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White Paper

Real Estate as an Asset Class


This document is aimed at private and
institutional investors in Switzerland
and exclusively at qualified investors
outside of Switzerland

Cash flows, portfolio diversification, and protection against inflation: Real


estate is a key asset class and can offer stable income returns, partial
protection against inflation, and good diversification with other investments in the portfolio
International diversification: We recommend a globally diversified approach
to supplementing local real estate portfolios
Different regional dynamics: A global portfolio should cover regions, real
estate segments, and investment strategies and allow investors to
participate in local developments, such as the momentum from various
cities in emerging markets
Broad investment universe: Investors can implement an international real
estate portfolio with directly investing real estate funds, REITs and real
estate stocks, customized real estate mandates or club structures

Executive Summary

The ongoing near zero-interest rate environment in most


industrialized nations poses a variety of challenges to private
and institutional investors. On the one hand, traditional
fixed-income investments do not provide the desired yield
levels as they did in the past. On the other, when composing
an investment portfolio, it must be remembered that it should
also perform robustly in an environment that is characterized
by less ample monetary liquidity even if the current situation
will remain for some time.
Real Estate as a Strategic Asset Class
Therefore, the advantages of real estate, such as a low
correlation to other financial assets and relatively high, stable
income returns, have come into greater focus. The real asset
character of real estate offers investors stability in the current
environment, which is subject to a number of uncertainties.
Thus, investors are drawn to those real estate segments that
are largely capable of producing income. In an international
setting, this mainly includes investments in office and retail
space. However, rental apartments, logistics properties, senior
housing, or hotels are also in consideration.
We believe that as a strategic asset class, real estate belongs
in the investment portfolios of institutional and private investors.
Generally, real estate accounts for 530% of most investment
portfolios. However, the strategic share of a real estate
portfolio also depends on the investors individual situation and
can be fine-tuned in respect thereof.
International Diversification Recommended
We also recommend an international focus, because international diversification can greatly improve the risk and return
profile of a portfolio. While most investors still have a major
home bias in their real estate portfolios, the trend toward a
heavier international focus has been on the rise for some
years.
As Figure 1 shows, the amount of international investments in
commercial real estate was between 30% and 35%. As of the
end of Q2 2014 (based on a 12-month period) real estate
worth approximately EUR 190 billion was purchased by foreign
investors. Current surveys show that this trend is likely to
continue in the years to come.
The best diversification is achieved with a global portfolio that
includes properties in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Even
the inclusion of new investment countries improves the
longer-term risk/return aspects of the portfolio when compared
with a purely domestic portfolio.

Fig. 1: Rise in cross border real estate transactions


The investment volumes are rolling sums of commercial real estate
transactions over the last four quarters
bn EUR
300

Global crossborder investments into commercial real estate


Share of crossborder investment of total transactions (RHS) 40%

250

35%

200

30%

150

25%

100

20%

50

15%

0
12/2007

10%
12/2008

12/2009

12/2010

12/2011

12/2012

12/2013

Historical returns and financial market scenarios are no guarantee of


current or future performance. Last data point: June 2014
Sources: Real Capital Analytics, Credit Suisse

Sensitivity to interest rates and economic factors


Due to the current low interest rate environment, there is a
greater emphasis on the vulnerability of the investments to
rising interest rates. Due to the importance of borrowing and
the significance of risk-free interest rates in discount rates one
would expect a certain amount of interest sensitivity of commercial real estate investments.
However, as Figure 2 shows, prime office properties are
currently trading at above-average risk premiums in most
markets, based on a historical comparison. Therefore, these
relative high spreads between real estate and bond yields act
as a buffer against rising interest rates. The comparison with
the situation in mid-2007, which was the peak of commercial
real estate prices in the last cycle, also shows that commercial
real estate remains appropriately valued.
Fig. 2: Risk premiums for real estate investments in most
markets are still above the historical average
Risk premiums are measured using the difference between prime net
office yields on centrally located, prime office real estate, and returns on
ten-year local government bonds
Risk premia of prime ofce investments June 2014
Average risk premia between 2000 and 2014
Risk premia of prime ofce investments June 2007

bps
300
200
100
0
-100
-200

Berlin

Madrid

New York

Tokyo

Hongkong

Sydney

London

Source: PMA, Credit Suisse, Last data point: June 2014 Historical
performance indications and financial market scenarios are not
reliable indicators of current or future performance.

The development in rents is crucial for real estate returns. It


also depends on economic trends, because the demand for
rental space grows during phases of economic expansion and
drops during recessions.
Figure 3 compares the total returns of global real estate portfolios with those of US government bonds with a maturity of
ten years and global economic growth. Over the last 23 years,
the correlation coefficient between government bonds and both
of these real estate portfolios is nearly zero. The conclusion is
that a globally diversified real estate portfolio was little related
to the US interest rate cycle. However, there has been a high
correlation (between 0.8 and 0.9) with global economic
growth. This shows that real economic developments and the
balance between local supply and demand play a key role in
determining real estate values.
Fig 3: Total global returns on real estate had a low correlation
to US government bonds
The global synthetic portfolio is based on a portfolio of total returns
(Source: PMA) for prime office investments in 65 cities, which were
weighted based on historical transaction volumes. All figures listed in
local currency
Historical performance indications and financial market scenarios are
not reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point:
December 2013

30%

Global real estate (transaction based synthetic returns)


Global real estate (appraisal based IPD Index)
10y US government bonds
Global real economic growth YoY (RHS)

25%

6%
5%

20%
15%

4%

10%

3%

5%
0%

2%

-5%

1%

-10%

0%

-15%
-20%

-1%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

Sources: IPD, PMA, RCA,IMF, Credit Suisse.

