Contain of many formulas that talk about two phase, between gas and liquid or liquid solid, even solid and gas. Considering of Reynold number, variants of the flow, also uniformity distribution through the pipe

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Contain of many formulas that talk about two phase, between gas and liquid or liquid solid, even solid and gas. Considering of Reynold number, variants of the flow, also uniformity distribution through the pipe

© All Rights Reserved

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Flow

2.1 Flow pattern

Two-phase flow is flow of pair immiscible fluid. The flow can be encountered

external devices or internally. The pair immiscible fluid may content; liquid-liquid

(refrigerant-oil in refrigeration system), liquid-solid (water-slag in engine cooling system),

gas-solid (air-coal in pneumatic conveyor) or gas-liquid (steam-water in steam power

cycle). Here, the study is emphasized on two-phase flow of gas-liquid. Mostly, in the

authentic gas-liquid two-phase flow process sink or release heat. If the heat is sunk, called

evaporation and another one is condensation, in which the heat is discarded.

The evaporation and condensation is very complicated processes, since the fluid

transform from liquid to gas or vice versa. Therefore, the basic fundamentals two-phase

flow theory is derived from adiabatic two-phase flow. Air-water is the most pair immiscible

fluid, used as experiment since decades, due to their unique. Air and water have contras in

properties, table 2.1 and table 2.2. Therefore, this combination promotes stability two-phase

form, resulting better investigation.

Table 2.1 Air properties in atmospheric pressure, ThermopediaTM

T

o

C

-150

-100

-50

0

20

40

60

80

kg.m-3

2.793

1.980

1.534

1.293

1.205

1.127

1.067

1.000

cp

kJ.(kg.K)

1.026

1.009

1.005

1.005

1.005

1.005

1.009

1.009

x10-6

k

-1

-1

w.(m K )

0.0116

0.0160

0.0204

0.0243

0.0257

0.0271

0.0285

0.0299

m2.s-1

3.08

5.95

9.55

13.30

15.11

16.97

18.90

20.94

bx10-3

Pr

-1

K

8.21

5.82

4.51

3.67

3.43

3.20

3.00

2.83

0.76

0.74

0.725

0.715

0.713

0.711

0.709

0.708

14

100

120

140

160

180

200

0.946

0.898

0.854

0.815

0.779

0.746

1.009

1.013

1.013

1.017

1.022

1.026

0.0314

0.0328

0.0343

0.0358

0.0372

0.0386

23.06

25.23

27.55

29.85

32.29

34.63

2.68

2.55

2.43

2.32

2.21

2.11

0.703

0.70

0.695

0.69

0.69

0.685

Pa

cp

x10-6

bx10-3

kN.m-2

kg.m-3

916.8

999.8

kJ.(kg.K)-1

kJ.kg-1

m2.s-1

K-1

4.210

1.792

-0.07

4.204

21.0

4.193

4.183

4.179

4.179

4.182

4.185

4.191

4.198

4.208

4.219

41.9

83.8

125.7

167.6

209.6

251.5

293.4

335.3

377.2

419.1

T

o

0

0.0

1

4

0.6

0.9

0.9

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1.2

2.3

4.3

7.7

12.5

20.0

31.3

47.5

70.0

101.3

3

1000.

0

1000.

0

999.8

998.3

995.7

992.3

988

983

978

972

965

958

Pr

13.67

0.160

1.304

1.004

0.801

0.658

0.553

0.474

0.413

0.365

0.326

0.295

0.088

0.207

0.303

0.385

0.457

0.523

0.585

0.643

0.665

0.752

9.47

7.01

5.43

4.34

3.56

2.99

2.56

2.23

1.96

1.75

Note:

T:

:

cp:

k:

:

temperature

density

Specific heat

Thermal conductivity

kinematic viscosity

b:

Pa:

h:

Pr:

expansion coefficient

vapor pressure

enthalpy

Prandls number

If the air and water pass through a tube in different velocity, than they form unique

gas-liquid configuration. It is termed; flow-pattern. It has been investigated since several

decades.

