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TERRORISM IN NORTHERN REGION OF NIGERIA: IMPLICATION FOR

NATIONAL SECURITY
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The rise in level of Global terrorism over the years has continually threatened International
peace, stability and security. Terrorism has no border and it violates all legal regulatory
mechanisms of war. It is brutal, non-conventional and cruel in the existence of human race.
Terrorism has an age long history from the case of slave rebel Spartan who burnt the roman cities
to the ground through terrorist attack. The French revolution of 1789 which upset the old order
of Louis XV1 in which various terrorist organizations like Jacobin club led by Robert Spas ire,
the Cordelier club, the Girondin and the mountain featured prominently in persecuting
oppositions. Hitler in the quest of wiping out the Jews terrorized them by killing and maiming
them at the concentration camp. The Tzar of Russia banished oppositions to Siberia, The
Mussolini of Italy also carried his ideology too far by terrorizing oppositions (Davis 1967).
The sources from which terrorism originated in the 21st century can be traced to revolution,
nationalism, separatist movement, fanatism, ideological fissures and arm-race which begets
Nuclear weapons proliferation from which world peace and security are seriously threatened.
These problems resorted to mistrust and civil disobedience which paralyzed the existence of
peace and security which are now causing global disorder (Carleton 1960). The terrorists
themselves saw it as a justifiable means of fighting for nationalist cause and self-determination
for freedom. It is also a just cause since governments resort to terrorism to achieve political end.
The question now is who is a terrorist and what is terrorism? Among the acceptable concepts of
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terrorism in the contemporary century is that terrorism believes in fighting a just cause and
mounting deliberate attack on the civilians. Here civilians are the victims of the consequence of
terrorism.
(UN panel 2005), described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm
to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a
government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act.
Again the bill for an Act to provide for measures to combat terrorism and for related
matters 2010 in its section 2C defines terrorism as: Anyone involved or causes an attack upon a
persons life which may cause serious bodily harm or death, kidnapping of a person, destruction
to a government facility including an information system, a fixed platform located in the
continental shelf, public place or private property likely to endanger human life or result in major
economic loss. The seizure of an aircraft, ship or other means of public or goods transport and
the use of such means of transportation for any of the purpose.
To woods (1983) Terrorism is the weapon of those people that are not prepared to use legal
means but violence to achieve a desired goal.
The menace of Terrorism is what currently plagues the most populous black nation on
Planet earth (as revealed by the Nigeria Demographic Profile of. July 2013, which puts her
population at 174,507,539 persons)? According to the Global Terrorism Index (GTI) ofJuly 2013,
Nigeria is ranked 7th. Terrorism is a big issue with no easy solution. The country has suffered
plaques of terrorist attacks, leading to thousands of lives lost and destruction of properties. In
utmost urgency, the surest antidote to these ailments is help from its patriotic and honest citizens
with proven integrity, dedication and sense of responsibility.Over the past five years, Nigeria has
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been confronting threats posed by Boko Haram (the major terrorist sect) to peace and stability
predominantly in the North Eastern part of the country.
According to Ajayi(2013) The dastardly terrorist activities of Boko Haram have manifested
profoundly in the various bomb/gun attacks on police stations, army barracks, prisons, churches
as well as some other public institutions, and prominent personalities.
In Hausa language 'Boko' means book (especially Western or foreign) while 'Haram' is an arabic
word meaning 'forbidden', 'ungodly' or 'sinful'. If the words are pieced together, 'Boko Haram'
literally means 'book is sinful' (Danjibo, 2009:7 &Adesoji, 2010:100). But basically the import is
that Western education/civilization is sinful, sacrilegious or ungodly and should be forbidden.
Thus Boko Haram stands for outright rejection of Western education, Western culture and
modern science. Rather it advocates the propagation of strict adherence to Islam in its purest
form. Boko Haram represents the vision and mission of a fundamentalist Islamic movement in
Nigeria. The sect known as Jama'atuAhlisSunnaLidda'awatiwal-Jihad (people committed to the
propagation of the prophet's teachings and Jihad) seeks to Islamize Nigeria by whatever means at
its disposal and at whatever human cost. This brings in the terrorism angle.
Joe Bavier, a journalist who is a regular visitor to the region, told CNN that the Federal
government has completely lost control of the north-east, despite deploying thousands of troops
and establishing a Joint Task Force. Now, he says, it looks like the situation has broken out of the
north-east. And whats worrying, he says, is that theres not a whole lot of visible effort from
the federal government to calm things down (Lister, 2012:14).
According to Valrie Thomson, Boko Haram not only reemerged as a threat to Nigeria, but its
activities also placed it on the radar of international terrorism watchers with a series of daring
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and successful attacks. Boko Harams marked increase in its capabilities in a very short period of
time has led to speculation that it has joined forces with al Qaeda groups inAfrica. That is likely
the case, but up to now the groups seem to be sharing tactics, but not goals, as Boko Harams
focus seems fixed on Nigeria and its capabilities have yet to exceed that of a regional militant
group

Your introduction seem better now but, I told u dat all these ur reference are too old and

out dated. Pls find rectify.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This work is critical as it looks to reveal insight into Terrorism in Nigeria which has turned into
an issue of highest worldwide distress. Bamidele 2012 focused on this when he recognized that
"pretty much consistently, TV show, shows, daily papers, magazines and web sites run and re-run
pictures of sensational demonstrations of brutality completed by this savage gathering called
Boko Haram." This implies by and large, Boko Haram is standing out as truly newsworthy which
have put forth the defense of Terrorism in North Eastern Nigeria both annoying and disturbing
and it postures awesome peril to Nigeria's national security by upsetting the financial and
political life of North-eastern Nigerian states, for example, Borno, Adamawa and Yobe state and
Nigeria as a rule. This is seen by the vast number of lives and properties that have been lost in
Boko haram assaults, the mental or mental injury of living in steady alarm of been assaulted by
parts of the gathering, religious mobs that emits as a consequence of these assaults, loss of
employments and wellspring of work, the unending barriers, check focuses, curfews and
additionally security dangers that happen as an aftereffect of Terrorism. In adding to this,
business life in Northern Nigeria is "battling" to get by because of absence of speculation from
outside nations who withdrew their enthusiasm for Nigerian business showcase because of the
alarm of been murdered, captured or been held as prisoner by the Boko Haram aggregate as on
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account of Chris McManus a Briton and Franco Lamolinara an Italian two white ostracize who
were killed in a salvage offer by UK and Nigerian drives by their abductors who were parts of
the Boko Haram bunch (Walker 2013).

This extreme threat postured by Boko Haram terrorists to Nigeria's corporate presence obliges
that a concrete study be done on the subject; this has been the enthusiasm to complete this
exploration.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The primary point of this is to attempt a basic evaluation of Terrorism in Nigeria with a
perspective to figuring out its ramifications for National security. Other objectives are:
1. To examine the scenario that led to the breakdown of peace in Northern parts of Nigeria.
2. To assess the intervention strategies utilized by government to de-escalate terrorism in the
Northern part of Nigeria.
3. To assess the recorded precedence of Terrorism in Nigeria and recognize the remote and quick
elements that prompted the rise of terrorism in the nation.
4.To evaluate the impacts of Terrorist assaults and its suggestions for national security.
5.To make critical thinking suggestions that can serve as format for arrangement reactions to
terrorism in Nigeria

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This work aims to answer the questions below
1.

What components strengthen the presence of Terrorism in Northeastern Nigeria??

2.

What are the implications of Boko Haram Terrorism for Nigeria national security?

3.

What influence does other terrorist group(s) outside Nigeria have on Boko Haram?

4.To what level did the Federal government and other shareholders in the country try to solve the
problem of Terrorism in Nigeria?
5.

What likely long lasting solutions could be applied to the problem of Terrorism in

Nigeria?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Through the years, Nigeria has confronted a great deal of security difficulties because of
the demonstration of terrorism. This why it is basic to complete a discriminating and brief
appraisal of terrorism and how it influences Nigeria's National security. By this, the value of this
exploration can't be over pushed. It would help in Future examination works identifying with
terrorism both home and abroad. It would be an advantage for arrangement creators in zones
concerning Counter terrorism, protection and National security in Nigeria

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Borno state is the base of the terrorists in northern Nigeria. This state is made up of
4,588,668 population, according to Nigeria 2005 census with 27 local government
areasTherefore this project will focus mostly on Borno State within the time frame of 2009- 2014
LIMITATION TO THESTUDY
Inability to visit the regions shortly confronting terrorism to meeting inhabitants and
performing artists included restricted or the other constituted a significant limit. Likewise,
biasness and assessments as an afterthought of numerous productions, scholars and online
feelings was additionally a restriction to the work this is basically in light of the politicization of
Nigerian terrorism. The absence of exact information or the vicinity of misrepresented
information by Nigerian military and government itself and numerous distributions constituted
an alternate fortification to the work. However regardless of all these constraints, endeavors were
made to guarantee the nature of the study through the utilization of sources , for example, online
suppositions, scholarly diaries and other applicable materials to guarantee authencity and
legitimacy of the study.
ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
This project is divided into five chapters. The first chapter, is the introduction, it looks at
the background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions,
and significance of the study, organization of chapters. This chapter also covered the definition of
terms used during the course of carrying out the researchas well as scope of the study. The

second chapter is dedicated to the review of applicable existing literature with the aim of
providing fundamental and historical background to the study of Boko Haram insurgency in
northern Nigeria.
The third chapter majors on the methodology. This included methods of data gathering,
research design, research population, sample and sampling techniques, research Instruments,
validity and reliability of instruments and data analysis technique. The fourth chapter discussed
presentation and analysis of data collected, interpretation and discussion of findings. The fifth
chapter discussed summary and conclusion of research work, as well as recommendations on
how the problems raised can be tackled.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Muslim: (Encarta dictionary) a monotheistic religion based on the word of God as revealed to
Muhammad during the 7th century.
Boko Haram: (A.I. Ajayi) Boko Haram stands for outright rejection of Western education,
Western culture and modern science.
Terrorism:(Encarta dictionary) political violence: violence or the threat of violence, especially
bombing, kidnapping, and assassination, carried out for political purposes.
National security:(Encarta dictionary) protection of nation from danger: the protection of a
nation from attack or other danger by maintaining adequate armed forces and guarding state
secrets.
North-Eastern States: (The Federal Ministry of Information) the states are divided into Bauchi,
Borno,Yobe, Taraba state and Adamawa state
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
The chapter reviewed interrelated literature on Terrorism, Security, National security and
relevant concepts that are relevant to the study so as to fill the existing gaps in an attempt to
better understand the subject matter Terrorism and its implications for national security.
CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1The concept of Terrorism
The term Terrorism is not new and even though it has been used since the early times of
recorded history, it can be relatively hard to define terrorism. However, Terrorism is the
premeditated use or threat of use of violence by individuals or sub-national groups to obtain a
political or social objective through intimidation of a large audience, beyond that of the
immediate victim (Enders, 2003). The definition of terrorism has been hard to define mainly
because the meaning of the term has changed so frequently over the past two hundred years
(Hoffman, 1998). Recently, terrorism has been used to refer to broader, less distinct phenomena
than before. In the early 1980, terrorism came to be regarded as a calculated means to destabilize
the West as part of a part of a vast global conspiracy. Then by the middle of the decade, after a
succession of suicide bombing directed mainly at American diplomatic and military targets in the
Middle East, the rising threat of state-sponsored started to gain much attention. Therefore, the
meaning terrorism had shifted from an individual phenomenon of sub-national violence to one of
several elements, or part of a wider pattern of non-state conflict (Hoffman, 1998). Based on Lutz

and Lutz (2008), here is a working definition that is reasonably inclusive and comprises of six
elements:
1.

The violence is undertaken primarily for political reasons.

2.

Violence or the credible threat of violence is present (Badey, 1998).

3.

For violence, or political violence, to qualify as terrorism, it must also affect a target

attempt beyond the immediate victims and influence such as audience as part of the attempt to
gain the political objectives of the organization. Some definitions include the specification that
the targets of terrorist violence are civilians (Schmid, 2004).
4.

For political violence to be terrorism there must be an identifiable organization.

5.

For purpose of this dissertation terrorism will be situation in which the perpetrators, the

victims, or both are not states or governments.


6.

The last element is that terrorist actions are used to improve the power situation of the

organization that is using this form of political violence (Ali, 2008).


It is essential to note that terrorism can take the form of Domestic terrorism, International
terrorism or Cross-border terrorism. The terms terrorism and terrorist (someone who engages in
terrorism) carry strong negative connotations. These terms are often used as political labels, to
condemn violence or the threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate and
unjustified or to condemn an entire segment of a population. Terrorist attacks are usually carried
out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of
terrorism is a performance devised to have impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also
attack national symbols, to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or
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society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government, while increasing the
prestige of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. Very often, the
victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific
symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings that tie into a specific view of the world that the
terrorists possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists goals of instilling fear, getting their
message out to an audience or otherwise satisfying the demands of their often radical religious
and political agendas (Wikipedia 2013).
Terrorism incidents and the events of 9/11 are an example of a continuing phenomenon which
has occurred understandably within existing historical or geographical context. Therefore, the
severe reaction seen today to the possible threats from terrorism seems perplexing..

The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful
violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate
governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or
ideological. Within this definition, there are three key elementsviolence, fear, and
intimidationand each element produce terror in its victims. The FBI uses this definition:
"Terrorism is the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or
coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political
or social objectives." The U.S. Department of State defines terrorism to be "premeditated
politically-motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups
or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience".

