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WelcometoRegion3WebinaronConcretePavementRecycling

Speakers:MarkSnyder&TaraCavalline
Subject

Regions1&2Webinar

Region3Webinar

Region4Webinar

Concrete Pavement
Recycling

April20,2016

May4,2016

May18,2016

WebinarProcedure
Ifyouhavequestionsforthepresentersplease
typeinthequestionswhereindicatedonyour
screen.Pleaserefertotheslidenumber.
AttheendofthepresentationtheCPTechCenter
willremovethemutefortheparticipantstoallow
foropendiscussion.
Forquestionsregardingthewebinaroperations
pleasecontactDeniseWagnerforassistance.
dfwagner@iastate.edu;phone5152945798.
ThankstoFHWAforsupportingthedevelopment
ofthismaterial.
2

IntroductiontoRecyclingWebinar
LearningObjectives
Tounderstandthatrecycledconcreteaggregate(RCA)is
anengineeredmaterial
Tounderstandthebreadthofapplicationsitcanbeused
inandperformanceexpectations
TounderstandhowRCAisproduced
Tounderstandmixturedesignbasics
Tounderstandthequalitycontrolaspectsneededfor
usingRCA
TobeabletoidentifythepotentialbenefitsofusingRCA
3

ConcretePavementRecycling

MarkB.Snyder,Ph.D.,P.E.
EngineeringConsultanttoCPTechCenter
TaraCavalline,Ph.D.,P.E.
AssistantProfessor,UNC Charlotte

WhatisConcreteRecycling?
Breaking,removingand
crushinghardened
concretefroman
acceptablesource.
Oldconcretepavements
oftenareexcellent
sourcesofmaterialfor
producingRCA.
Concretepavementsare
100%recyclable!
5

ReasonsforConcreteRecycling
Dwindlinglandfillspace/increasingdisposalcosts
50000U.S.landfillsacceptingPCCin1980
5000U.S.landfillsacceptingPCCin2000

Rapidlyincreasingdemandforaggregateswithlimited
resources
Sustainability
Conservationofmaterials
Potentialreducedenvironmentalimpactduetoreducedconstruction
traffic,reducedlandfill
Costsavings

Potentialforimprovedpavementperformance
Aproventechnology itworks!
6

EC2

Sustainability
Landfillreduction
Energysavings
Conservationofresources

Reductionof
greenhouse
gases(GHGs).
7

Slide 7
EC2

Consider adding a slice on the Minnesota example with the key outcomes
Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

ExampleCostSavings:
TH59nearWorthington,MN
16miletwolaneD
crackedPCCPrecycled
in1980
CoarseRCAfornew8
inchPCCP
FineRCAfor1inlifton
subbase

Estimated27%total
projectcostsavings
and150,000gallonsof
fuel(MnDOT estimates)

2006Photo(after2000DBRandGrind)

PotentialPavement
Performance Improvements
Foundationstability;angular,roughtexture
andsecondarycementingaction.
Concretestrength;partialsubstitutionofRCA
forvirginfineaggregatemayincrease
concretecompressivestrength.

ConcreteRecycling:
AProvenTechnology!
41of50states
allowuseofRCA
invarious
applications
(FHWA,2004)

10

Usesof
RecycledConcrete
Aggregate
PCCpavement
SingleandTwoLift

HMApavement
Subbase
Unbound
Stabilized

Fillmaterial
Filtermaterial
Drainagelayer
11

Unstabilized Subbases/Backfill
MostcommonapplicationforRCAinU.S.
Applicationusedby38of41statesusingRCA
inU.S.(FHWA2004)
Somebelieveitoutperformsvirginaggregateas
anunstabilized subbase!

Somelevelof
contaminants
istolerable.

12

Cementstabilizedand
LeanConcreteSubbases
Stabilizationhelpsto
preventmigrationof
crusherfines,dissolution
andtransportof
significantamountsof
calciumhydroxide.
Physicalandmechanical
propertiesoftheRCA
mustbeconsideredinthe
designandproductionof
cementstabilized
subbases.
13

EC3

ConcreteMixtures
RCAcanbe(andhasbeen)
incorporatedastheprimary
orsoleaggregatesourcein
newconcretepavements.
UsedintheU.S.concrete
mixturessincethe1940s
Roadwaysurfaces,shoulders,
medianbarriers,sidewalks,
curbsandgutters,
building/bridgefoundations
andevenstructuralconcrete.