How to Invest in Real Estate


Investors seeking successful investments in real estate have
to cover a wide range of specialist functions that are needed
for implementing the real estate strategy and managing
international real estate portfolios. Because most investors do
not have these specific resources, we recommend investing
via indirect real estate investment vehicles, customized real
estate mandates, or property clubs.
The selection of investment vehicle also depends on the individual situation and the investors needs. As they are traded on
stock exchanges, public investment vehicles offer investors
liquidity. However, their correlation to the financial markets is
higher.
Private investment solutions, for their part, are generally
available only to institutional investors or qualified investors.
Such investments offer the option to participate in the
development of direct investments in the real estate markets.
They possess a lower correlation to the financial markets, but
generally also have lower liquidity compared with public
investment alternatives.
There is also the option to diversify the investment using
private and public vehicles. This may be a good idea especially
when investors themselves want to actively vary their real
estate holdings in a tactical allocation context on a monthly or
quarterly basis. Even in this case it may be worthwhile to hold
part of the investments in private structures while managing
the tactical variation with REITs and real estate equities.

1.The Case for Real Estate as an Investment

Real estate has a number of attractive characteristics for


investors. This includes the diversification benefit due to low
correlation with other asset categories, relatively high and
stable cash flow returns, and the option to increase the potential returns by using debt.

returns from changes in capital values typically have cyclical


fluctuations, the income yield was 5%7% and is therefore a
stable component of the total returns achieved.
Fig. 4: Global real estate returns in % (in local currency)
15

Diversification through Real Estate


From a portfolio standpoint, the low correlation with other
asset classes is definitely an important argument for investing
in real estate. This means that by adding real estate to an
existing portfolio of equities and bonds, investors can gain
diversification benefits. In other words, the similar portfolio
returns can be generated with a lower risk, or higher returns
can be g
enerated with the same risk.
The correlation coefficient among the various asset classes in
Tab. 1 show the extent to which the asset classes are similar
or different in performance. The diversification potential also
depends on the type of investment that is used to gain exposure to real estate. As expected, publicly listed REITs and real
estate equities with a value of 0.8 have a relatively high
correlation with the stock market, while the performance of
direct real estate investments is much less dependent on that
of other asset classes. Its correlation with the equity market is
relatively low at 0.3, and even slightly negative in the case of
the bond market, at -0.15. This makes real estate an attractive
component in a broadly diversified investment portfolio.
Tab. 1: Correlation of price changes (all indices in local currency)*
*Calculated on the basis of price indices for quarterly figures, starting
from December 31, 2000.
**Own aggregation, based on PMA cash values for the worlds leading
cities; weighted using GDP and liquidity ratios.
MSCI
World

10-year US
government
bonds

MSCI World

-0.6

0.8

0.3

10-year US
government bonds

-0.34

-0.15

Global REITs /
real estate
equities

0.35

Direct investments in office


real estate, global

All indices are


price indices

Global REITs /
real estate
equities

Direct investments
in office real estate,
global

Historical performance indications and financial market scenarios are not


reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point: June
2014
Source: PMA, Datastream, Credit Suisse

Relatively High, Stable Cash Flow Returns


In the current macroeconomic environment of continued low
interest rate levels, the focus is often on generating relatively
high, stable yields with real estate. Figure 4 shows the performance of global total returns and of both components
income returns and capital values growth since 2001. While

10
5
0
-5
Income Return
-10
-15

Capital value growth


Total
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Historical performance indications and financial market scenarios are


not reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point:
December 2013
Sources: IPD, Credit Suisse

Hedge against Inflation


Real estate is a real asset that offers investors partial protection against rising inflation, similar to some commodities or
inflation-linked bonds.
Due to the stable nature of rental income, income yields are a
relatively constant component of real estate returns. Because
rental contracts are typically indexed to inflation, income
should also keep pace with inflation. Rental agreements for
office properties are generally linked to the consumer price
index, while leases for retail space can sometimes be linked to
the retailers merchandise sales. The link to inflation can be
different depending on the country:
C ontinental Europe: In many continental European
countries, rents are indexed directly to the Consumer Price
Index (CPI), as it is in Switzerland. Germany has a rent
review once inflation crosses a certain threshold. Another
option is partial indexing, as is the case in Italy, for
instance. There, 75% of the inflation will impact the rent
(not including fuel and tobacco price changes). If annual
inflation is 3%, this results in a 2.25% rent increase.
United Kingdom: Rents are adjusted to inflation or the
market typically every five years, whereby rents can only
be increased to positive inflation.
US: Commercial real estate rents are generally increased
annually at a fixed percentage of 23%.
Australia: Leases for shopping malls usually include an
annual increase either a fixed rate of 45% or the rate
of inflation plus another 1.01.5%. There are various
options for rent prices in office and industrial space,
including fixed increases, based on the rate of inflation or a
current market analysis.
5