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Outside the United States Government, there are greater variations in what features of terrorism
are emphasized in definitions. The United Nations produced the following definition of terrorism
in 1992; "An anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-)
clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons,
whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets."
The most commonly accepted academic definition starts with the U.N. definition quoted above,
and adds two sentences totalling another 77 words on the end; containing such verbose concepts
as "message generators" and "violence based communication processes". Less specific and
considerably less verbose, the British Government definition of terrorism from 1974 is "...the use
of violence for political ends, and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the
public, or any section of the public, in fear."
Terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. The
strategy of terrorists is to commit acts of violence that draws the attention of the local populace,
the government, and the world to their cause. The terrorists plan their attack to obtain the greatest
publicity, choosing targets that symbolize what they oppose. The effectiveness of the terrorist act
lies not in the act itself, but in the publics or governments reaction to the act. For example, in
1972 at the Munich Olympics, the Black September Organization killed 11 Israelis. The Israelis
were the immediate victims. But the true target was the estimated 1 billion people watching the
televised event. Those billion people watching were to be introduced to fear - which is
terrorism's ultimate goal. The introduction of this fear can be from the threat of physical
harm/grizzly death, financial terrorism from the fear of losing money or negative effects on the
economy, cyber terrorism harming the critical technological infrastructures of society and

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psychological terrorism designed to influence people's behaviour. Terrorism is designed to


produce an overreaction and anecdotally, it succeeds at that almost all the time.
The Black September Organization used the high visibility of the Munich Olympics to publicize
its views on the plight of the Palestinian refugees. Similarly, in October 1983, Middle Eastern
terrorists bombed the Marine Battalion Landing Team Headquarters at Beirut International
Airport. Their immediate victims were the 241 U.S. military personnel who were killed and over
100 others who were wounded. Their true target was the American people and the U.S. Congress.
Their one act of violence influenced the United States decision to withdraw the Marines from
Beirut and was therefore considered a terrorist success.
There are three perspectives of terrorism: the terrorists, the victims, and the general publics.
The phrase one mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighter is a view terrorists themselves
would gladly accept. Terrorists do not see themselves as evil. They believe they are legitimate
combatants, fighting for what they believe in, by whatever means possible to attain their goals. A
victim of a terrorist act sees the terrorist as a criminal with no regard for human life. The general
publics view though can be the most unstable. The terrorists take great pains to foster a Robin
Hood image in hope of swaying the general publics point of view toward their cause. This
sympathetic view of terrorism has become an integral part of their psychological warfare and has
been countered vigorously by governments, the media and other organizations. However the
central objective of all terroristorganizations is to overthrow the government for control of all or
a portion of its territory, or force political concession in sharing political power. The hoisting of
flags over some towns and villages in Northeastern Nigeria by Boko Haram afford us recent
examples

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Terrorists always resort to the use of violence to change or influence policies that they believe
discriminated against particular groups (e.g. ethnic, religious, racial, or economicetc) in the
population. A good example of this is the Sudanese terrorists in the 1960s, where blacks in the
south demanded a change in policies related to economic power resource. Another good example
is the periodic attempts by moderate Shiite and Druze elements in Lebanon to redress the
perceived unequal distribution of political and economic assets that favored the Christian
community (Bard, 2005). This violence in most cases is usually mated out against noncombatants. This is done to prove that they can effectively challenge government as well as
make citizen loose competence in their government and therefore run to terrorists for protection.
One of the most bizarre cases along these lines in Nigeria was the attack against St. Theresa
Catholic Church in Madala Niger state on the 25th of December 2011 causing a black Christmas
for Christians all over the country on a day they celebrate the birth of their savior Jesus Christ.
Huntington (1962) cited in Bard, (2005) stated that the violent aspect of terrorists is manifested
in different forms of warfare. According to him three forms of warfare have been associated
with terrorism and they include terrorism, guerrilla war, and conventional warfare (cited in Bard,
2005). This idea goes hand in hand with that of Tomes (2004) who viewed that terrorism differ
in their use of tactics and methods. He spoke of four elements that are typically used by insurgent
group. This included:
Cell-networks that maintained secrecy; terror used to foster insecurity among the population and
drive them to the movement for protection; multifaceted attempts to cultivate support in the
general population, often by undermining the new regime; and attacks against the government.

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2.2 BOKO HARAM PHENOMENOM: TERRORISM OR INSURGENCY?


Present writings have demonstrated that discourses on Boko Haram event in Nigeria has
stayed uncertain such these studies have neglected to satisfactorily talk about the genuine reason
for the gathering creation and its suggestion for Nigeria's national security. These studies have
talked about different fighting issues coming about because of the issue of Boko Haram in
Nigeria going from the socio- political element that have prompted the presence of the gathering,
the ascent of Islamic revival that have empower the development of Boko haram in the north,
Islamic obsession that have urged Muslim to take to arms in their offer to attain to a specific
course, the requirement for absolution to be conceded to Boko Haram parts, the impact of Boko
Haram on local security request and so on. For example Ekanem et al (2012) on their part saw
Boko Haram and absolution from a philo-lawful measurement. In their study they investigated
the legitimate ramifications of Boko Haram exercises inside the extent of Nigerian law and the
constitution of Nigeria as it identifies with the commonness of the nation. They were of the
sentiment that "Boko Haram constitutes a break of segment 204 and 205 (1) and (2) of the
criminal code" and that "the spate of sporadic roughness perpetrated on the country by the Boko
Haram order underscores the disappointment of the nation's insights system." They likewise said
that "reprieve to Boko Haram can prompt rebellion in Nigeria."
Danjibo (2010) then again took a gander at Islamic Fundamentalism and partisan brutality
utilizing Maitasine" and Boko Haram" emergencies in Northern Nigeria as careful investigation.
In his study he sees Islamic fundamentalism as the main thrust of partisan viciousness brought on
by gatherings, for example, Maitatsine and Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria. Like this is the

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contention of Adesoji (2010) who noted that Boko Haram dissimilar to its ancestors broadened
the extent of Islamic revivalism. He additionally accepted that the financial conditions that
supported the Maitatsine uprising in 1980 are significant to the Boko Haram circumstance. As
indicated by Ademowoetojo (2012) "Boko Haram is impacted by religious slant or possibly puts
on a show to be". Among other thing they noted that the gathering is requesting for:
The change of Northern Nigeria to an Islamic group, administered by Sharia standards and
orders. Annihilation of western thoughts and introduction in Nigeria, including western training
and in conclusion the giving over of the official power in the nation to a Muslim president of
Northern extraction.
Bintube (2014) then again, as he would like to think gave a sociological investigation of Boko
Haram terrorism in Borno state. He was of the idea that "numerous variables helped for the
volunteers of Boko Haram and they incorporate lessening estimations of training, neediness,
awful administration, unemployment, politico-religious, foul play, and defilement in addition to
everything else." He submitted that "Boko Haram has nothing to do with Islam and that it has
been censured by numerous eminent Islamic priests however that the beginning set of Boko
Haram has been substituted with more complex and muddled gatherings by War Lords".
What's more, Aliyu (2011) inspected the effect of Boko haram terrorism on the Nigerian state
and how it turns to influence West African territorial security other. Yet still much academic work
has not been done on the effect of Boko Haram terrorism for Nigeria's National security. It is as a
consequence of this that this study chooses to attempt an evaluation of Boko Haram terrorism in
Nigeria and its Implications for National security.
2.30 SIGNIFICANTLEGACY OF NIGERIA
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Five decades after freedom, Nigeria has not possessed the capacity to make social orders that
guarantee human poise and admiration for all. Since picking up autonomy in 1960, military
upsets, ethnic and religious strains have described post-independenceNigeria. The end of the
common war (1967-1970) was accepted to be a chance to unite Nigerians. Yet, in the postcommon war time, Nigeria has been faced with overwhelming security difficulties including
militancy, revolts and repetitive public savagery that have set different groups against each other
in the nation. After numerous years of military run, the reintroduction of regular citizen control
in 1999 has corresponded or appears to have prodded the increase of ethnic and religious
militancy, described by demonstrations of disastrous terrorism, common strife and mass
challenges. To be sure, following 1999, with the opening of the fair space, different volunteer
army gatherings sticking to religion, ethnicity or other extraordinary hobbies have sprung up in
Nigeria and the ghastliness that they have unleashed on the individuals must be similar to the
common war years. Notwithstanding their horrendous compassionate toll, the exercises of these
gatherings and their clash inclined association with security authorities have been a steady threat
to peace, security, dependability and the regional honesty of Nigeria.
The nation is getting to be progressively ungovernable. ... Ethnic and local parts are developing,
a situationmade more terrible by an increment in the quantity of states from 19 to 30 and a
multiplying in the quantity of nearby overseeing powers. Religious cleavages are more genuine;
Muslim fundamentalism and fervent Christian militancy are on the ascent; and northern Muslim
nervousness over southern [Christian] control of the economy is extraordinary . . . the will to
keep Nigeria together is currently extremely frail. These same conditions that Kaplan depicted in
February 1994 appear to be pervasive as Boko Haram is resolved to decreasing Nigeria to
rubbles if sharia and their adaptation of Islam are not generally connected the nation over. What's
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more, intermittent religious viciousness and cataclysmic terrorism and defiance in the Niger
Delta area have further rendered Kaplan's fate's prediction additionally telling. In reality, the risk
of crumbling weaving machines these days in Nigeria than amid the precivil war years. As
indicated by numerous individuals, including Professor Wole Soyinka, "Nigeria is as of now
deteriorating. Managing these cataclysmic terrorist or local army bunches has throughout the
years turn into a standout amongst the most pressing security difficulties to the administrations of
presidents Olusegun Obasanjo, Yaradua, and Goodluck Jonathan, who have ruled Nigeria since
the vote based arousing of 1999. The generally held view by masters is that the politicization of
religion and ethnicity in Nigeria has been in charge of the development of gatherings, for
example, the Oduduwa Peoples' Congress (OPC), Egbesu, the Movement for the Actualization of
the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), Arewa Peoples' Congress (APC), the Bakassi Boys,
Igbo Youth Congress (IYC), Igbo Peoples' Congress (IPC), Niger Delta Volunteer Force
(NDVF), Niger Delta Resistant Movement (NDRM), Movement for the Survival of the Izon
Nationality of the Niger Delta (MOSIEND), the Nigerian or Yobe Taliban, Movement for the
Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Jama'atahlus al-Sunnahliddawatiwal-Jihad or
otherwise called Boko Haram, and a group of numerous other savagery wieldinggroups. Surely,
the political hypothesis has been the most predictable if not sound clarification of the ascent and
fall of local armies and disastrous terrorist assembles in Nigeria.
Writings on Boko Haram stay uncertain about the bunch's raison d'tre or the genuine
reason for its creation and presence, not the slightest the reasonability of its exercises. Different
written works have proffered dissimilar perspectives, underscoring distinctive causal elements,
for example, emergency regarding citizenship and between ethnic contentions, lacunae in the
1999 constitution, institutional shortcomings and disappointments of the administration (the
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thought of fizzling or a fizzled state), neediness and inequalitiesamong the overwhelming ethnic
and religious gatherings, pioneer legacy and the relics of the British Monarchy in Nigeria (or
recorded legacies), and worldwide political powers and the worldwide jihad development or the
ideological legacy of Osama Bin Laden. (Isa, 2010), for instance, sees the wellspring of the issue
in the acting of the Nigerian government. As he puts it, "The Nigerian state has, after some time,
been described by unmitigated imperialism, eccentric government arrangements, financial
emergencies, obligation ridden economy, imbalances and treacheries, awful administration,
expansive scale debasement, fractionalization of the decision class, feeble political and monetary
establishments, and a close unlucky deficiency of security of lives and property .The
apparently jaded way the state deals with the rising issue of activist Islamic gatherings focuses to
one certainty the powerlessness of the decision class to legitimately deal with the state issue.
In like manner, (Ibaba, 2008) faults the state or lawmakers for the terrorism in the Niger Delta. In
the same vein (Ikelegbe, 2005) notes that, "the political issues that persuade the civilian armies,
and the unemployment and neediness that make the pool of aggressors, have stayed uncertain."
Some researchers, for example, (Adibe, 2012) follow the issue to the fizzled build of country
building in Nigeria. At the same, different researchers have clarified the ascent of Boko Haram
from its religious measurement, focusing on religious fanaticism or fundamentalism as the key
spurring variable. Here, Islam and the verifiable interchange of legislative issues and religion in
Nigeria have gone under extraordinary examination. In this setting, the age-old Christian-Muslim
clash in Nigeria has been recognized as the principle driver of Boko Haram. Defenders of the
religious hypothesis have accentuated neediness, social disparities and abnormal state of lack of
education as elements invigorating and fuelling religious-based roughness. In clarifying the
reasons for ethno-religious clash in Nigeria, (Salawu, 2010) focuses out issues of command,
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abuse, exploitation, underestimation, nepotism, and in addition disappointment of Nigerian


pioneers to build great administration, breakdown of vehicles of social control regular to
conventional African social orders, and the long military mediation in governmental issues.
As indicated by (Danjibo, 2010), Boko Haram is the result of the "Maitatsine" convention
or a brand of Islamic devotees and fundamentalists acquainted with northern Nigeria in 1945,
and he contends that the Maitatsine or Boko Haram mobs of 1980 and 2009 were connected to
the disappointment of administration in Nigeria. Others, for example, (Ousman, 2004) would
clarify Boko Haram as a component of the resurgence of Islamic developments and militancy
around the world. In an article, "The Potential of Islamist Terrorism in Sub-Saharan Africa,"
Ousman follows the issue of advanced Islamic developments in Nigeria to the openingof vote
based pluralism in 1999, which moved the offset of force from Muslim military leaders of the
north to Christian regular citizen manage in the south.
Terrorism which was generally obscure when it rose in 2002 in Maiduguri, a remote city in north
eastern Nigeria, bordering Cameroon, surged to transcendence in 2009 through some noteworthy
however fatal chain of occasions that happened in Maiduguri. Everything started on 25 July,
2009 with a throughout the night assault on Dutsen-Tanshi police in Bauchi State. The assault
pulled in one of the heaviest and heartless security crackdowns in Nigerian history. The five-day
standoff between terrorists and security strengths brought about around 800 individuals killed
and a few hundreds more harmed, and also the catch and killing of a few Boko Haram aggressors
including their establishing pioneer, Mohammed Yusuf. The executing of Yusuf and endeavors
by security strengths to destroy Boko Haram denoted a defining moment in the Islamic group
history and changed the gathering into one of Africa's most fierce and deadliest cataclysmic
terrorist bunches. The gathering rose up out of the July's difficulty much stronger, bolder and
20

additionally brave in its assaults. It has from that point forward sought after a battle of dread, in
charge of fatal and wrecking disastrous terrorist acts in northern and the focal cinch of Nigeria,
with 2011 viewed as the deadliest year of Boko Haram's exercises following 2009. A quantitative
appraisal of the effect of Boko Haram abominations in Nigeria somewhere around 2009 and
February, 2012 frequently does not reflect the genuine humane, financial and ecological expense
to groups. The absence of an exact study and a focal database has brought about different
assessments and projections. Unassuming gauges by (Human Rights Watch, 2012), for instance,
put the aggregate passing at 935 in nearly 164 assaults. The report additionally gauges that 550
individuals were executed in 115Boko Haram attacks in 2011 alone, while (Amnesty
International, 2012) estimates that, in 2011, at least 500 people were killed in attacks by Boko
Haram, often targeting police officers and government officials. Such quantitative assessment
reflects the plight of the thousands of people that have been displaced, forced orphaned and
widowed caused by the deadly attacks. It also reflects the negative impacts the threat that Boko
Haram activities pose to the economy, unity and territorial integrity of Nigeria, Africa and the
world at large. Any past event that u aid must come with a source(reference) take note