Commoninthelowerliftof
twoliftconcretepavements
inEurope.
14

Slide 14
EC3

Mark, fyi the 2-lift in Kansas used normal project materials in the bottom layer. Their main goal was to examine the constructability
using normal paving equipment instead of the paver that is common in Europe that places both lifts through one machine. The project
was a success. As part of the trail, they construction a number of sectiions to evaluate different materials and surface texture options.
Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

RCAinTwoLiftConstruction
IowaUS75Reconstruction(1976)
6040RCAandRAPin7inlowerlift;23
ft wide
Allvirginin4intoplift;24ft wide
Providedmorethan40yearsof
service!

AustrianStandardPracticesincelate
1980s
A1(ViennaSalzburg):19cm(7.5in)
lowerlift(RCAandRAP),3cm(1.5in)
upperlift(exposedvirginaggregate),
finestostabilizefoundation(100
percentPCCrecycled)
Overallprojectsavings>10percent
Morethan75km(47miles)between
1991and1994;twoliftconstruction
usingrecycledmaterialsisnow
standard
15

ConcreteMixtures(cont.)
Batching,mixing,delivery,placementandfinishing
techniquescanbesimilartothoseusedforvirgin
aggregateconcretemixtures.
Concernswithwaterdemandandpremature
stiffening:
LimitingoreliminatefineRCA
PresoakRCA
Chemicalandmineraladmixtures.

Contaminantscanleadtoairentrainmentproblems.
FreshandhardenedpropertiesofRCAPCCmightbe
differentfromvirginaggregatePCC.

16

OtherApplications
RCAisaneconomicaland
highlystablematerialthat
iswellsuitedforgranular
fillapplications.
MoststatesallowtheuseofRCAforerosion
control(riprap)orslopestabilization.
Soilstabilization,pipebedding,landscape
materials,railroadballast,agriculturalsoil
treatment,treatmentofacidiclakewaters,
masonryblocks,artificialreefs,etc.
17

PerformanceofPavements
ConstructedusingRCAinPCC
Therehavebeenafewnotable(andwell
publicized)failures.
DeteriorationofmidpanelcracksinJRCP
Designissues(undoweled joints,panellength,
foundationtype,etc.)

.butperformancehasgenerallybeenvery
good!
Nostructuralproblemshavebeenreportedwith
theuseofRCAinfoundationlayers.
18

TexasInterstate10

1995RehabProjectinHouston,Texas
I10betweenI45&Loop610West
ProjectLength:6miles
ExistingCRCP:1968construction
10Lanes+HOV
NoVirginAggregatesUsedforNewConcrete:100%RCA(Coarse&Fine)

14CRCP
8CRCP
3ASB
6CSB
Original

6LTS

11CRCP
1BB

ReconstructandUnbonded Overlay

19

2007PhotoofTexasI10(after12yearsofservice)

20

US59(Worthington,MN):
1st majorrecyclingofDcrackedconcreteintonewconcrete
Reconstructedin1980(original1955construction)
8inslab,skewedjoints(13,17,14,19ft panels)
100%coarseRCA(3/4intopsize),edgedrains
Nodowels
3000+vpd,~8percentheavycommercial
Rehabilitatedin2000
Slabrepairs,dowelbarretrofit,
jointreseal
Diamondgrinding
PSR=4.3in2006(3.0in1994)
Faulting=0.01inchesin2006(0.25
inchesin1994)
NorecurringDcracking
21

Interstate80(PineBluffs,Wyoming):

Extensivealkali
aggregate(ASR)
damage
Muchpredesign
testing

22

Interstate80(PineBluffs,Wyoming):
1985:Original8inpavementrecycledintonew10inpavement
surface
65percentcoarseRCA,22%fineRCA
Lowalkali(<0.5%)cement,30%ClassFflyash,w/c=0.44
Skewedjoints(14,16,13,12ft panels)
Nodowels
4400ADTin1985(30 40%heavy)
Rehabilitatedin2004
Dowelbarretrofit,diamond
grinding,jointreseal
2006ADT:8000vpd (3040%heavy)
Nosignificantevidenceofrecurring
ASRuntilrecently.
23

