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DifferencesandShortNotes.
SummonsCaseandWarrantCase
AsperSection2(w),"summonscase"meansacaserelatingtoanoffence,andnotbeingawarrantcaseandasper
Section2(x),"warrantcase"meansacaserelatingtoanoffencepunishablewithdeath,imprisonmentforlifeor
imprisonmentforatermexceedingtwoyears.CrPCclassifiesanoffenceaseithercognizableornoncognizable,anda
trialprocedureassummonscaseorwarrantcase.Thus,thetermssummonscaseandwarrantcaseareinreferenceto
theprocedureadoptedforthetrialofthecase.Thus,thedifferencebetweenthetwocanbeseenfromthepointofviewof
theirtrialproceduresashighlightedbelow
D2CCPAWO
SummonsCase

Warrantcase

CrPCprescribesonlyoneprocedureforallsummonscases,
whetherinstituteduponapolicereportorotherwise.

CrPCprescribestwoproceduresforthetrialof
awarrantcasemymagistrateoneforcase
instituteduponapolicereportandoneforcase
institutedotherwisethanonapolicereport.

Nochargeneedstobeframedonlytheparticularsoftheoffence
needstobeconveyedtotheaccused.

Achargeneedstobeframedagainstthe
accused.

AsperS.252,iftheaccusedpleadsguilty,themagistratemust
AsperS.241,Afterthechargeisframed,the
recordthepleaoftheaccusedandmay,inhisdiscretion,convicthim accusedmaypleadguiltyandthemagistrate
onsuchplea.
mayconvicthimonhisdiscretion.
Accusedmypleadguiltybypostwithoutappearingbeforethe
magistrate.

Accusedmustappearpersonally.

Theaccusedmaybeacquitted,ifthecomplainantisabsentorifthe
complainantdies.

Magistratecandischargetheaccusedif
complainantisabsent,ornochargeisframed,
oriftheoffenceiscompoundableandnon
cognizable.

Thecomplainantmay,withthepermissionofthecourt,withdrawthe
complaintagainsttheaccused.

Thecomplainantmay,withthepermissionofthe
court,withdrawtheremainingchargesagainst
anaccused,ifheischargedwithseveral
offencesandconvictedononeormoreofthem.

Whenasummonscaseistriedasawarrant
Whenawarrantcaseistriedasasummonscaseandiftheaccused
caseandiftheaccusedisdischargedunderS
isacquittedunderS.255,theacquittalwillonlyamounttodischarge.
245,thedischargewillamounttoacquittal.
Trialofawarrantcaseasasummonscaseitisaseriousirregularity
andthetrialisvitiatediftheaccusedhasbeenprejudiced.

Trialofasummonscaseasawarrantcaseisan
irregularitywhichiscurableunderSection465.

Asummonscasecannothavechargesthatrequireawarrantcase.

Awarrantcasemaycontainchargesthatreflect
asummonscase.

Accusedgetsonlyoneopportunity.

Accusedmaygetmorethanoneopportunityto
crossexaminetheprosecutionwitness.
Achargeunderawarrantcasecannotbesplit
upintoitsconstituentsfortrialundersummons
case.

Nosuchpowertothemagistrateinsummonscase.

Afterconvictingtheaccused,themagistratemay
takeevidenceregardingpreviousconvictionnot
admittedbytheaccused.
Allcaseswhicharepunishablebydeath,

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Allcaseswhicharenotpunishablebydeath,imprisonmentforlife,or imprisonmentforlife,orformorethantwoyears
formorethantwoyearsaresummonscases.
arewarrantcases.
Conversion
AsperSection259,asummonscasecanbeconvertedintoa
warrantcaseifthecaserelatestoanoffencethatentailsmorethan6
monthsofimprisonmentaspunishmentandthejudgefeelsthatin
theinterestofjusticeitthecaseshouldbetriedasawarrantcase.

Awarrantcasecannotbeconvertedintoa
summonscase.

Itisimportanttonotethatthequestionwhetherasummonsorawarrantshouldbeissuedinthecaseisnotrelatedto
whetherthecaseisasummonscaseorawarrantcase.