15

For co-current up flow of gas and liquid in a vertical tube, the liquid and gas phases

distribute themselves into several recognizable flow structures. These are referred to as flow

patterns and they are depicted in

Figure 2.1 and can be described as follows:

Bubbly flow. Numerous bubbles are observable as the gas is dispersed in the form

of discrete bubbles in the continuous liquid phase. The bubbles may vary widely

in size and shape but they are typically nearly spherical and are much smaller than

Slug flow. With increasing gas void fraction, the proximity of the bubbles is very

close such that bubbles collide and coalesce to form larger bubbles, which are

similar in dimension to the tube diameter. These bubbles have a characteristic

shape similar to a bullet with a hemispherical nose with a blunt tail end. They are

commonly referred to as Taylor bubbles after the instability of that name. Taylor

bubbles are separated from one another by slugs of liquid, which may include

small bubbles. Taylor bubbles are surrounded by a thin liquid film between them

and the tube wall, which may flow downward due to the force of gravity, even

Churn flow. Increasing the velocity of the flow, the structure of the flow becomes

unstable with the fluid traveling up and down in an oscillatory fashion but with a

net upward flow. The instability is the result of the relative parity of the gravity

and shear forces acting in opposing directions on the thin film of liquid of Taylor

bubbles. This flow pattern is in fact an intermediate regime between the slug flow

and annular flow regimes. In small diameter tubes, churn flow may not develop at

all and the flow passes directly from slug flow to annular flow. Churn flow is

typically a flow regime to be avoided in two-phase transfer lines, such as those

from a reboiler back to a distillation column or in refrigerant piping networks,

because the mass of the slugs may have a destructive consequence on the piping

system.

Annular flow. Once the interfacial shear of the high velocity gas on the liquid film

becomes dominant over gravity, the liquid is expelled from the center of the tube

and flows as a thin film on the wall (forming an annular ring of liquid) while the

gas flows as a continuous phase up the center of the tube. The interface is

16

entrained in the gas core as small droplets, so much so that the fraction of liquid

entrained may become similar to that in the film. This flow regime is particularly

stable and is the desired flow pattern for two-phase pipe flows.

Wispy annular flow. When the flow rate is further increased, the entrained droplets

may form transient coherent structures as clouds or wisps of liquid in the central

vapor core.

Mist flow. At very high gas flow rates, the annular film is thinned by the shear of

the gas core on the interface until it becomes unstable and is destroyed, such that

all the liquid in entrained as droplets in the continuous gas phase, analogous to the

inverse of the bubbly flow regime. Impinging liquid droplets intermittently wet

the tube wall locally. The droplets in the mist are often too small to be seen

without special lighting and/or magnification.

Two-phase flow patterns in horizontal tubes are similar to those in vertical flows but the

distribution of the liquid is influenced by gravity that acts to stratify the liquid to the bottom

of the tube and the gas to the top. Flow patterns for co-current flow of gas and liquid in a

horizontal tube are shown in Fig. 2.2 and are categorized as follows:

17

Bubbly flow. The gas bubbles are dispersed in the liquid with a high concentration

of bubbles in the upper half of the tube due to their buoyancy. When shear forces are

dominant, the bubbles tend to disperse uniformly in the tube. In horizontal flows,

Stratified flow. At low liquid and gas velocities, complete separation of the two

phases occurs. The gas goes to the top and the liquid to the bottom of the tube,

separated by an undisturbed horizontal interface. Hence the liquid and gas are fully

Stratified-wavy flow. Increasing the gas velocity in a stratified flow, waves are

formed on the interface and travel in the direction of flow. The amplitude of the

waves is notable and depends on the relative velocity of the two phases; however,

their crests do not reach the top of the tube. The waves climb up the sides of the

tube, leaving thin films of liquid on the wall after the passage of the wave.

