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Chapter 2

The Fundamentals of Two-Phase


Flow
2.1 Flow pattern
Two-phase flow is flow of pair immiscible fluid. The flow can be encountered
external devices or internally. The pair immiscible fluid may content; liquid-liquid
(refrigerant-oil in refrigeration system), liquid-solid (water-slag in engine cooling system),
gas-solid (air-coal in pneumatic conveyor) or gas-liquid (steam-water in steam power
cycle). Here, the study is emphasized on two-phase flow of gas-liquid. Mostly, in the
authentic gas-liquid two-phase flow process sink or release heat. If the heat is sunk, called
evaporation and another one is condensation, in which the heat is discarded.
The evaporation and condensation is very complicated processes, since the fluid
transform from liquid to gas or vice versa. Therefore, the basic fundamentals two-phase
flow theory is derived from adiabatic two-phase flow. Air-water is the most pair immiscible
fluid, used as experiment since decades, due to their unique. Air and water have contras in
properties, table 2.1 and table 2.2. Therefore, this combination promotes stability two-phase
form, resulting better investigation.
Table 2.1 Air properties in atmospheric pressure, ThermopediaTM
T
o

C
-150
-100
-50
0
20
40
60
80

kg.m-3
2.793
1.980
1.534
1.293
1.205
1.127
1.067
1.000

cp
kJ.(kg.K)
1.026
1.009
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.005
1.009
1.009

x10-6

k
-1

-1

w.(m K )
0.0116
0.0160
0.0204
0.0243
0.0257
0.0271
0.0285
0.0299

m2.s-1
3.08
5.95
9.55
13.30
15.11
16.97
18.90
20.94

bx10-3

Pr

-1

K
8.21
5.82
4.51
3.67
3.43
3.20
3.00
2.83

0.76
0.74
0.725
0.715
0.713
0.711
0.709
0.708

14
100
120
140
160
180
200

0.946
0.898
0.854
0.815
0.779
0.746

1.009
1.013
1.013
1.017
1.022
1.026

0.0314
0.0328
0.0343
0.0358
0.0372
0.0386

23.06
25.23
27.55
29.85
32.29
34.63

2.68
2.55
2.43
2.32
2.21
2.11

0.703
0.70
0.695
0.69
0.69
0.685

Table 2.2 Water properties in atmospheric pressure, ThermopediaTM


Pa

cp

x10-6

bx10-3

kN.m-2

kg.m-3
916.8
999.8

kJ.(kg.K)-1

kJ.kg-1

m2.s-1

K-1

4.210

1.792

-0.07

4.204

21.0

4.193
4.183
4.179
4.179
4.182
4.185
4.191
4.198
4.208
4.219

41.9
83.8
125.7
167.6
209.6
251.5
293.4
335.3
377.2
419.1

T
o

0
0.0
1
4

0.6
0.9

0.9

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

1.2
2.3
4.3
7.7
12.5
20.0
31.3
47.5
70.0
101.3
3

1000.
0
1000.
0
999.8
998.3
995.7
992.3
988
983
978
972
965
958

Pr

13.67

0.160
1.304
1.004
0.801
0.658
0.553
0.474
0.413
0.365
0.326
0.295

0.088
0.207
0.303
0.385
0.457
0.523
0.585
0.643
0.665
0.752

9.47
7.01
5.43
4.34
3.56
2.99
2.56
2.23
1.96
1.75

Note:
T:
:
cp:
k:
:

temperature
density
Specific heat
Thermal conductivity
kinematic viscosity

b:
Pa:
h:
Pr:

expansion coefficient
vapor pressure
enthalpy
Prandls number

If the air and water pass through a tube in different velocity, than they form unique
gas-liquid configuration. It is termed; flow-pattern. It has been investigated since several
decades.

2.2 Flow Patterns in Vertical Tubes

15

For co-current up flow of gas and liquid in a vertical tube, the liquid and gas phases
distribute themselves into several recognizable flow structures. These are referred to as flow
patterns and they are depicted in
Figure 2.1 and can be described as follows:

Bubbly flow. Numerous bubbles are observable as the gas is dispersed in the form
of discrete bubbles in the continuous liquid phase. The bubbles may vary widely
in size and shape but they are typically nearly spherical and are much smaller than

the diameter of the tube itself.