CompoundableandNonCompoundableOffencesSomeoffenceslargelyaffectonlythevictimandnoconsiderable
harmisconsideredtobedonetothesociety.Insuchoffences,iftheoffenderandvictimcompromise,thereisnoneedto
wastecourt'stimeinconductingatrial.TheprocessofreachingacompromiseiscalledCompounding.Conceptually,
suchoffences,inwhichacompromisecanbedoneandatrialcanbeavoided,arecalledCompoundableoffence.Restof
theoffencesarenoncompoundable.Technically,offencesclassifiedasCompoundablebySection320ofCrPCare
compoundable.Section320specifiestwokindsofCompoundableoffencesonewherepermissionofcourtisrequired
beforecompoundingcanbedoneforexample,voluntarilycausinggrievoushurt,Theft,criminalbreachoftrust,assaulton
awomanwithintentiontooutragehermodesty,etc.andonewherepermissionofthecourtisnotrequiredforexample,
causinghurt,adultery,defamation,etc.AsperS.320(3),iftheabetmentofanoffenceisanoffenceandiftheoffenceis
compoundablethenabetmentisalsocompoundable.
Onlytheperson,whoisspecifiedintheclassificationtablesinSection320,hastherighttocompoundtheoffence.The
personisusuallythevictim.Theoffendercannotdemandcompoundingasaright.
However,whenanoffenderhasbeencommittedtotrialorwhenhehasbeenconvictedandhisappealispending,
compoundingcanonlybedonewiththeleaveofthecourttowhichheiscommittedortowhichthetrialispending.Ifan
offenderisliableforenhancedpunishmentoradifferentpunishmentonaccountofapreviousconviction,compounding
cannotbedone.HighCourtandCourtofSessionmay,undertheirpowerofrevisioninSection401,canallowanyperson
tocompoundanycompoundableoffence.
Whenanoffenceiscompounded,itisequivalenttoanacquittal.

CompoundableOffenceSection320

NonCompoundableOffence

OffencesclassifiedascompoundablebyS.320ofCrPC

Restoftheoffences

Offencemostlyaffectsaprivateparty.

Privatepartyaswellassocietybothare
considerablyaffectedbytheoffence.

Thevictimandtheoffendermayreachcompromisewithorwithout
thepermissionofthecourtdependingontheoffence.

Nocompromiseisallowed.Evencourtdoesnot
havethepowertocompoundtheoffence.

Uponcompromise,theoffenderisacquittedwithoutanytrial.

Fulltrialisheldandacquittalorconvictionisgiven
aspertheevidence.

InBhimaSinghvsStateofUP,AIR1974,SCheldthatwhenanoffenceiscompoundablewiththepermissionofthe
court,suchpermissionmaybegrantedbySCwhileanappealismadeagainsttheconvictionprovidedthepartieshave
settledthematteramicably.
InRamLalvsStateofJ&K,1999,SCheldthatwhenanoffenceisdeclarednoncompoundablebylaw,itcannotbe
compoundedevenwiththepermissionofthecourt.However,thecourtmaytakethecompromiseintoaccountwhile
deliveringjudgment.
ThecaseofBSJoshivsStateofHaryana,AIR2003isinterestinginthisregard.Thecasewasaboutthematterrelated
toSection498A,whichisnoncompoundableoffence.Inthiscase,thepartiesreachedacompromisebuttheHighCourt
refusedtoquashtheFIR,onthegroundthattheoffenceisnoncompoundable.However,SCheldthatinthebackdropof
theinterpretationofthevariousrelevantprovisionsoftheCodeunderChapterXIVandoftheprinciplesoflawenunciated
bythisCourtinaseriesofdecisionsrelatingtotheexerciseoftheextraordinarypowerunderArticle226ortheinherent
powersunderSection482oftheCode,suchpowercouldbeexercisedeithertopreventabuseoftheprocessofanycourt
orotherwisetosecuretheendsofjustice,thoughitmaynotbepossibletolaydownanyprecise,clearlydefinedand
sufficientlychannelisedandinflexibleguidelinesorrigidformulateandtogiveanexhaustivelistofmyriadkindsofcases
whereinsuchpowershouldbeexercised.Itfurtherobservedthatinthiscase,thepartieswerenotaskingfor
compoundingtheoffencebutforquashingtheFIR.Itobservedthatsincebecauseoftheamicablesettlement,thereisno
chanceofconvictionandinsuchacasethecourthasthepowertoquashtheproceeding.