2.31 PRE BOKO HARAM TERRORIST ACTIVITIES IN BORNO


In a study led by David (2011) cited in Bintube, (2014), the discovering uncovered that
the ascent of Boko Haram in Nigeria lied in the Islamic history of Northern Nigeria (refered to in
Bintube, 2014). This is on account of before Nigeria's autonomy the western impact of British
colonialists brought on a division among the populace of Northern Nigeria, who were once
21

united by Islam. This division as indicated by (Owolade, 2014) "saw, on one side, the purported
cultivated by Western world class who were utilized by the British as operators of colonization
and on the other side, the everyday people, who passionately opposed Western impact in the
locale". This coupled with the way that Christian ministers utilized western training as an
apparatus for evangelism had prompted mainstream instruction being seen with suspicion.
Owolade further noted that this division to him realized "disappointment with Western impact"
which additionally prompted a "rise of Islamist fundamentalists among individuals of the
Northeastern district of Nigeria" (Owolade, 2014:10).
Case in point in 1980 the Maitatsine mob overwhelmed significant urban areas in the
Northern piece of Nigeria. These mobs began from Kano in December of 1980 and stretched out
to Bulumkutu close Maiduguri, the Capital of Borno state, these uproars likewise influenced
different towns, for example, Rigasa in Kaduna state in October 1982, Jimeta-Yola in the middle
of February and March 1984, preceding at long last berthing at Gombe in April 1985 (Olomoji,
2013:176). As per Isichei (1987:194-208) the Maitatsine uprising of 1980 denoted the start of
savage clashes and emergencies in Nigeria. Some of such emergencies incorporated: the
Metropolitan uproar of October 1982, the Ilorin mob of March 1986, the University of Ibadan
emergency of May 1986, the across the nation emergency regarding Nigeria's enrollment of the
association of the Islamic meeting in January/February 1986, the Kafancha/Kaduna/Zaria Funtua
religious mobs of March 1987, the Kaduna Polytechnic mob of March 1988, the sharp across the
country discuss on sharia (Islamic law) at the constituent Assembly in October/November 1988,
the Bayero University emergency of 1989, the Bauchi/Kastina mob of March/April 1991, the
Kano mob of Oct 1991, the Zangon-Kataf mob of May 1992, the Kano common aggravation of
December 1991 and the Jos emergency of April 1994 fair to say yet a couple of (refered to in
22

Adesoji,2011:97). Likewise it had been watched that the Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria took
roots from the Maitasine uproars of 1980.
2.32. ORIGIN OF BOKO HARAM AS A TERRORIST GROUP IN NIGERIA
Jama'atuAhlisSunnaLidda'awatiWal-Jihad, better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram, is a
jihadist terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria. It is an Islamist movement which
strongly opposes man-made laws. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002, the organisation is a
Muslim sect that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia Law in
the country. The movement, whose name in the Hausa language, Boko Haram, translates as
"Western education is sacrilege" or "a sin" is divided into three factions, and in 2011, was
responsible formore than 1000 killings in Nigeria (Eme, et. al, 2012). Though the group first
became known internationally followingsectarian violence in Nigeria in 2009, it does not have a
clear structure or evident chain of command. It has, however, been severally alleged that the
group has links with several terrorist networks such as Al-Qaeda, Hezbolla, Taliban etc.
The group adopted Jama'atuAhlisSunnaLidda'awatiwal-Jihad as its official name which
translates into People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad.
Boko Haram is an indigenous Salafist group which only turned itself into a Salafist Jihadist
group in 2009. It propagates that not only interaction with the Western World is forbidden, but it
is also against the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria. The group publicly
extols its ideology despite the fact that its founder and former leader Muhammad Yusuf was
himself a highly educated man who lived a lavish life and drove a Mercedes Benz (Bartollota,
2013; Eme&Ibietan, 2012).

23

The group was founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri with the aim of
establishing a Shari'agovernment in Borno State under former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff. He
established a religious complex that included a mosque and a school where many poor families
from across Nigeria and from neighbouring countries enrolled their children. The centre had
ulterior political goals and soon it was also working as a recruiting ground for future jihadists to
fight the state. The group includes members who come from neighbouring Chad and Niger and
speak only Arabic. In 2004 the complex was relocated to Yusuf's home state of Yobe in the
village Kanamma near the Niger Republic border. Yusuf was able to recruit membership from
numerous unemployed youths, whose situation has made them become dissatisfied with the state.
Late Yusuf also took advantage of the irresponsible leadership of all levels of government,
unemployment, poverty, corruption and insecurity. And as he points out such failures, citing
verses of Quran and the saying of the prophet, the youth see him as the leader that will indeed
deliver them from malevolence to the promises land. Many Nigerians are hungry for progress
and an improvement in their lives, but northern Nigerians feel this need most acutely. Life in
Nigeria for many is tough, but across the North, life is grim. A UN study shows that poverty
inthe 12 most northern states is nearly twice that of the rest of the country. The health indicators
reflect this. Children in the far north are almost four times as likely to be malnourished. Child
mortality is over 200 deaths per 1000 live births, leading to lower life expectancy. Educational
standards are just as bad. Literacy in the far north is 35 percent as opposedto 77 percent in the
rest of the country. Seventy-seven percent of women in the far north have no formal
education,compared to only 17 percent in the rest of the country. In northern Nigeria, primary
school attendance is only 41 percent, while youth unemployment is extremely high. All of this
contributes to joblessness and a deepening cycle of poverty (Carson, 2012). In the same vein,

24

Abdulkarim Mohammed, a researcher on Boko Haram, added that violent uprisings in Nigeria
are ultimately due to "the fallout of frustration with corruption and the attendant social malaise of
poverty and unemployment (Cook, 2011).
The members of the group do not interact with the local Muslim population and have carried out
assassinations in the past of anyone who criticizes it, including Muslim clerics. In a 2009 BBC
interview, Muhammad Yusuf, then leader of the group, rejected scientific explanation for natural
phenomena, such as the sun evaporating water being the cause of rain, Darwinian evolution, and
the Earth being a sphere if it runs contrary to the teachings of Allah". Before his death,
Yusuf reiterated the group's objective of changing the current education system and rejecting
democracy. In the wake of the 2009 crackdown on its members and its subsequent re-emergence,
the growing frequency and geographical range of attacks attributed to Boko Haram have led
some political and religious leaders in the north to the conclusion that the group has now
expanded beyond its original religious composition to include not only Islamic militants, but
criminal elements and disgruntled politicians as well. The group conducted its operations more
or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence. That changed in 2009 when the
Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group's activities following reports that
its members were arming themselves. Prior to that, the government reportedly repeatedly ignored
warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organization, including that of a
military officer. When the government came into action, several members of the group were
arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths
of an estimated 700 people. During the fight with the security forces, Boko Haram fighters
reportedly used fuel-laden motorcycles and bows with poison arrows to attack a police station.
The group's founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was also killed during this time while
25

still in police custody. After Yusuf's killing, a new leader emerged whose identity was not known
at the time. After the killing of
Mohammed Yusuf, the group carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010. It
resulted in the killing of fourpeople. Since then, the violence has only escalated in terms of both
frequency and intensity (Eme&Ibietan, 2012).
Following the death of Yusuf, a man later known as Abubakar Shekau took control of the group.
Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009. By mid-April,
2012, the group was responsible for over 1000 deaths. According to the Borno State Governor
KashimShettima Boko Haram has become a franchise that anyone can buy into. It is something
like a Bermuda Triangle, (Baiyewu, 2013).
The Boko Haram onslaught in the Northern part of the country employs the use of suicide
bombing, outright shooting and abduction in its activities. This has led to loss of many lives and
property.
2.33ACTIVITIES AND ATTACKS OF BOKO HARAMFROM 2009-2014
Ever since 2009, Boko Haram has established a serious security threat in the Northern part of
Nigeria. Its terror war assumed an alarming dimension from 2010 till date. However, until June
16, 2011, the onslaught was restricted to the North East geo-political zone. The first attack
outside the zone was the bombing of the Nigeria Police Headquarters in Abuja. That attack was
triggered off by the utterances of Hafiz Ringim-the then Inspector General of Police who
threatened to smoke Boko Haram out in a press statement on his duty tour to Maiduguri where
the sect launched an attack. The attack on the Police Headquarters was followed up with the
bombing of the United Nation House also in Abuja on August 26, 2011 (Aloejewa 2012:68).
26

Table 2.1 ACTIVITIES AND ATTACKS OF BOKO HARAM. 2009-2014


S/N

DATE YEAR LOCATION

Jun 26-28

2009

ATTACKS

Borno, Bauchi, Yobe, Gombe Kano and Kastina State.

Boko

Haram sectarian violence (Danjibo 2010:7).


2

Sept 7 2010

Bauchi State Prison raid (The Economist, 2010).

Dec 31 2010

F.C.T Abuja Abuja attacks (Chris 2011).

Mar 122011

Assassinated Muslims Cleric Imam Ibrahim Ahmed Abdullahi for

criticizing the violent groups in northeastern Nigeria (BB News, 2009).


5

Apr 22 2011

Adamawa State

Boko Haram freed 14 Prisoners during a jailbreak in

Yola (Voanews, 2012).


6

May 29

2011

Northern Nigeria Bombings (The Guardian, 2009).

Jun 16 2011

F.C.T Abuja

The group claimed responsibility for the bombing of

LoiusEdeth Police Head Quarters (Joe, 2012).


8

Jun 26 2011

Maiduguri State

Bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri,

leaving 25 dead and 12 injured (The Guardian, 2009).


9

Jul 10 2011

Niger State

Bombing at the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja

(African News and Analysis, 2013).


10

Jul 11 2011

Maiduguri State

The University of Maiduguri temporarily closed

down its campus citing security concerns (Nossiter, 2009).

27

11

Aug 122011

Prominent Muslim Cleric LimanBana is shot dead by Boko Haram

(Onuha, 2014:158).
12

Aug 262011

F.C.T Abuja

23 died, 116 other sustained injuries of varying degrees.

The UN building was seriously damaged as well as assets worth millions of dollars wasted
(AdemowoetOjo, 2012).
13

Nov 4 2011

Yobe State.

Attacks occurred in Yobe state police command, several

government buildings and two banks as well as six churches. About 100 people were confirmed
dead (Human Rights Watch, 2011).
14

Dec 25 2011

Niger State.

St. Theresa Madalla Christmas day bombing. 32 were

reported dead that morning. A lot of people were injured; a part of the church building was
destroyed as well as cars of cars of some church members. (Monica, 2011)
15

Jan 5-62012

Gombe State Deeper Life Bible Church. Pastor says 3 people were killed

while 10 were injured (Premium Times, 2012).


16

Jan 20 2012

Kano State.

January 2012 Kano bombing in the northern city of Kano

left at least 185 police and residents dead (Human Rights Watch, 2012).
17

Jan 28 2012

Maiduguri State

Nigerian army said it killed 11 Boko Haram

terrorists (Ibrahim 2012).


18

Feb 8 2012

Kaduna State Boko Haram claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing

at the army headquarters in Kaduna (Jancito, 2012).


19

Feb 16 2012

Kano State.

Another prison break staged in central Nigeria; 119

prisoners are released, one warden killed (Nossiter, 2012)


28

20

Mar 8 2012

Maiduguri State

During a British hostage rescue attempt to free

Italian engineer Franco Lamolinara and Briton Christopher McManus, abducted in 2011 by a
splinter group Boko Haram, both hostages were killed (Jacob, 2013).
21

April 29

2012

Kano State

Members of Boko Haram attacked two lecture

theatres in Bayero University Kano (BUK). 3 professors, a doctor and some other people died
while 23 were injured (Christian, 2012).
22

May 31

2012

Plateau State During a Joint Task Force raid on a Boko Haram

den, it was reported that 5 sect members and a German hostage were killed (The Jamestown
Foundation, 2012).
23

Jun 3 2012

Bauchi State 15 church-goers were killed and several injured in a church

bombing in Bauchi state while 40 were injured. Boko Haram claimed responsibility through
spokesperson Abu Qaqa (Bill, 2012).
24

Jun 17 2012

Kaduna State Three suicide bombers attacked three churches in Kaduna

killing 12 people and wounding about 80 (Bill, 2012)


25

July 5 2012

F.C.T Abuja

A suspected bomb rocked Wuse II shopping mall in Abuja

(Christian, 2012).
26

Sept 16

2012

Bauchi State/ Kano State.