Slug flow. With increasing gas void fraction, the proximity of the bubbles is very
close such that bubbles collide and coalesce to form larger bubbles, which are
similar in dimension to the tube diameter. These bubbles have a characteristic
shape similar to a bullet with a hemispherical nose with a blunt tail end. They are
commonly referred to as Taylor bubbles after the instability of that name. Taylor
bubbles are separated from one another by slugs of liquid, which may include
small bubbles. Taylor bubbles are surrounded by a thin liquid film between them
and the tube wall, which may flow downward due to the force of gravity, even

though the net flow of fluid is upward.


Churn flow. Increasing the velocity of the flow, the structure of the flow becomes
unstable with the fluid traveling up and down in an oscillatory fashion but with a
net upward flow. The instability is the result of the relative parity of the gravity
and shear forces acting in opposing directions on the thin film of liquid of Taylor
bubbles. This flow pattern is in fact an intermediate regime between the slug flow
and annular flow regimes. In small diameter tubes, churn flow may not develop at
all and the flow passes directly from slug flow to annular flow. Churn flow is
typically a flow regime to be avoided in two-phase transfer lines, such as those
from a reboiler back to a distillation column or in refrigerant piping networks,
because the mass of the slugs may have a destructive consequence on the piping

system.
Annular flow. Once the interfacial shear of the high velocity gas on the liquid film
becomes dominant over gravity, the liquid is expelled from the center of the tube
and flows as a thin film on the wall (forming an annular ring of liquid) while the
gas flows as a continuous phase up the center of the tube. The interface is

16

disturbed by high frequency waves and ripples. In addition, liquid may be


entrained in the gas core as small droplets, so much so that the fraction of liquid
entrained may become similar to that in the film. This flow regime is particularly

stable and is the desired flow pattern for two-phase pipe flows.
Wispy annular flow. When the flow rate is further increased, the entrained droplets
may form transient coherent structures as clouds or wisps of liquid in the central

vapor core.
Mist flow. At very high gas flow rates, the annular film is thinned by the shear of
the gas core on the interface until it becomes unstable and is destroyed, such that
all the liquid in entrained as droplets in the continuous gas phase, analogous to the
inverse of the bubbly flow regime. Impinging liquid droplets intermittently wet
the tube wall locally. The droplets in the mist are often too small to be seen
without special lighting and/or magnification.

Fig. 2.1 Two-phase flow pattern in vertical upward flow, ThermopediaTM

2.3 Flow Patterns in Horizontal Tubes


Two-phase flow patterns in horizontal tubes are similar to those in vertical flows but the
distribution of the liquid is influenced by gravity that acts to stratify the liquid to the bottom
of the tube and the gas to the top. Flow patterns for co-current flow of gas and liquid in a
horizontal tube are shown in Fig. 2.2 and are categorized as follows:

17

Bubbly flow. The gas bubbles are dispersed in the liquid with a high concentration
of bubbles in the upper half of the tube due to their buoyancy. When shear forces are
dominant, the bubbles tend to disperse uniformly in the tube. In horizontal flows,

the regime typically only occurs at high mass flow rates.


Stratified flow. At low liquid and gas velocities, complete separation of the two
phases occurs. The gas goes to the top and the liquid to the bottom of the tube,
separated by an undisturbed horizontal interface. Hence the liquid and gas are fully

stratified in this regime.


Stratified-wavy flow. Increasing the gas velocity in a stratified flow, waves are
formed on the interface and travel in the direction of flow. The amplitude of the
waves is notable and depends on the relative velocity of the two phases; however,
their crests do not reach the top of the tube. The waves climb up the sides of the

tube, leaving thin films of liquid on the wall after the passage of the wave.
Intermittent flow. Further increasing the gas velocity, these interfacial waves
become large enough to wash the top of the tube. This regime is characterized by
large amplitude waves intermittently washing the top of the tube with smaller
amplitude waves in between. Large amplitude waves often contain entrained
bubbles. The top wall is nearly continuously wetted by the large amplitude waves
and the thin liquid films left behind. Intermittent flow is also a composite of the plug
and slug flow regimes. These subcategories are characterized as follows:
o Plug flow. This flow regime has liquid plugs that are separated by elongated
gas bubbles. The diameters of the elongated bubbles are smaller than the
tube such that the liquid phase is continuous along the bottom of the tube
below the elongated bubbles. Plug flow is also sometimes referred to as
elongated bubble flow.
o Slug flow. At higher gas velocities, the diameters of elongated bubbles
become similar in size to the channel height. The liquid slugs separating

such elongated bubbles can also be described as large amplitude waves.


