MLs Code of practice on the use of volcanic slag in road construction (Merkblatt ber die Verwendung von
Lavaschlacke im Straen- und Wegebau [FGSV 611])
MOB Code of practice for the production of surface textures on concrete pavements (Merkblatt fr die Herstellung von Oberflchentexturen auf Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 829])
MRC Code of practice on the reuse of mineral construction materials as recycled construction materials in
road construction (Merkblatt ber die Wiederverwertung von mineralischen Baustoffen als RecyclingBaustoffe im Straenbau [FGSV 616/3])
MVB-K Code of practice for the use of reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials and reclaimed asphalt in
bituminous base layers by cold processing in mixing plants (Merkblatt fr die Verwertung von pechhaltigen Straenausbaustoffen und von Asphaltgranulat in bitumengebundenen Tragschichten durch
Kaltaufbereitung in Mischanlagen [FGSV 535])
M Geok E Code of practice for the application of geosynthetics in road construction earthworks (Merkblatt fr die
Anwendung von Geokunststoffen im Erdbau des Straenbaues (FGSV 535)
Code of practice for the design and production of crib walls (Merkblatt fr den Entwurf und die Herstellung von Raumgitterwnden und -wllen [FGSV 540])
Code of practice for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr die
Verdichtung des Untergrundes und Unterbaues im Straenbau [FGSV 516])

130 // 131

Code of practice for the use of EPS rigid foam materials in the construction of road embankments (Merkblatt fr die Verwendung von EPS-Hartschaumstoffen beim Bau von Straendmmen [FGSV 550])
Code of practice for simple, environmentally compatible methods of site stabilization (Merkblatt fr ein
fache landschaftsgerechte Sicherungsbauweisen [FGSV 229)]
MGUB Code of practice for geotechnical investigations and designs in road construction (Merkblatt ber geotechnische Untersuchungen und Berechnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 511])
M TS E Code of practice on construction methods for technical safeguarding measures when using soils and
construction materials containing environmentally relevant substances in earthworks (Merkblatt ber
Bauweisen fr technische Sicherungsmanahmen beim Einsatz von Bden und Baustoffen mit umweltrelevanten Inhaltsstoffen im Erdbau [FGSV 559])
Code of practice on soil improvement and soil stabilization with binders (Merkblatt ber Bodenverbesserungen und Bodenverfestigungen mit Bindemitteln [FGSV 551])
Code of practice on the influence of the backfill on structures (Merkblatt ber den Einfluss der Hinterfllung auf Bauwerke [FGSV 526])
Code of practice on the treatment of soils and construction materials with binders to reduce the leachability of environmentally relevant substances (Merkblatt ber die Behandlung von Bden und Baustoffen
mit Bindemitteln zur Reduzierung der Eluierbarkeit umweltrelevanter Inhaltsstoffe [FGSV 560])
Code of practice on the non-aggressive execution of blasting and removal work on rock slopes (Merkblatt ber die gebirgsschonende Ausfhrung von Spreng- und Abtragsarbeiten an Felsbschungen
[FGSV 537])
Code of practice on the use of expanded clay as a lightweight construction material in the subgrade
and subsoil of roads (Merkblatt ber die Verwendung von Blhton als Leichtbaustoff im Unterbau und
Untergrund von Straen [FGSV 556])
Code of practice on rock group description for civil engineering purposes in road construction (Merkblatt
ber Felsgruppenbeschreibung fr bautechnische Zwecke im Straenbau [FGSV 532])
Code of practice on continuous dynamic procedures for testing compaction in earthworks (Merkblatt
ber flchendeckende dynamische Verfahren zur Prfung der Verdichtung im Erdbau [FGSV 547])
Code of practice for road construction on subsoil of poor bearing capacity (Merkblatt ber Straenbau
auf wenig tragfhigem Untergrund [FGSV 542])
Code of practice for the production of surface textures on concrete pavements (Merkblatt fr die Herstellung von Oberflchentexturen auf Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [M OB])
Code of practice for the reuse of concrete from pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung von Beton
aus Fahrbahndecken)
Code of practice for the construction of base layers and combined base and surface layers using rollercompacted concrete for traffic areas (Merkblatt fr den Bau von Tragschichten und Tragdeckschichten
mit Walzbeton fr Verkehrsflchen)
RAA Directives for the construction of motorways (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Autobahnen [FGSV 202])
RAS-Ew Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Drainage (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen [RAS], Teil:
Entwsserung [FGSV 539])
RAS-LG Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Landscape design, Section: Biological engineering (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen [RAS], Teil: Landschaftsgestaltung [RAS-LG], Abschnitt: Lebendverbau
[FGSV 293/3])
RAS-LP Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Landscape maintenance, Section 4: Protection of trees,
existing vegetation and animals in construction measures (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen, Teil:
Landschaftspflege (RAS-LP), Abschnitt 4: Schutz von Bumen, Vegetationsbestnden und Tieren bei
Baumanahmen [FGSV 293/4])
RAS-Q Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Cross-sections (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen
(RAS), Teil: Querschnitte [FGSV 295])