PerformanceCaseStudy:U.S.52 Zumbrota,MN(27ftJRCP)
after22yearsofservice
Test and Value
Transverse Joint Spalling,
% Joints
Avg. Faulting between Panels, in
Avg. Joint Width, in
Longitudinal Cracking, ft/mile
Transverse Cracking, % Slabs
Deteriorated Transverse
Cracks/mile
Total Transverse Cracks/mile
PSR
IRI (in/mile)
Tensile Strength, psi
Compressive Strength, psi
Youngs Modulus, psi
Average VSTR (cm3/cm2)

MN 4-1
(Recycled)
81

MN 4-2
(Control)
100

0.04
0.47
90
92
201

0.04
0.43
0
24
42

211
3.0
102
350
6500
4.4E6
0.2902

47
3.8
60
360
7400
6.3E6
0.3264
24

MNUS52Observations:
FoundationStiffness(backcalculated)30%lowerforRCA
section
AggregateTopSize
1.0inRCA
1.5inControl
MortarContent
74%RCA(shrinkagecracksobservedearly)
52%Control
SimilarThermalCoefficientsin1994
12.4/Co RCA
11.9/Co Control

25

EC5

EffectofReclaimedMortarContent
(afterFHWA,1997)
Project
Mortar(%)
PanelLength(ft)
Fault(in)a
%CrackedPanels
DeterioratedCracks/Mile
PSR

CT

KS

MN1

WY

MN4

6.5
40
0
31
6
0.1

7
15
0.04
0
0
0

11
27
0
1
3
0.1

19
14
0
0
0
0

22
27
0.01
66
80
0.2

Higherreclaimedmortarcontentresultedin
morepanelcrackingandcrackdeteriorationforlong(>25ft)panels
(buthadnoapparenteffectonshort[<16ft]panels).
26

Slide 26
EC5

This slide and the next 2 are kinda busy, I find myself needing to study. There may not be time. Consider some key findings added to
the data or something.
Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

EffectsofRCA,PanelLengthonCracking
(Section,L/l,%CrackedPanels)
(fromFHWA,1997)
WI11,4.4,8%
GranularBaseSections
WI12,4.6,2%
CT11,16.6,66%
WY11,4.3,0%
CT12,15.2,93%
WY12,4.3,0%
MN11,7.3,1%
MN12,7.3,0%
StabilizedBaseSections
MN21,8.2,84%
KS11,5.5,0%
MN41,7.8,88%
MN42,8.2,22%
KS12,5.5,0%
MN31,5.0,2%
Longpanels(L/l >6)withRCAgenerallyexperiencedmorecrackingthan
whennaturalaggregatewasused.
Therewasnoapparenteffectonshorterpanels.

27

NoDirectInfluenceofRCAon
DevelopmentofJointFaulting
DoweledSections
CT11,0.01in
CT12,0.01in
MN11,0.02in
MN12,0.02in
MN21,0.03in
MN41,0.04in
MN42,0.03i
WI12,0.02in

Undoweled Sections
KS11,0.09in
KS12,0.13in
MN31,0.24in

WI11,0.11in
28

2006StudyConclusions
RecycledASRconcreteusedsuccessfullyinWyoming
withmitigationmeasures
IsolatedrecurrentASR
RCAperformedbetterthancontrol
RecycledDcrackedconcreteusedsuccessfullywith
mitigationmeasures
Reducedaggregatesize
Reducedmoistureexposure?

29

2006StudyConclusions
NeedtotreatRCAasengineeredmaterialand
modifymixandstructuraldesignsaccordingly
Reducew/c
ASRmitigation
Reducedpanellengths
Othermodificationsasneeded.

MortarcontentsaregenerallyhigherforRCA
Variedwithaggregatetype,crushingprocess
Highermortarcontentsoftenhadmoredistress may
needtocontrolreclaimedmortarcontent

30

ProductionofRCA
Typicalsteps:

Evaluationofsourceconcrete.
Pavementpreparation.
Pavementbreakingandremoval.
Removalofembeddedsteel.
Crushingandsizing.
Beneficiation.
Stockpiling.

Inplaceconcreterecycling
Recyclingofreturnedreadymixedconcrete.

31

EvaluationofSourceConcrete

Knownsourcesvs.unknownsources?

