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IESNA DG-1 O-98

IESNA Guide to Choosing

Light Sources for General Lighting

Publication of this Committee


Report has been approved
by the IESNA. Suggestions for
revisions should be directed
to the IESNA.

Prepared by:
The IESNA Light Sources

Committee

Copyright by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. All


rights reserved. Reproduced by CSSINFO, (734) 930-9277, with the
permission of IESNA.

Copyright

1998 by the Illuminating Engineering

Society of North America.

Approved by the IESNA Board of Directors, February 21, 1998, as a Transaction of the Illuminating
of North America.

Engineering

Society

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in any electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without prior written permission of the IESNA.
Published by the illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005.
IESNA Standards and Guides are developed through committee consensus and produced by the IESNA Office in New York.
Careful attention is given to style and accuracy. If any errors are noted in this document, please forward them to Rita Harrold,
Director Educational and Technical Development, at the above address forverlfication and correction. The IESNA welcomes
and urges feedback and comments.
Printed in the United States of America.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

Prepared

by the IESNA Light Sources

Light Sources Committee


Pekka Hakkarainen,
G.E. Bachar*
R.E. Barton, Jr.
R.S. Beckford
N.C. Bleeker*
D.E. Brabham
J.M. Cole
E.A. Graff
N. Grimshaw*
M.W. Grossman*
E.E. Hammer*
Y. Ji*
P. Johnson*
J. Kaufman*
H.H. Kim*
Z.K. Krasko*
D. Li*
R.D. Liddle, Jr.
S.E. Lohm*
K.H. Maher
D.P. Northrop*
L. Sheinberg
J. Shi
J.S. Spira*
M.G. Ury*
*Advisory

Member

Chair

Committee

IESNA DG-1 O-98

CONTENTS

FOREWORD
1.0

INTRODUCTION
1.1

1.2
2.0

3.0

..

..

..

............

FAMILIES

..

..

CHARACTERISTICS

. . . . . . . . . . . .1

. . . . . . . . . . . . .1
.

Standard Incandescent Filament and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps


Low-Voltage Standard Incandescent and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps
Tungsten-Halogen Lamps Employing Redirected Infrared Energy .
Fluorescent Lamps .....................................
General ...............................................
Full Wattage Linear T-i 2 Lamps ............................
Reduced Wattage Linear T-12 Lamps ........................
T-8 and Other Reduced Diameter Linear Lamps ...............
SlimlineLamps .........................................
High Output Lamps .....................................
Very High Output Lamps .................................
Compact Fluorescent Lamps ..............................
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps .....................
General ...............................................
Mercury Lamps.. .......................................
Metal Halide Lamps .....................................
High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps2.4 Miscellaneous Lamps ....
MiscellaneousLamps..
.................................
Low-Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps .........................
Self-Ballasted Mercury Lamps .............................
Reflectorized Lamps .....................................
Cold Cathode (Including Neon) Lamps .....................

LAMP OPERATING

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.51
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.55
3.6
3.6.1

. .

Variables Affecting Light Source/System Selection . . .


EPACT and Other Legislation . . .
.
.

MAJOR LIGHT SOURCE

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.8
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4

. . .1

...........................................................

. . . . . . ., 4
. .4

. .

. .5

.
.
.

Light Output ..................................................................


LuminousEfficacy ...........................................................
Rated Life ....................................................................
.......................................................
LumenMaintenance..
Operating Factors ...........................................................
General ....................................................................
Incandescent Filament and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps .................................
.........................................................
FluorescentLamps..
High-Intensity Discharge Lamps ..................................................
Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps ....................................................
Color .....................................................................
General......................................................................l

5
5
6
.6
. 6
. .6
. .6
.7
. .7
7
. .7
7
. .8
. .8
. 8
.8
. 8
8
. .9

.9

.
...9
.
..lO
..lO
..lO
.lO
..lO
.ll
.ll
..l I
1

...

III

IESNA DG-1 O-98

Standard Incandescent Filament and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps


3.6.2
Fluorescent Lamps ....................................
3.6.3
High-Intensity Discharge Lamps ..........................
3.6.4
3.6.4.1
Mercury and Self-Ballasted Mercury Lamps .............
Metal Halide Lamps ................................
3.6.4.2
High-Pressure Sodium Lamps ........................
3.6.4.3
Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps ............................
3.65
4.0 AUXILIARY DEVICES ............................
4.1
Ballasts ................................
Dimmers ...............................
4.2
General .................................
4.2.1
Dimming Standard Incandescent Filament Lamps
4.2.2
Dimming Fluorescent Lamps ................
4.2.3
4.2.4

Dimming High-intensity

Discharge Lamps

iv

12
12
12

13
13

......

5.0 OTHER FACTORS ................................


5.1
Economics ...............................
Factors Related to Direct Cost of Light ..........
51.1
Factors Related to the Quality of Lighting ........
51.2
5.2
Light Degradation of Materials ..............
5.3
Cautions, Warnings, and Operating Instructions
REFERENCES

12
.

13
.

..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...16

IESNA DG-1 O-98

IESNAGuide to Choosing Light Sources


for General Lighting
Foreword
This Design Guide is an introduction to most of the
light sources used for general lighting. It provides
lighting designers with essential information so that
they can discriminate between the various characteristics of each source. Although there is a brief
description of the most frequently used light sources,
the designer should also consult the /ESNA Lighting
Handbook
and/or individual
manufacturers
catalogs on light sources and associated equipment
for detailed information during the initial planning
stages of any lighting project.

The development of new and improved light sources


for general lighting has proceeded at a rapid and
accelerating
pace. There is a wide selection of
sources, luminaires, and controls, and it is probable
that any one of several basic choices could be used
for a given lighting application. While the general
characteristics can be provided, a definitive list with
absolute values for all types and manufacturers
would be too extensive for this Guide. Table 1 provides
a comparison of significant performance characteristics of commonly used lamps. Explanation of the
parameters will be provided later in this Guide.

Figure 1 shows typical shapes of commonly available


lamps. Each lamp shape also includes the corresponding American National Standards institute (ANSI)
designation that is also used by lamp manufacturers in
their catalogs. The designation is typically followed by
a number, which expresses the diameter of the lamp in
multiples of inch, so that T-12 refers to a tubular
fluorescent lamp with diameter 12/8 or 1.5 inches and
PAR 30 is a parabolic reflector lamp with diameter 30/8
or 3.75 inches. It should also be noted that a variety of
bases are used in the manufacturing of lamps. More
information is available in manufacturers catalogs and
the IESNA Lighting Handbook.

1.1

Variables Affecting Light


Source/System Selection

The choice of light sources, luminaires, controls,, and


the system layout are closely interrelated. A method
of selection easily applied to one type of light source
may be impractical for another.