Six were shot dead and nine injured

when gunmen fired a group of Lugo game players. Also a Nigerian security officer and three
members of his family were killed in Kano (Irin News, 2014).

29

27

Sept 17

2012

Bauchi State Nigerian soldiers shot dead Boko Haram spokesman

on the outskirt of Kano. Gunmen kill Borno State commissioner in his hometown of Bama and
also an ex Nigerian prisons chief Azare town in Bauchi state (Irin News, 2014).
28

Oct 2 2012

Adamawa State

Gunmen suspected to be Boko Haram Islamist shot

and slit the throats of 26 people in a student housing area in Mubi town in Adamawa State on
border with Cameroon (Irin News, 2014).
29

Mar 182013

Kano State

A suicide attack at a bus station in Kano kills 41. Boko

Haram also released video showing French family of seven abducted in Cameroon (Irin News,
2014).
30

May 7 2013

Bauchi State Boko Haram launches coordinated attacks in northern town

of Bama against security formations, killing 55 people and freeing 105 inmates (Irin News,
2014)
31

Jul 6

2013

Yobe State

Boko Haram attacks a government secondary school in

Mamudo in Yobe State, killing 41 student and teachers and setting dormitories on fire. (Irin,
News, 2014)
32

Sept 28

2013

Yobe State

Boko Haram gunmen open fire in a dormitory at

college of Agriculture, in the town of Gujba in Yobe State, while students were asleep. Forthy
students were killed (Irin News,2014)
In 2014 alone, there have been 11 attacks carried out by Boko Haram. Check out a timeline of
crime and chaos perpetrated by the terrorist group below

30

33

February 15, 2014: An attack blamed on the extremist sect leaves more than 100 people

dead in the mostly Christian village of Izghe in the north-eastern state of Borno.
34

April 14, 2014: Gunmen kidnap 276 female high school students in Chibok, Borno. Fifty-

seven managed to escape but the rest are still being held. Several foreign countries, including the
United States, have joined forces to try to find the girls.

35

April 14, 2014: A blast at a bus station packed with morning commuters at Nyanya, on

the southern outskirts of Abuja, kills at least 75 people, the most deadly attack to date on the
capital. Boko Haram claims responsibility. On May 1, a car bomb at the same spot kills 19, and
leaves 80 injured.

36

May 5, 2014: At least 300 people are killed in an attack in GamboruNgala, in Borno state

near the border with Cameroon, which totally destroys the town.

37

May 20, 2014: At least 118 are killed and 56 injured in two car bomb attacks on a market

in Jos, central Nigeria, which go off within 20 minutes of each other. The regional governor
blames Boko Haram.

38

June 1, 2014: At least 40 are killed when a bomb explodes at a football stadium in Mubi

in the north-east of the country shortly after a match. The attack is blamed on Boko Haram.

31

39

June 3, 2014: Hundreds are feared dead in a suspected Boko Haram attack on four

villages in Borno state, with local leaders putting the death toll as high as 500.

40

June 17, 2014: 21 football fans are killed when a bomb rips through the viewing centre

where they are watching the World Cup in Damaturu, northern Nigeria.

41

June 24, 2014: Local officials report 30 killed and more than 60 women kidnapped in a

series of attacks over several days in Borno state, although the Nigerian government denies the
abductions.

42

June 25, 2014: At least 21 people are killed and 17 injured in a bombing at a crowded

shopping centre in the center of Abuja. The attack the third on the city in three months is
blamed on Boko Haram.

43

June 29, 2014: Suspected Boko Haram gunmen riding on motorcycles target a number of

churches during Sunday mass, opening fire on worshippers and chasing them into the bush.
Witnesses fear dozens are killed.

32

Source: Nymag.com

2.34 STRUCTURE OF THE TERRORIST SECT

33

Boko Haram does not have an agreeable structure or obvious levels of leadership. Walker
(2012) likewise accepted that the gathering has a phone like structure which is open for factions
and braces and that there is no ensure that somebody representing the gathering is representing
the majority of the parts. Besides, he noted that the gathering is partitioned into three factions
with a fragment bunch known as Ansaru. Bintube (2014) in his statement uncovered that
notwithstanding the 26 sub organizations, there exist the arrangement of the Boko Haram parts
into typology. This typology, they brought up are: The Yusuffiya Boko Haram; MammanNuribomo Haram; Imam Shakkau Boko Haram; group based procured shooters/professional
killer Boko Haram; political Boko Haram; prejihadskiped out Boko Haram. Others, they said, are
Diaspora Boko Haram; equipped burglars Boko Haram; crafty Boko Haram; self-destructive
outsiders Boko Haram; invade Boko Haram; bank thieves Boko Haram and Musa-Fataranboko
Haram;
FollowingBintube (2014) Boko Haram branch in each one ward is called Mujumu'a and
is going by a pioneer called Amir who is saddled with the obligation of social event data relating
to the ward in connection to who exists in which house, including the calling of individual, parts
and general remarks. He passes on these sagacity reports about the ward he is speaking to on a
week by week premise to the Boko Haram Makas. The parts of the gathering call themselves
Yusuffiya, they additionally call themselves Ya'a-na'a. These gatherings of people are effectively
included in Da'awa, interpreted as lecturing. Their clothing regulation includes diverse shade of
turbans: red turban is an evidence of Boko Haram military; dark turban is a sign of Boko Haram
police; white turban is a sign of Boko Haram brainpower officer
Bintube further noted that as a consequence of details and working underground, they
utilize codes to name their exercises. For example, Washangam is a code for a by regional
34

standards made unstable bomb and Tabdir is development code for complex weapon and ad
libbed hazardous gadget (IED). He additionally noted that Hafis is effectively utilized as a part of
this content yet has nothing to do with the idea of Boko Haram. It implies somebody who has
conferred the Qur'an to memory. The gathering additionally has different terms, for example,
Kufar and/or Tboot significance agnostic or icon worshiping.
Notwithstanding this, most parts of Boko Haram have set out on Mubaya, downright
devotion to the will of Boko Haram belief system. Boko Haram parts who performed Mubaya
are those with open responsibility to doing any task given to them. They additionally called
researchers from distinctive grounds Uluma usu'u, which is a term utilized by Boko Haram to
depict pastors who are not in concurrence with their belief system or perspective their activities
and assaults as un- Islamic.
2.35 TACTICAL/OPERATIONAL MOBILITY
The Boko Haram bunch has been known to utilize terrorism style strategy against regular people,
noncombatant or easy objectives in the nation. They likewise routinely assault Nigerian military
and security drive as a method for sending political message to the legislature. From its earliest
reference point in the late 1990s, the group for the most part meant to authorize a strict
manifestation of Shariah law. It started to target Christians at a much later stage, subsequent to
2009. It utilized the Internet to proliferate its exercises and improve its radicalization and course
of fanatic belief systems. The gathering has additionally been accounted for to have been
included in a recruitment drive, and they are professedly focusing on Muslims between ages of
17 and 30, and have likewise been enlisting liberated detainees through jail breaks. The gathering
is likewise known to dole out non-Kanuris on suicide missions. As a feature of its strategies it is

35

additionally referred to for utilizing cruisers as a vehicle for killing government authorities and
security officers. In some different cases Boko Haram use cruiser borne drive-by shootings as an
early fear strategy, took after by progressively advanced and substantial scale IED assaults
(counting vehicle based Ieds and suicide bombings).

The gathering additionally seized for payment albeit a greater amount of the hijacks are
completed by Ansaru the fragment bunch. This has prompted bike boycott in the city of
Maiduguri. Monica (2012) included that in the decade since it initially showed up, Boko Haram
has moved on from unrefined commute by assaults on brewskie parlors to bombarding security
structures in the northern Muslim heartland. Its most nervy assault was focused on the United
Nations assembling in the capital, Abuja, slaughtering 25 in August. As of late, Christian's
establishments had progressively experienced harsh criticism. A Christmas Day bomb assault on
a catholic church just outside the capital asserted very nearly 40 lives.

In March 2012, it was accounted for that Boko Haram had taken a technique to recreate caravans
of prominent Nigerians and to get to target structures that are secured with fortresses. Boko
Haram has additionally supposedly assaulted Christian love focuses to "trigger. backlash in all
parts of the nation", diverting powers so they can unleash assaults somewhere else Officials say
Boko Haram warriors control no less than 10 nearby government region of Borno State and are
utilizing permeable outskirts with Cameroon, Chad and Niger to carry in arms and mount
assaults (Al Jazeera, 2012). Notwithstanding these it has likewise been as of late watched that the

36

gathering has imitated the Al Qaeda twin bomb method in this way taking the spate of savagery
to an altogether new level.
2.36 THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY
The word security generally means protection, safety or freedom from risk, danger and
protection from external attacks. Defining security concept is not a simple thing to do since there
are various understanding of the term and the concept has greatly evolved in time. Security has
different dimensions in psychology, public safety, defense and military matters, and information
access. There are also different levels of security which includes human security, group security,
national security, regional security and global security. The Concept national security has been in
presence all through the historical backdrop of global relations. Richard (2011) prominent that
"the idea created in the United States after World War II and has been a vital piece of U.s.
national security approach making following 1947. As per Brown (1983) the term was utilized
amid exchanges on war, for instance, Walter Lippmann in 1943 censured an unwillingness of
political investigator to examine the establishments of national security in a period of peace
(refered to in Watson, 2008). Notwithstanding, "the soonest specify of the term national security
can be followed to 1790 in Yale University in reference to its connection with local commercial
enterprises" (Prabhakaran, 2008).

Since the origin of national security' in 1947, no acceptable meaning of what constitutes the
idea has risen up out of global statute however there have been meanings of national security
from the conventional military point of view. This point of view is viewed as the realist school.
As indicated by Zabadi (2001) this realist school saw national security from the military point
37

which incorporates military reaction and administration of dangers. "He was of the thought that
national security is seen as the condition of military readiness to safeguard a nation against (to a
great extent) outer dangers." Hans Morgenthau and Walter Lippmann have significantly helped
this school of thought as well and they declare that "national security climbs and fall with the
capacity of a country to dissuade an assault or to thrashing it accordingly seeing national security
as the capacity of a state to secure its center qualities" (Imobige, 1998). All the more
unequivocally Walter Lippmann, in 1943, characterized it regarding war saying that "a country
has security when it doesn't need to yield its authentic diversions to dodge war, and is capable, if
tested, to keep up them by war". Additionally, Maniruzzaman (1982) affirmed that national
security is the "insurance and safeguarding of Minimum center estimations of any country:
political autonomy and regional honesty". The customary thought of national security was tight
so there was a movement to a non-military idea taking after arrangement of changes on the
planet and the global framework.
This new thought of national security includes a wide scope of aspects, all of which encroached
on the non-military or financial security of the country and the qualities embraced by the general
public. It was as a consequence of this that Orwa (1984) characterized National security as "the
insurance of National enthusiasm including National qualities; political and monetary lifestyles
against interior and outer dangers and difficulties." In Harvard University, a teacher of history
Maier (1990) characterized national security through the viewpoint of national force. He saw
National security as "an ability to control those residential and outside conditions that the general
sentiment of a given group accepted was important to appreciate its own particular determination
toward oneself or self-governance, success and wellbeing.

38

Related to this is the announcement of Nwolise who communicated that: Any overall population
that looks to fulfill attractive military security against the establishment of serious sustenance
need, people impact, low level of creation and each capita pay, low imaginative progression,
needing and inefficient open utilities and steady issue of unemployment, has a confused
impression that all is well and great" refered to in (Nwolise, 2008).
He further advised against desperation in a state, as it by and large results to conflict, internal
changes, violence and increasing speed of devotion as we have by virtue of Boko Haram
terrorism in Nigeria. For making social requests, he urged political pioneers to note that without
progression there can be no national security. He accentuated these by communicating that:
In a modernizing society, security infers headway, security is not military gear, be that as it may
it may fuse it; security is not a military vitality, notwithstanding it may incorporate it; security is
not customary military development, on the other hand it may encompass it; security is change,
and without progression there can be no security. A making nation that does not really make
simply can't stay secure for the unshakable reason that its own specific nationals can't shed.
Harold (1983) U.S Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the Carter association
intensified the significance of national security by including parts, for instance, financial and
environmental security:
National security then is the ability to spare the nation's physical respectability and
locale; to keep up its financial relations with the straggling leftovers of the world on sensible
terms; to ensure its propensity, association, and organization from unsettling influence from
outside; and to control its edges.

39

Obasanjo (1999) in his own specific viewpoint envisioned national security to mean "the
aggregate of security eagerness of all individuals, bunches', human and ethnics social events and
entire political substance." From this, we can reason that the insurance of the wellbeing of
Nigerians at home and abroad and end of degradation, Pursuit of progression, headway,
improvement and the change of the welfare and individual fulfillment of every occupant of
Nigeria constitute our national security concern. Obasanjo's definition according to Abolurin
(2010) showed the imperativeness of security to any nation that has the welfare of its subjects as
its essential venture. This records for the inspiration driving why under the widespread law; the
state is stacked with the commitment to serve as the guarantor of human rights since a state
exists fundamentally for the protection of lives and property furthermore ensuring the wellbeing
of the people. Of course, a great part of the time the state defies a couple of challenges in
palatably giving supportable advantages for the security of its kinfolk and these troubles are seen
as national dangers which accomplish insecurity.
National dangers are executed by not just country state on-screen characters additionally
by non- state performers, for example, Drug dealers, terrorist bunches, insurrection bunches,
multinational organizations and non-administrative associations; a few powers incorporate
characteristic calamities and occasions bringing about serious natural harm in this class.
Abolurin, et al(2010) expressed that the Boko Haram bunch known for "bombarding, blast,
executing, damaging, and gigantic demolition" is a danger to Nigeria's national security.Abolurin
et al (2010) went further to express that:
All these dangers as per him constitute dangers to the country's security. Obasi (2010)
additionally raised four critical national security issues in Nigeria that ought to be tended to.