Annular flow. At even larger gas flow rates, the liquid forms a continuous annular
film around the perimeter of the tube, similar to that in vertical flow but the liquid
film is thicker at the bottom than the top. The interface between the liquid annulus
and the vapor core is disturbed by small amplitude waves and droplets may be
dispersed in the gas core. At high gas fractions, the top of the tube with its thinner

18

film becomes dry first, so that the annular film covers only part of the tube

perimeter and thus this is then classified as stratified-wavy flow.


Mist flow. Similar to vertical flow, at very high gas velocities, all the liquid may be
stripped from the wall and entrained as small droplets in the now continuous gas
phase.

Fig. 2.2 Two-phase flow pattern in horizontal flow

2.4 Flow Patterns Map


It is necessary to predict regimes as a basis for carrying out calculations on twophase flow, and the usual procedure is to plot the information in terms of a flow regime
map. Many of these maps are plotted in terms of primary variables (superficial velocity of
the phases or mass flux and quantity, for instance), but there has been a great deal of work
aimed at generalizing the plots, so that they can be applied to a wide range of channel
geometries and physical properties of the fluids. A generalized map for vertical flows is
shown in Fig. 2.3 and is due to Hewitt and Roberts (1969) (see Hewitt, 1982).
This map is plotted in terms of the superficial momentum fluxes of the two-phase

fUf2 and gUg2. A generalized flow pattern map for horizontal flow is that of Taitel and
Dukler (1976) (see Dukler and Taitel, 1986), and is illustrated in Fig. 2.4. This is plotted in
terms of the following parameters:

19

dp
F

dz
2
X
dp
F

dz

(2.1)

g
f g

ug
D.g . cos
(2.2)

gug
D.u f
K
f g .D.g. cos f
2

(2.3)

dp
F

dz

f
T
f g g. cos

(2.4)

gug2

fuf2

20

Fig. 2.3 Flow pattern map obtained by Hewitt and Roberts (1969) for vertical two-phase cocurrent upwards flow in a vertical tube., ThermopediaTM

Fig. 2.4 Flow pattern map for horizontal co-current flow obtained by Taitel and Dukler
(1976). (See Dukler and Taitel, 1986), ThermopediaTM
where (dpF/dz)f and (dpF/dz)g are the pressure gradients for the liquid phase and gas phase
respectively, flowing alone in the channel, f and g are the phase densities, uf and ug are the
superficial velocities of the phases, D the tube diameter, f the liquid kinematic viscosity, g the
acceleration due to gravity, and the angle of inclination of the channel.
Taitel et al. (1980) also produced a flow pattern map for vertical flow, but this has met with less
widespread use. Following similar approaches, Barnea (1987) has produced a unified model for
flow pattern transitions for the whole range of pipe inclinations.

21

2.5 Two-phase flow model


The complicated two-phase flow patterns can be approached as a simple model as
illustrated on Fig 2.3. A gas and a liquid pass through channel having constant A cross
section area. They form gas phase velocity ug normal to gas area Ag and liquid velocity uf
normal to liquid area Af . Therefore total cross section area A=Ag+Af. If the point of view is
in instant channel length dz at instant time dt.

Fig. 2.5 Two-phase flow model, Collier (1981)


Thus the ug,uf , Ag and Af are approached to constant. Hence following set equations
can be determined;

The void fraction , ratio of gas cross section area Ag to total area A

Ag
A

1
, so

Af
A

(2.5)

22

Void fraction is an essential dimensionless for two-phase flow parameters


calculation. Since, in the real case Ag is not always constant along z, than the equation 2.5
is valid for very limited incident only. Therefore, most of void fraction is not defined based
on area, but based on volume, termed as volume void fraction. Later, several void fraction
correlations, volume based, shall be presented soon.

The mass quality x, ratio of gas mass flow rate Wg to total mass flow rate W
x

Wg

(1 x)

Wg W f

Wf
Wg W f

, so

(2.6)

It is should be remarks, that the mass quality or some time called as quality only is
very different from void fraction. Because, quality is related to mass which strongly depend
on density . However, both of quality and void fraction have particular proportionality,
which will be discussed, later.