Frequently, local environmental conditions such as


vibration, ambient temperature, dust and dirt influence continuity of service, perceived color, lumen
maintenance, glare, and economics. Once the type
of lighting system best suited to the visual requirements of the area is chosen, the selection of light
source and luminaire can be narrowed down to the
overall compatibility of various sources. Beyond this
point, the final choice becomes a matter of personal
preference to the designer and the owner.
If energy management is an issue, lighting controls
may also become part of the total lighting system.
Systems range from simple switches and photoelectric
controls for turning an individual luminaire on and off,
to sophisticated microprocessor controllers that oversee all lighting in a multi-building complex. Switches,
dimmers, timers, photocells, and other controls
whether simple or complex, provide flexibility and
contribute significantly to energy conservation.
Lighting systems are classified by the type of lighting
produced, e.g., general, local, localized general,
supplementary, and task. Also, luminaires have been
divided into six classifications, based on light distribution characteristics, i.e., direct, semi-direct, general
diffuse, direct-indirect, semi-indirect, and indirect.
The lighting designer may also have a choice in the
method of installation of the lighting system; or, architectural design and structural conditions may dictate a
particular installation method. In any case, a knowledge of the principles of light control and the lighting
tools and devices that are available for such control will
be helpful in the design of an efficient lighting system.

1.2

EPACT and Other Government


Legislation

Lawmakers in the United States, Canada, and


Mexico are now playing an increasing role in mandating the conservation of electrical energy. The
National Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992 provides
comprehensive legislation for energy conservation ill
the U.S. Only approved lamp designs that meet the
Federal guidelines can be distributed and sold
throughout the U.S. Additionally, large commercial
users need to be aware of TCLP 1990, which is the
Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure that defines
the proper disposal of lamps required by the
Environmental Protection Agency and the Resource
Conservation Recovery Act. Finally, for recommendations of minimum efficacy standards in commercial
spaces, see ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-I 989.

Table 1: General

Characteristics

(This table is intended to show the wide range of parameters

available

of Commonly

for lamp products.

Used Light Sources*

A specific example has been chosen for each source type.)

m
z
D
s
G
23

I-m, Low Wattage,

1900 K

* See manufactures catalogs for specific data.


Efficacy for lamp is shown in lumens per watt. Ballasting is required for all lamps except standard incan
descent and tungsten-halogen.
* As defined in the /ESNA Lighting Handbook for each light source.
3 Time intervals to reach usable light output.
4 Four-pin lamp required.
5 The important performance parameters for reflector lamps are beam spread and maximum center beam
intensity (commonly called candlepower).
6 Dimming below these values results in significant color shifts.
Exact lamp length is 1149 mm.
@Lumen output measured at 35C (95F) ambient.
9 Dimming ballast are currently not available for this lamp.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

BBA

FE

Bpin

Ed

AT
B
BA
BD
BR
BT
C
CA
CC
E

RM

4-pin

TIC

00
RP

PS

TU

- Arbitrary, usually spherical shape tapered to narrow neck


Arbitrary Tubular
Bulged or Bullet shaped. Also known as Blunt tip
- Bulged with angular (bent) tip
- Bulged with dimple in crown
- Bulged Reflector
- Bulged Tubular
- Conical
- Candle shape with bent tip
-Two conical shapes blended together (formerly DC)
Elliptical

20

ED

MR

u08Q8
T

Flat

BULB SHAPE DESIGNATIONS


A

TL

BT

AT

Ballast Compact

ED - Elliptical with dimple in the crown


ER - Elliptical Reflector
- Flame shape decorative
F
FE
Flat elliptical
- Globe shaped
G
GT - Globe/Tubular combination
- Similar to M but with conical transition
- Mushroom shape with rounded transitions
tl
MR - Multifaceted Reflector
- Pear shaped
P
PS - Pear shaped with straight neck
PAR Parabolic Aluminized Reflector
- Reflector
R
RB - Bulged Reflector (see BR above, the more common description)
RD - Reflector with dimple in crown
REC - PAR type lamp with rectangular face
RM - Reflector, mushroom shaped
RP
Reflector, pear shaped
Straight sided shape (compare with CA and BA)
S
ST - Straight tipped shape
T
Tubular shape
TL - Tubular shape with lens in crown
T/C -Tubular, circular
TU -Tubular U-shape
2D
2 dimensional

Figure 1. Typical bulb shapes (not to scale) and their ANSI designations.
key-listed here to a descriptive phrase or word, is illustrated.

Not every ANSI designation,

as

IESNA DG-1 O-98

Legislation similar to EPACT exists in Canada, where


energy efficiency standards for fluorescent lamp
ballasts, fluorescent lamps, and incandescent reflector
lamps have been established
under Canadas
Energy Efficiency
Act, which was proclaimed
January 1, 1993. Regulated lighting products cannot
be imported into Canada or traded between Canadian
provinces unless they meet the regulatory requirements.
Among its many provisions, EPACT establishes performance standards for specific types of fluorescent
lamps, and for standard incandescent reflector lamps.
Lamps not meeting EPACT standards cannot be manufactured for domestic use or imported to the U.S.,
effectively prohibiting them from being sold in the U.S..
A timetable exists, with various actions scheduled for
dates up to the year 2005. Most major lamp manufacturers can supply details on EPACT, as well as recommend lamps to replace discontinued products. Similar
legislation exists in Canada, where the Energy
Efficiency Act of 1992 provides a national policy that
prevents individual Canadian provinces from creating
their own standards.
A new certification scheme affecting certain electrical
products (including ballasts) became effective in Mexico
in October, 1993. Known as Normas Oficiales Mexicana
(NOM), official Mexican certification is conditional and
involves obtaining a Certificate of Compliance (for
presentation to customs) and placing an official NOM
Mark on the product. The NOM program essentially
concerns safety issues and requires that all necessary
testing be performed by a laboratory in Mexico.

Table 2: Flourescent
Effective

Lamp Type

Date for 8-Foot

Lamps

There is also a voluntary effort underway to harmonize safety and performance standards for many
types of electrical products sold in Canada, Mexico,
and the United States. Known as Cansejo de
Armonizacion de Normas Electrotecnicas de Norte
America (CANENA) or the Council for Harmonization
of Electrotechnical Standardization of North America,
this new organization had its first meetings during
1994-95, and now has a working ballast group whose
initial efforts involve creating tri-national
safety
standards for fluorescent ballasts.
As this Design Guide goes to press, EPACT prescribes
the minimum average lamp efficacy and CRI standards
for fluorescent lamps (see Table 2), and minimum average lamp efficacy standards for certain standard
incandescent reflector lamps (see Table 3). Possible
replacements for the affected fluorescent lamps include
energy-saving types, lamps with a CRI of 82 or greater,
and converting to T-8 systems using narrow-diameter
fluorescent lamps. There are many specialty lamps
exempt from EPACT; see the Act for specific types?

2.1

Standard Incandescent Filament


and Tungsten-Halogen Lamps

The standard incandescent lamp consists of a tungsten wire filament on a suitable mount-structure enclosed
in a glass bulb containing an inert gas or vacuum.
When connected to an electric circuit, the flow of
current through the high-resistance
filament wire

Lamp Standards

April 30,1994;

Nomi;ni;bgrnp
Mi%Ym

others

October

31 ,I995

Minimum
Average
Lamp Efficacy
(lumens

4-Foot Medium Bi-Pin

2-Foot U-Shaped

8-Foot Slimline

8-Foot High Output

per watt)

> 35w

69

75.0

I 35w

45

75.0

> 35w

69

68.0

I 35w

45

64.0

> 65W

69

80.0

I 65W

45

80.0

> 1oow

69

80.0

I 1oow

45

80.0

IESNA DG-1 O-98

produces heat which causes the filament to become


incandescent. If the voltage applied to a standard
incandescent filament lamp is varied, there is a
resulting change in the filament resistance and temperature, current, power, light output, efficacy and life.
These characteristics are interrelated, and no one of
them can be changed without affecting the others.

the temperature below the minimum required for the


regenerative cycle. See Section 4.2.2 and reference
1). Some linear types must be operated within four
degrees of horizontal. Other linear versions and
reflector designs (PAR and MR lamps) utilizing
compact tungsten-halogen capsules may be operated
in any operating position (see Section 5.3).