Intermittent flow. Further increasing the gas velocity, these interfacial waves

become large enough to wash the top of the tube. This regime is characterized by

large amplitude waves intermittently washing the top of the tube with smaller

amplitude waves in between. Large amplitude waves often contain entrained

bubbles. The top wall is nearly continuously wetted by the large amplitude waves

and the thin liquid films left behind. Intermittent flow is also a composite of the plug

and slug flow regimes. These subcategories are characterized as follows:

o Plug flow. This flow regime has liquid plugs that are separated by elongated

gas bubbles. The diameters of the elongated bubbles are smaller than the

tube such that the liquid phase is continuous along the bottom of the tube

below the elongated bubbles. Plug flow is also sometimes referred to as

elongated bubble flow.

o Slug flow. At higher gas velocities, the diameters of elongated bubbles

become similar in size to the channel height. The liquid slugs separating

Annular flow. At even larger gas flow rates, the liquid forms a continuous annular

film around the perimeter of the tube, similar to that in vertical flow but the liquid

film is thicker at the bottom than the top. The interface between the liquid annulus

and the vapor core is disturbed by small amplitude waves and droplets may be

dispersed in the gas core. At high gas fractions, the top of the tube with its thinner

18

film becomes dry first, so that the annular film covers only part of the tube

Mist flow. Similar to vertical flow, at very high gas velocities, all the liquid may be

stripped from the wall and entrained as small droplets in the now continuous gas

phase.

It is necessary to predict regimes as a basis for carrying out calculations on twophase flow, and the usual procedure is to plot the information in terms of a flow regime

map. Many of these maps are plotted in terms of primary variables (superficial velocity of

the phases or mass flux and quantity, for instance), but there has been a great deal of work

aimed at generalizing the plots, so that they can be applied to a wide range of channel

geometries and physical properties of the fluids. A generalized map for vertical flows is

shown in Fig. 2.3 and is due to Hewitt and Roberts (1969) (see Hewitt, 1982).

This map is plotted in terms of the superficial momentum fluxes of the two-phase

fUf2 and gUg2. A generalized flow pattern map for horizontal flow is that of Taitel and

Dukler (1976) (see Dukler and Taitel, 1986), and is illustrated in Fig. 2.4. This is plotted in

terms of the following parameters:

19

dp

F

dz

2

X

dp

F

dz

(2.1)

g

f g

ug

D.g . cos

(2.2)

gug

D.u f

K

f g .D.g. cos f

2

(2.3)

dp

F

dz

f

T

f g g. cos

(2.4)

gug2

fuf2

20

Fig. 2.3 Flow pattern map obtained by Hewitt and Roberts (1969) for vertical two-phase cocurrent upwards flow in a vertical tube., ThermopediaTM

Fig. 2.4 Flow pattern map for horizontal co-current flow obtained by Taitel and Dukler

(1976). (See Dukler and Taitel, 1986), ThermopediaTM

where (dpF/dz)f and (dpF/dz)g are the pressure gradients for the liquid phase and gas phase

respectively, flowing alone in the channel, f and g are the phase densities, uf and ug are the

superficial velocities of the phases, D the tube diameter, f the liquid kinematic viscosity, g the

acceleration due to gravity, and the angle of inclination of the channel.

Taitel et al. (1980) also produced a flow pattern map for vertical flow, but this has met with less

widespread use. Following similar approaches, Barnea (1987) has produced a unified model for

flow pattern transitions for the whole range of pipe inclinations.

21

The complicated two-phase flow patterns can be approached as a simple model as

illustrated on Fig 2.3. A gas and a liquid pass through channel having constant A cross

section area. They form gas phase velocity ug normal to gas area Ag and liquid velocity uf

normal to liquid area Af . Therefore total cross section area A=Ag+Af. If the point of view is

in instant channel length dz at instant time dt.