32

PotentialContaminants
Reinforcingsteel
Dowelbarsandbaskets
Chemicaladmixtures
Deicingsalts
Oil
Jointsealant
Materialfromoverlyingandunderlyinglayers

33

PavementPreparation
HowwillRCAbeused?RCAforconcretemixtures
mightrequiremorepavementpreparationthanfor
otheruses.
Removalofjointsealant:
Cuttingtoothsealantplow
Otherremovalduringproduction

Asphaltpatches/overlays/shouldersmayormaynot
needtoberemoved;
SomeEuropeancountriesallowupto30%RAPinnew
concretepavingmixtures(twoliftconstruction).
Removedeterioratedasphaltshoulderspriortobreaking
concreteonreconstructionprojects.
34

PavementPreparation

35

PavementBreakingandRemoval
Mainpurposeistosizethematerialforease
ofhandlingandtransporttothecrushing
plant.
Brokenintopiecesabout18to24in.max.

Alsoshouldimpartenoughenergyto
maximizedebonding ofconcretetoany
reinforcingsteel.
Theimpactbreakeristhemostcommon
breakingmethod.
36

PavementBreakingandRemoval

1,000+yd2/hr
37

EC6

PavementBreakingandRemoval
Thefirststepinthe
removalprocessisto
loosentheconcretepieces
andseparateany
debonded reinforcingsteel.
Wheresteelmesh
reinforcingorrebarare
presentandhavenotbeen
brokenorseparatedfrom
theconcrete,arhino
hornisused.

38

Slide 38
EC6

Notes: back hoe with rhino horn, wheel loader, or bulldozer....


Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

PavementBreakingandRemoval
Useoffrontend
loadersanddump
trucksforremoval
andtransportto
offsiteprocessing
(left)
or
Onsiteprocessing
usingbackhoeand
mobilecrushing
equipment
(below).

39

EC7

RemovalofEmbeddedSteel
Typicallyaccomplishedduringbreakingand
removal

40

Slide 40
EC7

Note goes with following slide.


Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

RemovalofEmbeddedSteel
Canalsofollowcrushing
operations
Electromagnets
Manualremoval

41

CrushingandSizing
Thesamebasicequipmentusedtoprocessesvirgin
aggregatesalsocanbeusedtocrush,sizeand
stockpiletheRCA.
Yielddependsonmanyfactorsbutlossofmaterial
canbeashighas10%andmayapproach0%.
Primarycrusherreducesto3to4;materialthen
screenedandanythinglargerthan3/8fedto
secondarycrusher,whichbreakstothedesiredRCA
topsize.
Threemaintypesofcrusher:jaw,cone,andimpact.
Tellcontractorwhatgradation/resultisdesired
Contractorshouldselectcrushingprocessbasedon
desiredgradationandmaterialproperties.
42

CrushingandSizing

43

CrushingandSizing

44

EffectofCrushingProcessonRCA
ParticleSizeDistribution
100
80
Durchgang / %
%Passing

EC8
mbs1

Impact
Prallbrecher

60
40

JawCrusher
Backenbrecher
20
0
0,1

10

100

Particlesize,mm
Korngre / mm

45

Slide 45
EC8

Correct note??

mbs1

Yes -- I already modifed the slide from German to English

Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016


markbsnyder, 4/4/2016

EffectsofCrushingTechniqueand
NaturalAggregateTypeon
RCAReclamationEfficiency
ReclamationEfficiency
Process

RCAType
Limestone

Gravel

Granite

JawJawRoller

71

73

87

JawCone

73

80

76

ImpactImpact

44

63

53
46

EffectofCrushingTechniqueon
ReclaimedMortar
AverageReclaimed Mortar(%)
Process

RCAType
Limestone

Gravel

Granite

JawJawRoller

55

54

52

JawCone

56

51

48

ImpactImpact

51

43

39
47

EnvironmentalChallenges
fromCrushingConcrete
Silicadust(concrete)
Asbestos(demolitiondebris notpavingPCC)

Dustsuppressionsystematconcretecrushingoperation.
48

Beneficiation
Thetreatmentofanyrawmaterialtoimproveitsphysicalor
chemicalpropertiespriortofurtherprocessingoruse.
Example:mightneedtoremoveaccidentallyincludedmaterial(e.g.,
organicmaterial,excessivedust,orothercontaminants)fromtheRCA
priortouse.

Examplebeneficiationtechniques:

Changecrushingprocesses
Washing,wetordryscreening,etc.
Airblowing
Waterfloatingorheavymediaseparationtechniques.

Degreeofbeneficiationrequireddependsupon
condition/compositionofRCAanditsintendeduse.