For example, a 130-volt, loo-watt lamp operated at


120 volts will have approximately twice as much life
but will have approximately 25 percent less light, and
15 percent lower efficacy than the corresponding
120-volt lamp. Longer life standard incandescent
lamps produce less light and are less energy efficient
than standard lamps of equal wattage.

2.1.1
Low-Voltage Standard Incandescent and
Tungsten-Halogen Lamps. Low-voltage lamps operate
at lower than normal voltages. The range is commonly from 5 to 30 volts supplied through a
step-down transformer. The advantages of low-voltage
lamps are: (1) greater resistance to vibration and
shock because of their larger diameter filament wire
and, (2) a more compact filament which allows better
beam control from the optics. Low-voltage tungstenhalogen lamps have a higher efficacy than their
incandescent
counterparts,
and, typically,
are
available from 5 watts to 240 watts.

The base of the general service standard incandescent lamp is generally the screw type. The outer
envelope can be clear, inside frosted, white diffuse
coated, or specially shaped for decorative purposes.
For advertising sign service or decorating purposes,
lamp types are available with colored or otherwise
decorative coatings on the bulb.
The tungsten-halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp
that uses the halogen regenerative cycle to provide
excellent lumen maintenance, higher efficacy, and/or
longer life than standard incandescent. Tungsten
particles that evaporate from the hot filament
combine chemically with the small amount of halogen in the lamp (usually iodine or bromine) forming a
gaseous compound that decomposes and redeposits the tungsten when it contacts the operating
filament, thus preventing bulb blackening.

2.1.2
Tungsten-Halogen
Lamps
Employing
Redirected Infrared Energy Certain tungsten-halog
lamps combine the chemistry of the halogen cycle
and the optical characteristics of thin film coating to
increase lamp efficacy. Multiple layers of specialized
materials deposited on the outer surface of the filament tube directs a portion of the infrared energy
emitted by the filament back onto it. This redirected
IR energy increases the filament temperature resulting in greater lumen output and/or longer life when
compared with standard tungsten-halogen lamps of
the same wattage.

2.2
To maintain the minimum temperature required for
the halogen regenerative cycle, the halogen capsule
must be compact, but not necessarily the entire
lamp. To maximize the life of a halogen lamp on a
dimming system, the lamp must be periodically
operated at full power. (Note: Dimming can reduce

Table 3: Standard Incandescent


Effective

Nominal Lamp
Wattage

Fluorescent

Lamps

2.2.1
Genera/. The fluorescent lamp is a gas
discharge source in which light is produced predominantly by phosphors
activated
by ultraviolet
energyZ3 generated by ionized mercury vapor. This
vapor is at low pressure with a small amount of inert

Reflector Lamp Standards

Date October

31,1995

Minimum Average
Lamp Efficacy
(lumens

40-50
5-l-66
67-85
86-115
116-155
156-205

per watt)
10.5
11.0
12.5
14.0
14.5
15.0

IESNA DG-1 O-98

gas (usually argon) for starting. The inside surface of


the lamps glass tube is coated with fluorescent
phosphors. When the proper voltage is applied, an
arc is produced between electrodes, generating
some visible, but mostly ultraviolet, radiation that
excites the phosphors to emit light. Fluorescent
lamps are linear, circular, U-shaped, and are also
available in a wide variety of other shapes, with an
electrode sealed into each end.

40-watt T-12 ballasts, at the expense of a corresponding


reduction in lumen output. Reduced
wattage T-1 2 lamps can directly replace full-wattage
T-12 lamps except in those applications. where the
ballast is unsuitable, such as some electronic and/or
shoplight fixtures.* Suitability should be verified with
the ballast manufacturer before retrofitting. Dimming
ballasts for reduced
wattage T-12 lamps are
currently not available.

The fluorescent lamp produces a wide range of diffuse


light in colors that range from cool bluish white to a warm
incandescent-like color, and many saturated colors for
decorative use. (Examples: blue, green, gold.)

2.2.4
T-8 and Other Reduced Diameter Linear
Lamps. The availability of higher-efficacy phosphors
and different gas fill pressures allowed the development of T-8 lamps. They have become the preferred
choice in the specification of new installations of
linear fluorescent lamps and offer over 20 percent
increase in efficacy over 40-watt T-12 lamps. The T-8
lamps are available in lengths similar to T-12 with
compatible bases and sockets, but require a different,
unique ballast. Therefore, in retrofit situations, the
ballast must be replaced.

Like most discharge sources, the fluorescent lamp


must be operated with a current limiting device
called a ballast (see Section 4.1). The starting mode
(ballast circuit) may be preheat, rapid start, or instant
start. The preheat system requires an external starter
or switch and a few seconds delay to start. Rapid
start types essentially give immediate starting with
full brightness and tend to have longer life. Instant
start lamps usually produce instant full brightness
and usually come with single pin base design.
Electronic instant start ballasts are available to
operate T-6 rapid start lamps, but this pairing suffers
the possibility of reduced lamp life. Electronic
ballasts are also available with a soft starting
sequence, which is designed to minimize damage to
the electrodes during starting, and therefore is likely
to lengthen lamp life.
Reducing power to a fluorescent lamp does not
necessarily lengthen the life of the lamp as it does for
standard incandescent lamps.

Further developments
in lamp technology
have
resulted in the development of a high efficacy T-5
straight tube lamps employing triphosphor technology
and available only in metric lengths. Smaller, more
compact luminaires are possible using these lamps.
Their use may also promote development of luminaires that are more efficient than those using
T-8 and T-l 2 lamps because less light will be trapped
inside the luminaire. However, the unique lengths,
special lampholders, and ballast requirements of T-5
straight tube lamps make them unsuitable for most
retrofit applications. T-5 lamps, whether linear or twintube, require properly designed fixtures to minimize
source glare and visual discomfort.

2.2.2
Full Wattage Linear T-12 Lamps. The majority
of the installed fluorescent lamps are 40-watt T-12
lamps in cool white and warm white colors and a
nominal length of 1220 mm (48 in.). Due to their
relative low efficacy, these lamps are no longer manufactured per the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The
40-watt T-12 lamps are now only available in versions
that meet the lumens per watt and color rendering
index limits of the legislation. Corresponding lamps
in other lengths are also available. However, there are
full wattage lamps available with specific, EPACTexempt characteristics, such as cold temperature
starting and colored lamps.

Another reduced diameter lamp still available is the


T-10 lamp. It uses a higher efficiency phosphor than
the T-12 lamp resulting in better lumens-per-watt
ratings. Since this lamp can be operated on the same
ballast as the T-l 2 lamp, it can be directly substituted
without any further change in the lighting system.

