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Anatomy of the Eye

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Accessory Structure of the Eye


Lacrimal apparatus
Lacrimal gland
- lateral end of eye
- produces lacrimal fluid
Lacrimal canals
- drain lacrimal fluid
from eyes

Figure 8.1a
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Extrinsic Eye Muscles


Muscles attach to the outer surface of the eye
Produce eye movements

Figure 8.2
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Lateral rectus- moves eye laterally


Medial rectus moves eye medially
Superior rectus elevates eye and rolls it medially
Inferior rectus, depresses eye and rotates it laterally
THE 4 RECTUS MUSCLES PRODUCE GROSS
MOVEMENT AND ALLOW THE EYE TO
FOLLOW A MOVING OBJECT

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Superior oblique moves eyeball inferiorly, rotates


eyeball medially
Inferior oblique- moves eyeball superiorly, rotates it
laterally

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structure of the Eye


The wall is composed of three
tunics

Fibrous tunic

- outside layer
Vascular tunic

- middle layer
Sensory tunic
- inside layer

Figure 8.3a
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structure of the Eyes (Three tunics)

atr

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Fibrous Tunic


Sclera
outermost tunic
Thick white connective
tissue layer
Seen anteriorly as the white
of the eye
Cornea
Transparent, central anterior
portion
Allows for light to pass
through
Most exposed part
Repairs itself easily
the only human tissue that
can be transplanted without
fear of rejection
When touched it will cause
blinking and tearing of
eyes
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Vascular Layer (Choroid)


Blood-rich nutritive tunic
Pigment prevents light from scattering
Modified anteriorly into two structures
Ciliary body smooth muscles
Iris
Pigmented layer that gives eye
color
With circularly and radially
arranged smooth muscles
Pupil rounded opening in the
iris
Close vision and bright light
pupils will constrict
distant vision and dim light
pupils will dilate

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Sensory Tunic (Retina)


Innermost tunic
Extends anteriorly to
the ciliary body
Contains
photoreceptor cells
Rods and cones

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Neurons of the Retina and Vision


Rods

Most are found


towards the
edges of the
retina

Allow dim light


vision and
peripheral vision
Perception is all
in gray tones
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Neurons of the Retina and Vision


Cones
Allow for detailed
color vision
Fovea centralis
- area of the retina
with only cones
- Area with great or
sharpest vision
No photoreceptor cells
are at the optic disk, or
blind spot
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Lens
Biconvex crystal-like structure
Held in place by a suspensory ligament
attached to the ciliary body

Figure 8.3a
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Internal Eye Chamber Fluids


Aqueous humor
Watery fluid found in
chamber between the lens
and cornea
Similar to blood plasma
Helps maintain intraocular
pressure
Provides nutrients for the
lens and cornea

Reabsorbed into venous


blood through the canal of
Schlemm
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Internal Eye Chamber Fluids


Vitreous humor
Gel-like substance
behind the lens
Keeps the eye from
collapsing

Lasts a lifetime and


is not replaced

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings