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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

Comprehensive Instructional Design Plan


Jennifer Leigh-Ann Danley
University of West Georgia

COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

Introduction
This assignment revolved around creating an Instructional Design Plan to assist our client
in integrating Visual Literacy practices into the classroom and more specifically an existing unit.
This paper will incorporate current research on incorporating photography into the classroom to
enhance instruction as well as the many benefits of incorporating visual literacies into education.
The client, the instructional problem and a solution to address client needs will be addressed.
Middle school Language Arts teachers have an especially difficult challenge in front of them.
Over the past decade and longer the focus of reading education has primarily been on early
literacy, meaning reading in primary grades. According to Biancarosa and Snow (2006) in
Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy even the
most promising readers in third grade will weaken in later grades if attention is not given on
literacy in the middle and high school grades. Therefore in order for students to be able to
achieve the literary skills required to understand the challenging texts they will encounter in
middle and high school, teachers must acquire a new set of tools. Many would go one step
further and want to guarantee that teachers not only teach the literacy skills required, but also
instill the love for reading that is somehow extinguished between elementary and high school.
The elements of literacy are commonly described as reading, writing, listening and speaking.
Visual literacy is rarely mentioned and never mentioned as an in depth way to make connections,
synthesize information, evaluate and critique. In the 21st century, the primary literacy of the
learner is visual. It is no longer adequate to be able to write and read text. Students must be
taught how to synthesize information that is introduced visually. By incorporating Visual and
Media Literacy into the ELA classroom, and giving students a visual picture by which to be able
to remember concepts, we are not only giving students an edge in testing, but we are also
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

introducing them to a whole new world of literacy but also giving them the tools and skills
necessary to succeed as a 21st century learner.
Literature Review
Because more than 65% of the population learns best through visual means, utilizing the
dual-coding or multimedia theory to teach provides students with a learning approach that, more
than likely, best suits their learning needs, but it also brings a relevance and engagement to
learning that may not otherwise be included. 21st century students it seems are surgically
attached to their iPhones, iPads, and laptops. If they have a proclivity for and knowledge of these
tools, why not strategically utilize them to enhance learning and promote higher level thinking
and critical analysis? The multi-media theory promotes this type of learning. The various forms
of media used to enhance student learning creates a channel to help move the information from
the sensory memory, through the working (short term) memory, and cement it into the long-term
memory. More information stored in the long-term memory will enable students to process new
information more quickly, but it will also allow future learning on a particular subject, or topic,
to a deeper, more analytical level.
Studies show that images not only illustrate the material, enhance presentations, and
make them more memorable, but also aid students in understanding concepts that are difficult to
express verbally (Mowat, 2002). In a study by Krystyna Matusiak the students reported that
they had a positive learning experience in the class and the image-rich resources contributed to
their engagement and understanding. The authors found that the study confirmed that images
and multimedia can indeed play a positive role in engaging students with the class material and
influencing their attitudes (Matusiak, 2013). The author went on to explain that Images are
capable of expressing an enormous amount, and a remarkable range, of information that
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

otherwise would be very difficult to capture in words. Further, a study conducted by Tammy
Ravas and Megan Stark (2012) found that Encouraging the students to examine visual materials
under the information-literacy framework led them to articulate the difficulties of fully, or
consistently, critiquing aspects of our increasingly visual culture. In summary, they found that
that by using the photographs from the exhibition resulted in discussions that were rich,
thoughtful, and indicated genuine growth in critical thinking (Ravas & Starks, 2012).
Overall, the integration of visual literacy techniques into the classroom can only serve to
enhance student engagement and retention as well as provide to increase critical thinking skills
that are necessary for the 21st century learner.
Description of Client and Instructional Problem
The Language Arts Department Chair for the Gwinnett Online Campus, Dan Lollis, is
looking to revamp his 7th grade novel unit on Diamonds in the Shadow. The book focuses on a
refugee family from Africa coming to live with an average family in New England. It covers
topics such as Conflict or Blood Diamonds, child soldiers, refugee camps and faith. Mr. Lollis
has never before incorporated visual literacy techniques into his unit, but feels that the students
are so far removed from some of these difficult issues, it will be beneficial to incorporate images
to illustrate some of these difficult themes. Mr. Lollis also recognizes the importance of
incorporating Visual Literacy strategies, because according to a study conducted by Theresa
Redmond (2015), 21st century skills and literacies are enhanced when students participate in
critical thinking and media deconstruction activities. Similarly, a study conducted by Morris,
Shang and Spires (2012) suggests that new literacies and technologies will facilitate important
communication and problem-solving skills needed for participation in the global economy. They
argue that teachers in the US need customized professional development support to make
important changes in their instruction that will facilitate new types of educational experiences
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