49

Stockpiling
CoarseRCAcanbestockpiledusingthesame
techniquesandequipmentasareusedwithvirgin
coarseaggregatematerials.

50

EC9

Stockpiling(cont.)
ProtectfineRCAstockpilesfrommoisture
Secondarycementing.

RCAstockpilerunoffisinitiallyhighlyalkaline
Leachingofcalciumhydroxide
Runoffalkalinityrapidlydecreases

51

Slide 51
EC9

Not sure how stockpiles are protected from rain? Are you seeing this done? I can see controling the runoff if needed.
Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

InPlaceConcreteRecycling
WhenRCAistobeusedinasubbase layerofthe
roadwayand/orshoulders,productioncanbe
accomplishedusinganinplaceconcreterecycling
train.

52

RecyclingReadyMixedConcrete
Approximately5%ofthe445millioncubicyardsof
readymixedconcreteproducedintheU.S.eachyear
isreturnedtotheconcreteplant.
Recyclingthismaterial,
aswithrecyclingany
existingconcrete
material,presentssignificant
sustainablebenefits,
includingreduction
oflandfilluseand
virginaggregateuse.
53

PropertiesofRCA
Property

VirginAgg.

RCA

ShapeandTexture

Angular withrough
surface

AbsorptionCapacity

Wellrounded;
smoothto
angular/rough
0.8% 3.7%

SpecificGravity

2.4 2.9

2.1 2.4

L.AAbrasion

15% 30%

20% 45%

SodiumSulfate

7% 21%

18% 59%

Magnesium Sulfate

4% 7%

1% 9%

ChlorideContent

0 2lb/yd3

1 12lb/yd3

3.7% 8.7%

54

EC10
mbs2

EffectofParticleSizeonRCAProperties
(afterFergus,1980)

55

Slide 55
EC10

Not sure what this slide is adding?

mbs2

Intended to show impact of particle size on mortar content ... smaller particles (fine aggregate) tend to be higher mortar content, so
absorption goes up and specific gravity goes down. Explains need to treat coarse and fine RCA a bit differently, especially in PCC
mixtures.

Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

markbsnyder, 4/4/2016

RecyclingConcretePavements

PROPERTIESOFCONCRETEWITH
RCA
56

EC11

PropertiesofConcretewithRCA
(Hint:itsallaboutthemortar)

MN41(Recycled)

MN42(Control)
57

Slide 57
EC11

Might add a note for future presentators


Ells Cackler, 3/16/2016

Fresh(Plastic)Properties
Property
Workability

Coarse RCA
Similartoslightly
lower
Finishability
Similartomore
difficult
Waterbleeding Slightlyless
Waterdemand Greater
Aircontent
Slightlyhigher

CoarseandFineRCA
Slightly tosignificantly
lower
Moredifficult
Less
Much greater
Slightlyhigher

58

HardenedProperties
Property
Compressive
strength
Tensilestrength
Strengthvariation
Modulusof
elasticity
CTE
Dryingshrinkage
Creep
Permeability
Specificgravity

Coarse RCA
0% to24%less

CoarseandFineRCA
15%to40%less

0%to10%less
Slightlygreater
10%to33%less

10%to20%less
Slightlygreater
25%to40%less

0%to30% greater
20%to50%greater
30%to60%greater
0% to500%greater
0%to10%lower

0%to30% greater
70% to100%greater
30%to60%greater
0%to500%greater
5%to15%lower

59

HardenedProperties

60

EffectsofRCAandMixDesignon
StrengthandThermalProperties
(afterFHWA,1997)
Project

CT

KS

MN1

WY

MN4

Section

RCA

Natural

RCA

Natural

RCA

Natural

RCA

Natural

RCA

Natural

w/cm

0.40

0.45

0.41

0.41

0.47

N/A

0.38

0.44

0.44

0.47

%Fine RCA:

25

22

fc (psi)

5690

5130

7210

6340

6860

6740

7060

6480

6210

6900

E(106 psi)

4.60

4.76

5.12

5.20

5.25

5.95

5.01

5.32

5.13

6.06

(106/F)

6.4

5.9

5.8

5.2

6.2

6.3

7.4

6.0

6.4

6.2

Reducingw/cmand/oraddingsomeRCAfines
oftenresultedinRCAconcretemixtureswithimprovedproperties!
61

DurabilityandotherProperties
Property
Freezethaw
durability
Sulfateresistance
ASR
Carbonization
Corrosionrate