Generally there is no direct adjustment to inflation in Japan


and Singapore. The lease terms are short and the rents
are adjusted to the market rate once the terms are up.
Potential Returns due to Market Inefficiencies and Leverage
There are two other characteristics to consider when looking
at real estate from a return standpoint.
The total returns are based on the total income returns and
the changes in capital value (see Figure 4) which result from
the performance of the property. This gives a real estate
investment not only a fixed-income component but also
additional return potential, which can have a positive (or negative)
influence on the total returns.
By anticipating various market developments, there is the
possibility to add value. Various research papers , including by
Nobel Prize winner Robert Shiller, show that real estate
markets are not always informational efficient 1.
The term market efficiency refers to the potential for
generating alpha or forecasting market developments. If prices
contained all available information, investors could not generate
additional returns compared to the market and also market
developments would be hard to forecast. Even if real estate
cycles do not always proceed as expected, various market
inefficiencies are present that investors can take advantage of.
This is due on the one hand to the fact that, unlike other asset
classes, no short sales can be made in real estate that could
make up for price distortions. On the other hand, this is also
due to the length of the cycles and due to the fact that real
estate is a heterogeneous asset class.
Another way of increasing returns is to use borrowed funds.

Heres a simple calculation to explain the leverage effect: If a


rental property worth CHF 20 million and with annual income
of CHF 1,000,000 is 100% equity-financed, the return on
equity is 5%. If half of the asset value is financed by debt at an
interest rate of 2%, the income is reduced to CHF 800,000,
but the return on equity then increases to 8%. When using
borrowed funds, it must be remembered that it can greatly
increase an investments risks. The financial market crisis is a
good example of how high leverage can lead to pro-cyclical
behavior.

See also, for example: Case, K.E. and R.J. Shiller. 1990.
Forecasting Prices and Excess Returns in the Housing Market.
Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics
Association 18(2): 253273. Or
Barkham, R. and D. Geltner. 1995. Price Discovery in American and
British Property Markets. Real Estate Economics 23(1): 2144.

1

2.Reasons for an International Approach

Although investors and portfolio managers have long realized


the opportunities of real estate investments, many restrict
themselves to their home markets. In many portfolios, exposure
to foreign real estate is just a small part of the total investment
volume (see box, Pension Funds: Home Base Focus).
This is mainly because markets vary greatly from country to
country and investors often know their own market best
However, by investing in international markets, investors can not
only benefit from developments outside their own countries, but
also diversify their portfolio and improve the risk-return profile.

Home Bias of pension funds


The chart shows the results from a survey of 59 pension
funds regarding the country allocations in their real
estate portfolios. In the UK, Germany, Scandinavia, and
Switzerland, less than half of the pension funds surveyed
invest in real estate outside their home countries; less
than one-third have an exposure of outside Europe.
Fig. 5: Survey of 59 pension funds in %

Development of the Global


Market for Commercial Real
Estate
The two charts below show the forecasted growth in
commercial real estate markets in the various regions, along
with their share in total volume. Accordingly, the Asia-Pacific
region will surpass Europe as the largest market by 2021.
Based on estimates, it will account for about 39% of the
total market with an estimated volume of USD 19.1 trillion.
Fig. 6: Commercial real estate markets by region in
trillions of USD
25

90
80

However, a global approach does not just mean greater investment opportunities in terms of volume. At the same time,
investors can partake in positive economic developments and
trends from other countries, such as the upcoming middle
class in many emerging markets.

2011

Real Estate investments outside of Europe


Real estate outside of their home country

2021

20

70
60

15

50
40

10

30
20

10
0
Switzerland

Nordics

Germany

UK

Netherlands

Sources: European Institutional Real Estate Survey (EIRES) 2013,


Credit Suisse

Market Size and Participation in Positive Developments


Outside the Home Market
A global approach greatly enhances investment opportunities.
According to estimates, the global market for commercial real
estate in 2011 was approximately USD 26.6 trillion, and by
2021 it will grow by 83% to USD 48.7 trillion. In 2011, the
Swiss real estate market accounted for only 1% of the global
real estate market, at USD 284 billion. Germany and the UK
were somewhat higher, with a share of more than 6% or 5%
of global volume (figures from Pramerica Real Estate Investors,
A Birds Eye View of Global Real Estate Markets: 2012 Update). Thus, the investment universe is growing exponentially
for investors (see box: Development of the Global Market for
Commercial Real Estate with regard to the forecast growth in
the global commercial real estate market).

0
Europe

USA/Canada

Asia Pacic

GCC

Latin America

Fig. 7: Regional share of the global commercial real


estate market
100%
90%
80%
70%

GCC

60%

Latin America

50%

Asia-Pacic

40%

USA/Canada

30%

Europe

20%
10%
0%
2011

2021

Source: Pramerica Real Estate Investors ( A Birds Eye View of


Global Real Estate Markets: 2012 Update), Credit Suisse

Fig. 8: Global office capital values in local currency


(Index 12/2000=100)

Real estate markets in different countries can also be at a


different phase in the real estate cycle. Thus, depending on
the risk/return profile of an investor, other markets may be
more suitable or interesting.