Thus the ug,uf , Ag and Af are approached to constant. Hence following set equations

can be determined;

The void fraction , ratio of gas cross section area Ag to total area A

Ag

A

1

, so

Af

A

(2.5)

22

calculation. Since, in the real case Ag is not always constant along z, than the equation 2.5

is valid for very limited incident only. Therefore, most of void fraction is not defined based

on area, but based on volume, termed as volume void fraction. Later, several void fraction

correlations, volume based, shall be presented soon.

The mass quality x, ratio of gas mass flow rate Wg to total mass flow rate W

x

Wg

(1 x)

Wg W f

Wf

Wg W f

, so

(2.6)

It is should be remarks, that the mass quality or some time called as quality only is

very different from void fraction. Because, quality is related to mass which strongly depend

on density . However, both of quality and void fraction have particular proportionality,

which will be discussed, later.

G

W

u

u

A

(2.7)

Wg GAx

W f GA(1 x)

and

(2.8)

ug

Wg

uf

g Ag

Wf

f Af

and

(2.9)

Where, the mass flow W is proportional to quantity, volume flow rate Q than;

ug

Qg

uf

Ag

and

Qf

Af

(2.10)

Therefore, the phase velocity can be formed as function of void fraction and quality,

u=f(, x);

23

Gx

g

ug

uf

G (1 x)

f (1 )

and

(2.11)

Qg

(1 )

Qg Q f

Qf

Qg Q f

so

(2.12)

All of forgoing equations are based on phase area (Ag and Af), in which is vary along

channel length z and time t. Accordingly, it is urgent to simply the equation based on total

cross section area A which is equal to tube cross section area, constant. This is superficial

velocity parameter j.

j

Q

A

jg

, so

j g u g j

Qg

A

jf

and

Gx

g

Qf

A

(2.13)

j f u f (1 ) j (1 )

G (1 x)

f

and

Gg j g g Gx

(2.14)

G f j f f G (1 x)

,

G Gg G f

in which

(2.15)

Superficial velocity is very important parameter for defining the phases velocity ug

and uf , by condition of which void fraction is known. Also, superficial velocity is easy

parameter to calculate, since the variables are easy to measure, as following measured

variables, quantity Q. This work, quantity of each phase was measured carefully, by means,

the phase is separated in separator tube, followed by quantifying liquid and gas volume Vg

and Vf in certain time interval and the last phase quantity is determined by;

Qg

Vg

Qf

tg

and

Vf

tf

(2.16)

24

Since the gas and liquid velocity is different. It is very important to define ratio in

between gas velocity ug and liquid velocity uf, termed as the slip factor S

S

ug

uf

Wg f A f

W f g Ag

1 x

f 1

(2.17)

Later, the control volume of instant two-phase flow in Fig. 2.5 can be solved

analytically.

2.5.1 Conservation of Mass

By assuming the system is adiabatic and the both of phase incompressible, then the

total phase mass flow rate is the sum of gas flow rate and liquid flow rate

Wg W f W

(2.18)

Because the total mass flow rate is constant, then the differentiation of equation 2.18

results;

dWg dW f

(2.19)

Wg Ag g u g Wx

Since;

(2.20)

W f A f f u f W (1 x)

And;

(2.21)

d

dx dWg

( Ag g u g ) W

dz

dz

dz

Then;

(2.22)

d

dx dW f

( A f f u f ) W

dz

dz

dz

(2.23)

2.5.2 Conservation of Momentum

Also, from Fig. 2.5 the momentum conservation is;

25

(2.24)

S similar force exerted with respect to the gas-liquid interface, equation 2.24 can be

simplified to

Ag dp dFg S Ag dz g g sin Wg du g dWg u g dWg u f

(2.25)

Relationship for liquid in which S is a force on the liquid

A f dp dF f S A f dz f g sin W f du f

(2.26)

Adding eq. 2.25, 2.26 and using eq. 2.19 yields

Adp dFg dF f g sin dz[ A f f Ag g ] d (W f u f Wg u g )

