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Project Management is the terms and tools which is used by various small and large
organizations to implement their projects. A task that is undertaken whether it is an hour task
or big project requires a methodology to be followed. Methodology can be considered as a set
of guidelines or standard to be followed in performing a given task. Project Management
Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) provides guidelines that can be adopted to undergo a
successful handling of a project. Project management when properly used result in many
advantages including better use of financial, human and physical resources, improved
customer relations, shorter development times, lower costs, improved productivity and more.
Project management Institute (PMI) is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1969 by
a group of 5 people in Atlanta. PMBOK is a project management guide from PMI, it is used
as assistance in making a project providing numerous tools, techniques, skills and knowledge
applicable to a project.
Based on the 5Th Edition of PMBOK, we can conclude that the structure of the guidance is
divided in to 10 Knowledge areas, 5 Process Groups and 47 Processes.
The PMBOK guide is valuable as it contains 10 knowledge areas to help with project
management. This include: 1- Project Integration Management 2- Project Scope Management
3- Project Time Management 4- Project Cost Management 5- Project Quality Management 6Project Human Resource Management 7- Project Communication Management 8- Project
Risk Management 9- Project Procurement Management 10- Project Stakeholder
The PMBOK guide has 5 process groups including: Initiating, Planning, Execution,
Monitoring & Controlling and Closing. Keep in your mind these are not the project phases
but rather process groups.
By considering the 10 knowledge areas and 5 process groups, the PMBOK guide introduces
47 processes for managing the projects and each process consists of a number of Inputs,
Tools & Techniques and Outputs.
Some of the processes have a number of similar inputs and outputs while the outputs of some
processes could be used as the inputs for another processes. Tailoring also is recommended

action in using PMBOK guide for managing the projects. Project Managers use 47 processes
to manage the mentioned 10 knowledge areas in their projects.
2.1 PRINCE 2.
PRrojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE) was originally based on PROMPT, a
project management method created by Simpact Systems Ltd in 1975. PRINCE was
established in 1989 by Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA), which
was renamed as Office of Government Commerce (OGC). Since its inception, it has
superseded PROMPT. It has undergone 7 revisions since 1989. PRINCE2 was published in
1996. It was contributed to by a consortium of 150 European organizations. The driving
force for the emergence of PRINCE2 was to establish a standard for IT projects in the United
Kingdom (UK). It is one of the first standards that was developed with IT projects in mind.
It is the de facto standard for the government agencies in the UK. It is widely recognized and
used in private sectors in the UK and internationally. The concepts of PRINCE2 can also be
applied to non-IT projects.
The structure of Prince2:2009 is compiled with 7 Principles, 7 Themes and 7 Processes.
Below is the detailed list on the Prince2:2009 guidance.
PRINCE2 is designed based on 7 PRINCIPLES: 1- Continued business justification 2- Learn
from experience 3- Defined roles and responsibilities 4- Manage by stages 5- Manage by
exception 6- Focus on products 7- Tailor to suit the project environment.
Applying these 7 principles are mandatory if you want to use PRINCE2 methodology for
managing your projects.
The 7 THEMES in Prince2 is including: 1- Business Case 2- Organization 3- Quality 4- Plans
5- Risk 6- Change 7- Progress and for each THEME, PRINCE2 explains: 1- Purpose 2Definition 3- The PRINCE2 approach 4- Responsibilities based on the roles.
The last element of PRINCE2 is based on 7 PROCESSES including: 1- Starting up a project
2- Directing a Project 3- Initiating a project 4- Controlling a stage 5- Managing product
delivery 6- Managing a stage boundary 7- Closing a project and for each PROCESS,
PRINCE2 explains: 1- Purpose 2- Objective 3- Context 4- Needed activities.



1- Project Integration Management

PRINCE2 : 2009
1- Business Case

2- Project Scope Management

2- Organization

3- Project Time Management

3- Quality

4- Project Cost Management

4- Plans

5- Project Quality Management

5- Risk

6- Project Human Resource

6- Change


7- Progress and for each THEME,

7- Project Communication
8- Project Risk Management
9- Project Procurement Management
10- Project Stakeholder Management


The fundamental piece of PRINCE2 emphasizes more to the key risk in a project. PMBOK is
more extensive. PRINCE2 differentiates why projects fails and aims to reduce the failure rate
by removing the reason for failure Management, control and proper use of tools and
techniques. PMBOK also aims to increase project success rate by applying processes, tools
and techniques. While neither can guarantee success, they improve chances of success.
PRINCE2 revolves around improving success rates.

The second differences between PMBO and Prince2 is Product base Structure. PRINCE2
emphasizes on product planning to produce a quality product. Product Breakdown Structure,
Product Description and the Product Flow Diagram are key to product based planning.
PMBOK does not have similar emphasis.
The next differences will be the control part of the project. PMBOK does not cover on the
control part. PRINCE2 control is exercised by authorizing and by dividing the project into
manageable stages and milestones.
Based on the comparison for the detailed information part, PMBOK has detailed information
that can be used for each competency that it addresses. For every competency that is
addressed in PMBOK, there is a tools and technique section that gives detailed information
for that technique. PRINCE2 just states that the best suitable techniques should be chosen for
a project and does not give any detailed information on them.
Based on the study, Stages and phases are used interchangeably in PRINCE2. Technical
stages are overcoming technical tasks and challenges. Management stages are commitments
to stakeholders. PMBOK does not make this distinction, they does not have their technical
Apart from that PMBOK defines a stakeholder as a person or organization that is actively
involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by
execution or completion of the project. PRINCE2 goes a step further and puts a stakeholder
into 3 categories: business sponsor, user, and supplier. Business sponsors are those who
make sure the project delivers for money. Users are the people who will use the product once
it is finished. Suppliers provide the expertise and the resources to the project and ultimately
produce the products.
The project in PMBOK drives by the customers request. The PMBOK worked on the
customers requirement, which is may not rationality on the requirement. On the other hand,
Business case drives a PRINCE2 project. The accurate outcomes will be driven from the
original case and it will easy to analyse on the projects outcome.
Based on the analysis the Process structure needs to be followed in PRINCE2. It can be
scaled according to the size of the project. PMBOK prescribes tools and techniques at a high
level, but mostly serves as performance based standard.

Procurement stage be one of the factors which is differentiates both parties. The PMBOK
states that procurement includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products,
services, or results needed from outside the project team. PRINCE2 makes no mention of
procurement throughout the entire manual.
PMBOK has detailed information that can be used for each competency that it addresses. For
every competency that is addressed in PMBOK, there is a tools and technique section that
gives detailed information for that technique. PRINCE2 just states that the best suitable
techniques should be chosen for a project and does not give any detailed information on
If we move into the Human Resource Management, PRINCE2 does not give any information
dealing with human resources or human resource management. PMBOK dedicates an entire
knowledge area to human resources management for a project. It involves developing a
human resources plan, acquiring the project team, developing the project team, and managing
the project team.
PRINCE2 just mentions that the best training programs should be used for the specific
environment. PMBOK has higher details on the use of soft skills for reducing conflicts and
increasing cooperation in a team. PMBOK also references the importance of leadership skills
for the success of a project.

Chin, C. M. M., and Spowage, A. C, 2010. Defining and Classifying Project Management
Methodologies. PM World Today, 12(5), 1-9.
Project Management Institute 2013. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge,
5th edition. Pennsylvania, USA: Project Management Institute, Inc.

Waheed, N. 2014. CMMI, PRINCE2 and PMBOK The Big Three. Proc. of the International
Confrerence on Advances in Computing and Information Technology, 6-9. DOI: 10.3850/
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