Europe_ex_London
London
US_ex_NY
NY
Asia

250
230

Figure 8 illustrates the development in capital values for prime


office space in various regions and markets since the end of
2000. The general correction during the financial crisis in
2008/2009 and the subsequent recovery is certainly a
striking feature of recent years. However, the figure also
shows the differences among the regions. For instance,
following the financial crisis, the prices rose stronger in the
liquid markets, such as London and New York, than they did
in the other markets of Europe and the US.
On the one hand, this shows investors preference for core
properties in top locations. On the other, this sharp increase
indicates that the potential has already been more extensively
tapped. However, a recovery in other real estate markets,
such as regional cities in the UK, Germany, and Japan, in the
Netherlands or the Iberian Peninsula, is less advanced and
provides opportunities to investors.

210
190
170
150
130
110
90
70

12/2000
06/2001
12/2001
06/2002
12/2002
06/2003
12/2003
06/2004
12/2004
06/2005
12/2005
06/2006
12/2006
06/2007
12/2007
06/2008
12/2008
06/2009
12/2009
06/2010
12/2010
06/2011
12/2011
06/2012
12/2012
06/2013
12/2013

50

Historical performance indications and financial market scenarios are


not reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point:
June 2014
Source: PMA, Credit Suisse

In addition to a geographic distinction of markets, we can also


classify them based on the business sector, which is a key
driver of demand for commercial space. For instance, markets
can be distinguished by whether they are mainly driven by
commodities, finance, or government sector. The first category
includes cities such as Brisbane, Perth, Calgary, and Santiago
de Chile. Markets that largely depend on the financial industry
are typically London, New York, and Tokyo, while the
commercial real estate demand in cities like Berlin and
Washington D.C. depends stronger on the public sector. The
formation of such industry clusters allows us to identify key
drivers of each real estate market, to avoid any problematic
segments, and to diversify across various industries. Generally,
a global approach means we can identify such differences
and use them accordingly in a suitable portfolio strategy.

Fig. 9: Top net yields for prime office investments (lows and highs since Q4 2000 vs. current value)
10.0

Q3 2014

9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0

Historical returns and financial market scenarios are no guarantee of current or future performance. Last data point: September 2014
Sources: PMA, Credit Suisse

Athens

Lisbon

Rotterdam

Sydney

Rome

Warsaw

Prague

Manchester

Dublin

Amsterdam

Barcelona

Chicago

Milan

Madrid

Washington DC

Stuttgart

Shanghai

London: City

Dusseldorf

Frankfurt: City

Berlin

Hamburg

Munich: City

New York

Paris: CBD

London: West End

Zurich

Tokyo

Singapore

Hong Kong

2.0

This non-systematic risk can be reduced with a global portfolio


strategy. The potential for diversification depends on the return
correlation among the various markets. Tab. 2 shows the
correlation coefficients among the total returns of various
countries. Of particular note are the low correlation values of
Hong Kong, which are even in the negative range for some
European countries (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain). Also
interesting in terms of potential diversification are Germany
and Singapore, which have low to medium coefficients.
Traditionally, there is a high correlation between the US and
UK (here with a value of 0.71); especially prices in New York
and London are often moving in similar ways.

Broad Range of Yields


A global approach not only allows for participation in the
market developments of various countries, but also increases
the range of potential yields. Figure 9 shows the current net
prime office yields in selected cities, in the context of
historically realized lows or highs. This makes it clear on the
one hand that returns have reverted to a lower level in some
Asian, and even European, cities such as Zurich, London,
Paris, and large German cities. However, returns in southern
European cities remain in the upper range of historically
realized figures. This underscores once again that office real
estate markets in Europe are recovering differently in terms of
intensity and cycle.
A cross-section also shows that thanks to a global approach,
the range of realizable yield increases greatly. Based on the
cities studied here, the difference between the lowest return in
Hong Kong and the highest in Athens was about 550 bps in
Q3 2014.

Fig. 10: Systematic and unsystematic risk


International
Market
National/
Regional
Market

International Diversification
Investors also can benefit from the diversification potential of a
global investment approach. In general, the risks that affect a
real estate portfolio can be divided into non-systematic and
systematic risks (Fig. 10). Non-systematic, i.e. diversifiable
risks, include property risks, along with local and national/
regional market risks. By investing in various properties, in
different local markets, the risks can be diversified at the
property and the local level. However, if a portfolio is invested
only in the home market, all properties will always be subject
to the same national trends, such as employment base and
growth, demographic changes, inflation, and regulation.