and learning for the 21st century. With the emergence of new technologies, the need for visual
and media literacy is in high demand. Therefore, this paper will help Mr. Lollis in implementing
photography and digital storytelling into the Language Arts classroom.
Goals and Objectives
The long-term goal of this instructional plan is to introduce our client to integrating visual
literacy techniques into the classroom. However, the short-term goal is to be able to have
students better understand the themes and issues that are found in the novel Diamonds in the
Shadow. The major Academic Knowledge and Skills (AKS) standards that are associated with
this unit are as follows:

Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical
account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction of

different cultures use or alter history (CCGPS) (7LA_A2012-8)


Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters

or narrators in a text (CCGPS) (7LA_A2012-6)


Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course
of the text; provide an objective summary of the text (CCGPS) (7LA_A2012-2)

In addition to the AKS addressed the design plan also addresses the following ACLR Visual
Literacy Standards:

The visually literate student determines the nature and extent of the visual materials
needed
o The visually literate student identifies a variety of image sources, materials, and

types.
The Visually literate student finds and accesses needed images and visual media
effectively and efficiently.
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

o The visually literate student selects the most appropriate sources and retrieval

systems for finding and accessing needed images and visual media.
The visually literate student interprets and analyzes the meanings of images and visual
media.
o The visually literate student situates an image in its cultural, social, and historical

contexts.
The visually literate student uses images and visual media effectively
o The visually literate student uses problem solving, creativity, and experimentation
to incorporate images into scholarly projects.
Plan of Operations
Prior to reading the novel the students will be introduced to an infographic that details the

refugee crisis throughout the world. They will review different web sites that allow them to
better understand this world crisis. Throughout the reading Mr. Lollis will utilize a Prezi that
details specific characters, themes, plot structure, historical accuracy, important quotes etc. This
prezi was originally created without the use of images, however to help students better
understand some of these difficult concepts that they have never had experience with I have
redesigned the prezi Incorporate photographs that illustrate the concepts of child soldiers and
refugees. Throughout the reading of the novel the students will work on a PBL that allows them
to better research a topic of their choice that revolves around a major world issue. Suggestions
include refugees (in any part of the world), blood diamonds, child soldiers used in ISIS or in
Africa, human trafficking, womens rights, etc. Students will create a digital presentation that
they will submit to various foundations in order to garner funding so that they may assist in
eradicating the world of these issues. At the end of the unit they will present their projects to the
class and compete for funding. Each class member has been given a certain amount of money
that they may donate to the cause of their choice (excluding their own). Once they have
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

evaluated all the presentations, they will donate their money to the cause that they deem
appropriate. The presentation must incorporate images and infographics (modeled after the
infographic used at the start of the unit) that demonstrate the severity of the crisis and implore
the class members to donate to their cause. The cause with the most money donated to it wins
the competition.

Artifacts Used

COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

Diamonds in the Shadow Prezi


Crisis Website Rubric
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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN


Category

Level 5

Level 4

Level 3

Level 2

Level 1

Content

Content is
clear,
appropriate
and relevant.
Ideas and
concepts are
clearly
explained.
Website
exceeds
expectations
Project
demonstrates
exemplary
understanding
of technology
programs and
research tools

Content is clear,
appropriate and
relevant. Ideas
and concepts are
clearly
explained.
Website meets
expectations

Content is
mostly clear,
appropriate
and relevant.
Ideas and
concepts are
explained but
some aspects
are confusing.

Content is
unclear or not
relevant.
Ideas and
concepts are
explained, but
confusing in
most places.

Website did
not have
content
relevant to the
subject

Project usually
demonstrates
accomplished
understanding of
technology
programs and
research tools

Project
sometimes
demonstrates
understanding
of technology
programs and
research skills

Project reflects
that student
understanding
of technology
programs and
research tools
is in the
beginning
stage.