2.2.3
Reduced Wattage Linear T-12 Lamps. The
energy legislation allows the use of 34-watt T-12
lamps, or the so-called energy-saving lamps. These
lamps can save up to 15 percent energy on existing

2.2.6
High Output Lamps. The high output
fluorescent lamp is a high-current rapid start lamp

2.2.5
Slimline Lamps. The slimline lamps are
similar to the bi-pin lamps in their energy loading, but
they use a single pin base and are instant start
lamps, not requiring a lamp starter. These lamps are
available in several lengths up to 2440 mm (96 in.)
and in T-6, T-8, and T-12 diameters.

*A shoplight fixture is a basic residential grade fixture, often used in a


workshop, that iypically contains a low power factor ballast.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

operating at approximately 800 milliamperes (mA).


This family of lamps is commonly applied where the
standard lamp does not provide sufficient light output
per lamp length. These T-8 and T-12 lamps are available in 1220 mm (48 in.), 1830 mm (72 in.) and 2440
mm (96 in.) lengths and are also suitable for outdoor
applications. They use a recessed double contact
base. The T-12 high output lamps are also affected
by EPACT legislation. Reduced wattage versions are
available which meet the legislative requirements.
T-5 high output lamps are also available.

HID family includes mercury, metal halide, and


high-pressure sodium lamps. HID lamps are among
the most efficacious light sources. They are characterized by compact size, long life, and full temperature
range starting and operation.
HID sources are
normally designed with inner arc tubes, hard glass
outer bulbs, and single-ended screw bases. The
inner arc tube contains an arc discharge operating at
a significantly
higher pressure than fluorescent
lamps. All HID sources must be operated with a
current-limiting device called a ballast.

2.2.7
Very High Output Lamps. The 1500 mA
fluorescent lamp is also of rapid start design and has
the highest current density commonly available. It is
physically, but not electrically, interchangeable with
the 800 mA lamp and is used when a lower current
lamp will not meet light output requirements. These
lamps are also affected by EPACT legislation.
Reduced wattage versions are available which meet
the legislative requirements.

These lamps have certain


characteristics that include:

Compact Fluorescent Lamps. The compact


2.2.8
fluorescent lamp (CFL) family is a growing variety of
multi-tube, single-based lamps. They were initially
designed to physically replace conventional 25 to
loo-watt standard incandescent lamps. These CFLs
conserve energy, provide longer lamp life, and
approach the color of standard incandescent light.
In addition, new CFL designs are available in sizes
and colors that can replace conventional fluorescent
lamps in size-reduced luminaires. Examples include
the 32-watt and 42-watt triple lamps, which are
available in correlated color temperatures ranging
from 2700 K to 4100 K. Some CFLs are manufactured with the lamp and ballast as an integral unit with
a medium screw base. Others are manufactured
without a ballast and are available in Z-pin or 4-pin
configurations. Only the 4-pin versions are dimmable.
Generally
the 4-pin versions
are used with
electronic
ballasts (either dimmable
or on/off
versions). However, Z-pin lamps can also be used on
electronic ballasts designed especially for them.
Both CFL types plug into appropriate lamp holders
that are used in luminaires, and can also be inserted
into adapter ballasts, which generally come with a
medium screw base for insertion into a standard
incandescent socket. CFLs are up to four times more
efficacious and last 10 times as long as standard
incandescent lamps.
2.3

High-Intensity

Discharge

(HID) Lamps

2.3.1
Genera/. The term high-intensity discharge
/amp describes a wide variety of light sources. The

common

performance

l
A warm-up period, after starting, until stable light
output and electrical operating values are reached.

l
A period of time, after any interruption of supply
voltage, during which the lamps must cool before
they will automatically restart. There are HID lamp
and ballast systems available which will instantly
restart after a short interruption of supply voltage.

Mercury Lamps. The quartz arc tube of the


2.3.2
mercury lamp contains pure mercury that vaporizes
as the lamp warms up. A small amount of argon gas
in the arc tube aids the starting process. The light
output and electrical values stabilize when the
mercury has completely vaporized. The mercury
vapor arc generates a characteristic
blue-green
visible light, along with significant amounts of ultraviolet
radiation. Nearly all ultraviolet radiation is absorbed
by the outer bulb. Through the use of phosphor
coatings on the inside of the outer bulb, much of the
ultraviolet energy is converted to visible light.
Phosphors that emit wavelengths in the red-orange
color regions are often used to balance the inherently
blue-green radiation of the arc tube. Thus, mercury
lamps with phosphor-coated
outer bulbs have
substantially improved color rendering characteristics
when compared to clear mercury lamps. The effective source size of a clear lamp is the arc tube itself,
while for the phosphor-coated lamp, it is the size of
the outer bulb, thus a clear mercury lamp would be a
better choice for focused light applications.
If the outer bulb of the mercury lamp should break or
be punctured, the arc tube may continue to burn for
some time. Therefore, ultraviolet radiation generated
by the arc could be emitted to the surrounding area,
creating a potential hazard. Lamps are available that
will automatically extinguish if the outer glass bulb is
shattered, punctured, or broken.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

Metal Halide Lamps. This lamp is similar in


2.3.3
appearance and construction to the mercury lamp.
However, in addition to mercury, small quantities of
various metal halides are placed within the arc tube.
This technique significantly increases lamp lumens
and improves the color rendering characteristics of
the light (relative to a mercury lamp). However, it may
lead to color variation from one metal halide lamp to
another which may become more pronounced over
time. There are two common classes of metal halide
lamps: low wattage (32-150 watts) with medium
screw-in base and high wattage (1752,000 watts)
with a mogul base. Other less common types are
also available such as more compact single-ended
and linear metal halide lamps.
Metal halide lamps with clear outer bulbs are made for
applications where optical control is important. These
lamps are also available with a diffuse coating on the
outer bulb to lower source brightness. The diffuse
coating can contain phosphors to change the lamps
color rendering characteristics (see Section 3.6.4.2).
One method of improving color consistency has been
the development of metal halide lamps employing
ceramic arc tubes instead of quartz. Another method
is to specially form the quartz arc tube. These techniques allow for less geometric variation in the arc tube
from lamp to lamp, resulting in better color consistency
In addition to better color uniformity, these new lamps
have higher efficacies and higher color rendering
properties.
Metal halide lamps require specific ballasts for proper starting and operation. Some types are also
designed to be used with certain mercury lamp
ballasts for retrofitting, but at a sacrifice in life and
lumen maintenance. Metal halide lamps with protection against ultraviolet emission in case of outer bulb
breakage are also available.
Many metal halide lamps are designed for a specific
operating position, while others specified with a
universal operating position are not restricted. Some
metal halide lamps are suitable for open fixture
operation while others require enclosed fixtures only.
Care should be taken to select the proper lamp for
the application (see Section 3.6.4.2).
2.3.4
High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps. The
HPS lamp is constructed with an alumina (aluminum
oxide) arc tube containing sodium-mercury amalgam
that partially vaporizes during lamp operation. The
arc tube is enclosed in a hard glass bulb, which, in
most cases, is clear; however, diffuse coated outer
bulbs are available to reduce source brightness.