40

A.

The first is the deficiencies of Nigeria's federalism;

B.

Secondly, the disappointment of the foundations of the express that should ensure

security, equity and value;


C.

The third is the emergency of an era of youth growing up to adulthood without being

appropriately taught, utilized and having innovative qualities; and

D.

Finally, the multiplication and accessibility of little arms in contemporary Nigerian

culture that are currently turning the adolescent from the quest for genuine work to militancy
(refered to in Zabadi, 2001:71).

Ojukwu (2011) underlined that "there is a need to plan proper strategic activities to legitimately
address the issues of national security". Subsequently in other to address the issues/dangers to
National security, states in the global framework generally uphold certain measures to ensure
their wellbeing and security. These measures generally incorporated, the utilization of tact to
rally associates and separate dangers, keeping up a monetary force equipped for convincing
collaboration in the global framework, keeping up a decently prepared standing furnished power,
the utilization of brainpower systems to locate and crush or evade dangers and secret activities,
and to ensure grouped data utilizing counterintelligence administrations or mystery police to
shield the country from inner dangers. Notwithstanding this satiates additionally set up a useful
national security committee in their different nations. As per Richard (2011) "the National
41

Security Council lies at the heart of the national security device, being the most noteworthy
coordinative and counseling body inside the Government." In Nigeria the national Security
Council is comprised of the Chief of Defense Staff, the Chiefs of the Army, Air compel and Navy
and the Inspector General of Police and the Director General of the State Security Service.

In synopsis, national security can be seen as the totality of a country's push to protect and
maintain its presence as a state in the worldwide enclosure and it involves measures taken to
ward of security dangers to a country state. As on account of national power, the military part of
security is a vital, however not the sole, segment of national security. To be genuinely secure, a
country needs different types of security, for example, sustenance security, employer stability,
wellbeing security, human security, worldwide security et cetera. Likewise, powers vary in their
decision of national security components what's more the military part of security, different
viewpoints, for example, tact or legislative issues; society; environment; vitality and regular
assets; and financial aspects are regularly recorded.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
There are a great deal of speculations in clash contemplates that can be utilized to clarify the
wonder of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria; however the hypothetical structures that support
this study areLudwig von Bertalanffys Systems Theory and Functionalist hypothesis of clash.
2.37LUDWIG VON BERTALANFFYS SYSTEM THEORY
This study is anchored on the Systems Theory as propounded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating

42

principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of
research.The Systems theory explains the interconnection or nexus between security and
development. Systems theorydefines the regular interaction or interrelation between groups of
activities in the society, as any occurrence in a sector of the society positively or negatively
affects other sectors of the society. The sense of insecurity occurs when there is wanton
destruction of lives and property, incessant armed robbery incidents, increase in kidnapping
resulting in ransom or death, or both, armed insurgency such as the Boko Haram menace etc.
This leads to a saturation of the society with anguish, fear and trepidation. In a society where
insecurity abounds, the pace of development suffers a great setback.
This is because development is a product of several activities in the society. Activities such as
industrialization and technological advancement which accelerate development and the
deployment of funds to development ventures are hampered in a state of insecurity. Sustainable
development can only occur in a reasonably secure and peaceful environment. Industrialization
has to do with serious investments in fixed machinery, labour, intensive capital and
entrepreneurship. Investment, by its very nature, is risky. Insecurity in the system not only
increases the risk, but also discourages prospective investors, increases the cost of doing business
and leads to imminent closure of existing industries.

2.38 FUNCTIONALIST THEORY OF CONFLICT


Functionalism was a human science endeavor to restore social request and steadiness (referred to
in Todd, 2008). It is a macro methodology to concentrating on society; it characterizes society as
an arrangement of interrelated, reliant parts, or subsystems and that for society to work, all parts
43

of the entire must have a general understanding. For instance, they must have imparted qualities
to give societal desires of people.
The hypothesis places that foundations must satisfy essential human needs in other that all
gatherings assume a part in accomplishing steadiness in the general public. Durkheim
comprehends the single person to be a result of social constrains in the earth. Consequently a
change in the conduct of one section influences the others. By this when one piece of the
framework is not meeting expectations or is useless, it influences all different parts and makes
social issues which prompt social change. In nineteenth century Europe, the mechanical
transformation and the French insurgency were changing the social atmosphere. These
progressions were prompting what was seen as a social emergency.
Functionalism has gotten feedback for dismissing the negative capacity of an occasion, for
example, separation. Functionalism has likewise been reprimanded for not swaying individuals
to take dynamic part in changing their social surroundings, actually when such change may
advantage them. Rather functionalism sees dynamic social change as undesirable in light of the
fact that the different parts of society will remunerate characteristically for any issue that may
emerge (refered to in Crossman 2014).
The functionalist hypothesis notwithstanding its feedback has been identified with Boko Haram
uprising in Nigeria in light of the fact that the terrorists called Boko Haram are result of our
social surroundings. Actually Bintube (2014) remarkable that: The annihilation of discriminating
open framework in Nigeria by the Boko Haram was a capacity of disappointment of the structure
of the Nigerian culture as it needs legitimate checking to human direct and checks to its
overabundances.

44

Thus, Wicker (1975) expressed that the Boko Haram marvel is a record of a slaughter that
sensationalized a few shortcoming in the social structure of the general public and the law
authorization specialists specifically (refered to in Bintube, 2014). Moreover, Olomojobi(2012)
exceptional that: It is misdirecting to recommend that the Boko Haram uproar can be seen as just
against bigotry for westernization additionally as saw grievance in appreciation of financial
stagnation, youth unemployment, well known impoverishment and disempowerment.
Nonetheless, it is conceivable to conjecture that the causal connection is because of view of
hardship as far as financial, mental needs and asset control.
In synopsis, it can be derived that some piece of the issue of Boko Haram Terrorism in Northern
Nigeria is as an aftereffect of financial battle brought by preoccupation of assets implied for
people in general, bootleg market and shortage of assets, among others. As indicated by
Dambazau (2007) these has represented the best test to the excellent technique for Nigeria's
national security, the essential target of wish is "to reinforce the Federal Republic of Nigeria, to
propel her advantage and destinations to contain unsteadiness, control wrongdoing, dispense
with defilement enhance the welfare and personal satisfaction of each citizen".

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

45

This chapter takes a glimpse at the system for information gathering for this study and it
includes a few routes, for instance the zone of study, the study populace, information gathering
systems and information examination methods.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study utilized the clear Survey Research Design to survey Terrorism and it Impact for
National Security. Quantitative research technique will be utilized in get-together data in numeric
structure with organized exploration instruments, the research instruments included surveys and
meeting schedule.
3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY
The range of study for this examination will be Borno state. This is on account of Borno state is
one of the significant states Boko Haram applied impact. Additionally this state has the same
trademark with other Northern states influenced by Boko Haram rebellion and they both existed
inside the Northern pivot. In like manner, Borno is collection of all Nigerians that will be
fatalities of the assaults completed by Boko Haram terrorists and such assaults will be decently
arranged, and executed paying little respect to where the terrorists lived.
3.3 RESEARCH POPULATION
The populace contemplated for this exploration included occupants of some influenced zones of
Boko Haram assault in Borno state. It additionally incorporates law requirement operators, for
example, military men, jail officers, cops and state security officers included in the joint
operation in fighting Boko Haram terrorism in the nation. 100 duplicates of survey will be
dispersed to inhabitants of Abuja and Niger state who will be purposively chosen. These polls

46

will be circulated to the examination populace in the accompanying extent: 5 duplicates will be
disseminated to each of the accompanying classifications of respondents: cops at NPF central
station, jail officers, Civil Defense officers and religious pioneers. Also, 10 duplicates will be
conveyed to surviving casualties of Boko Haram assaults and additionally arbitrarily chose
people, and an alternate 10 duplicates will be appropriated to Military faculty at assigned
checkpoints in Abuja city. Notwithstanding this an aggregate of 10 people will be talked with
purposively chosen from among security faculty, the media, scholastics, common society,
religious pioneers and surviving casualties of Boko Haram terrorism.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
Sampling techniques is the method used to choose the specimen size for the examination. It is
the method for picking assigned amounts or extents as representations of the entire populace. In
this study the testing procedure utilized will be Purposive Sampling. The target region will be
chosen at irregular and surveys will be extraordinarily dispersed to the surviving casualties of
Boko Haram assaults (If any is found) , the general masses, security specialists and ministers.

3.5 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

47

The examination instrument for this exploration is a quantitative method using a self-structured
administered questionnaire. The specialist will gather information by utilizing surveys on the
grounds that it is the most proper device for social affair information in Survey research.
Similarly with poll the specialist will solicit arrangement from inquiries, to evoke data
(information) from the respondent on the theme under study. While organizing the inquiries, the
analyst would attempt to dodge twofold barrel, twofold negative or driving inquiries and this
will empower the respondent to give precise and tremendously required answers.
3.6 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES S/ METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
The method of data gathering includes both primary and secondary data gathering methods.
Primary Data
The primary source of data for this project will be was gotten by controlling surveys on
people who has in restricted other seen, heard or experienced damage the exercises of the Boko
Haram revolt. This incorporates contact with persons and faculty, for example, officers and
security specialists in the Nigerian Army, the Nigerian Police Force, and Paramilitary Agencies,
for example, the Nigerian Prison administration and the Nigerian Civil Defense Corps utilizing
the up close and personal regulated style. The inquiries asked by the scientist will be fixed to the
examination issue, exploration inquiries and examination goals. The Questionnaire will be was
partitioned into two segments which incorporates Sections An and B. Segments An arrangements
with demographic qualities of the respondent while area B manages inquiries went for getting the
assessment of the subject concerning the topic. Also the analyst has eye to eye contact with the
respondents. Information gathered with the help of overview survey instruments will be

48

considered as essential information on the grounds that they will be direct information got by the
specialist from individual experience or direct perception.

Secondary Data
The secondary sources of data came from was harvested from learned journal, archival and
library sources, for example, books, daily papers, magazines, diaries, Internet, insight/security
reports and reports of boards and tribunals. This will be was utilized to substantiate the
information accumulated from the essential source. Also, it helped in auditing an inside and out
examination of the topic Boko Haram Terrorism.
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
The method of data analysis and interpretation for this research will be basic rate examination.
Finished surveys will be gathered, coded and dissected utilizing straightforward rate
examination.
3.8 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENTS
To guarantee the legitimacy and unwavering quality of this study , the analyst altogether
examined these instruments by checking on it regarding their clarity, the fittingness of the dialect
and interpretations to the respondents and also the propriety of the directions, and, more essential
the capacity of the instrument to accumulate the fundamental and obliged data. The examination
verified that the surveys will be decently organized; twofold checked pretested and decently
confined polls before they will be dispersed. Additionally the researcher looked for the cooperation of the subjects as their interest will be need in attaining to the exploration object.
49

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 PREAMBLE
This chapter is concerned with presentation of data obtained from the researchers
investigation and the statistically analysis of data so far collected.The questionnaire as a primary
source of data was used to collect the data for testing the basic assumption for the project.
Tabulation and percentage were employed to present the data collected so as to ensure
consciousness completeness and accuracy of information. The items on the questionnaire were
analyzed using basic statistical techniques of percentage i.e.
Format: %=

No of responses

Total no of respondents

X100

4.2PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED


Table 4.1: Distribution of questionnaire according to respondents sampled
50

CLASSES
FREQUENCY
FILLED AND RETURNED
90
NOT RETURNED
10
TOTAL ADMINISTERED
100
Source: Research Survey, 2015

PERCENTAGE
90%
10%
100%

The table above shows that hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed, ninety (90) which
represents ninety percent (90%) were returned while ten(10) questionnaires which represent ten
percent (10%) were not returned
4.3 ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED
Having carefully administered the instrument designed to investigate the problem under
study, a good number of responses were generated. These constituted the data that is hereby
analyzed. This analysis is then followed with an interpretation of the responses and possibly an
explanation for the observation.
SECTION A: BACKGROUNG CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS
Table 4.2: Distribution of respondents by socio-demographic characteristics
QUESTION

RESPONSE

FREEQUENC

PERCENT

Sex

Male

Y
41

45.6%

Female

49

54.4%

Total
Christianity

90
42

100%
46.7%

Islam

46

51.1%

Traditional

2.2%

90
1

100%
1.11%

Religion

Highest

Total
Formal None

51

Educational Attained

Age

Occupation

Common entrance

1.11%

Quranic education

4.44%

WASC/SSCE/GCE

26

2.89%

OND

4.44%

HND

11

12.22%

B.SC/B.A

32

35.56%

M.Sc/M.A.

4.44%

Ph.D.