Coarse RCA
Dependsonair
voids
Depends onmixture
Lesssusceptible
Upto65%greater
Maybefaster

CoarseandFineRCA
Dependsonairvoids
Depends onmixture
Lesssusceptible
Upto65%greater
Maybefaster

62

SUSTAINABILITYCONSIDERATIONSIN
CONCRETERECYCLING

63

SustainabilityBenefits
ConcreterecyclingaddressessustainabilityTripleBottomLine:
Environmentalbenefits
Conservationofaggregates
Reductionoflandfilluse
Reductionofgreenhousegases,sequestrationofcarbon
Economicbenefits
Metalsrecovery
Fuelsavingsduetoreducedhauldistances
Reduceddisposalcosts
Extensionoflandfilllife
Potentialtaxcredits,otherincentives
Societalbenefits
Reducedlanduseandreducedimpacttolandscape
64

QuantifyingSustainabilityBenefits
Environmental andsocietal benefitsofconcreterecycling
arewelldocumented.
Economicbenefitsarenotasreadilyevident,orcanbeat
equivalentcost.
Decisionsmadebasedoninitialcostcaneliminate
optionsthatincluderecycling.
Quantification ofsustainabilitybenefits(particularly
environmental andsocietal)benefitssupportchoice
ofrecycling.
Projectsshouldbeapproachedinamannerthatgivesthecontractoroptions
sorecyclingopportunitiescanbeincorporatedintothebiddingprocess.
65

QuantifyingSustainabilityBenefits
Measurementtoolscanbeusedtoquantifysustainability
benefits,weighalternativesandfacilitatedecisionmaking.
EconomicAnalysis
LifeCycleCostAnalysis,LCCA
EnvironmentalAssessment
LifeCycleAssessment,LCA
RatingSystems
Incorporaterecyclingactivities
INVEST
intothesetoolsto
Greenroads
quantifysustainabilitybenefits
Envision
Others
66

EconomicAnalysis
LifecycleCostAnalysis(LCCA) quantifieseconomic costoverthe
lifetimeofaproject.
FHWARealCost
DoesNOT quantifyenvironmentalorsocietalbenefits
associatedwithrecycling.
Initialconstruction,futuremaintenanceandrehabilitation,and
endoflifeconsidered.
Costsavingsfromrecyclingconcretecaninclude:
Lowerinitialcostsforrecycledaggregates
Lowerhaulingcosts
Reducedtippingfees
Salvagevalueofproject,ifrecycled
Avoiddoublecounting

67

EnvironmentalAssessment
LifecycleAnalysis(LCA) quantifiesimpactofaproductor
processontheenvironmentoverthelifecycle.

(fromFHWA,Kendall2012)

Quantifiesenvironmentalimpacts
Societalandeconomic impactsquantifiedtosomeextent

68

LifeCycleAssessment(LCA)
ISO14140and14044
LCAsoftwareprogramsincludeAthena,SimaPro,orTRACI
NogenerallyacceptedLCAframeworkforpavements
DatatosupportLCAforhighwayprojectsisavailable
Lifecycleinventory(LCI)andEnvironmentalProductDeclarations
(EPD)forspecificproducts
Federalagencies
FHWA,USEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,USEnergyInformation
Administration,USDepartmentofEnergy,USBureauofEconomicAnalysis

LevelofdetailrequiredmakesLCAprojectspecific
Comparisonsareonlypossiblewithequivalentbounding
assumptions.
69

ConcreteRecyclinginLCA
ConcreterecyclingcanbeconsideredinseveralLCA
impactcategories
Fuelconsumption
Emissions
Nonrenewableresourceuse
Freshwateruse
Hazardousandnonhazardouswaste
Concretemustbedefinedaseitherawasteoraproduct
Avoiddoublecounting

Useofpayitemsasprimaryinputisoneapproachto
provideconsistencyinanalysisbetweenprojects(Harrell
etal.2015)
70

RatingSystems
Facilitateratingbasedonenvironmental andsocial
equitymetrics
Providemeansofrelativeevaluationand
differentiationofprojects
Alsoanavenueforrecognitionofstakeholders

71

RatingSystems
Ratingsystemsdifferby
groupingof:
Performancecriteria
Delineationandcomputation
ofmetrics
Thresholdsforobtainingpoints
andratingsstatus

Certificationmethodology
INVESTandEnvisionareself
certificationprograms
Greenroads isathirdparty
certificationsystem