HPS lamps require specific ballasts and an ignitor for


starting. Certain types of HPS lamps are available
that retrofit with certain mercury lamp ballasts. No
appreciable ultraviolet emission occurs when the
outer glass envelope of an HPS lamp breaks;
therefore, self-extinguishing types are not necessary.
HPS lamps are characterized by their high efficacy,
yellow-white appearance, and low color rendering.
Color-improved HPS lamps are available, but at the
sacrifice of efficacy and life.
2.4

Miscellaneous

Lamps

2.4.1
Low-Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps. The
most common LPS lamps consist of a U-bent sodium
resistant arc tube sealed into an outer bulb. The
length of the lamp is directly related to wattage rating.
The light produced by the low-pressure sodium arc,
consisting only of radiation in the yellow region of the
visible spectrum, is perceived as monochromatic.
Since no mercury, or any other element that
generates ultraviolet light, is present in the discharge,
outer bulb breakage does not result in ultraviolet radiation emissions. Each LPS lamp, as is the case for
any discharge lamp, requires a ballast specifically
designed for that lamp type.
2.4.2
Self-Ballasted Mercury Lamps. As the name
denotes, these lamps do not require an auxiliary
ballast as do standard mercury lamps. These lamps
have a mercury vapor arc tube in series with a
current-limiting tungsten filament, and are available
in a number of wattage ratings. In most types, a
phosphor coat on the inside of the outer glass bulb
provides color improvement. The overall efficacy is
lower than that of other mercury lamps because of
the resistive losses of the tungsten filament. The
filament acts as a safety fuse and will extinguish the
arc if the outer bulb is broken.
2.4.3
Reflectorized Lamps. Many lamp types are
available in reflectorized versions with directional beam
characteristics. The light source, whether a filament or
an arc, is placed at the focal point of an ellipsoid or
parabolic mirror to direct the light,in a multitude of beam
patterns - from a narrow spot to a wide flood. In
addition to lumen output, the performance
of
reflectorized lamps is reported in terms of center
beam intensity and beam angle. The latter is defined
as the angle between the beam center and the location
where the luminous intensity is 50 percent of that in the
beam center.

IESNA DG-10-98

Most R- and PAR-lamp types are manufactured with


a sealed-in-mirror coating on part of their interior
surface. Certain incandescent reflector lamps are
affected by the EPACT legislation (see Section 1.1).
Many reflector lamps are made of heat-resistant
glass, allowing for outdoor use with reduced potential
for breakage from contact with rain or snow.
Reflector lamps can also be obtained with dichroic
mirror coatings which considerably
reduce the
infrared radiation in the light beam. If used within a
lighting
unit, the luminaire
must be specially
designed to accommodate the lamp and dissipate
the heat released through the dichroic coating.

2.4.4
Cold Cathode (Including Neon3 Lamps.
The cold cathode lamp is a low-pressure source
that requires a high voltage transformer for operation.
It is frequently manufactured with small diameter
tubing (15 mm to 25 mm) that can be easily
bent into various shapes and sizes. Most cold
cathode lamps are used for signs and decorative
purposes with special color effects. These lamps are
commonly manufactured in two types: fluorescent
and non-fluorescent.
The fluorescent type uses tubing filled with argon gas
and mercury vapor with an internal phosphor
coating. The color produced will depend upon the
phosphor composition. The lamps efficacy is about
half that of a standard linear fluorescent lamp, but its
rated life can be 25 percent greater.
The color of non-fluorescent
neon type lamps is
determined by the gas fill and the glass tube, e.g.,
neon emits red, argon with mercury vapor emits
dim blue, and when combined with a blue-absorbing
glass bulb, it will emit green. Other combinations of
gas fill and tube glass allow the creation of additional
colors. Many standard fluorescent phosphors are
also available
to match the appearance
of
standard fluorescent lamps.

3.2

Efficacy

When evaluating the cost and energy impact of a


lighting system, the efficacy is typically used as the
metric. Efficacy is typically expressed as lumens
per watt (LPW) for either the lamp or the lamp-ballast
combination.
In the case of incandescent
or
tungsten-halogen
lamps, the lamp efficacy is the
same as the system efficacy. For discharge lamps,
the system efficiency is a combination
of lamp
efficacy and the additional power losses in the
ballast. Because ballast losses vary with ballast
type, design, and line voltage,
discharge lamp
efficacy is usually expressed
in lamp catalogs
without
taking
ballast
losses into account.
Depending on ballast type, typical ballast losses
range from 5 to 20 percent of lamp wattage.
Figure 2 illustrates the efficacy ranges of
different principal light source families. For
discharge lamp groups, the efficacy ranges
indicated both for the lamps alone and for
lamp-ballast system.

the
the
are
the

Rated Life

3.3

An additional factor in selecting a light source is the


lamp life (see Table 1 and Figure 3). The cost of the
lamp, plus the cost of lamp replacement, are factors
that must be considered in any lighting installation,
The average rated life of a lamp, in the North
American market, is generally defined as the time
when at least 50 percent of the lamps in a given
group remain operating, having been operated
under specified
controlled
conditions.
Manufacturers usually provide the test conditions for
specific lamp types.

---

INCANDESCENT
TUNGS+~i%LOGEN

IAMP ONLY
LAMP PLUS
BALLAST

-1----1-w-

FLUORESCENT
----..m.-

MERCURY
--a.----

3.1

METAL HAUDE

Light Output
-m.-----...---ew--

HIGH PRESSURE

Light output is the visible energy emitted from a


lamp, measured in lumens. It is important to know
the output of individual
lamps when specifying
lighting systems, since this will influence visual
comfort and illuminance (see Table 1).

I
0

I
a

a
40

SODIUM

LOW PRESSURE
Bo W&S

SODIUM

PEkoowArr 120

140

I
160

I
180

Figure 2. Efficacy ranges of various light sources.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

3.4

Lumen

Maintenance

All light sources lose some ability to produce light


over their operating life. This loss of light, also known
as lumen depreciation, is less for some light sources
than for others. For example, the light output from a
tungsten-halogen
lamp only depreciates about 5
percent over life, whereas a standard (non-halogen)
incandescent filament lamp depreciates up to 20
percent over life. A measure of how well a light
source maintains its initial light output over life is the
lumen maintenance of the light source.
Depending on the type of light source and manufacturer, the lumen maintenance
is specified in
different ways. Commonly, an initial lumen value and
a mean lumen value are provided.** Sometimes, a
curve is provided showing how the light output
typically changes over time. The actual lumen
maintenance of a light source, other than incandescent, depends primarily on the type of ballast used,
line voltage tolerances, and the number of times the
lamp is turned on and off.
3.5

Operating

Factors

General. Starting, warm-up time, and hot


3.5.1
restrike time, are three lamp operating factors that
may be of importance when selecting a light source.
In general, incandescent filament lamps can be
switched on and off at will, but fluorescent lamps may
require a few seconds to attain full light output. The
warm-up time for some compact fluorescent lamps
may be as long as several minutes. HID sources also
require a warm-up time that may take several minutes.
Most HID and LPS lamps require several minutes for
cool down after an interruption of current flow before
they can be restarted. Specially-designed lamps and
auxiliary equipment are available for installations
where quick starting is required or where the addition
of a backup halogen lamp to an HID fixture is used to
provide light during the HID lamp cool down period.