The mass velocity/flux


G

W
u
u
A

(2.7)

The mass flow rate


Wg GAx

W f GA(1 x)
and

(2.8)

The phase velocity


ug

Wg

uf

g Ag

Wf

f Af

and

(2.9)

Where, the mass flow W is proportional to quantity, volume flow rate Q than;
ug

Qg

uf

Ag

and

Qf
Af

(2.10)

Therefore, the phase velocity can be formed as function of void fraction and quality,
u=f(, x);

23

Gx
g

ug

uf

G (1 x)
f (1 )

and

(2.11)

The volumetric quality

Qg

(1 )

Qg Q f

Qf
Qg Q f

so

(2.12)

All of forgoing equations are based on phase area (Ag and Af), in which is vary along
channel length z and time t. Accordingly, it is urgent to simply the equation based on total
cross section area A which is equal to tube cross section area, constant. This is superficial
velocity parameter j.

The volumetric flux or the superficial velocity, j


j

Q
A

jg
, so

j g u g j

Qg
A

jf
and

Gx
g

Qf
A

(2.13)

j f u f (1 ) j (1 )

G (1 x)
f

and
Gg j g g Gx

(2.14)

G f j f f G (1 x)
,

G Gg G f
in which

(2.15)

Superficial velocity is very important parameter for defining the phases velocity ug
and uf , by condition of which void fraction is known. Also, superficial velocity is easy
parameter to calculate, since the variables are easy to measure, as following measured
variables, quantity Q. This work, quantity of each phase was measured carefully, by means,
the phase is separated in separator tube, followed by quantifying liquid and gas volume Vg
and Vf in certain time interval and the last phase quantity is determined by;
Qg

Vg

Qf

tg

and

Vf
tf

(2.16)

24

Since the gas and liquid velocity is different. It is very important to define ratio in
between gas velocity ug and liquid velocity uf, termed as the slip factor S

The slip ratio


S

ug
uf

Wg f A f
W f g Ag

1 x

f 1

(2.17)

Later, the control volume of instant two-phase flow in Fig. 2.5 can be solved
analytically.
2.5.1 Conservation of Mass
By assuming the system is adiabatic and the both of phase incompressible, then the
total phase mass flow rate is the sum of gas flow rate and liquid flow rate
Wg W f W
(2.18)
Because the total mass flow rate is constant, then the differentiation of equation 2.18
results;
dWg dW f
(2.19)
Wg Ag g u g Wx
Since;

(2.20)
W f A f f u f W (1 x)

And;

(2.21)

d
dx dWg
( Ag g u g ) W

dz
dz
dz
Then;

(2.22)

d
dx dW f
( A f f u f ) W

dz
dz
dz
(2.23)
2.5.2 Conservation of Momentum
Also, from Fig. 2.5 the momentum conservation is;

25

pAg ( p dp) Ag dFg S Ag dz. g g sin [(Wg dWg )(u g du g ) Wg u g dWg u f ]


(2.24)
S similar force exerted with respect to the gas-liquid interface, equation 2.24 can be
simplified to
Ag dp dFg S Ag dz g g sin Wg du g dWg u g dWg u f
(2.25)
Relationship for liquid in which S is a force on the liquid
A f dp dF f S A f dz f g sin W f du f
(2.26)
Adding eq. 2.25, 2.26 and using eq. 2.19 yields
Adp dFg dF f g sin dz[ A f f Ag g ] d (W f u f Wg u g )
(2.27)
The net frictional force acting on each phase;
dp

gF dz
dz

(dFg S ) Ag

dp

fF dz
dz

(dF f S ) A f
;

dp
(dFg dF f ) A
F dz
dz

The term

dp
F

dz

(2.28)

(2.29)

represent frictional pressure drop, while total pressure drop (overall

static pressure gradient) is


dp dp dp dp
F
a
z


dz dz dz dz

(2. 30)

Where;
x 2 g 1 x 2 f
1 d
dp
2 d

a
(Wg u g W f u f ) G

1
A dz
dz
dz

(2.31)

26

And

A
Ag

dp
z g sin
g f f g sin g (1 ) f
A
dz
A

(2.32)

It should be emphasized at this point that the frictional component has been defined in
(dFg dF f )
terms of the force
To solve all of forgoing equation is hard due to existing two unknown differential
variable ug and uf. Therefore, approach solving is required. There are two approaching
models i.e. homogeneous model and separated model. Homogeneous model assumes that
both of phase gas and liquid pass in equal velocity, in its mean velocity. So as, the two
phase flow problem considers as single phase flow and all properties are determined based
on mean properties of both phases. Meanwhile, the separated model assumes that the
phases is artificially segregated into stream; one of is liquid and another one is gas, and
each phase velocity is the mean velocity of each phase, so that is constant. If both of phases
have equal mean velocity, the equation reduces to those of homogeneous model.