7.78%

Total
18-29

75
20

100%
22.2%

30-39

19

21.1%

40-49

29

32.2%

50-59

12

13.3%

60 and above

10

11.2%

TOTAL
None

90
2

100%
2.22%

Military

10

11.11%

Para-military

10

11.11%

Police

10

11.11%

Unemployed

3.33%

Self-employed

5.56%

Artisan

0%

Business/trading

2.22%

Civil servant

18

20%

52

Student

20

22.2%

State security serviceman

1.11%

Retired

5.56%

Others
Research survey, 2015

4.44%

Table 4.3 showed all responses gathered from the research population on sociodemographic issues. The table also shows the distribution of the respondents based on their sex,
the table showed that the percentage of male respondent was 54.4 % as against their female
counterpart who constituted 45.6% of the respondent, this distribution effect showed that more
Men were more interested in issues relating to terrorist attacks than Women. In the area of
religion, 51.1% of the respondents were Christians, while 46.7% were Muslims which showed
more Christians were victims of terrorist attacks than Muslims. In the case of age 42.7% of the
respondents fell within the age group of 18-29 which showed that youths In Nigeria suffered
more of the havoc caused by terrorism in the country. Lastly Civilians constitute (54.4%) which
is the highest portion of respondents which showed that the highest targets of terrorist attacks as
the group often use civilians and noncombatants as soft target because of their vulnerable nature.
SECTION B: SIGNIFICANT ISSUES
The significant issues will be represented and addressed in the order which they answered
the research questions.
Table 4.3: Distribution of respondents assessment factors encouraging the existence of
Terrorism
QUESTION

RESPONS

FREQUENC

PERCENTAGE
53

E
Political

Y
37

41.1%

Selfish

20

22.2%

Economic

18

20%

resources

15

16.7%

No answer
Do you agree that terrorism has political Yes

67

74.4%

support??

20

22.2%

No answer
Do you agree that bad governance motivates Yes

3
77

3.3%
85.6%

terrorist attacks?

13

14.4%

No answer
Do you agree that the high rate of illiteracy in Yes

0
60

0%
66.7%

northern

23

25.6%

Terrorism?
No answer
Do you agree that poverty in northern Nigeria Yes

7
65

7.8%
72.2%

has encouraged the growth of terrorism in the No

22

24.4%

country?

3.3%

71

78.9%

What is the main cause of Terrorism?

interest

Communica
tion
breakdown
others

No

Nigeria

No

assisted

the

rise

of No

No answer

Do you agree that porous borders is one of the SA

54

factor responsible for terrorism in Nigeria


A

10

11.1%

SD

10%

Research survey, 2015


The table above showed the responses of individual as regards the main cause of
Terrorism. The table showed that (41.1%) of the respondent indicated that Terrorism is caused
by political related issues while (22.2%) were of the opinion that Terrorism is caused by selfish
interest. Also (20%) believed that Terrorism is more of dispute caused by economic resources
while (16.7%) respondents believed terrorism is caused by communication breakdown.
In another direction (74.4%) respondent opined that Terrorism has political support while
(22.2%) respondents posited that there is no nexus between terrorism and political support, 3.3%
didnt answer.
Furthermore, (85.6%) of the respondents believed that bad governance motivates terrorist
attacks while (14.4%) stated that bad governance doesnt motivate terrorist attacks. Furthermore,
(66.7%) agreed that the high rate of illiteracy in northern Nigeria assisted the rise of Terrorism
(25.6%) disagreed.
In like manner, (72.2%) opined that poverty in northern Nigeria has encouraged the
growth of terrorism in the country while (24.4%) disagreed.
Conclusively, 78.9% of the respondent strongly agreed that porous borders is one of the
factor responsible for terrorism in Nigeria while 10& agreed, 9% strongly disagreed.
From the response of the respondents, it could be deduced that:
55

1. The main cause of terrorism is more of political than selfish interest, economic resources
or communication breakdown.
2. Terrorism has political support whether remotely, financially or morally.
3.

Bad governance has a part to play in the emergence of Terrorism in the country

4.

Ignorance and illiteracy has contributed greatly to the growth of Terrorism in Nigeria

5. Weak border is one of the factors responsible for Terrorism in Nigeria.


Table 4.4: Distribution of respondent assessment for effectiveness of government and other
stakeholders response
QUESTION
RESPONSE
How can you access the intervention Very strong

FREQUENCY
57

PERCENTAGE
63.3%

strategies by the security forces to put an Weak

30

33,3%

end to terrorism in the north?


Very weak
Do victims of terrorist attacks get any Yes

3
59

3.3%
65.6%

form of support from government No

30

33.3%

support to alleviate the effect of the No answer

1.1%

attacks?
If yes please mention

49

83.1%

10

16.9%

None
Do you think the law enforcement Yes

69

76.7%

agencies have been well equipped for No

20

22.2%

Monetary support,
Medical support and
Security,
Prayers

56

the challenges of controlling Terrorism? No answer


What is the level of police/public Good

1
3

1.1%
72.2%

response

monitoring poor

65

3.3%

Terrorism activities in the country?


Fair
Do you think media response to Yes

22
63

24.4%
70%

terrorism attacks have been effective?

13

14.4%

No answer
14
Creating awareness 63

15.6%
100%

as

regards

If yes what impacts?

No

about religion,
Speaking out against
Terrorism

Research survey, 2015


The table above showed the responses of individual as regards efforts made by the
government and other stake holders in solving the problem of Terrorism. The table showed that
(63.3.3%) of the respondent were of the opinion that intervention strategies put in place by
security forces to end terrorism in the north is very strong. While (33.3%) of the respondents
were of the opinion intervention strategies put in place by security forces to end terrorism in the
north is week, (3.3%) posited that the intervention strategies are very weak. (65.6%) of the
respondents confirmed that they get support from the government and other stake holders after
Terrorist attacks to help them while (33.3%) of the respondents say they dont. Thosesupports
include monetary, medical, security support and prayers. (76.7%) of the respondents believed
that law enforcement agencies are well equipped for the challenges of controlling Terrorism
while (22.2%) of the respondents thought they were not. Also (3.3%) of the respondent thought
57

the level of police-public response in monitoring Terrorist activities in the country is very poor
(72.2%) think it is good while (24.4%) it is fair. (64%) of the respondents thought media
response to terrorist attacks have been effective while (17.3%) thought it is not. Lastly, (70%) of
the respondents believed that religious institutions are making remarkable efforts to end
Terrorism by creating awareness about religion, prayer for the end of Terrorism, and speaking out
against it.
From the above table it can be dedued that:
1. The security forces had put in place extraordinary intervention strategies to end terrorism
in the north.
2. Victims of Terrorist attacks got support from government and other stakeholders to
alleviate the attacks.
3. The law enforcement agencies were well equipped for the challenges of controlling
terrorist attacks.
4. The level of police/public activities has been effective and has also helped in creating
awareness about the dangers of terrorism as well as bringing support to the victims.
5. Religious institution are making remarkable efforts to end terrorism by creating
awareness about Islam that it is a religion of peace, saying prayer to facilitate the end of
Terrorism in Nigeria, and speaking out against it.
Table 4.5: The distribution of respondent assessment for the influence of international
terrorist groups on Nigerias terrorist group (Boko Haram)
QUESTION

RESPONSE

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE
58

Do you think Terrorism have links with some Yes

72

80%

external groups?

No

12

13.3%

If yes please mention

No answer
ISIS

6
63

6.7%
70%

Al Quaeda

26

28.9%

2
88

2.2%
97.8%

2.2%

Al Shabab
What form of support do you think Terrorism Financial ,
members get from these groups?

Logistics
and
Ideology
No answer

Research survey, 2015


The above table showed the response of individuals as regards the response of external
terrorist group on Nigerian terrorism. (80%) of the respondent agreed that Boko get support from
external terrorist group while (13.3%) disagreed. (70%) of the respondents believed that
Nigerias terrorists Boko haram has established links with ISIS, (28.9%) of the respondent
believe that Boko Haram had established links with Al Quedawhile (8%) of the respondent think
Boko Haram had established withal Shabab. Also (77.8%) of the respondents believed that Boko
Haram got Financial, Logistic and ideological from Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups they
engage with.From this it can be deduced that:
1. Boko Haram has been motivated or influenced by international terrorist group
2. Boko Haram has links with ISIS, Al Qaeda and Al Shabab.

59

3. Boko Haram gets Financial, Logistic and ideological support from Al Qaeda and other
terrorist groups outside Nigeria.
Table 4.6:The distribution of respondent assessment for theeffects of terrorism for
Nigerias national security
QUESTION
What are the effects of been a victim?

RESPONSE
Psychological

Pain

FREQUENCY
and 87

PERCENTAGE
96.7%

Trauma,
Loss of life andproperty
Wounds/high degree burns,
No answer

3.3%

89

98.9%

1.1%

No answer
Do you think the economic situation in Yes

78

86.7%

North Eastern Nigeria is worse than the No

8.9%

rest of the country?


No answer
Do you think terrorism has affected Yes

4
86

4.4%
95.6%

inter-personal

2.2%

No answer
Labeling

2
81

2.2%
90%

Distrust

10%

What do you think are the general Insecurity, Tension, Fear,


effects on the society?

Reduction in economic and


social activities.

Nigerians?
If Yes How?

relationship

among No

60

What do you think are the specific Women and children became 89

98.9%

effects terrorist attacks have on the poor ,Women Become bread


social economic life of women and winners,
children?

Women became widows,


Children become orphans,
children are used as child
soldiers,

Women

and

children became internally 1

1.1%

displaced and in some case


became refugees
No answer
Does terrorism have any significant Yes

12

13.3%

effect on western education?

78

86.7%

No

Research survey, 2015


The table above showed the responses of respondent as regards effects and implications
of Boko Haram terrorism for Nigeria. The table showed that (96.7%) of the respondent agreed
that effects of Boko Haram attacks on victims included Psychological Pain and Trauma, Loss of
life and property, Wounds/high degree burns. Also the table showed that (98.9) of the respondent
agreed that the general effect of Boko Haram on the society includes insecurity, tension, fear,
reduction in economic and social activities. In addition the table revealed that (86.7%) of the
respondents also believed that the economic life in Northern Nigeria presently is worse than the
rest of the country while (8.9%) of the respondents are saying it is not. (95.6%) of the respondent
also believed that Boko Haram affected inter-personal relationship among Nigerians while
61

(2.2%) of the respondents said it does not. (90%) of the respondent that said yes claimed that
Boko Haram had encouraged labeling among Nigerians while (9%) of the respondent were
saying BokoHaram encouraged distrust. (98.9%) believed that Boko had affected the socioeconomic life of women and children by making women and children poor, by making women
become the bread winners of their families after the death of their husbands, by making a lot of
women widows, by making children orphans, by using children as child soldiers and lastly by
making women and children internally displaced and in some case refugees. Lastly (13.3%) of
the respondents agreed that terrorism had a significant effect on western education while (86.7)
of the respondents disagree to this.
From the above table it was deduced that:
1. The economic situation in the North is extremely worse than the rest of the country.
2. The effects of been a victim of terrorist attacks arepsychological Pain and Trauma, Loss
of life and property, Wounds/high degree burns,
3. The general effects of terrorist attacks on the society included insecurity, tension and fear,
reduction in economic activities, and reduction in social activities.
4. Terrorism affects inter-personal relationship among Nigeria
5. Terrorism had cause labeling and distrust among Nigerians
6. Also, terrorism had affected the socio- economic life of women and children women and
children by making women and children poor, by making women become the bread
winners of their families after the death of their husbands, by making a lot of women

62

widows, by making children orphans, by using children as child soldiers and lastly by
making women and children internally displaced and in some case refugees.
7. Boko Haram had no significant or important effect on western education.
4.4 DISSUSSION OF FINDINGS
1. ELEMENTS THAT LED TO THE GROWTH OF TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
A few components have been recognized as central point empowering the presence of Boko
Haram terrorism in Nigeria by this examination and they include:
Political issues as an element empowering Boko Haram
One of the significant finishes of this examination is that political element assumes a
discriminating part in the rise of Boko in Nigeria. (41.1%) of my respondents in poll concurred
that Boko Haram was a political battle owing to the way that individuals from the Boko Haram
gathering needed the Islamization of Nigeria, the entrenchment of Sharia law and the
development of a Muslim president who is from northern extraction.
Additionally this contention is generally bolstered by the implication that Boko Haram
individuals are acting the scripts of some political tip top. This can't likewise be led especially
when you take a gander at how they are bolstered ideologically, fiscally logistically in the North
and by a few contacts with people and gathering outside Nigeria. Boko Haram had asserted they
needed energy to go toward the north. The way that President Jonathan a southerner is in charge
of undertakings in Nigeria is additionally a significant wellspring of contention. This is apparent
in 2009 when force moved from the North to South after the passing of President Musa Yar'
Adua which achieved religious emergency.
63

Religious philosophy as a persuading element for Boko Haram


As indicated by the field meeting led, the vast majority of the respondents of the
respondents accepted that Boko Haram was not a religious issue and had nothing to do with
Islam. Notwithstanding they accepted that the Boko Haram issue had some ideological
undercurrent which can't be stick pointed in light of the fact that researchers and Islamic
educators had disavowed these agitators expressing that they were not so much proliferating the
Islamic reason. Truly they asserted that Islam is an encapsulation of peace and of reason different
prophets amid the Quranic period were prophet of peace aside from in events when they needed
to participate in Islamic extension and Jihad.
This uncovered that the Boko Haram gathering had a different ideological theory which is
at change with essential Islamic religion. Pioneers of Boko Haram had openly pronounced that
they were restricted to westernization, Christian thoughts, and western instruction which
nullified the teachings of Holy prophet Muhammad in the Quran who directed all his adherents
to go and look for learning regardless of the fact that it implied going to China on the grounds
that to them China was then the most distant spot known to them. So for somebody now saying
western learning is "Haram" is not genuine and it doesn't acclimate with the teachings of Islam.
Additionally the Islamic religion which they claim is controlling them disallows anybody to
confer suicide talk less of taking the life of someone else. They say training is haram yet just
instructed individuals can make refined weapons, for example,

bombs and extemporized

unstable gadgets (IED) which demonstrated that they themselves had western instruction and are
just been naughty.
Bad Government as an element empowering Boko Haram

64

In the field study channeled (85.6%) of the respondents affirmed that Government as an
element had been faulted both at the national, elected and state level to have fizzled in the social
contract and obligation regarding a long while thus the north has been abandoned in the
formative procedure. This does not so much imply that there is undue or quickened advancement
over the south however the certainty remains that the north has been poor socially and
monetarily and government had neglected to address these issues through long haul arrangement
reactions and these entangled the issue. It was firmly accepted that the reasons for Terrorism in
Nigeria is identified with joblessness, neediness, treachery, coupled with general feeling of
misery that made the jobless adolescents to grasp conflict of civilization because of the rising
ideological convictions of Salapism, Wahabism and Ibnthaimyya precept (Bintube, 2014: 275).
Others incorporate social disparity, political underestimation, financial disregard and so on. To
likewise bolster this is the contention of Danjibo (2010:16) who expressed that: Maybe the most
suitable clarification for the repetitive savagery, including religious and partisan brutality, is the
disappointment of great administration in Nigeria." He further noticed that amid the "Boko
Haram" emergency, Aljazeera made a noteworthy investigation about the circumstance in
Nigeria; a nation that is the fifth biggest maker of oil on the planet however where the
unfathomable main part of the populace live beneath the destitution line of 1$ a day.