Thus, the period required to obtain nominal light


output from an incandescent source is not a critical
parameter.
Fluorescent Lamps. Starting a fluorescent
3.5.3
lamp is more complex than starting an incandescent
lamp. The starting process consists of changing a gas
from the nonconducting state to the conducting state.
The fluorescent lamp is operated in series with a ballast.
Ballast design determines the starting/operating scenario.
The most common ballasting system for fluorescent
lamps in North America is rapid start. The time for
starting is approximately one second. Restart time is
about the same. With the preheat system, a starter (a
thermal bimetallic switch) is inserted in the circuit so
the starting time may be a few seconds longer,
depending upon the conditions. A third ballasting type
is referred to as instant start. This ballast-lamp combination will start or restart within fractions of a second.
Unlike standard incandescent lamp types, fluorescent lamps can be affected by temperature. Under
normal ambient conditions, there is no significant
warm-up time associated with fluorescent lamps;
however, low temperatures and high-wind conditions
can adversely affect starting and warm-up time. Low
and high ambient temperatures will also reduce
lumen output. Special lamp-ballast systems and
luminaire designs are available for operating lamps
over wider temperature ranges. For further information,
see references 7 and 8.
Reducing the power to fluorescent lamps does not
necessarily affect their life (as occurs with incandescent lamps when the available power is reduced).
For further information, see reference 7.

FLUCMESCENT

3.52
lncandescent
Filament and TungstenHalogen Lamps. Standard
incandescent
and
tungsten halogen lamp starting is instantaneous.
Warm-up to normal output occurs in a fraction of a
second. Restarting time is, for all intents and
purposes, the same as the initial start and warm-up.
**Mean lumens are defined as the expected number of lumens emitted
at 50 percent of the rated life for most lamp types. For metal halide and
fluorescent lamps, mean lumens are published at 40 percent of the
rated lamp life.

IO

MERCURY
METAL HALIDE
HIGH PRESSURE
Low
I1
2

I
6

PRESSURE

I
I
I
,
6
10
12
14
LIFE (HOURS x 1003)

SDDIUM

SODIUM
t
16

,
16

,
20

a24

Figure 3. Ranges of rated life for various common


light sources.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

3.5.4
High-intensity Discharge Lamps. HID lamps
start as low pressure/low-intensity
devices and
require time until the arc tube wall temperature and,
correspondingly,
the vapor pressure reach an
equilibrium for the lamps to reach full brightness. The
warm-up time to reach 80 percent of normal light
output is a few minutes or more. Hot restriking takes
about one minute for HPS, but requires several
minutes for other HID lamp types. Warm-up and
restart times vary somewhat depending upon the
ballast, luminaire characteristics,
and ambient
temperature. Instant start HPS and metal halide
lamp-ballast systems are also available.
Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps. LPS lamps
3.5.5
operate similarly to HID lamps, i.e., upon starting full
light output is achieved only after 7 to 15 minutes of
operation. After interruption of the input power supply,
LPS lamps will re-start immediately upon reconnection
of the power.
3.6

Color

3.6.1
General. There are two characteristics of a
light sources color that should be recognized: color
temperature and color rendering.
Co/or temperature refers to the color appearance of
the lamp when energized, e.g., whether it is warm
(yellowish) or cool (bluish). It is measured in Kelvin
(K), and most typical lamps fall between 2000 K
(yellowish) and 5000 K (bluish). As color temperature
increases, the color appearance of the lamp shifts
toward blue and becomes visually cooler.
Co/or rendering refers to how colors of objects
appear under a light source. The color rendering
index (CRI) indicates how well a lamp renders colors
as compared to a reference source of the same color
temperature. The closer the CRI to 100, the better the
color rendering.
3.6.2
Standard
Incandescent
Filament
and
Tungsten-Halogen Lamps. The color rendering of
both standard incandescent filament and tungsten
halogen lamps is excellent (CR1 at or near 100). The
color temperature of standard incandescent filament
lamps is approximately 2800 K, and that of tungsten
halogen lamps slightly higher at approximately 3000 K.
Both color temperature and color rendering for these
lamps are stable over life. Note: Color rendering (CRI)
is a theoretical concept based on a special incandescent reference source of comparable
color
temperature. This reference source is assumed to
have a CRI of 100. CRI is not directly related to the

lighted appearance of a given lamp. It is a metric by


which the appearance of objects can be predicted
when illuminated by specific lamps. See the lESNA
Lighting Handbook for a more detailed explanation.
3.6.3
Fluorescent Lamps. The color rendering
index and color temperature
of a fluorescent
lamp depend on the phosphor coating inside the
glass tube. One of the advantages of fluorescent
lighting
is the large selection
of phosphors
available, leading to a wide selection of color
temperature
and CRI ratings.
(Refer to the
ESNA Lighting Handbook or manufacturers catalogs
for specific color temperature and CRI listings.)
3.6.4
High-Intensity Discharge Lamps. The color
characteristics of HID lamps depend on the materials
in the arc stream, the pressure at which the lamp
operates, and the presence (or absence) of a
phosphor coating.
3.6.4.1 Mercury and Self-ballasted Mercury Lamps.
Mercury lamps are available in both clear and
phosphor-coated versions. The clear lamp has a very
low CRI (15-25 range), with a color temperature of
approximately 6000 K. The addition of phosphors to
the inside wall of the bulb results in greatly improved
color rendering (up to a CRI of 50) and a color
temperature of approximately 4000 K.
3.6.4.2 Metal Halide Lamps. Metal halide lamps are
also available in both clear and phosphor-coated
versions. Clear lamps have a color rendition that is
far superior to mercury lamps with a CRI of 65-90,
depending on lamp design, and a color temperature
from 3000 K to 6000 K. Phosphor-coated
lamps
typically have a slightly lower color temperature and
may have a moderately improved CRI. Metal halide
lamps are more complex chemically than other HID
types, resulting in less consistency in lamp-to-lamp
color. The color characteristics of metal halide lamps
are also more dependent on operating position than
are other HID lamp types.
3.6.4.3 High-Pressure Sodium Lamps. The HPS
lamp is available in either clear or coated versions.
Coated lamps are used when diffuse light is desired.
The color characteristics of HPS lamps cannot be
changed with phosphors because the HPS arc
stream does not emit ultraviolet radiation. The color
temperature of conventional HPS lamps is 2100 K
and CRI is in the low 20s.
HPS lamps with improved color rendering are also
available, usually at the expense of reduced lamp life

11

IESNA DG-1 O-98

and lumen output. The CR of these lamps can be as


high as 85.
Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps. The LPS
3.6.5
lamp is characterized by its practically monochromatic
yellow light, corresponding to a color temperature of
1800 K. Its color rendering qualities are very poor.

4.1

Ballasts,*

Gas discharge lamps, that is, fluorescent lamps, LPS


and HID lamps, require a device called a ballast.
The purpose of the ballast is to provide proper
starting conditions to initiate the gas discharge in the
lamp (except where a separate device called an
igniter or starter is used), and to limit the lamp current
during operation. For these reasons, the ballast must
be specifically chosen for the lamp in question. In
addition, the life and light output ratings of lamps are
based upon their use with ballasts that provide the
proper operating
characteristics.4
In particular,
ballast factor is used to measure the ability of a
commercial ballast to induce luminous output from
the lamp (in lumens). This ballast factor is the ratio of
the lamps ljght output (when operated on the ballast
in question) to the lamps rated light output (determined by operating the lamp on a reference ballast
under ANSI test conditions). This ratio is usually
expressed as a percentage.
Many ballasts are separately mounted components.
The labels affixed to them contain information
regarding the appropriate lamp(s) and the proper
supply voltage. Lamp-ballast compatibility is a complex subject and is not treated in depth in this Design
Guide. Refer to manufacturers publications for more
information. Some ballasts, most notably in the case of
certain compact fluorescent lamps, are integral to the
lamp and are bought and discarded together.
Historically, most ballasts have been electromagnetic
devices constructed using an iron core and either
copper or aluminum wire wound into coil around the
core (hence the term core-and-coil ballast). They
have typically been fairly heavy and energy inefficient
(energy losses should be taken into account when
calculating
the energy efficiency
of a lighting
system). Acoustic
noise due to vibrating
core
laminations has also sometimes been a problem with
this type of ballast.