RAA Directives for the construction of urban roads (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Stadtstraen [FGSV 200])
RAP Stra Directives for accreditation of test centres for building materials and building material mixtures in road
construction (Richtlinien fr die Anerkennung von Prfstellen fr Baustoffe und Baustoffgemische im
Straenbau [FGSV 916])
RiStWag Directives for civil engineering measures on roads in water protection areas (Richtlinien fr bautechnische
Manahmen an Straen in Wasserschutzgebieten [FGSV 514])
RLW
Directives for rural road construction (Richtlinien fr den lndlichen Wegebau [FGSV 675/1])
RStO Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces (Richtlinien fr die Stan
dardisierung des Oberbaues von Verkehrsflchen [FGSV 499])
RuA-StB Directives for the environmentally compatible use of industrial by-products and recycled construction
materials in road construction (Richtlinien fr die umweltvertrgliche Anwendung von industriellen Nebenprodukten und Recycling-Baustoffen im Straenbau [FGSV 642])
RuVA-StB Directives for the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed materials containing tar-bound matter and
for the use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction (Richtlinien fr die umweltvertrgliche Verwertung
von Ausbaustoffen mit teer-/pechtypischen Bestandteilen sowie fr die Verwertung von Ausbauasphalt
im Straenbau [FGSV 795])
TL Asphalt-StB Technical delivery terms for asphalt mix for the construction of paved traffic areas (Technische Liefer
bedingungen fr Asphaltmischgut fr den Bau von Verkehrsflchenbefestigungen [FGSV 797])
TL BE-StB Technical delivery terms for bitumen emulsions (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bitumenemulsionen
[FGSV 793])
TL Beton-StB Technical delivery terms for construction materials and construction material mixtures for base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffe und Baustoffgemische fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 891])
TL G SoB-StB Technical delivery terms for construction material mixtures and soils for the production of unbound granular layers in road construction, Part: Quality control (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffgemische und Bden zur Herstellung von Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau, Teil: Gteberwachung
[FGSV 696])
TL BuB E-StB Technical delivery terms for soils and construction materials in earthworks for road construction (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bden und Baustoffe im Erdbau des Straenbaues [FGSV 597])
TL Gestein-StB Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Gesteinskrnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 613])
TL Geok E-StB Technical delivery terms for geosynthetics in earthworks for road construction (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Geokunststoffe im Erdbau des Straenbaues [FGSV 549])
TL NBM-StB Technical delivery terms for liquid concrete curing agents (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr flssige
Beton-Nachbehandlungsmittel [FGSV 814])
TL Pflaster-StB Technical delivery terms for construction products for the production of stone pavings, slab pavings and
kerbs (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bauprodukte zur Herstellung von Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelgen und Einfassungen [FGSV 643])
TL SoB-StB Technical delivery terms for construction material mixtures and soils for the production of unbound
granular layers in road construction, Part: Quality control (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffgemische und Bden fr Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau; Teil: Gteberwachung [FGSV 697])
TP Asphalt-StB Technical testing regulations for asphalt (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Asphalt [FGSV 756])
TP Beton-StB Technical testing regulations for base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (Technische
Prfvorschriften fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV
892])
TP BF-StB Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in road construction (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Boden
und Fels im Straenbau [FGSV 591])
Technical testing regulations to determine the thicknesses of superstructure layers in road construction
TP D-StB
(Technische Prfvorschriften zur Bestimmung der Dicken von Oberbauschichten im Straenbau [FGSV 974])