2.6 The Homogeneous Model


2.6.1 Derivation of Model and Assumption;
a. Equal vapor and liquid velocities
b. The attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases
c. The use of a suitably defined single-phase friction factor for two-phase flow
W A u

Continuity,

(2.33)

Adp dF A g sin dz Wdu


Momentum

(2.34)

Q
j 1
x g (1 x ) f f x fg
W
G

Where

(2.35)
u f ug u

From the assumption of a;

(2.36)

27

u G j

So that

(2.37)

And
x g

1 x f

1
(2.38)

dF W Pdz
(2.39)
Where P is wall perimeter of circular inner tube

u 2

W f TP

(2.40)

Where

1 dF W P f TP P u 2
dp

A dz
A
A 2
dz

(2.41)

For circular channel (P/A=4/D), so

2 f G 2 2 f TP Gj
dp
F TP

D
D
dz

(2.42)

From eq. (2.31)


d u
d
dp
a G
G2
dz
dz
dz

(2.43)

Neglecting the compressibility of the liquid phase


d g dp
d
dx
fg
x

dz
dz
dp dz

(2.44)

From eq (2.32) and eq (2.38)


g sin
dp
z g sin

dz

Eqs (2.42), (2.43), (2.45), (2.30) become

(2.45)

28

2 f TP G 2 f

fg

G 2 f fg dx

dz
f
f

1 x

dp

dz

d g
dp

1 G 2 x

g sin


f 1 x fg
f

(2.46)

=0, g closed to
constant

Accordingly, general equation of pressure gradient along z for homogeneous modeling is;

2
dp 2 fTP G f


D
dz

fg

G 2 f fg dx

dz
f
f

1 x

g sin


f 1 x fg

(2.47)

2.6.2 The Two-Phase Friction Factor


All the terms in eq. (2.47) are definable, except one (fTP);
(a) fTP with assumption all the fluid is liquid, an denote as ffo as function of Reynolds
number (GD/f) and the pipe relative roughness (/D). so Equation (2,42) becomes
2 f foG 2 f
dp
F
D
dz

dp
F
dz

fg
dp F

dz
f

1 x

fo

fg

1 x

(2.48)

fo

Where

is frictional pressure gradient calculated from the Fanning equation for

total flow (liquid plus vapour) assumed to flow as liquid, so

dp
F
dz

2 f foG 2 f

fo

D
(2.49)

(b) the viscosity using mean viscosity

f
x=0,

of liquid and gas, where

g
; and x=1,

(2.50)

29

and the

correlation by
1
x 1 x

g
f
McAdam, et.al.

(2.51)

x g 1 x f
Cicchitti, et.al.

(2.52)

x g g 1 x f f
x g 1 x f

Dukler et.al.

(2.53)

tp

1 x x

Akers et al.

0.5

(2.54)

tp f
Owens

(2.55)

tp g 1 1 2.5 f
Beattie and Whalley

x g

f x fg

where

tp

(2.56)

(2.57)

f g
g x1.4 f g

Lin et al

(2.58)

Assuming that the friction factor may be expressed in term of the Reynolds number by
Blasius equation
f TP

GD

0.079
TP

1
4

GD
0.079

1
4

(2.59)

For equation (2.51) the


dp
dp
F
F
dz
dz

fo

fg

1 x

fg

1 x

(2.60)

30

In general equation;

dp
dp
F
F
dz
dz

fo

fo

(2.61)

fo 2
, known as the two-phase frictional multiplier;

fo 2

fg

1 x

fg

1 x

1
4

(2.62)

2.7 The Separated Flow Model


2.7.1 Derivation of Model and Assumption;
a. Each phase velocity is constant
b. The attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases

2
c. The use of empirical correlations or simplified concepts to relate

and

to

independent variable of the flow


The momentum equation
x 2 g (1 x) 2 f
dp
dp
2 d

F G

g sin g (1 ) f
dz
(1 )
dz
dz

dp
dp

F
F
dz
dz

2 f foG 2 f

fo
2

fo

fo

(2.63)