12

High-frequency electronic ballasts overcome many


of the shortcomings of the electromagnetic ballasts.
They have lower energy losses than electromagnetic
ballasts, they are often acoustically quieter and
almost always lighter in weight. Compared to electromagnetic ballasts operating
fluorescent
lamps,
electronic ballasts give rise to higher lamp efficacies,
thereby increasing light output for a given amount of
input power. The high-frequency
operation also
considerably reduces lamp flicker.
Hybrid ballasts are available for many fluorescent
lamps. These ballasts attempt to overcome the
energy inefficiency
of ordinary electromagnetic
ballasts in two ways: they typically utilize highergrade steel to reduce ballast power losses and they
employ electronic circuitry to turn off lamp filament
heating after the lamp has started, thereby reducing
power consumption.

4.2

Dimmers

Genera/. Most dimmers are the so/id-state


4.2.1
(electronic) or the variable autotransformer (electromagnetic) type and offer considerable
energy
savings as they control the intensity of the light
source by varying the electric power delivered to the
lamp. Such devices are typically intended either for
energy management applications or for architectural
lighting control. Equipment for energy management
using fluorescent
systems (daylight harvesting)
typically dims to 20 percent of full light output. Older
energy management systems are electromagnetic
while newer installations employ the latest electronic
technology.8
But energy savings are not always the primary goal.
Dimmers allow different combinations of lights and
light levels to create aesthetic effects and generate
different moods in an area. They can also control
ambient lighting so glare is reduced,
provide
theatrical lighting effects, and address individual
needs for improved visibility. Standard incandescent
architectural lighting controls can dim to less than
one percent of full light output and are almost
exclusively electronic designs.
Automatic dimming controls can help achieve
daylight compensation, time-of-day scheduling, load
scheduling,
and task tuning for spaces with
demanding and changing lighting requirements.
Specific examples include conference room lighting
that must frequently adjust from bright (during meetings and discussions) to subdued (when video or
slides are presented), and lighting for areas where a

IESNA DG-1 O-98

video terminal is used. (Due to fixed losses, significant additional energy savings are not obtained at
very low dimming levels, thus energy management
systems are not designed to dim below 10 percent of
full light output).
4.2.2 Dimming Standard Incandescent
filament
Lamps. Standard incandescent
lamps, including
halogen types, offer full-range dimming. As a standard incandescent lamp is dimmed, its life is also
greatly extended. For halogen lamps, life is also
extended by dimming but not to the same extent as
incandescent filament lamps. In each case, there is a
significant color shift towards the warmer colors,
yellow and red. Depending on the specific design of
the dimmer, some electromagnetic interference (EMI)
may be encountered, particularly by AM radios. In
those instances, upgrading to a better dimmer producing less EMI - usually provides an adequate
solution. In extreme cases, separate EMI filters may
be required.
In low ambient noise applications, the dimmer can be
equipped with an acoustic filter to eliminate any
objectionable
singing or buzzing of the lamp. It
should also be noted that buzzing can vary greatly
depending on the exact construction of the lamp or
luminaire. Switching to a slightly different lamp type
may often solve many specific problems.
4.2.3
Dimming Fluorescent Lamps. Full-range
dimming is available for full wattage rapid start
fluorescent lamps using a dimming ballast. Dimmed
linear fluorescent lamps exhibit practically no color
shift and save energy almost in proportion to the
dimmed light level. When compact fluorescent lamps
are dimmed, they typically exhibit more color shift
than larger diameter fluorescent lamps, particularly at
the lowest light levels. The user must be certain that
the ballast complies with FCC and/or other applicable
regulations and carries an acceptable
acoustic
sound rating. Properly designed dimming ballasts do
not reduce lamp life. Instant start lamps are not
recommended for dimming applications.
4.2.4
Dimming High-Intensity Discharge Lamps.
Although HID lamps are optimized to operate at full
power, some energy savings can be obtained
through dimming which requires specialized ballasts
and dimming electronics. Both electromagnetic and
electronic means exist for dimming HID lamps. It is
important to note that the color rendering and color
appearance of any HID lamp can be particularly
affected by dimming.

High-pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide lamps


may be dimmed to about 50 percent of full light
output without significant color shift. Likewise, mercury
lamps may be dimmed .to about 10 percent.
However, the slow warmup and restrike delay that are
characteristic of all HID sources mean that HID
dimming is not comparable to standard incandescent or fluorescent dimming. While useful to energy
management applications, HID dimming is not well
suited to dramatic lighting or theatrical effects
because the time required to go from maximum to
minimum light output is typically 3-10 minutes,
Industry guidelines recommend that HID lamps
should always be started at full power with any
dimming delayed until the lamps are fully warmed up
(approximately 15 minutes).
Stepped level control is a popular energy management strategy for both HPS and metal halide
systems. By this method, an electronic switching
system closes (or opens) connection to specificallysized capacitors located on the secondary side
of the ballast, effectively changing
the lamps
operating current. This leads to changes in both the
light output and power consumption of the lamp.
Two-level and three-level stepped systems are
available that provide the flexibility to suit many
different HID applications requiring variable level
control. Designers should always consult with the
specified lamp and dimming system manufacturers
to confirm that a particular HID source can be
dimmed, and for its performance characteristics in
the dimmed state.

In addition to a basic understanding of each lamps


technical characteristics, there are several other important factors to consider when selecting a light source.
These include the direct cost of light, the quality of this
light, the potential damage that inappropriate light/light
levels may inflict on sensitive materials, and the caveats
found in each lamp manufacturers literature (e.g., the
small print) that can help the user obtain optimum
reliability and safety from a given lighting system.
5.1

Economics

The cost of the lighting


an important area to be
direct costs related to
installation
and operation
which must be carefully

system is, of course,


considered.
There are
the actual cost of the
of the lighting system
weighed and balanced

13

IESNA DG-1 O-98

against factors related


for a given application.

to quality

of the lighting

Economic analysis gives insight into the question of


when a lighting system under consideration will pay
off. It can help the lighting designer make decisions
regarding energy conservation. Most importantly, it
provides methods for gauging the profitability of a
capital investment in a lighting system. Many metrics
and techniques for answering these questions have
been proposed over the years. These methods can
be classified into two categories: first-level analysis
methods, and second-/eve/ analysis methods.
First-level methods (such as simple payback) are
attractive due to their simplicity and can be used for
quick estimates involving short payback periods.
Second-level analysis allows the comparison of all
economic events in the life of a lighting system
(including initial cost, maintenance, energy cost, and
salvage value). These factors are converted into their
value today, or present value using the principle of
time equivalence. The benefits and savings are
totaled and compared with the sum of the costs and
disadvantages. If the first sum is greater, the system
should be purchased. If the second is greater, it
would be unprofitable to purchase the system.
Of the second-level methods, Life cycle Cost/Benefit
Analysis (LCCBA) has emerged as the most robust
method, and the one that is accepted by experts
in managerial
economics
from all industries.
Accordingly,
LCCBA is the economic
analysis
method recommended by IESNA. Detailed information and worked examples for applying LCCBA are
available in RP-31 Recommended Practice for the
Economic Analysis of Lighting.5
51.1
Factors Related to Direct Cost of Light. Those
factors having a direct impact on estimates of the cost of
light produced by any specific lighting system include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14