(2.27)

The net frictional force acting on each phase;

dp

gF dz

dz

(dFg S ) Ag

dp

fF dz

dz

(dF f S ) A f

;

dp

(dFg dF f ) A

F dz

dz

The term

dp

F

dz

(2.28)

(2.29)

dp dp dp dp

F

a

z

dz dz dz dz

(2. 30)

Where;

x 2 g 1 x 2 f

1 d

dp

2 d

a

(Wg u g W f u f ) G

1

A dz

dz

dz

(2.31)

26

And

A

Ag

dp

z g sin

g f f g sin g (1 ) f

A

dz

A

(2.32)

It should be emphasized at this point that the frictional component has been defined in

(dFg dF f )

terms of the force

To solve all of forgoing equation is hard due to existing two unknown differential

variable ug and uf. Therefore, approach solving is required. There are two approaching

models i.e. homogeneous model and separated model. Homogeneous model assumes that

both of phase gas and liquid pass in equal velocity, in its mean velocity. So as, the two

phase flow problem considers as single phase flow and all properties are determined based

on mean properties of both phases. Meanwhile, the separated model assumes that the

phases is artificially segregated into stream; one of is liquid and another one is gas, and

each phase velocity is the mean velocity of each phase, so that is constant. If both of phases

have equal mean velocity, the equation reduces to those of homogeneous model.

2.6.1 Derivation of Model and Assumption;

a. Equal vapor and liquid velocities

b. The attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases

c. The use of a suitably defined single-phase friction factor for two-phase flow

W A u

Continuity,

(2.33)

Momentum

(2.34)

Q

j 1

x g (1 x ) f f x fg

W

G

Where

(2.35)

u f ug u

(2.36)

27

u G j

So that

(2.37)

And

x g

1 x f

1

(2.38)

dF W Pdz

(2.39)

Where P is wall perimeter of circular inner tube

u 2

W f TP

(2.40)

Where

1 dF W P f TP P u 2

dp

A dz

A

A 2

dz

(2.41)

2 f G 2 2 f TP Gj

dp

F TP

D

D

dz

(2.42)

d u

d

dp

a G

G2

dz

dz

dz

(2.43)

d g dp

d

dx

fg

x

dz

dz

dp dz

(2.44)

g sin

dp

z g sin

dz

(2.45)

28

2 f TP G 2 f

fg

G 2 f fg dx

dz

f

f

1 x

dp

dz

d g

dp

1 G 2 x

g sin

f 1 x fg

f

(2.46)

=0, g closed to

constant

Accordingly, general equation of pressure gradient along z for homogeneous modeling is;

2

dp 2 fTP G f

D

dz

fg

G 2 f fg dx

dz

f

f

1 x

g sin

f 1 x fg

(2.47)

All the terms in eq. (2.47) are definable, except one (fTP);

(a) fTP with assumption all the fluid is liquid, an denote as ffo as function of Reynolds

number (GD/f) and the pipe relative roughness (/D). so Equation (2,42) becomes

2 f foG 2 f

dp

F

D

dz

dp

F

dz

fg

dp F

dz

f

1 x

fo

fg

1 x

(2.48)

fo

Where

dp

F

dz

2 f foG 2 f

fo

D

(2.49)

f

x=0,

g

; and x=1,

(2.50)

29

and the

correlation by

1

x 1 x

g

f

McAdam, et.al.

(2.51)

x g 1 x f

Cicchitti, et.al.

(2.52)

x g g 1 x f f

x g 1 x f

Dukler et.al.

(2.53)

tp

1 x x

Akers et al.