Likewise Charles Soludo the previous Central Bank Governor expressed that "Northern Nigeria
is the most exceedingly bad hit by destitution." His measurements demonstrated that the NorthCentral recorded 67%; the North-West recorded 71.1% and the North-East recorded 72.2% of
individuals living beneath the neediness line".

65

Lack of education/obliviousness
The field review directed uncovered that ignorance and obliviousness have a colossal part to play
in promising the development of Boko Haram in Nigeria. This is the place the Almajiri
framework comes in. As indicated by Galtimari (2011) Almajiri were utilized as standard
organizers to touch off and manage emergencies in Borno (refered to in Bintube). The Almajiri
framework is not Islamic however more like subjugation. A dominant part of the Almajiri young
men are not instructed both in western and Islamic ways yet they remember the Quran by heart
however they do no truly comprehend what it implies and as a rule this young men got to be
devices of pulverization in the hands of their Mallams or Islamic researchers as alluded to in
English. Lack of education made a road whereby semi Islamic researchers swindle youngsters to
submit un Godly acts while mis-citing certain verses of the Holy Quran. Also, on the grounds
that these young men are nourished and prepared by these Mallam they are easygoing to them
and they can be effectively convinced to execute for the sake of Allah promising them that they
would go to paradise a short time later.
As indicated by the respondents the most well-known of such verses is the particular case that
says battle in the reason for Islam and while that verse just expressed that a Muslim who is been
sought after amid the reason for his obligation ought to rushed to a position of wellbeing and in
the event that he is been sought after to peril he ought to battle back until the foe surrenders and
that if the foe surrenders, he ought to quit battling them in light of the fact that God does not care
for the assailant and he doesn't care for the transgressor too.
To bolster this is the contention of Danjibo (2010:8) who noticed that in northern Nigeria
there is a refinement between "Makarantanboko" (schools giving "Western" instruction) and

66

"makarantanaddini" (schools for religious guideline) or "makaranthanallo" (school of the slate,


comprehended to be Koranic schools). This as indicated by him represents the "Almanjeri
disorder" (male understudies/ understudies learning Koran) to the degree that students who go to
schools for western instruction are treated with hatred and criticism. Actually Danjibo said that a
prominent Hausa melody that infested Northern Nigeria, and regularly sang by Almajirai, goes
like this: Yan makarantaboko, Ba karatu, baSallah, Saiyawanzaginmallam. The melody interprets
as: Students of western schools, you don't learn or read the Qur'an, spare ceaseless misuse of
your instructor.
Danjibo further noticed that a decent number of these youngsters in Almajiri School
originated from rich homes yet are subjected to the homeless person lifestyle, i.e. getting by
asking. A talked individual of the National Agency for the Prohibition for People Trafficking
said, these youngsters are defenseless against a wide range of social issues, misuse, and
roughness. They can be carefully selected for any bad habit that grown-up need to utilize them
for (refered to in Benjamin, 2012). The adolescent weakness is executed now and again by tricky
mallams (Islamic teachers), who have turned into the main wellspring of instruction for some
almajiri a result of complex recorded methodology (refered to in Benjamin 2012).

Porous borders as a factor for Boko Haram


(78.9%) of the respondent in the field survey conducted proved large proportion Boko
Haram members were drawn from aliens who successful crossed the borders of Borno state and
found refuge there. In Nigeria, the number of illegal routes surpasses the legal routes and also the
67

security at the legal routes are not entirely effective because the borders are poorly manned and
managed hence this had facilitated the influx of illegal alien, arms and ammunitions into the
country. Also there is access to explosives material as a result of inadequate control it.
These findings had shown that poorly manned borders were another security challenge facing
law enforcement agents. The findings had been supported by the work of Kura (2011) who noted
that Gamboru- NgalaBanki and Jibe borders facilitated the influx of illegal aliens with attendant
inflow of arms and ammunition into the country (cited in Bintube 2014:169).
2. THE

EFFECTIVNESS

OF

GOVERNMENT

RESPONSE

AND

MAJOR

STAKEHOLDERS
The effectiveness of government response
(63.3%) of the respondent in the field survey conducted believed that the Nigeria
government is showing remarkable effort to end the problem of Terrorism in the country. This is
evident in the number of strategies that had been enforced to tackle the problem of Terrorism in
the country. Some of the strategies that had been applied by the Nigerian government in curbing
the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria from 2009-2013 include: Banning of Boko Haram
The federal government on June 4 2013 proscribed two terrorist groups unleashing
mayhem, on the polity describing their activities as illegal and acts of terrorism. The outlawed
groups were JamatuAhlis- SunnaLiddawatiWal Jihad otherwise known as Boko Haram and the
Jama atuAnsaruMuslimina Fi Biladis Sudan also known as Ansaru. In proscribing the sects,
president Good-luck Jonathan authorized the gazetting of an order declaring their activities
illegal and as an actof terrorism (Vanguard, 2013).

68

The Declaration of state of emergency


According to Ajayi (2013) on Tuesday May 14 2013, president Good-luck declared a
state of emergency on Adamawa, Yobe and Borno state in a bid to fight the activities of Boko
Haram. He ordered the Nigerian Armed Forces to the three areas around Lake Chad in exercise
of power conferred on him by the provision of section 305: (3 (c) (d) (f) Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, as amended which states that:
The President shall have power to issue a state of emergency only when,
there is actual breakdown of public order and public safety in the federation
or any part to require extraordinary measures to restore peace and security
measures to advert such danger (Ajayi, 2013).
By this declaration, the president ordered the security agencies to take all necessary
actions and measures to an end to the impunity going in such states. He also granted them the
authority to arrest and detain suspected members of Boko haram group.
Policing of the Nations boarder in the north eastern states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa
Members off the Nigerian senate, Sen. Domingo Obende, in Geneva, Switzerland called
for effective measures in policing the Nigerian borders. Obende (APC-Edo) made the call at an
interactive session with newsmen at the conference in Geneva (Leadership, 2014). To this effect
the Nigerian government hadopened 30 new border posts mainly in the crisis torn North-East
region. The 30 new posts are expected to beef up the 83 existing ones and enhance the nations
overall security (The citizen, 2014).
Inter-agency collaboration

69

Therehave been remarkable inter-agency collaboration among security agencies such as


StateSecurity Service, Nigerian Army, Nigerian Air force, Nigerian Police, Defence Intelligence
Agency, Nigerian Intelligence Agency, and Directorate of military intelligence as regard finding
lasting solutions to Terrorism. Chief of Army staff, Lt. Gen AzubuikeIhejirika, had said:
The inter-agency collaboration helped security agencies to foil a terror
attack in the country recently (Adepegba, 2012).
Support given to victims
In the field survey conducted (78%) of the respondents agreed that victims of Boko
Haram attacks got support from government and other non-state stake holders to alleviate the
effects of the attack. Such support included monetary donations from state and federal
government, good willed Nigerians, NGOs etc. They also added that they get medical and
security support as well.

Some of the agencies mentioned include Nigerian Police force,

Nigerian Civil Defence corps, NEMA, Delta, state government, Enugu state government, Niger
state general Hospital, Abuja general hospital etc.
The effectiveness of security agencies in controlling Boko Haram
The field survey also showed that (76.7%) of the respondentobserved that security agents
are well equipped for the challenges of controlling Boko Haram in the country. The problem
however, is that there is no political will on the Part of government. Part of the findings also
showed that the motivations of security agencies were not encouraging. Galtimari (2011)
observed that the general lack of effective and co-ordinated intelligence gathering and sharing
and its deployment to forestall events which undesirable consequences were another challenge

70

facing the security apparatus. He also stressed that government inability to create the statutory
national security institution as another problem.
The level of police-public response in monitoring Boko Haram activities
The field survey revealed that (72.2%) of the respondent agreed that the level of policepublic relationship as regards monitoring Boko Haram activities in the country is very poor. Part
of the observation was also that there is lack of adequate protection for citizens who are willing
to give useful information to security agencies. According to Bintube (2014) oneof the
challenges security agencies facedwas the inability of key stakeholders especially the imams,
clerics, leaders of thought, elders and affected persons to give information to law enforcement
agencies for fear of reprisal attack. Also in page (182) Bintube noted that it was evident when
Boko Haram embarked on silent attacks and assassinations of ward and district heads.
Furthermore Bintube noted that some Boko Haram members declared the spilling of blood of
anyone who tries to stop them from declaring war on the society which according to them was
legitimate and they would leave no stone unturned in their fight to achieve their goal.
Media response to Terrorism
The findings revealed that that media response to Terrorism had been effective owing to
the fact that it helps in creating awareness about Boko Haram attacks, danger zones as well as
dissemination of useful information to security and humanitarian agencies to help bringing
support to victims of Boko Haram.

71

The response of clerics and religious institutions


Findings also revealed that clerics and religious institutions are doing all within their
power to end the problem of Boko Haram in their own little capacity. Findings also revealed that
clerics have embarked on awareness programmes to enlighten people that Islam is a religion of
peace. Also these clerics hold prayer sessions for Nigeria against Boko Haram.
THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPS ON TERRORISM
International terrorist group to a large extent had a huge influence on Boko Haram.
According to one of myrespondents:
You would know that Boko Haram has links with international terrorist
group with their mode of attacks. They seemed to have adopted the Al
Qaeda twin bombing style for example they detonate a bomb then few
seconds when sympathizers gather round they will detonate the second one.
Then another thing is for them to be able to operate in Nigeria and then run
to another country to seek refuge. Then it means that they have support of
some individuals in that country for them to be able to side them
(Dr.Lawal).
Another reason to show that international terrorist groups have influence on Boko Haram is that
they have very strong financial backing and weaponry.To support this is the argument of Monika
(2012) who mentioned that that Abu Qaqa the spokesman for the group in the first major
interview with a western newspaper, said:

72

The group's members were spiritual followers of al-Qaida, and claimed they
had met senior figures in the network founded by Osama bin Laden during
visits to Saudia Arabia.
In addition the case of Boko Haram Operation Sawdust carried out in 2005 by the military and
the police

which covered Borno, Bauchi and Yobe State and led to the arrest of some

fundamentalists whose activities posed a threat to the security of the Nigerian state proved that
Boko Haram had been influenced by international terrorist groups. Among those arrested were
Yusuf Mohammed the leader of the Boko haram sect, a certain Bello Maiduga and Ashafa. This
arrest provided the first fact of the links between the fundamentalists and the Alqueda terrorist
group. The Three arrested revealed they had been trained in the act of terrorism in Afghanistan,
Lebanon, Pakistan and Iraq. Items recovered during the operation included maps and diagrams of
the government establishments and of some specific buildings in Abuja (Danjibo, 2010: 15).
Also Danjibo (2010: 10) noted that a certain AbdulrasheedAbdullahi confessed to the police that
he and another members of the group were sent to Afganistan to train in the art of Bomb and
explosive making devices (This Day, Thursday, September 3, 2009, p.1) which leaves the
impression that the sect had been receiving financial and military support from foreign countries
and other terrorist groups.
3. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TERRORISM FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
The general effects of Boko Haram on the society
Economic effect:All activities of the Nigerian people were affected by Terrorism. For
instance economic activities in the north has paralysed and traders from the south and west no
longer go to the north for economic activities because the last set of people that went from
73

Ibadan were all massacred and killed. This has made economic activities to stand still. There are
no exchange of goods and services across the states. Also the insurgencies of Boko Haram have
reduced drastically; government derivation from the affected region due to restiveness in those
places as well as reduced investment and growth of business in the affected places without
excluding government executed project. No wonder 2011 World Investment Report of the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development reported that lull in business activities caused by
insecurity in Kano State alone has cost the Nigerian economy N1.3trillion ($6 billion) as a result
of attacks by the Boko Haram group. It was further reported that the report monitored on the
Voice of America (VoA) also shown that Centre for Research and Documentation in Kano
attributed the development to a drop in earnings for nearly all businesses in the state (Leadership
Newspaper: 2012). In like manner, interstate borders are also affected. Farmers are no longer
safe to plant in the farm because of Boko Haram members whom they claimed come under the
disguise of herds men to disturb them. According to the field survey carried out (86.7%) of the
respondent agreed that the economic effects in the North is worse than the rest of the county.
Insecurity: The situation of insecurity arising from the fear of Boko Haram is very high in
the country. The situation is so bad that people no longer even attend social functions such as
going to church/mosque, market, parties, business meetings, work, going to the hospital, school
and so on. The entire life of the nation is being negatively affected the in areas such as human
security, health security, job security, health security, national security.

As part of the

implications, a lot of children had been forced out of schools. In a survey carried out by
(Bintube, 2014: 192) as many as 60,000 children equivalent to (47%) of primary school
enrolment were pushed out of schools as a result of Boko Haram activities in Borno state.