Creditsorpointsfor
concreterecycling
earnedby:
Reuseofconcrete
materials
Recyclingofconcrete
materials
Emissionsreductions
Noisereductions
Planninginitiatives
Endoflife
considerations

72

QuantifyingSustainability
IllinoisTollway
MoveIllinois:15year,$12.1Bprogramstarted2011
Extensiveuseofrecycledmaterials
LCCAusedtoidentify$50Minsavings(through2014)byuse
ofrecycledconcreteratherthanvirginaggregatein
pavementbases.
ModifiedversionofINVESTratingsystemdevelopedto
adapttoTollway needs,usedtoscore(andcompare)over15
projects
ToolsforLCAforpavementsdevelopedandareinproof
testingstages(early2016)
PlanstointegrateLCAwithLCCAsoftwareandINVESTrating
system
(Gillenetal.2015andGillenandVavrik 2016)
73

EnvironmentalImpacts
Recyclingisinherentlyabeneficialpractice,butmustmitigate
potentialadverseenvironmentalimpacts
Waterquality
Contaminantsinrunoffanddrainage
Alkalinity,chemicalcontaminants,other
Transportedsediments
Airquality
Equipmentemissions
Fugitivedust
Noise
Additionalprocessing,handling
Wastegenerationanddisposition
Solids,wastewater,slurries,residuals

Oftenidentifiedaskey
concernbystateagencies

74

TraditionalEnvironmentalControls
WaterQuality
Minimizejobsitefootprint
Stockpiles
Minimizefines
Selectlocationtomitigateimpactonsurfacewaters
Erosioncontrol
Berms,strawbales,filterchannels
Unboundbases
Minimizefines
Useofappropriategeotextile fabrics
Compliancetestingtomeetregulatoryguidelines
Personneltraining

75

EnvironmentalRegulationand
Compliance
Regulatorypoliciesdifferbystate
RCAistypicallydefinedasaninertmaterial
Someregulations/categorizationsofRCAcancausedelays,
expense,risk(perceivedorreal)
Decreasespotentialforrecycling
PoliciescanbemodifiedforRCA
Bothonsiteandoffsiteactivities
Increasespotentialforrecycling
76

EnvironmentalRegulationand
Compliance
ReducingregulatoryburdencanincreaseuseofRCA
Legislation/complianceagreementsrelatedtowaste
definition(s)andpractices
Guidanceforallowable(andencouraged)recycling
activities
Upfrontguidanceandclearpaththroughregulation
Minimizesriskforcontractor,canprovidecost
savingsforOwner
Trainingofpersonnel
77

RECOMMENDATIONS
FORUSINGRCA

78

RCAProductionConsiderations
ConsiderRCAanengineeredmaterial;test
thoroughly.
Determinematerialpropertiesandquality
(beforerecycling,ifpossible)
Considerproducttype/qualityrequirements

Gradationrequirementswilldeterminecrushing
equipmentselection
Maximizereclamation?
Minimizereclaimedmortar?

Givecontractoroptionsfordeterminingthe
mostcosteffectivepointforrecycling
Stockpilemanagementplan(contamination,
moisture)
79

EC15

Recommendations:
UseinSubbases
AASHTOM319
Qualityrequirements(SaeedandHammons,
2008)
Gradeaccordingtosubbase function
Freedraining
Densegraded
SeeACPAEB204P
80

Slide 80
EC15

Should the quality requirements (Saeed & Hammons) be summarized or at least the top few? Also as we produce our manual of
practice, these would be good spec resources to include.
Ells Cackler, 3/17/2016

EC16

TestCriteriafor
RCAUnboundSubbase Applications
(afterSaeedandHammons,2008)

81

Slide 81
EC16

Not clear here. Does this replace the 2008 recommencations of Saeed & Hammons? Source of recommendations?
Ells Cackler, 3/17/2016

Recommendations:UseinSubbases
PreventingDrainageStructureClogging
AllRCAiscapableofproducingprecipitateand
insolubleresidue(crusherdust)
Potentialincreaseswithsurfacearea(smallerparticles)

Usuallynoproblembelowdrainsorinundrained
layers
Indrainedlayers,youcouldgetinfillofdrainpipes
and/orcloggingofrodentscreens.