0.5

(2.54)

tp f

Owens

(2.55)

tp g 1 1 2.5 f

Beattie and Whalley

x g

f x fg

where

tp

(2.56)

(2.57)

f g

g x1.4 f g

Lin et al

(2.58)

Assuming that the friction factor may be expressed in term of the Reynolds number by

Blasius equation

f TP

GD

0.079

TP

1

4

GD

0.079

1

4

(2.59)

dp

dp

F

F

dz

dz

fo

fg

1 x

fg

1 x

(2.60)

30

In general equation;

dp

dp

F

F

dz

dz

fo

fo

(2.61)

fo 2

, known as the two-phase frictional multiplier;

fo 2

fg

1 x

fg

1 x

1

4

(2.62)

2.7.1 Derivation of Model and Assumption;

a. Each phase velocity is constant

b. The attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases

2

c. The use of empirical correlations or simplified concepts to relate

and

to

The momentum equation

x 2 g (1 x) 2 f

dp

dp

2 d

F G

g sin g (1 ) f

dz

(1 )

dz

dz

dp

dp

F

F

dz

dz

2 f foG 2 f

fo

2

fo

fo

(2.63)

(2.64)

2 f f G 2 (1 x) 2 f

dp

dp

2

F

F f

D

dz

dz f

(2.65)

31

(1 x)

ff

f fo

1

4

(2.66)

fo f (1 x ) 2

2

ff

f fo

f (1 x )1.75

2

(2.67)

x 2 g 1 x 2 f

dp

2 d

a G

dz

1

dz

(2.68)

2

d x g 1 x f

1

dz

dp x 2 d g

dz dp p

dx 2 x g 21 x f

1

dz

1 x 2 f

1 2

1 x 2 f

1 2

x 2 g

2

x 2 g

2

(2.69)

2 f foG 2 f

dp

dz

fo G 2

2

2

dx 2 x g 21 x f

d 1 x f x g

dz

1 dx 1 2

2

x 2 d g d 1 x 2 f x 2 g

1 G2

2

dp 1 2

dp

g sin g f 1

negligible

(2.70)

So that;

2

2

dx 2 x g 21 x f d 1 x f x g

dp 2 f foG f

fo 2 G 2

2

1 dx 1

D

dz

dz

g sin g f 1

(2.71)

32

fo

2.7.2 The evaluation of the Two-phase Multiplier

flow regime were defined on the basis of the behavior of the flow (viscous or

turbulent) when the phases were considered to pass alone through the channel

The liquid and gas phase pressure drop were considered equal irrespective of

the detail of the particular flow pattern.

dp

dp

dp

gF

fF

F

dz

dz

dz

(2.72)

2 ff fuf

dp

fF

Df

dz

(2.73)

2 f g gug

dp

gF

Dg

dz

(2.74)

2

Df

4

Af

(2.75)

2

Dg

4

Ag

(2.76)

Using Blasius

n

f u f Df

ff Kf

f

(2.59, 2.67, 2.69, 2.71)

n 2

Df

(2.77)

5 n

(2.78)

33

dp

F

dz

dp

F

dz

n2

D

g

5 n

(2.79)

Lockhart-Martinelli assumption to the case of annular flow, Dividing eq 2.69 by A=D2/4

2

1 D

D

f

f (1 )

2

n2

(2.80)

D

f

n 1

(2.81)

Df

4D

4

D

1 4D2

D

4

D

Thus

D

D

1

D f 4 1

f 1

2

n2

1 n1 1 3

So that;

(2.82)

f 1

2

(2.83)

X2

dp

F

dz

dp

F

dz

(2.84)

Where;

f 1

2

C

1

2

X X

(2.85)

34

g 1 CX X 2

2

Liquid

Turbulent

Viscous

Turbulent

Viscous

Gas

Turbulent

Turbulent

Viscous

Viscous

tt

vt

tv

vv

C

20

12

10

5

Kim, S.M and Mudawar, I. (2012)

dp

dz

dp

2

f

dz f

(2.86)

dp

dz

dp

2

g

dz g

(2.87)

f 1

2

Where

dp

F

dz

C

1

2

X X

dp

F

dz

X2

dp

F

dz

(2.88)