Undiversiable risk (systematic):


Typical desired global real estate market exposure
driven by economic cycles. Globalisation has led to
more synchronized cycles
Diversiable risk(unsystematic):
Employment/Income
Demographic trends
Federal taxation
Ination
Vacancy rates
Prevalence of different economic sectors
Construction costs
Local taxes and regulation/zoning laws

Local
Market

Object

Physical characteristiscs (quality, size, age)


Location
Rental contracts (tenant quality, rent levels)
Financing

Source: Pagliari, Joseph L. (Handbook of real estate management,


1995), Credit Suisse

Tab. 2: Estimated correlation matrix for annual total returns on office space for selected countries* (19902013)
France
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Spain
UK
USA
Japan
Australia
Hong Kong
Singapore

France

Germany

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Spain

UK

USA

Japan

Australia

1.00

0.56

0.65

0.61

0.52

0.74

0.66

0.75

0.74

0.56

Hong Kong Singapore


0.27

0.39

1.00

0.48

0.44

0.49

0.63

0.14

0.28

0.48

0.05

-0.08

0.39

1.00

0.39

0.67

0.78

0.52

0.61

0.61

0.46

0.06

0.29

1.00

0.57

0.71

0.33

0.40

0.38

0.40

-0.13

0.12

1.00

0.77

0.36

0.57

0.32

0.50

-0.18

0.40

1.00

0.42

0.59

0.59

0.49

-0.13

0.24

1.00

0.71

0.50

0.65

0.41

0.37

1.00

0.65

0.76

0.28

0.58

1.00

0.52

0.24

0.43

1.00

0.19

0.54

1.00

0.45
1.00

*Total returns on a national level correspond to the weighted total returns of each leading city; Historical performance indications and financial market
scenarios are not reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point: March 2014
Source: PMA, Credit Suisse

3.Setting up a Global Portfolio

Based on general portfolio theory, an asset can be sufficiently


described by its expected return, risk, and correlation to other
assets in order to calculate a globally diversified portfolio.
However, these purely quantitative methods typically have
their practical limits and often result in corner solutions.
Figure 11 shows the global allocation recommended by the
model, arranged by the historically realized returns on a
portfolio of this kind.
Various markets with little international relevance would be
heavily weighted under such model calculations, due to the
returns achieved there in past years (e.g. Beijing and Perth) or
their low standard deviation (Marseilles, Cologne, and Lyon).
However, this calculation also makes it clear that the European markets have a lower risk/return profile than American or
various Asian markets, and would be weighted more heavily in
more defensive portfolios.
Fig. 11: Market allocation based on a purely mathematical
approach
We have drawn up a portfolio based on the return data for 37 European,
11 US, and 15 Asian office real estate locations between 2001 and
2013. Maximum weight of 20% per market is the only model restriction
assumed
100%

80%
70%

Ofce Netherlands

60%
Weight

Ofce
Hong Kong

Ofce Beijing

Ofce
Melbourne

Ofce Stuttgart

50%

Ofce
N.Y.
Ofce Houston

Ofce Manchester

30%
20%
10%

Ofce Marseille

Ofce Lyon

11.9%

11.5%

11.2%

10.8%

10.5%

9.8%

10.1%

9.5%

9.1%

8.8%

8.4%

8.1%

7.7%

7.4%

7.0%

6.7%

6.3%

6.0%

5.6%

5.3%

Ofce Vienna

Return

Historical performance indications and financial market scenarios are


not reliable indicators of current or future performance. Last data point:
December 2013
Source: PMA, Credit Suisse

Combination of Quantitative Approaches and Qualitative


Factors
We feel that the structure of a global portfolio must be based on a
quantitative and qualitative approach. To ensure a balanced portfolio, the economic significance of the various regions or historical
transaction volumes can also be accounted for as additional
factors to define the optimal strategic regional weighting.
Table 3 shows the summary of these different influential
factors. While the model allocation recommends heavy weighting in Asia depending on the risk/return segment, the historical
economic development and liquidity of the commercial real
estate markets give a heavier weight to Europe and the US.
10

Economic significance measures the relative economic development and


size of the real estate capital market the relative transaction volumes in
commercial real estate since 2001. The result of the quantitative model is
the bandwidth of the relative market allocation based on the mathematical
process shown in Figure 11
Region

Economic
significance

Size of the real


estate capital
market

Quantitative
model

Synthesis of
qualitative and
quantitative
factors

Europe

37%

40%

0% bis 81%

25% bis 45%

Americas

35%

40%

0% bis 40%

25% bis 45%

APAC

28%

20%

19% bis 60%

25% bis 45%

Ultimately, the target allocation depends mostly on the wishes


and characteristics of the investors and their risk capacity and
risk appetite. For instance, the US and UK markets have a
higher risk/return profile than the continental European or
C anadian markets do. Thus, more defensive portfolios
generally have a higher European weighting, while riskier
portfolios typically operate with heavier weighting in the US
and emerging markets.

Ofce Perth
Ofce Cologne

40%

0%

Tab. 3: Possible regional allocations

Source: PMA, IMF, Credit Suisse, Last data point: December 2013

Ofce Seoul

90%

In the synthesis it must also be considered that for the Americas,


allocation in Canada and Latin America is also desirable. Asia
is likely to experience the greatest economic momentum in
the next decades. Therefore, for a global portfolio there are
good arguments for a relatively equal regional distribution that
can fluctuate between 25% and 45% for the individual region.