74

The effect of Boko Haram on Western Education: Surprisingly a vast majority of the
respondent emphasized that it had no negative effect on western education because there has
been no policy statement to end western education in Nigeria or the stoppage of educational
activities instead you would hear of state government campaign for free education for all. A vast
majority of the respondents claimed that instead Boko Haram had a positive effect on education
because it had encouraged Muslim clerics and religious institutions to start educating people that
Islam is a religion of peaceand that acquiring western knowledge is good and not Haram as
claimed by Boko Haram members.

Inter-personal relationship among Nigerians: In the field survey conducted (95.6%) of


the respondent revealed that Boko Haram affected inter-personal relations among people of
diverse culture in the country. They added that Boko Haram had caused stereotyping and distrust
among Nigerians and that in most situations an average Nigerian from Born is often seen as a
Boko Haram member.
SPECIFIC EFFECT OF BOKO HARAM ON VICTIMS
Psychological effect: The field survey showed that (98.9%) of the respondent noted that
Boko caused psychological and traumatic experience to the victims. To support this Medical and
Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (2011) disclosed that Boko Haram activities in the
north have increased trauma cases in Nigerian hospitals (cited in in Bintube, 2014). Also Bala
(2011) pointed out that:

75

Most patients attended to at various hospitals in Borno State reported cases


which were merely psychological than physical, and was largely due to
trauma associated with hearing sounds of gunshots and bomb blast in their
neighborhood, loss of close family members, friends and relations (cited in
Bintube, 2014:147).
Death/ Colossal Damages: Findings of the research showed that part of the effects of
been a victim of Boko Haram included death/mass killing of individuals, family members,
relatives, colleagues, friends etc. as well as damages to properties, building, cars and so on. In St.
Theresas Catholic Church Madalla in Niger State for instance a part of the church was
destroyed, the church fence as well as the church Book Shop was destroyed. Also a total of 26
parishioners were accounted dead.
Effect of Boko Haram on the socioeconomic life of Women and Children:The
findings of the research showed that Boko Haram had affected the socio- economic lives of
women and children.Findings from the research showed that a lot of women became widows as a
result of Boko Haram attack. These women also became bread winners of their families as a
result of Boko Haram attacks. The findings also revealed that a lot of children became orphans
and that a lot of childrenwere used as child soldiers. Similarly, findings further revealed that a lot
of women and children became internally displaced and in some case refugees as a result of
Boko Haram attacks.

76

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY

OF

FINDINGS,

DISSUCSSION,

CONCLUSION

AND

RECOMMENDATION
5.1

SUMMARY
No nation can afford to treat with levity the security of its territorial integrity and of its

people. Indeed every aspect of human endeavors, be it health, environmental, food, economy,
political, social and physiological and so on, stands to be greatlyaffected by the state of security
or insecurity of a nation. It is no longer news that in recent time; Nigeria has beenbogged down
with challenging security issues championed by the Boko Haram terrorist acts. Terrorism and
insecurity,especially internal insecurity is not a problem that is unique to Nigeria. The United
states, the United kingdom and many other countries, facethe challenges of insecurity within
their borders on a daily basis (Adejumo, 2012). The difference between those countries
andNigeria is how they manage the threats; how knowledgeable and prepared they are; how they
deploy resources againstthe threats; how effective they are; how patriotic and united these people
are against threats of insecurity..
Consequently, government at all levels would need to ensure security of lives
andproperties of their various citizens in order to create the necessary enabling environment for
investment and industrial growth. Insecurity is inimical to industrialization. A lot of security
challenges such as armed robbery, assassination, kidnapping, which has createdpalpable fear and

77

grave sense of insecurity in the polity and undermines the countrys growth and development, all
these crisis and security threats shouldbe tackled with all seriousness by the government.
Security agencies must be empowered, motivated and adequatelymobilized to combat criminality
and insecurity to the barest minimum. Also, effective legislation that will adequately
punishoffenders and deter potential criminals must be put in place. A situation where criminals
are offered amnesty and put onbumper payroll will not only undermine state security, but also
encourage more people to take into criminality with theexpectation of amnesty and consequent
monthly wages from the government, just for being repentant criminals. Anexample of this is the
Niger Delta Amnesty Programme and the offer of amnesty to the various terrorists and insurgents
group in Nigeria especially the northern area.
5.2 CONCLUSION
From the study it is evident that Terrorism has been recognized as a threat to Nigerian
National security, and in addition political and financial dependability in the nation. This is on
the grounds that it has not been appropriately overseen by the Nigerian government and this has
to a substantial degree demoralized outside financial specialists from connecting with the nation.
The examination has found that terrorist revolt has turned into an obstinate clash in
Nigeria and that if the main drivers of the rebellion are not legitimately tended to it has the
potential for National breaking down and withdrawal. Along these lines, to guarantee managed
peace, national security and political dependability in the nation, government ought to set out on
amazing method including political structural, monetary established and worldwide ways to deal
with location the main perpetrators of Terrorism in the nation.

78

Besides the legislature ought to leave on brain transformation which addresses the
psyches of terrorists and potential guerillas which incorporates any young especially from the
north through quality ideological introduction. Additionally group policing ought to be set out
upon as honed ahead of time nations of the world. This would to an extensive degree address the
smilingly aloof reactions of the masses. This would likewise empower them to take part in
dynamic organization with government and significant partners in the nation.
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
The researcher has critically examined the assessment of respondents in accordance with
the objective of the research bearing in mind the research problems. Based on the findings the
researcher recommends as follows:
1. Youth unemployment: The evil of youth unemployment should be seriously looked into by
the government. Employment generation for the teeming population should be more aggressively
pursued as a matter of priority by government at all levels. If more youths are employed, it
automatically depletes the army of youths available for recruitment into various criminal
activities. From all indications, the reduction of youth unemployment will translate into
reduction in crime, and engender sustainable national development. The youths are an important
part of the society, who should be encouraged to channel their energies to national development
by being positively engaged in the system, and discouraged from activities that could be
detrimental to the growth of the country. Therefore, every action taking towards youth
employment is an action towards crime reduction as well as promoting national development.
2. Corruption:Government at all levels must eschew corruption in the fight against terrorism
and insecurity. The Billions of Naira voted for security both at State and Federal levels for
79

inexplicable reasons are not made available to combat these problems. Meanwhile citizens
continue to pay their taxes and fulfilled other obligations to the Government of the day amid this
state of insecurity, fear and siege (Oshio, 2009). There must be sincerity on the part of
government functionaries to ensure judicious use of funds meant for security of lives and
property.
3. Poverty alleviation: Government should embark on veritable poverty alleviation programs
that will impact positively on the lives of the people. The physical, social and psychological
quality of life of a society and its members both in domestic setting and within the larger regional
and global system will give the citizens a deeper sense of patriotism. Accordingly, national
security policy must include the capacity to provide the citizens with social, economic and
political conditions conducive to happiness and relative prosperity. Thus, tranquility and wellbeing of a society are necessary components of national security.
4. Development of long haul political monetary and security approaches: It was watched that
the variables empowering Terrorism rebellion in Nigeria included governmental issues, terrible
administration, lack of education and frail fringes. It is consequently suggested that Terrorism
can be gotten to end Nigeria if the Nigerian government set out on solid strategy explanation on
security, constructing a solid knowledge drive and applying a long haul approach articulation to
address destitution and frailty in Nigeria. Such approaches ought to contribute all the more on
human improvement, instruction, medicinal services, nature and also regions that would prompt
occupation creation.
5. Motivations: Security operators ought to be properly persuaded to empower them in their
battle against Terrorists. Such inspirations ought to incorporate procurement of disaster

80

protection; procurement of free access to medicinal consideration; procurement of


wages/remittance; consistent increment in compensations; advancements and procurement of
advanced weapons that can be utilized in counteracting, controlling and battling wrongdoings,
for example, current helicopters, bomb indicators, and firearms et cetera.
6. Establishment of Strong knowledge arranges in Nigeria: Intelligence organizations ought
to be furnished with innovative security gadgets. The Nigerian discernment organizations such
National Intelligence Agency, State security administration and Defense insight office ought to
gain from cutting edge nations how they figure out how to keep up a solid knowledge system.
Additionally insight and security operators ought to try for legitimate preparing and retraining. In
this respect different colleges in Nigeria ought to take after AfeBabalola University in creating
Intelligence and Security studies to their scholastic projects. Moreover discernment gave ought
to be utilized to identify security dangers, for example, Terrorism rebellion, secure arranged data
also to advance bury office cooperation, collaboration and participation amongst security orgs.
Additionally group policing ought to be exhorted as rehearsed ahead of time countries
7 Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship: The Nigerian government to go into respective and
multilateral collaboration among neighboring state to help in fighting the issue of terrorits in the
nation.
8 Creation of Awareness: Clerics and religious establishment ought to continue making
mindfulness about religion. They ought to make individuals realize that Islam is a religion of
peace. They ought to lecture peace, religious resilience and pacifism.

81

9 Intensification of Border security: Border security ought to be fixed, unlawful courses ought
to be blocked. The Nigerian government ought to manufacture solid outskirts and reconnaissance
in fringes ought to likewise be supported.
10 Education: Government must look into the Almajiri system in the North. It
should be reformed in order to make the children in the system useful to
themselves and the society. To this end, education must be aggressively pursued
and made compulsory for the children. It is contention of this study, that the Boko
Haram terrorism gives bad publicity to the country, shrinks the market size,
discouragesinvestors, further depletes national funds available for development,
discourages investments and reduces FDIs that should have come into the country
and stifles development. Consequently, terrorism is adequately checkmated, and
security of lives and property is guaranteed in every part of the country, rapid
development, which is much needed at this stage of the nations existence, will
have an enabling environment to occur.

82

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95

QUESTIONNAIRE

96

Department of Intelligence and Security Studies,


Afe- Babalola University,
P.M.B 5454,
Ado-Ekiti,
Ekiti State.
Dear Sir/ Ma,
This is a questionnaire onAn assessment on the impact of Terrorism on Nigerias
nationa security, organized by OGUNLEYE JIDE of the department of Intelligence and
Security Studies AfeBabalola University Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD) in partial fulfillment of B.SC in
Intelligence and Security Studies.
Kindly be very coherent in answering the outlined questions and I promise that
the identity of respondents will be kept secret.
THANK YOU.
RESEARCHER
PERSONAL DATA

97

SECTION A
Socio Demographic Background

Please tick ) against appropriate.

1. GenderMale ( )

Female

( )

2. Age 18 to 29 ( )

30 to 39 ( )

40 to 49 ( )

50 to 59 ( ) 60 and above ( )

3. Religion Islam ( )Christianity ( ) Traditional religion ( )


4. ProfessionNone (

Military (

employed ( ) Unemployed ( )

Para-military (

Artisan ( )

Atheist ( )
Civil Servant (

Business/Trading ( )

Self-

Farming ( )

Student ( ) others (please specify) ..


5. Tribe(please specify).
6. Academic Qualification None ( )
WASC/SSCE/GCE ( ) OND ( )

Common Entrance ( )
HND ( )

1st degree ( )

Quranic education ( )
2nd degree ( ) Ph.D. ( )

Others (please specify)..


SECTION B

98

1. What is the main cause of Terrorism? Political ( ) Selfish interest ( ) Economic resources
(

Communication

breakdown

others

(please

specify)

..
2. Do you agree that terrorism has political support? Yes ( )

No ( )

3. Do you agree that bad governance motivatesterrorist attacks? Yes ( )

No ( )

4. Do you agree that the high rate of illiteracy in northern Nigeria assisted the rise of
Terrorism? Yes ( )

No ( )

5. Do you agree that poverty in northern Nigeria has encouraged the growth of terrorismin
the country? Yes ( )

No ( )

6. Do you agree that porous borders is one of the factor responsible for terrorism in Nigeria
Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
7. Access the intervention strategies by the security forces to put an end to terrorism in the
north? Very strong ( ) Strong ( ) Weak ( ) Very weak ( )
8. Do you think victims of terrorism in Nigeria get any form of government support to
alleviate the effect of the attack? Yes (

No

) If yes please mention

9. Do you think the law enforcement agencies have been well equipped by the Nigerian
government for the challenges of controlling Terrorism? Yes

( )

No

( )

If no what is (are) lacking?...............................................................................

99

10. What is the level of police-public relations as regards monitoring Terrorism in the
country? Good ( ) Poor ( ) Fair ( )
11. Do you think media response to Terrorism attacks have been effective? Yes ( ) No ( )
If yes what impact did the media have in bringing support to victims?.................................
..
12. Have you ever being a victim of Terrorism attack? Yes ( )

No ( )

13. How were you attached? Suicide Bombing ( ) Sporadic attack ( ) High way attacks ( )
14. What are the effects of being a victim?..
15. What do you think are the general impacts of Terrorism on the bigger society?
.
16. Do you think the economic situation in North Eastern Nigeria is worse than the rest of the
country as a result of terrorist activities? Yes ( )

No ( )

17. Do you think Terrorism affect interpersonal relationship among people of diverse
background? Yes

) No

( )

If yes How.

18. What do you think are the specific effects Terrorism attacks have on the social-economic
life of women and children?..................................................................................

19. Do you think Terrorism has any significant effect on western education?.....................

100

20. What

implications

do

you

think

Terrorisms

holds

for

Nigerias

national

security?.................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
21. Do you think Terrorism have links with some external groups? Yes ( )

No ( )

If yes please indicate...


22. What form of support do you think Terrorism members get from these groups?..............

23. Can Terrorism activities be brought to an end in Nigeria? Yes ( )

No

If yes what can be done to facilitate the end of Terrorism in Nigeria?.................................

24. What efforts are religious institutions making to end Terrorism in Nigeria?

101