2 f f f G 2 (1 x) 2

dp

F

dz

Dh

2 f g g G 2 x 2

Dh

;

f k 16 Re k

(2.89)

f k 0.079 Re k

0.25

f k 0.046 Re k

0.2

, for Rek 20,000

f k Re k 24(1 1.3553 1.9467 2 1.7012 3 0.9564 4 0.2537 5 )

(2.90)

Where subscript k denotes f or g for liquid and vapor phases, respectively

35

Re f

G 1 x Dh

f

Re g

GxDh

g

Re fo

,

Liquid

Turbulen

GDh

f

Laminar

t

Laminar

0.03

0.0015 Re fo

Laminar

Su go

8.7 x10 4 Re fo

Turbulent

Laminar

(2.91)

C

0.39 Re fo

Turbulen

, Suratman number

Gas(Vapor)

Turbulent

g Dh

Su go

0.17

0.59

3.5 x10 5 Re fo

0.10

0.44

Su go

Su go

0.35

Su go

0.36

0.50

0.19

(2.92)

0.14

(2.93)

0.50

(2.94)

0.48

(2.95)

1. Friedel (D>4mm, air-water,air-oil,R-12)

dp

dz

dp

dz

fo

fo

(2.96)

fo

g f go

1 x x

f

f fo

f

2

0.91

0.19

1 g

0.7

Frtp

0.045

We tp

0.035

(2.97)

36

Frtp

GDh

1

G2

G 2 Dh

H

Re go

We

tp

2

x g 1 x f

g

gDh H

H

,

,

,

(2.98)

(D=4-392 mm, air-water, water, hydrocarbon, refrigerant)

dp

dz

dp

dz

fo

dp

2

dz

dp

dz

go

dp

1/ 3

x 1 x

dz

fo

x3

go

(2.99)

dp

dz

dp

2

f

dz f

(2.100)

2

f jf f

C

1

1 2

f Dh

X X

,

,

0.557

(2.101)

Ctv 3.627 Re fo

0.174

,

Cvt 6.185 10 2 Re fo

0.726

Ctt 0.048 Re fo

(2.102)

0.451

(2.103)

dp

dz

dp

dz

Bo g Dh / 2

f

g

fo, Friedel

For Bo*<2.5

0.0333 Re fo

Re g

0.09

(2.104)

0.45

1 0.4e

Bo*

(2.105)

37

We tp

0.2

2.5 0.06 Bo

For Bo*2.5

(2.106)

dp

dz

Re f

Re g

dp

2

f f 2 1 C 1 C 1.79

2

Re

dz

f

f

X X

,

,

G 1 x Dh

f

Re g

0.4

1 x

0.5

(2.107)

GxDh

g

(2.108)

2.8.1 Homogeneous Model

1

1 x g

1

x l

(2.109)

1

1 x

1

(2.110)

1 x

1 g

l x

l

1 x

0 .4

g

x

0 .4 0 .6

1 x

1 0 .4

x

(2.111)

38

x

G

x 1 x U GU

Co

L

m

G

(2.112)

U GU 0.05 U

Valuable only if

At elevated pressure, Zuber (1967);

Co 1.13

With

U GU

g L G

1.41

2

L

(2.113)

This also can be implemented for bubbly flow, vertical up flow, with particular value of Co

Geometry

In-dim (mm)

Co

Tube

Co=1-0.5Pr

50

Tube

Co=1.2 for Pr

50

Tube

Co=1.2-0.4(Pr-0.5)

50

Rectangular

Co=1.4-0.4(Pr-0.5)

For bubbly flow, vertical up flow, Wallis (1969);

Pr ,Reduced pressure

Except for Pr0.5, where Co=1.2

for Pr >0.5

Co 1.0

U GU

g L G

1.53

2

L

2

2

Amc 1 d mc Ac 1 d c Wg g Qg W f f Q f

4

4

,

,

,

Uniformity distribution in between two outlet channels is equated

(2.114)