82

EffectsofCa(CO3)2 andCrusherDust
onDrainageSystems

Photocredits:
IowaDOTand
PennDOT

83

EC17

PreventingDrainageStructureClogging
MinimizeuseofRCAfines.
Crushtoeliminate
reclaimedmortar
BlendRCAandvirgin
materials
UselargestpracticalRCA
particlesizes.

ConsiderwashingRCAto
reduceinsolubleresidue
(crusherdust)deposits.
Usehighpermittivityfabric
Wraptrench,notpipe
Considerdaylighted
subbase

84

Slide 84
EC17

What iare ISR deposits? Maybe "consider washing"? The washing has the potential to really limit base applications and on site
recycling which has been done successfully for a long time. We should discuss as a team, this is a major isssue with unbound bases.
Ells Cackler, 3/17/2016

Recommendations:
PavementStructuralDesign
RCASubbase:
ConsiderpossiblestiffeningofRCAsubbase andadjustpanel
length,thicknessasrequired

RCASlab:
ConsiderCTEandshrinkage
Adjustpanellength
Adjustsealantreservoirdimensionsandsealantmaterials
Higherreinforcingquantities(CRCP,JRCP)?
Reducedaggregateinterlockpotential
LTEmayrequiredowels
Evaluateabrasionresistance(surfacefrictionandwear)
85

Recommendations:
RCAinMixtureDesign
AASHTOMP1613
QualityRequirementsandProperties
GenerallythesameasforPCCwithvirginaggregate
Exception:sulfatesoundness(unreliableforRCA)

MaterialsRelatedDistress
Alkalisilicareactivity

Lithium
ClassFflyashand/orslagcement
LimitRCAfines
Reducewateraccess(jointsealing,drains,etc.)

Dcracking
Reducecoarseaggregatetopsize
Reducemoistureexposure

Testeffectivenessofalltreatmentsbeforeconstruction!
86

Recommendations:
RCAinMixtureDesignProportioning
ConsiderSpecificGravityandAbsorptionCapacity
Considerhigherstrengthvariability
Tomaintainworkability,add5 15%water
OR
Useadmixtures(chemicaland/ormineral)
Verifyaircontentrequirements(adjustforairin
reclaimedmortar)
Trialmixturesareessential
87

Summary
Recyclingisbecominganincreasinglycost
effectivealternativeduetoscarcityofvirgin
aggregate
Requiresadjustmenttomixdesignandpavement
design
Goodperformancehasbeenreported
Nospecializedtechniquesorequipment

88

Resources:ACPAEB043P

ProductionofRCA
PropertiesandCharacteristicsofRCA
UsesofRCA
PropertiesofConcreteContainingRCA
PerformanceofConcretePavements
ConstructedUsingRCA
RecommendationsforUsingRCA
Appendices:
GuidelinesforRemovingandCrushing
ExistingConcretePavement
GuidelinesforUsingRCAinUnstabilized
(Granular)Subbases
GuidelinesforUsingRCAinConcretePaving
Mixtures
RelevantAASHTO/ASTMStandards
GlossaryofTermsandIndex
89

Resources:CPTechCenter
DeploymentPlan

UseofRCAinconcretemixturesisnot
common,butimplementationeffortsare
underway.
Reportoutlinesbarriersto
implementation(perceptions,lackof
experience,risk,etc.)andrecommends
approachestoovercomingthem.
Reportavailableat:
http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/reports/R
CA%20Draft%20Report_finalssc.pdf

Also:FHWATechnicalAdvisoryTT
5040.37:UseofRecycledConcrete
PavementasAggregateinHydraulic
CementConcretePavement

90

Acknowledgments
AmericanConcretePavementAssociation
AppliedResearchAssociates,Inc.(formerlyERES
Consultants)
FederalHighwayAdministration
GaryFick,TrinityConstructionManagementServices,Inc.
JimForinger,PennDOT District110
ToddHanson,IowaDepartmentofTransportation
MikeLipps,Duit Construction
MariaMasten,MinnesotaDepartmentofTransportation
JeffRoesler,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbanaChampaign
JeffSturtevant,Prof.DavidGress andtheUniversityofNew
HampshireRecycledMaterialsResourceCenter(RMRC)
MoonWon,TexasDOTandUniversityofTexas
91

Questions?

92

ConcretePavementRecyclingWebinarSchedule
Subject

Regions1&2Webinar

Region3Webinar

Region4Webinar

Concrete Pavement
Recycling

April20,2016

May4,2016

May18,2016

93