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InformationandComplaint
Information

Complaint

Nolegaldefinition.ItisusedinitsregularEnglish
meaning.

AsperSection2(d),acomplaintmeansanyallegationmade
orallyorinwritingtoamagistrate,withaviewtohistaking
actionunderthiscode(CrPC),thatsomeperson,whether
knownorunknown,hascommittedanoffence,butdoesnot
includeapolicereport.

Noactionfromthemagistrateisexpected.

Thepurposeofcomplaintisthatthemagistratetakesaction
onitandproviderelief.

Nocognizanceistaken.

MagistratetakescognizanceoftheoffenceasperSection
190.

Itmayincludeinformationaboutcommissionof
offences,apprehensionaboutbreachofpeace,and
presenceofabsconderandsuspectedpersonsto
policeofficersormagistrate.Thus,aninformationmay
notnecessarilyaboutanoffence.

Itisalwaysaboutcommissionofanoffence.

SufficientgroundsforcommitmentandSufficientgroundsforconviction
Sufficientgroundsforcommitment

Sufficientgroundsfor
conviction

WhenamagistratetakescognizanceofanoffenceunderSection190(uponreceiptofa
complaintorotherwise),heexaminesthecomplaintinaccordancewithSection200by
examiningthefactsandthewitnesses.Ifhefindsthatthecomplaintiswithmerits,the
caseisdeemedcommittedfortrialandthemagistrateissuestheprocessunderSection
204.IftheoffenceisexclusivelytriablebyCourtofSession,themagistratecommitsthe
casetoCourtofSessionunderSection209.

Uponholdingthetrial,ifthe
courtissatisfiedwiththe
evidenceprovidedbythe
prosecutethattheaccusedis
guiltyoftheallegedoffence,
heconvictstheoffender.

Atthisstageitisnotconsideredwhetherthegroundsaresufficientforconviction.

Theevidencemustprovethe
guiltoftheaccusedwithout
anydoubt.

DischargeandAcquittal
Discharge

Acquittal

SessionTrial
AsperSection227,if,uponconsiderationoftherecordofthecaseandthe
documentssubmittedtherewith,andafterhearingthesubmissionsofthe
accusedandtheprosecutioninthisbehalf,theJudgeconsidersthatthereis
notsufficientgroundforproceedingagainsttheaccused,heshalldischarge
theaccusedandrecordhisreasonsforsodoing.

SessionTrial
Ifafterevaluatingtheevidencegivenby
theprosecute,thejudgeconsidersthat
thereisnoevidencethattheaccused
hascommittedtheoffence,thejudge
acquitstheoffenderunderSection232.
However,iftheoffenderisnotacquitted
underSection232,heispermittedto
givehisdefenseandevidence.After
hearingtheargumentsofboththe
parties,thecourtmayacquitofconvict
thepersonunderSection235.

WarrantTrialByMagistrate
AsperSection239,if,uponconsideringthepolicereportandthedocuments
sentwithitundersection173andmakingsuchexamination,ifany,ofthe
accusedastheMagistratethinksnecessaryandaftergivingtheprosecution
andtheaccusedanopportunityofbeingheard,theMagistrateconsidersthe
chargeagainsttheaccusedtobegroundless,heshalldischargethe
accused,andrecordhisreasonsforsodoing.

WarrantTrialByMagistrate
AsperSection248,if,inanycase
underthisChapterinwhichacharge
hasbeenframed,theMagistratefinds
theaccusednotguilty,heshallrecord
anorderofacquittal.

Dischargedoesnotmeanthattheaccusedhasnotcommittedtheoffence.It
justmeansthatthereisnotenoughevidencetoproceedwiththetrial.

Acquittalmeansthattheaccusedhas
beenheldinnocent.

Iffurtherevidenceisgatheredlateron,theaccusedmaybetriedagain.

Theaccusedcannotbetriedagainfor
thesameoffenceoncehehasbeen
acquitted.