(2.64)

May be expressed as liquid phase


2 f f G 2 (1 x) 2 f
dp
dp
2

F
F f

D
dz
dz f

Using the Blasius equation (2.54)

(2.65)

31

(1 x)

ff

f fo

1
4

(2.66)

Eq (2.47) and 2.48

fo f (1 x ) 2
2

ff
f fo

f (1 x )1.75
2

(2.67)
x 2 g 1 x 2 f
dp
2 d

a G

dz
1
dz

(2.68)

Compressibility negligible and expansion theorem


2
d x g 1 x f

1
dz

dp x 2 d g

dz dp p

dx 2 x g 21 x f

1
dz

1 x 2 f

1 2

1 x 2 f

1 2

x 2 g

2

x 2 g
2

(2.69)

2 f foG 2 f
dp


dz

fo G 2

2
2
dx 2 x g 21 x f
d 1 x f x g

dz
1 dx 1 2
2

x 2 d g d 1 x 2 f x 2 g


1 G2
2

dp 1 2

dp

g sin g f 1

0, compressibility of gaseous phase is


negligible

(2.70)

So that;
2
2
dx 2 x g 21 x f d 1 x f x g
dp 2 f foG f

fo 2 G 2

2
1 dx 1
D
dz

dz

g sin g f 1

(2.71)

32

fo
2.7.2 The evaluation of the Two-phase Multiplier

and void fraction

2.7.2.1 The Lockhart-Martinelli correlation

flow regime were defined on the basis of the behavior of the flow (viscous or
turbulent) when the phases were considered to pass alone through the channel

The liquid and gas phase pressure drop were considered equal irrespective of
the detail of the particular flow pattern.

dp

dp
dp
gF
fF
F

dz

dz
dz

(2.72)

The frictional pressure drop for liquid and gas


2 ff fuf
dp

fF
Df
dz

(2.73)
2 f g gug
dp

gF
Dg
dz

(2.74)


2
Df
4

Af

(2.75)


2
Dg
4

Ag

(2.76)

Using Blasius
n

f u f Df

ff Kf

f
(2.59, 2.67, 2.69, 2.71)

n 2
Df

(2.77)

5 n

(2.78)

33

dp
F

dz

dp
F

dz

n2

D
g

5 n

(2.79)
Lockhart-Martinelli assumption to the case of annular flow, Dividing eq 2.69 by A=D2/4
2

1 D
D
f

f (1 )
2

n2

(2.80)

D
f

n 1

(2.81)

For annular flow with liquid film of thickness (),


Df

4D
4
D

1 4D2
D

4
D

Thus

D
D
1

D f 4 1

f 1
2

n2

1 n1 1 3

So that;

(2.82)

f 1
2

Result is incorrect, the correct result

(2.83)

Empirical multiplier as function of X

X2

dp
F

dz

dp
F

dz

(2.84)
Where;

f 1
2

C
1
2
X X

(2.85)

34

g 1 CX X 2
2

Liquid
Turbulent
Viscous
Turbulent
Viscous

Gas
Turbulent
Turbulent
Viscous
Viscous

tt
vt
tv
vv

C
20
12
10
5

2.7.2.2 Universal approach to predicting two-phase frictional pressure drop,


Kim, S.M and Mudawar, I. (2012)

dp

dz

dp
2
f
dz f

(2.86)

dp

dz

dp
2
g
dz g

(2.87)

f 1
2

Where

dp
F
dz

C
1
2
X X

dp
F

dz

X2
dp
F

dz

(2.88)

2 f f f G 2 (1 x) 2

dp
F
dz

Dh

2 f g g G 2 x 2
Dh

;
f k 16 Re k

(2.89)

, for Rek 2000

f k 0.079 Re k

0.25

f k 0.046 Re k

0.2

, for 2000 Rek 20,000


, for Rek 20,000

For laminar flow in rectangular channel


f k Re k 24(1 1.3553 1.9467 2 1.7012 3 0.9564 4 0.2537 5 )
(2.90)
Where subscript k denotes f or g for liquid and vapor phases, respectively