Diversification Recommended Even within the Regions


For each region, we recommend diversifying the portfolio by
market, real estate segments, and the tenant industries. In
the current environment, this means that for European allocation, for instance, markets that ensure cash flow stability in
the portfolio, such as office or retail space in Germany, can be
combined with markets like Spain, Ireland, the Netherlands,
or UK regional markets that possess potential for value
appreciation. In America, investments can be diversified with
US coastal cities, commodity hubs in the southern US, and
various Canadian markets. If possible, investments in Latin
America should be considered as well. In Asia, we prefer the
combination of Australia/New Zealand and markets in
northern and southeast Asia, such as Japan, Singapore, and
Hong Kong.
Increasing Transparency in the Emerging Markets
A key factor that prevented the formation of global portfolios in
the past was the different transparency levels in the real estate
markets. Table 4 shows the first 20 countries of the 2014 JLL
Transparency Index, which rates 102 countries based on their
transparency in the real estate sector. The criteria include
p erformance evaluation for direct and indirect real estate

investments, the availability of fundamental market data, and


the financial disclosure and corporate governance of listed
investment vehicles. Moreover, legal and regulatory framework
conditions, along with the flow of transaction processes, are
also analyzed. First place is traditionally held by Englishspeaking countries, whereby the UK, the US, Australia, and
New Zealand take the first four spots in the latest study. In
more than 80 percent of the markets, the transparency
improved in comparison with the last ranking in 2012. In
general, we can see a trend toward a more open data policy in
the public and private sectors. For example, the continued
recovery in the international real estate markets is leading to
greater risk tolerance on the part of investors: While they are
willing to implement projects in new markets, they expect ever
greater levels of transparency. At the same time, governments
have realized that the lack of transparency has a negative
impact on investment activity and therefore they are dedicated to measures and initiatives that increase transparency.
Nonetheless, some countries still have great potential for
better transparency, which makes investment decisions and
project implementation more difficult, especially for foreign
investors, or requires high costs.

Tab. 4: The 20 most transparent real estate markets


according to the 2014 JLL Transparency Index
Rank

Country

Rank

Country

United Kingdom

11

Sweden

USA

12

Germany

Australia

13

Singapore

New Zealand

14

Hong Kong

France

15

Belgium

Canada

16

Denmark

Netherlands

17

Poland

Ireland

18

Spain

Finland

19

Norway

10

Switzerland

20

South Africa

Source: JLL Global Real Estate Transparency Index 2014,


Credit Suisse

Adam Grant Building, 114 Sansome Street in San Francisco, an investment of one of the Credit Suisse real estate funds

Source: Credit Suisse

11

4.Implementation within Credit Suisse

portfolio management process. As stated above, first a real


estate strategy is defined. To this end, a top-down-macro
oriented research analysis and bottom-up-oriented market

information from local real estate managers or acquisition


specialist is combined. To minimize conflicts of interest, we
endeavor to ensure that the strategies of each investment
product have a minimum amount of overlap. For international
projects, currency hedging is also a key factor.
Based on the defined strategy, the core of the value chain is
activated. This consists of the three sub-elements Buy
Optimize/Manage Sell.

Apoquindo 5400 in Santiago de Chile, an investment of one


of the Credit Suisse real estate funds

Buy
The acquisition goal is to purchase properties that meet the
strategy requirements of the different products. The properties
or construction projects are referred to the acquisition department by direct contact with companies, real estate brokers,
general contractors/full-service providers, or Credit Suisse RMs.
After a thorough review, the properties are submitted to the
Investment Committee and then placed in the right investment
vehicle by the Assignment Committee, whereby the conditions
for price negotiation are also defined. After submission of a
preliminary purchase price as part of a non-binding offer
(NBO), a thorough due diligence review is conducted, under
which the property is inspected and evaluated by various
(internal and external) parties. If the due diligence review is
satisfactory, after consent by the relevant executive bodies, a
binding purchase offer is submitted for a real estate portfolio.
On average, of 100 properties that are reviewed in the
acquisition process, five to ten are purchased. It typically takes
between two and six months to purchase a property. In 2013,
Real Estate Asset Management at Credit Suisse purchased
real estate in excess of CHF 1,225 million.

Source: Credit Suisse

The real estate strategy outlined in the prior section is a


starting point. However, ultimately it is just an element in the
entire value chain that is needed to establish and manage an
internationally diversified real estate portfolio. Therefore,
below we will describe here for illustrative purposes how real
estate, as an investment in an international context, is implemented at Credit Suisse.
The track record of Credit Suisse Real Estate Asset Management began with the launch of the first Swiss real e state fund
in 1938. Today, Credit Suisse is among the worlds largest real
estate investment managers; measured in terms of assets
under management, it is the third largest real estate asset
manager in Europe and number one in Switzerland.
Structured Portfolio Management Process
This development is based on a very simple, clearly structured

Review of the strategy:


Review of the strategy and portfolio
objectives. Preparation of client
reporting.

Strategy

Reporting
Controlling

Setting the strategy:


Research-based top-down
approach in combination with
bottom-up experience of the
local teams

Property
portfolio

Sell:
Properties are regularly
reviewed with regard to
performance and potential.
Identication of properties to
be sold.