Use of
Visuals

Student use of
visuals reveals
the students
understands
the severity of
the crisis and
how to convey
the crisis to the
audience at an
expert level

Student use of
visuals reveals
the students
understands the
severity of the
crisis and how
to convey the
crisis to the
audience at an
proficient level

Student use of
visuals reveals
the students
understands
the severity of
the crisis and
how to convey
the crisis to
the audience
at an
developing
level

Spelling
Punctuation
& Grammar

There are no
spelling,
punctuation or
grammar
errors

There are a few


spelling,
grammar or
punctuation
errors, but do
not impede
readability

There are
several
spelling,
grammar or
punctuation
errors that in
some cases
impede
readability

Project
reflects that
student
understanding
of technology
programs and
research tools
is in the
developing
stage.
Student use
of visuals
reveals the
students
understands
the severity
of the crisis
and how to
convey the
crisis to the
audience at
an beginner
level
There are
many errors
that impede
readability

Use of
Technology

There are no
visuals used in
the project

The website
contains many
errors that
make the
website
impossible to
understand.

COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

Infographic Rubric
Category
Ideas/ Content

Research

Visual Design

Grammar/
Mechanics

Creativity

Level 4
The topic and
message of the
infographic are
clear and easily
understood
All statistics are
accurate and
resources are
properly cited.

Design elements
of infographic
contribute to
clear
communication
of information
There are no
spelling,
punctuation or
grammar errors

Additional
elements such as
pictures or maps
are incorporated
to enhance the
infographic

Level 3
Topic and main
idea are clear

Level 2
Topic is given
but the main
ideas are unclear
or lacking

Level 1
Topic and main
idea are unclear
or absent

Some statistics
may be
misleading or
unclear, but
resources are
properly cited
Design elements
of infographic
do not interfere
with
communication
of information
There are a few
spelling,
grammar or
punctuation
errors, but do
not impede
readability

Some statistics
cannot be
verified due to
resources being
improperly cited

No citations
available for
statistics

Important design
elements may be
missing, or
infographic is
difficult to
understand
There are
several spelling,
grammar or
punctuation
errors that in
some cases
impede
readability
No additional
elements are
used

Infographic is
incomplete and
missing many
design elements.

Additional
elements are
used, but does
not enhance the
infographic

Conclusion/ Reflection

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There are many


errors that
impede
readability

Additional
elements are
included that are
not relevant to
the topic or take
away from the
design

COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

I feel that this Comprehensive Instructional Design Plan will enhance Mr. Lollis novel unit on
Diamonds in the Shadow. Not only are the students learning more about current world issues as
they read, but they are learning the skills that will allow them to become a successful 21st century
learner. In addition to the students mastering the skills set forth for this unit, Mr. Lollis is able to
understand the benefits of incorporating photographs and Visual Literacy strategies into the
Language Arts classroom. I enjoyed redesigning and designing artifacts that will be used in this
lesson and look forward to seeing some of the completed projects of the new PBL that is
enhanced with the use of images to convey the dire situations of each of these crisis.

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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

References
Biancarosa, G. & Snow, C. E., (2006). Reading next: A vision for action and research in
middle and high school literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(8).
Retrieved from
http://articles.westga.edu:2276/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4a87b1d6
-6aa6-4f17-82db-25074bc82591%40sessionmgr4006&vid=1&hid=4207
Matusiak, K. (2013). Image and multimedia resources in an academic environment: A qualitative
study of students experiences and literacy practices. Journal of the American Society
for Information Science and Technology, 64(8). Retrieved from
http://articles.westga.edu:2103/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6ac456e7-a50a-4383-b1a94fa7cb9f58f1%40sessionmgr4009&vid=26&hid=4208
Morris, G., Shang, J. & Spires, H.A., (2012). New literacies and emerging technologies:
Perspectives from U.S. and Chinese middle level teachers. Research in Middle
Level Education Online, 35(10). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ974949
Mowat, E. (2002). Teaching and learning with images. VINE: The Journal Of Information &
Knowledge Management Systems, 32(3), 513.
Ravas, T. & Stark, M. (2012). Pulitzer-prize-wining photographs and visual literacy at the
University of Montana: A case study. Art Documentation: Bulletin of the Art Libraries
Society of North America, 35(1). Retrieved from
http://articles.westga.edu:2103/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6ac456e7-a50a-4383-b1a94fa7cb9f58f1%40sessionmgr4009&vid=22&hid=4208
Redmond, T., (2015). Media literacy is common sense: Bridging common core
standards with the media experiences of digital learners. Middle School Journal,
46(3). Retrieved from

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COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLAN

http://articles.westga.edu:2068/docview/1642146993?accountid=15017
Seels, B., Good, B. & Berry, L. (1999). Recognition and interpretation of historically significant
news photographs. Journal of Visual Literacy, 19(2).

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