35

Re f

G 1 x Dh
f

Re g

GxDh
g

Re fo
,

Liquid
Turbulen

GDh
f

Laminar

t
Laminar

0.03

0.0015 Re fo
Laminar

Su go

8.7 x10 4 Re fo

Turbulent

Laminar

(2.91)

C
0.39 Re fo

Turbulen

, Suratman number

Gas(Vapor)
Turbulent

g Dh

Su go

0.17

0.59

3.5 x10 5 Re fo

0.10

0.44

Su go

Su go

0.35

Su go

0.36

0.50

0.19

(2.92)
0.14

(2.93)

0.50

(2.94)

0.48

(2.95)

Other proper correlations


1. Friedel (D>4mm, air-water,air-oil,R-12)

dp

dz

dp

dz

fo

fo

(2.96)

fo

g f go

3.24 x 0.78 1 x 0.224 g


1 x x
f

f fo
f
2

0.91

0.19

1 g

0.7

Frtp

0.045

We tp

0.035

(2.97)

36

Frtp

GDh
1
G2
G 2 Dh
H
Re go
We

tp
2
x g 1 x f
g
gDh H
H
,
,
,

(2.98)

2. Muller-Steinhagen and Heck


(D=4-392 mm, air-water, water, hydrocarbon, refrigerant)
dp

dz

dp

dz

fo

dp
2

dz

dp

dz

go


dp
1/ 3

x 1 x
dz

fo

x3
go

(2.99)

3. Lee and Lee (Dh=0.78-6.67mm, Air-water)

dp

dz

dp
2
f
dz f

(2.100)
2

f jf f
C
1
1 2
f Dh
X X

,
,

Cvv 6.833 10 8 1.317 0.719 Re fo

0.557

(2.101)

Ctv 3.627 Re fo

0.174

,
Cvt 6.185 10 2 Re fo

0.726

Ctt 0.048 Re fo

(2.102)
0.451

(2.103)

4. Chen (D=1.02-9mm, adiabatic, air-water, R410A, Ammonia)

dp

dz

dp

dz

Bo g Dh / 2
f
g
fo, Friedel

For Bo*<2.5

0.0333 Re fo
Re g

0.09

(2.104)

0.45

1 0.4e
Bo*

(2.105)

37

We tp

0.2

2.5 0.06 Bo

For Bo*2.5

(2.106)

5. Sun and Mishima (Dh=0.506-12mm, Air-water, Refrigerant, CO2)

dp

dz

Re f

Re g
dp
2

f f 2 1 C 1 C 1.79

2
Re
dz

f
f

X X
,
,

G 1 x Dh
f

Re g

0.4

1 x

0.5

(2.107)

GxDh
g

(2.108)

2.8 Void Fraction


2.8.1 Homogeneous Model

1
1 x g
1

x l
(2.109)

2.8.2 Zivi Void fraction

1
1 x
1

(2.110)

2.8.3 Smith Void fraction

1 x
1 g

l x

l
1 x
0 .4
g
x
0 .4 0 .6
1 x
1 0 .4
x

Homogenous model suitable for Bubbly and Disperse models

(2.111)

38

2.8.4. Local Void Fraction Using Drift Model


x

G

x 1 x U GU

Co

L
m
G

(2.112)

U GU 0.05 U
Valuable only if
At elevated pressure, Zuber (1967);

Co 1.13
With
U GU

g L G
1.41

2
L

(2.113)

Regardless flow regime.


This also can be implemented for bubbly flow, vertical up flow, with particular value of Co
Geometry
In-dim (mm)
Co
Tube
Co=1-0.5Pr
50
Tube
Co=1.2 for Pr
50
Tube
Co=1.2-0.4(Pr-0.5)
50
Rectangular
Co=1.4-0.4(Pr-0.5)
For bubbly flow, vertical up flow, Wallis (1969);

Pr ,Reduced pressure
Except for Pr0.5, where Co=1.2
for Pr >0.5

Co 1.0

U GU

g L G
1.53

2
L

2
2
Amc 1 d mc Ac 1 d c Wg g Qg W f f Q f
4
4
,
,
,

2.9 Uniformity Distribution


Uniformity distribution in between two outlet channels is equated

(2.114)

39

Rg

Qgcu Qgcd

Rf

Qgcu Qgcd

Q fcu Q fcd
Q fcu Q fcd

, and

(2.115)