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TP Eben Technical testing regulations for evenness measurements on road surfaces in longitudinal and transverse
directions, Part: Measurements with contact (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Ebenheitsmessungen auf
Fahrbahnoberflchen in Lngs- und Querrichtung, Teil: Berhrende Messungen (TP Eben - Berhrende
Messungen) [FGSV 404/1])
TP Eben Technical testing regulations for evenness measurements on road surfaces in longitudinal and transverse
directions, Part: Measurements without contact (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Ebenheitsmessungen
auf Fahrbahnoberflchen in Lngs- und Querrichtung, Teil: Berhrungslose Messungen (TP Eben - Berhrungslose Messungen) [FGSV 404/2])
TP Gestein-StB Technical testing regulations for aggregates in road construction (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Gesteinskrnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 610])
TP HGT-StB Technical testing regulations for base layers with hydraulic binders (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln [FGSV 822; AP 52])
VOB Construction contract procedures (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen [FGSV 024])
ZTV A-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for excavations in traffic areas (Zustzliche
Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Aufgrabungen in Verkehrsflchen [FGSV 976])
ZTV Asphalt-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of asphalt pavements
(Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von Verkehrsflchenbefestigungen aus Asphalt [FGSV 799])
ZTV BEA-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the structural maintenance of traffic areas
Asphalt design (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Bauliche Erhaltung
von Verkehrsflchen Asphaltbauweisen [FGSV 798])
ZTV BEB-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the structural maintenance of traffic areas
Concrete design (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Bauliche Erhaltung
von Verkehrsflchen Betonbauweisen [FGSV 898/1])
ZTV Beton-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den
Bau von Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 899])
ZTV E-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (Zustzliche
Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Erdarbeiten im Straenbau [FGSV 599])
ZTV Ew-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of drainage systems in road
construction (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von Entwsserungseinrichtungen im Straenbau [FGSV 598])
ZTV-ING Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for civil engineering works (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Ingenieurbauten [FGSV 340; 782/1])
ZTV-Lsw Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the execution of noise barriers along roads
(Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Ausfhrung von Lrmschutzwnden
an Straen [FGSV 258])
ZTV-Lsw
Design and calculation principles for bored pile foundations and steel posts of noise barriers along
(supplement) roads; supplement to the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the execution of
noise barriers along roads (Entwurfs- und Berechnungsgrundlagen fr Bohrpfahlgrndungen und Stahlpfosten von Lrmschutzwnden an Straen; Ergnzung zu den Zustzlichen Technischen Vorschriften
und Richtlinien fr die Ausfhrung von Lrmschutzwnden an Straen [FGSV 552])
ZTVLW Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the paving of rural roads (Zustzliche Technische Vorschriften und Richtlinien fr die Befestigung lndlicher Wege [FGSV 675])
ZTV Pflaster-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the production of stone pavings, slab
pavings and kerbs (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien zur Herstellung von
Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelgen und Einfassungen [FGSV 699])
ZTV SoB-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of unbound granular layers
in road construction (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von
Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau [FGSV 698])

134 // 135

Wirtgen GmbH
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strasse 2 53578 Windhagen Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 26 45/131-0 Fax: +49 (0) 26 45/131-392
Internet: www.wirtgen.com E-Mail: info@wirtgen.com

Illustrations are without obligation. Technical details are subject to change without notice.
Performance data depend on operating conditions. No. 2316602 49-51 EN - 04/13 by Wirtgen GmbH 2013 Printed in Germany