Sales

Acquisition

Asset
Management

Optimize / manage:
Portfolio optimization through property
asset management, facility management
and construction

Source: Credit Suisse AG

12

Buy:
Strategy implementation
through the acquisition
of properties after indepth
due diligence

Fig. 12: Value chain


for real estate at
Credit Suisse

Optimize/Manage
The product manager is responsible for managing the relevant
real estate product. This includes many activities, including
portfolio management. However, operational management
and the coordination of various processes on a day-to-day
basis are also part of the specified tasks. He or she also works
closely with Property Asset Management (PAM), which offers
support during the holding period of the properties. For each
property, a strategy or property-specific business plan is
created. Here, income and value-added potential are assessed
and plans implemented where sensible.
Further, PAM is responsible for the rent policy and its implementation, and is in charge of the operational real estate
providers such as managers or marketers. Last but not least,
this department also concludes master agreements, which
can use economies of scale to the fullest extent. Examples
include active master agreements for elevators, gas deliveries,
and white goods there are also pilot projects under way for
lighting, electricity, and solar facilities.
A key element in the optimization phase are renovations or
reconstructions. Each year, the construction team of Real
Estate Asset Management initiates some CHF 190 million of
investment volume in this area. Along with the supervision of
new construction projects, the total sales in 2013 were
CHF 990 million.
Among the largest new construction projects in recent years
was Sihlcity in Zurich, where Credit Suisse Real Estate Asset
Management is headquartered. Internationally, key projects
include the realization of the expansion to the Vancouver
E xchange and the Apoquindo in Santiago de Chile.

Sell
If the real estate strategy has low potential for instance, if
the costs of renovation cannot be compensated for by rent
increases or a property no longer fits with the investments
adopted strategy, it is offered for sale. In 2013, real estate
worth more than CHF 725 million was sold.
Strategy Review and Reporting
In regular intervals and based on clearly defined processes,
the strategy of each real estate portfolio is checked and the
results are shown in client reports. The transparency of
investment plans has greatly improved over the years and can
generally be reflected for each property using key figures
such as cost price, current market value, rental income, or
vacancy
Integrated, Comprehensive Approach for Real Estate
Along the entire value chain, Real Estate Asset Management
has access to more than 210 dedicated, internal real estate
experts. Management functions and core processes are
performed internally most supporting functions are
outsourced to renowned real estate service companies.
All of the various interfaces, processes, and staff involved in
the various global regions together comprise highly complex
investment processes. However, we feel that a professional,
globally networked platform is needed to successfully
implement a global real estate strategy.

The Sihlcity in Zurich, one of the largest real estate development projects of Credit Suisse in recent years

Source: Credit Suisse

13

5.How to Invest?

Investors seeking exposure to real estate have a number of


options (see table 5). Typically, a real estate investment means
an investment in the equity segment, but could also be an
investment in debt structures.
The second dimension is the distinction between publicly accessible vehicles and private investment opportunities. This
distinction can be based on various factors, such as a public
stock listing or legal criteria for example, private placements
for bonds.
Tab. 5: Categories of real estate investments
Equity

Debt

Private

Direct investments with mandates


or property clubs
Non-listed real estate funds and
funds of funds
Real estate foundations

Direct mortgages
Real estate debt foundations
Private real estate debt funds

Public

Real estate equities


Listed real estate investment
trusts (equity REITs)
Listed real estate funds

Bonds from real estate


companies
Mortgage REITs
Mortgage bonds
Agency mortgage-backed
securities
Mortgage backed securities
(public CMBS or RMBS)

Source: Credit Suisse

Private investments (equity segment)


The private equity market includes direct investments in real
estate along with investments in non-listed real estate funds
and fund of funds.
For direct investments, the investors are directly involved in
the decisions regarding the strategy or composition of their
portfolio and benefit from the aforementioned advantages of
this asset class. Professional management of the real estate
portfolio, which includes a wide range of skills and competencies,
is needed to successfully implement the real estate strategy
in practice.
If investors cannot cover all of these required functions alone,
it is advisable for them to implement direct investments using
mandate or property club structures. With both solutions, they
can rely on the skills and experience of professional institutional real estate investors, but remain in the driving seat of
the investment process.
For non-discretionary mandates of this kind, they can decide
which properties they want to buy, as they are generally
present for the property inspections. Because mandates of
this kind have relatively high minimum requirements, there is
also the option to invest in real estate using club structures.
Various investors form an investment club for this type of
structure. The investors are intensively involved in the
acquisition process. They can decide on the purchase of

properties, but the management and sale of the properties is


delegated to the asset manager in order to avoid conflicts of
interest.