Rg and Rf is dimensionless. If Rg >0, gas phase tend to go to upper channel and vice versa. If
Rg=0, the gas is uniform. Similarly, for Rf is. If Rf >0, liquid phase tend to go to upper
channel and vice versa. If Rf=0, the liquid is uniform

2.10 Pressure Losses through Merged Pipe Distributor


Merge pipe distributor have inlet diameter 8 mm and 2 pair 5 mm outlet diameter, as
shown in Fig. 2.6 (a)

5mm

5mm

8 mm

Equivalent
length
r
4

Su
Sb

(a
)
h

(c)

(b
)
Fig. 2.6 Merged pipe distributor; (a) 2d sketch and Simplified as Incline straight tube,
(b) simplified as converging diverging nozzle and (c) 3d sketch
Because there are no correlations, related to merge pipe distributor.

Three approach

correlations are tested; area changes by Tapucu, 1989, straight incline pipe and Teejunction.

40

2.10.1 Pressure Losses Caused by Area Changes in a Single-Channel Flow, by Tapucu


1989.

Fig. 2.7 Sharp insert


Assumption:
Contraction and expansion cannot be separated in the case of short insert.

Janssen & Kervinen (1964), assuming that the contraction losses are small
compared to the expansion losses.

L
x 2

G 1
p SI 1 2 2
2 L C

C
1 x 2 1

L 2 1 C
1
C
1 x 2

4
3
4

G 3

2C

Where;

2
C


1

(2.116)

41

3 4

A2 A2

A1 A4

A3
A2

and
Assumed as constant void fraction
2

1 Gi 1

pSI
1

2 C

(2.117)

If use Momentum Energy Equation of Hewitt & Hall Taylor (1970) based on Jansen
assumption
2
1 1
1 G1 H 1 1
1

pSI G

2 C 2 32 42
C 3 4
2
1

(2.118)

Where;

A2
A1

A3
A2

, and
Assumed as constant void fraction
G
p SI 1
2

Where

2 1

1

1 H2


2
C C

(2.119)

momentum specific volume and is defined as

x2
1 x

G 1 L
2

(2.120)
and

42

x3
1 x

2
2
1 2 L 2
G
3

(2.121)

1
x 1 x

H G
L
(2.122)

, is the momentum density

Assuming a constant void fraction along the duct,


2.10.2 Pressure drop by Energy equation as T-Junction, Hwang et al. (1988)

p1i ,TP

Hom,i
2

G
i


E ,i

2
2
G1
K1i ,TP G1

2 L
E ,1

(2.123)

Where E is the energy density, defined as

1 x 3 x 3

2
2
L 1 G 2

12

(2.124)

And K1-i,TP is a two-phase pressure loss coefficient formulated as


K1i ,TP K1i ,SP

For Annular and churn flows, Rectangular Channel

For plug and bubbly flow, Rectangular Channel

For circular channel,

L2 Hom,i
Hom,1


1.60 L2 Hom,i
Hom,1

2.57 L2 Hom,i
Hom,1

0.586

(2.125)

0.146

(2.126)

(2.127)

43

For Re 5000, Rectangular channel


k1i

W
W
0.477 0.21 i 0.744 i
W1
W1

(2.128)

For low Re, round channel;


k1i

W
W
1 0.8285 i 0.6924 i
W1
W1

(2.129)

.i:2,3: Upper chennel, lower channel

Hom

x 1 x

L
G

(2.130)

References
Collier, J.G., (1981), Convective boiling and condensation, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,
ISBN: 0070117985.
Thome, J.R., (2010), Engineering data book III, Wolverine Tube, Inc.
ThermopediaTM , A to z guide to thermodynamics, Heat and mass transfer, and fluid
engineering, http://www.thermopedia.com/
Hwang, S.T. and Lahey, R.T., (1988), A study on single- and two-phase pressure drop in
branching conduits, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 1, p. 111125
Tapucu, A., Teyssedou, A., Troche, N. and Merilo, M., (1989), Pressure losses caused by

44

changes in a single channel flow under two-phase flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 151, p. 51-64
Kim, S.M. and Mudawar, I., (2012), Universal approach to predicting two-phase frictional
pressure drop for adiabatic and condensing mini/micro-channel flows, Int. J. Heat
and Mass Transfer 55, p. 32463261
Hewitt, G. F. & Hall Taylor, N. S. (1970), Annular Two-phase Flow, Pergamon Press,
Oxford.