Cost of luminaires
Lamp cost
Auxiliary equipment costs
Labor costs (of installation)
Luminous efficacy
Cost of electricity
Efficiency of auxiliary equipment
Useful life of lamps and auxiliary equipment
Replacement cost (tabor plus materials)
Operating hours per year
Starting frequency
Cleaning scheduled
Maintenance program

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Amortization rates
Interest rates
Taxes
Insurance
Environmental costs

For methods of cost comparison and to ensure


consistency, refer to RP-31 and to the /ESNA Lighting
Handbook. Lamp and luminaire manufacturers can
supply required lumen output data.
5.1.2
Factors Related to the Quality of Lighting.
Inadequate lighting is expensive at any price. The
lowest first-cost lighting system is often not the most
economical nor the most effective for a particular
application. The following factors are related to quality
considerations. Detailed discussions of these factors
can be found in the /ESNA Lighting Handbook
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
5.2

Suitability of illuminance level for a given task


Brightness*** at work environment
Flexibility requirements of the space
Color temperature of light source
Color rendition
Glare
Visual and psychological comfort factors
Dimming requirements of the lighting system
Starting and restarting time of the lighting system
Zone size of the luminaire/lamp system
(distributed versus point source)
Directionality of the luminaire/lamp
Lumen maintenance characteristics of
luminaire/lamp system
Lighting system reliability
Ease of maintenance
Lamp/luminaire audible noise characteristics
Physical size and shape of luminaires

Light Degradation

of Materials

Exposure to daylight and electric light can result in


the fading, bleaching,
and damaging of many
materials. The extent of the damage caused by light
to any material depends on the:
l
l

Amount of light reaching the material


Duration of light exposure
*** Brightness is the attribute according to which an area appears to be
emitting more light relative to the context or surround. Luminance is a quantitative measurement of light and therefore relates directly to brightness,
that is, the visual effect that illumination produces. In everyday parlance,
brightness can suggest that the described lighting is either uncomfortable
(too bright) or inadequate (too dim). But the real problem will most likely
concern luminance ratio; the ratio between the luminances of any two areas
in the visual field. When this ratio is large (e.g. brightly lighted areas
directly adjacent to relatively dark areas), comfort, and sometimes seeing
ability, can be significantly reduced.

IESNA DG-1 O-98

l
l

Spectral composition of the light


Susceptibility of the material to fading

Light is radiant energy, and exposure to light gradually


causes permanent damage to many objects. When
radiant energy is incident on the surface of a material,
whether opaque or transparent, some portion of that
energy is absorbed. This can promote two distinctly
different processes that can cause material degradation: radiant heating effect and photochemical action.

ferent light sources will vary. It is particularly important to follow the manufacturers recommendations
as to operating position, bulb handling, and luminaire
wattages.

The part of the spectrum that is particularly harmful is


the ultraviolet (UV) region, which by definition is
non-visible radiation. While studies have shown that
UV radiation can cause much more damage than
visible light, visible light and infrared (IR) radiation
can also cause fading, darkening of colors, and
minor structural damage (e.g., embrittlement, loss of
tear strength). Deterioration rates of illuminated/irradiated materials can be affected by the chemical
composition and saturation of any dyes and colorants
used, the composition and weave (of fabrics), moisture
(humidity), and temperature.
The damaging effects of light can be mitigated.
Direct light can be redirected with louvers or blinds,
windows may be treated with UV-absorbing substances, and unwanted UV and IF?radiation can be
reduced by using inhibitors in lamps or in the lenses
of luminaires. For example, a dichroic coating
applied within reflector lamps makes reflection wavelength specific. Long wave (IR) energy emerges
behind the lamp and only short wave energy (light
and UV) is directed into the beam. UV-absorbing
glass or a dichroic glass filter that selectively blocks
UV may also be required. Acrylic plastic sheets that
can absorb most harmful rays are easily obtained,
and UV-absorbing tubular plastic is also available for
fluorescent lamps. For a thorough discussion of lightinduced deterioration and the techniques available to
minimize such damage, see RP-30 Museum and Arf
Gallery Lighting; a Recommended Practice.6

5.3

Cautions, Warnings, and Operating


Instructions

Technical information and catalogs are published by


lamp, ballast, and luminaire manufacturers. These
documents provide the user with important information
about the installation, operation, and maintenance of
lighting products. All related cautions and warnings
must be observed and followed to obtain safe,
reliable operation of the affected lighting system.
Users should be particularly
alert for footnote
information as the safe use/handling priorities for dif-

15

IESNA DG-10-98

References
Rea, M. S. (Editor), /ESNA Lighting Handbook,
1.
Eighth
Edition.
New York, NY: Illuminating
Engineering Society of North America, 1993.
IESNA
Photobiology
Committee,
Reco2.
mmended Practice for Photobiological
Safety for
Lamps and Lamp Systems - General RequireANSVIESNA
RP-27.1-96.
New York,
ments,
NY Illuminating
Engineering
Society of North
America, 1996.
3.
IESNA
mmended
forLamps ANSIIIESNA
Engineering

Photobiology
Committee,
RecoPractice for Photobiological
Safety
Risk Group Classification and Labeling,
RP-27.3-96. New York, NY Illuminating
Society of North America, 1996.

4.
Catalog of American National Standards, Lamp
Ballasts and Transformers, ANSI C82 series, New
York: American National Standards Institute, latest
edition. Available from: ANSI, 1430 Broadway,
New York, NY 10018.
5.
IESNA
Lighting
Economics
Committee,
Recommended Practice for the Economic Analysis
of Lighting, IESNA RP-31-96. New York, NY Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 1996.
6.
IESNA Museum and Art Gallery Lighting
Committee, Museum and Art Gallery Lighting;
a Recommended
Practice,
IESNA RP-30-96.
New York, NY Illuminating Engineering Society of
North America, 1996.
7.
IESNA Light Sources Committee,
Understanding and Controlling the Effects of Temperature
on Fluorescent Lamp Systems, IESNA TM-6-96.
New York, NY Illuminating Engineering Society of
North America. 1996.
8.
IESNA Ballast Task Force, Ballasts and the
Generation of Light, IESNA DG-8-96. New York,
NY: Illuminating
Engineering
Society of North
America, 1996.

9.

U.S. Congress. 1992. Energy policy act of


1992, PL 702-486.
Washington,
DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
10. Toxic Characteristic
(TCLP 1990).

16

Leaching

Procedure

11. ASHRAE Standards


Committee
1988-89,
Energy
Efficient
Design
of New Buildings
Except
Low-Rise
Residential
Buildings,
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-89. Atlanta, GA: American
Society
of Heating,
Refrigerating
and Air
Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1989.