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CognizableoffenceandNoncognizableoffence
Cognizableoffence

NonCognizableoffence

DefinedinSection2(l)"non
cognizableoffence"meansan
offenceforwhich,and"non
DefinedinSection2(c)"cognizableoffence"meansanoffenceforwhich,and
cognizablecase"meansacase
"cognizablecase"meansacaseinwhich,apoliceofficermay,inaccordancewiththe inwhich,apoliceofficerhasno
FirstScheduleorunderanyotherlawforthetimebeinginforce,arrestwithout
authoritytoarrestwithout
warrant.
warrant.
ExamplesMurder,Dowrydeath,grevioushurt,theft.
Examplekeepingalottery
office,voluntarilycausinghurt,
dishonestmisappropriationof
property.
PolicehastorecordinformationaboutacognizableoffenceinwritingasperSection
154.

AsperSection155,Policehas
toenterinformationinregister
prescribedforitandreferthe
informanttoamagistrate.

Policecanstartinvestigationwithouttheorderofamagistrate.

Policeofficercannotinvestigate
thecasewithouttheorderofa
magistrate.

Ingeneral,cognizableoffencesareofseriousnaturewhichinvolveimprisonmentof
morethanthreeyears.However,thereisnosuchpreciserule.Tobecognizable,an
offencemustbedeclaredsobythelawdefiningthatoffence.Severaloffenceswhich
carrylessprisontermsuchasrioting(2yrs)havebeendeclaredcognizable,while
severalwithbiggerprisontermsuchasFalseEvidence(7yrs)orRapebyamanwith
hisownwifeofnotlessthan12yrshavebeendeclarednoncognizable.

FirstInformationReport
ThenameFIRisgiventotheinformationgivenbyanypersonaboutacognizableoffenceandrecordedbythepolicein
accordancewithSection154.Asperthissection,everyinformationrelatingtothecommissionofacognizableoffence,if
givenorallytoanofficerinchargeofapolicestation,shallbereducedtowritingbyhimorunderhisdirection,andbe
readovertotheinformantandeverysuchinformation,whethergiveninwritingorreducedtowritingasaforesaid,shall
besignedbythepersongivingit,andthesubstancethereofshallbeenteredinabooktobekeptbysuchofficerinsuch
formastheStateGovernmentmayprescribeinthisbehalf.
SCinthecaseofStateofBombayvsRusyMistry,AIR1960,definedFIRassoAFIRmeanstheinformation,by
whomsoevergiven,totheofficerinchargeofapolicestationinrelationtothecommissionofacognizableoffenceand
whichisfirstinpointoftimeandonthestrengthofwhichtheinvestigationintothatoffenceiscommenced.
Thus,FIRisnothingbutinformationofthenatureofacomplaintoraccusationaboutacognizableoffencegivenbyany
persontothepolicesothatthepolicecanstartinvestigation.Whenapersonreportsanyinformationaboutacognizable
offencetothepolice,thepoliceisboundtoregisteracaseandproceedwithinvestigation.However,forpoliceto
investigatethematter,theoffencemustbeacognizableoffence.Thepoliceisnotallowedtoinvestigateanoncognizable
offencewithoutanorderfromamagistrate.So,oncethedutyofficeriscertainthattheoffenceallegedtohavebeen
committedisacognizableoffence,hedirectsthecomplainanttoputhisstatementinwriting.Inthepresenceofthe
complainant,thedutyofficershallcompleteallthecolumnsintheFIRregisterwiththeinformationgivenbythe
complainant.HeshallthenreadoutallthecontentsoftheFIRregisteredtothecomplainant.Oncethecomplainantis
certainthatallthedetailshavebeencorrectlywritten,heshouldsigntheFIR.
FIRmerelycontainsthefactsoftheoffenceasknownbytheinformant.TheFIRisastatementbythecomplainantofan
allegedoffence.Theinformantisnotrequiredtoprovehisallegationsinanymanneratthepolicestation.Itisthejobof
thepolicetoascertainfacts,verifydetailsandsubstantiatethechargesorotherwise.
However,thefactsmustnotbevague.Thefactsmustdivulgeatleastsomeconcreteinformationabouttheoffence
committed.IncaseofTapinderSinghvsState,1972,SCheldthatwhenatelephonemessagedidnotdisclosethe
namesoftheaccusednordiditdisclosethecommissionofacognizableoffence,itcannotbecalledaFIR.
IncaseofStateofUPvsRKShrivastava,1989,SCheldthatiftheallegationsmadeinanFIRdonotconstitutea
cognizableoffence,thecriminalproceedinginstitutedonthebasisoftheFIRshouldbequashed.
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Sometimesmultiplepersonsmayreportthesameincidentandinsuchsituationthepolicemustusecommonsenseand
recordonestatementasFIR.Usually,thestatementthatcontainsenoughinformationtoallowthepolicetoproceedwith
investigationisrecordedasFIR.
EvidentiaryValueofFIR
AFIRisnotsubstantiveevidencethatis,itisnotevidenceofthefactswhichitmentions.However,itisveryimportant
sinceitconveystheearliestinformationabouttheoccurrenceofanoffenceanditcanbeusedtocorroboratethe
informationunderSection157ofIndianEvidenceActortocontradicthimunderSection145ofIndianEvidenceAct,ifthe
informantiscalledasawitnessinatrial.ItisconsideredthatFIRhasabettercorroborativevalueifitisrecordedbefore
thereistimeandopportunitytoembellishorbeforethememoryoftheinformationbecomeshazy.Theremustbea
reasonablecauseforthedelay.Forexample,incaseofHarpalSinghvsStateofHP,1981,involvingrape,theFIRwas
registeredafter10days.Itwasheldthatthedelaywasreasonablebecauseitinvolvedconsiderablematterofhonorfor
thefamilyandthatrequiredtimeforthefamilytodecidewhethertotakethemattertocourtornot.AsFIRcanalsobeused
incrossexaminationoftheinformant.
However,iftheFIRismadebytheaccusedhimself,itcannotbeusedagainsthimbecauseofSection25ofEvidenceact
whichforbidsanyconfessionmadetothepolicetobeusedagainsttheaccused.
AFIRcanalsobeusedasadyingdeclarationunderSection32ofIndianEvidenceAct.