39

Rg

Qgcu Qgcd

Rf

Qgcu Qgcd

Q fcu Q fcd

Q fcu Q fcd

, and

(2.115)

Rg and Rf is dimensionless. If Rg >0, gas phase tend to go to upper channel and vice versa. If

Rg=0, the gas is uniform. Similarly, for Rf is. If Rf >0, liquid phase tend to go to upper

channel and vice versa. If Rf=0, the liquid is uniform

Merge pipe distributor have inlet diameter 8 mm and 2 pair 5 mm outlet diameter, as

shown in Fig. 2.6 (a)

5mm

5mm

8 mm

Equivalent

length

r

4

Su

Sb

(a

)

h

(c)

(b

)

Fig. 2.6 Merged pipe distributor; (a) 2d sketch and Simplified as Incline straight tube,

(b) simplified as converging diverging nozzle and (c) 3d sketch

Because there are no correlations, related to merge pipe distributor.

Three approach

correlations are tested; area changes by Tapucu, 1989, straight incline pipe and Teejunction.

40

1989.

Assumption:

Contraction and expansion cannot be separated in the case of short insert.

Janssen & Kervinen (1964), assuming that the contraction losses are small

compared to the expansion losses.

L

x 2

G 1

p SI 1 2 2

2 L C

C

1 x 2 1

L 2 1 C

1

C

1 x 2

4

3

4

G 3

2C

Where;

2

C

1

(2.116)

41

3 4

A2 A2

A1 A4

A3

A2

and

Assumed as constant void fraction

2

1 Gi 1

pSI

1

2 C

(2.117)

If use Momentum Energy Equation of Hewitt & Hall Taylor (1970) based on Jansen

assumption

2

1 1

1 G1 H 1 1

1

pSI G

2 C 2 32 42

C 3 4

2

1

(2.118)

Where;

A2

A1

A3

A2

, and

Assumed as constant void fraction

G

p SI 1

2

Where

2 1

1

1 H2

2

C C

(2.119)

x2

1 x

G 1 L

2

(2.120)

and

42

x3

1 x

2

2

1 2 L 2

G

3

(2.121)

1

x 1 x

H G

L

(2.122)

2.10.2 Pressure drop by Energy equation as T-Junction, Hwang et al. (1988)

p1i ,TP

Hom,i

2

G

i

E ,i

2

2

G1

K1i ,TP G1

2 L

E ,1

(2.123)

1 x 3 x 3

2

2

L 1 G 2

12

(2.124)

K1i ,TP K1i ,SP

L2 Hom,i

Hom,1

1.60 L2 Hom,i

Hom,1

2.57 L2 Hom,i

Hom,1

0.586

(2.125)

0.146

(2.126)

(2.127)

43

k1i

W

W

0.477 0.21 i 0.744 i

W1

W1

(2.128)

k1i

W

W

1 0.8285 i 0.6924 i

W1

W1

(2.129)

Hom

x 1 x

L

G

(2.130)

References

Collier, J.G., (1981), Convective boiling and condensation, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,

ISBN: 0070117985.

Thome, J.R., (2010), Engineering data book III, Wolverine Tube, Inc.

ThermopediaTM , A to z guide to thermodynamics, Heat and mass transfer, and fluid

engineering, http://www.thermopedia.com/

Hwang, S.T. and Lahey, R.T., (1988), A study on single- and two-phase pressure drop in

branching conduits, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 1, p. 111125

Tapucu, A., Teyssedou, A., Troche, N. and Merilo, M., (1989), Pressure losses caused by

44

changes in a single channel flow under two-phase flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 151, p. 51-64

Kim, S.M. and Mudawar, I., (2012), Universal approach to predicting two-phase frictional

pressure drop for adiabatic and condensing mini/micro-channel flows, Int. J. Heat

and Mass Transfer 55, p. 32463261

Hewitt, G. F. & Hall Taylor, N. S. (1970), Annular Two-phase Flow, Pergamon Press,

Oxford.

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