14

Further, private real estate funds or funds of funds are part of


private real estate investments. This includes open and closed
ended structures and products that have a fixed or a unlimited
life. Various products tend to vary greatly from one another in
terms of risk assumption, as we will discuss below. Such
private vehicles are only available to institutional investors or
qualified private investors2.
Publicly Listed Real Estate Investment Vehicles
Public real estate includes investments in real estate equities,
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs), and publicly accessible
real estate funds that directly hold real estate. These
investments are typically available to all investors and offer
access to diversified real estate portfolios with relatively small
denominations. Moreover, investors benefit from the higher
liquidity of listed instruments.
REITs are a special case for real estate equities. They
generally have higher direct dividend yields than normal real
estate equities and offer tax advantages in certain countries.
However, they are also subject to various restrictions. In terms
of managing the real estate portfolio, non-REIT real estate
companies have a higher level of flexibility. As they are also
typically involved in construction projects, they have a higher
risk profile than REITs.
However, the disadvantages of these public vehicles are a
higher volatility, a higher correlation with equities, and greater
interest sensitivity compared with direct investments. These
disadvantages are offset by their higher liquidity, as the shares
are publicly traded on stock exchanges. Generally, the price
of such a vehicle differs by the NAV, and the shares are traded
for a premium or discount on NAV. Therefore, investing in real
estate using such vehicles requires a further analytical dimension: valuation at vehicle level. In the short term, therefore, the
performance of such vehicles can differ greatly from those in
direct investments.
The field of publicly accessible real estate funds also depends
greatly on local conditions. For instance, Switzerland has
domestic and globally invested real estate funds that are
traded on the stock exchange. These are liquid and typically
include premiums or discounts in the NAV. Their correlation to
the equity market and volatility is substantially lower than that
of REITs and real estate equities.
However, German public real estate funds are open-end
structures and offer investors liquidity at the NAV. Here too,
the individual situation must be analyzed to see which structure
best fits the investors portfolio.

Qualified investor status can vary from country to country. The


term generally denotes institutional investors, HNWIs, and investors
with com-prehensive experience in financial investments.

2

Different Investment Styles


The choice of the investment style is also a key decision for real
estate investments. It has a major impact on the characteristics
of the real estate portfolio. Depending on their risk/return
profile, real estate and indirect investment vehicles can be
divided into core, core+, value-added, and opportunistic (see
Figure 13).
Core objects are properties at good locations and have a high
level of quality alongside existing, long-term leases. Returns
are mainly generated by the rental income component, although total returns can vary over time. The core+ strategy
deviates somewhat from the high requirements of core in a
number of areas. For instance, a property may be located less
centrally, the leases can have shorter terms, or the investment
can be made with a higher amount of borrowing. This means a
higher risk/return profile than with the core approach.

Figure 13: Investment styles

high

Return

medium

Opportunistic

Value Add
Core+
Core

low

Private vs. Public Debt Markets


Particularly in English speaking countries, real estate debt has
become an established investment segment. This means that
investors are essential lenders or assume the credit risk from
creditors. Generally, real estate loans have a lower risk/return
profile than investments in real estate equity. However, the risk
can vary depending on the investment and seniority of the loan.
One area of overlap between the private and the public is that
of mortgage-backed securities or covered bonds. These
covered bonds are bonds that have additional security from
mortgages. They are typically issued by banks or other financial
institutions and generally have lower interest than non-secured
bonds.
However, mortgage-backed securities consolidate a portfolio
of real estate loans and slice and dice them into a bond. Such
bonds generally follow pass through structures, i.e. the interest
income and repayment of principal of the underlying loans are
passed on directly to investors using a cash waterfall system.
Depending on the country or structure, such bonds can be
public or private.

low

medium

high

Risk

Source: Credit Suisse

Opportunity to use the Core Satellite Investment


Approach
Because most real estate investors focus is on stable income
returns, it is recommended to implement most of the real estate
allocation using core and core+ strategies. In this context,
many investors use the core satellite investment approach.
Most of the investments are made in core strategies, but a
small portion of the investment aims to generate higher returns
using value-added or opportunistic strategies.
The potential success of value-added strategies depends on
the market cycle. The ideal conditions are offered by markets
in which higher rates of vacancy prevail, but there are expectations to drop over the investment horizon, while real estate
values may rise due to higher rents. In particular, various
European markets such as Spain, Ireland, or British regional
cities, and some US markets are currently attractive for using
value-added strategies. Thus, they can be appealing to those
investors who wish to enrich their real estate portfolio with
higher potential returns.

For returns on a value-added approach, income and value


enhancement play a role, whereby the value enhancement
component takes on greater meaning here. Various approaches
can be used. Often, the value is enhanced using renovations,
new leases, or non-speculative project developments. One
alternative is to ride the market cycle. With market timing,
higher risks in markets with a higher value-added potential are
taken. The debt portion is also typically much higher for
value-added than for core and loan to value ratios range
t ypically between 40% and 60%. Opportunistic strategies
have an even higher risk profile than value-added and often
contain a highly speculative element and loan to value ratios
above 70%.

15

Impressum

Cover image
Sydney 52 Golbourn Street
Source: Credit Suisse
Edition
1. edition: October 2014
Publisher
Strategies and Advisory
Credit Suisse Real Estate Asset Management

Lead Author
Zoltan Szelyes, CAIA, CFA
Real Estate Strategist Real Estate Asset Management
Email: zoltan.szelyes@credit-suisse.com
Other Authors
Ulrich Braun
Head Strategies and Advisory Real Estate Asset Management
Stephan Bruenner
Real Estate Portfolio Strategist
Sarah Leissner
Real Estate Analyst

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