SummaryTrial
1.Akindoffasttrackproceedingwhereacaseisresolvedinonesitting.
2.Meantforpettyoffenses,toreducetheburdenofcourt
S.260WhenacaseinvolvingthefollowingoffensescomestoCJM,MM,andJMFCforhearing,theyhavethe
discretionarypowertodecidewhethertheywanttotrythecasesummarilyornot.Thereare9suchoffences
anyoffencethatdoesnothavedeath,lifeimprisonmentorimprisonmentofmorethan2yrsaspunishment,theft,lurking
housetrespass,receivingstolenproperty,assistinginconcealmentofstolenproperty,abetmentoftheoffencescovered
underthissection,attemptoftheseoffences.
Ifatanypointinwhiletryingthematterinthismanner,ifthecourtthinksthatitisundesirabletotrythecasesummarily,it
shallrecallanywitnesseswhomayhavebeenexaminedandproceedtorehearthecaseinthemannerprovidedinthis
code(i.e.asasummonstrialorwarranttrial)
S.261HighCourtmaygivepowertoJudicialMagistrateSecondclasstotryoffencesinvolvingimprisonmentofless
than6monthssummarily.
S.262Sentenceofimprisonmentofmorethan3monthscannotbepassedinasummarytrialandtheprocedure
adoptedinasummarytrialwillbesameastheprocedureadoptedinaSummonscaseexceptthefollowingchanges
S.263Thejudgemustrecordthefollowingparticularsintheprescribedformatserialnumberofthecase,dateof
offence,dateofcomplaint,nameofcomplainant,name,age,address,parentageofaccused,offencecomplainedand
offenceproved,pleaoftheaccusedandhisexamination,findings,sentence,anddateofterminationoftheproceeding.
S.264Iftheaccuseddoesnotpleadguilty,thejudgemustrecordthesubstanceoftheevidenceandgivereasonsfor
thejudgment.
S.265Everythesuchrecordandjudgmentshallbeinthelanguageofthecourt.
InRamLochanvsState,1978,itwasheldthatalthoughtryingagovt.servantsummarilyislegal,itshouldnotbedone
sobecauseuponconviction,govt.servantmaylosehisjob,whichisaseriousloss.
AppealandRevisioninSummaryTrials
Noappealliesifonlyasentenceoffinenotexceeding200/isawarded.ArevisionapplicationwouldlietotheHighCourt
insuchacase.

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