C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology

Book I

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

ISBN 978-1-4899-5861-7
ISBN 978-1-4899-5859-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-5859-4


Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969

Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 69-18297

Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.


I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.

R. M.




1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .


2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .


3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.


5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits


6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.


7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .


8. Oscillators


9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units


Works for Further Reading





This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. transducers such as photocells and many other devices. D. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors.1. for example.C.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various non-linear and active devices.c. thermionic valves. transistors. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the so-called d. These include the various types of rectifier. characteristics. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I -V (a) (b) -I Figure 1. a capacitor. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent non-linearity. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. The characteristics of a resistor .

+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . Diode characteristics. In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it.QOC -I (a) (b) -I Figure !. t1= -[ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C .3b).3a).2a and b. the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics. as shown in Figure 1. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK).____ 650°C 6QQ°C -V -Vv=. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage). Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters. is measured for different values of anode--cathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter.:=~---:. while the anode current (h).1. For the transistor collector characteristics.z=::. (a) Thermionic. lf there are more than two variables. other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1. the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant. (b) p-n junction With three-electrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage.2. A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1. With multi-electrode devices such as pentode valves.

In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown.4b). or h 3 mA. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ.C. Active device characteristics. h 3 mA. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 .3. VcE 3 V etc.c. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics. (b) Common emitter transistor D.D.C.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. VaK. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA. (a) Triode valve.2 V (see Figure 1. Permissihle range of d. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics. (Figure 1. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics. VaK.4a).4. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. or as VAK 150 V.2 V. Since these three variables are not independent. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three.

In the circuit of Figure 1. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. (a) D. These. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line.5a. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. Under these conditions. First. circuit and Ioad for valve.c.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line.C. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope -1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1. therefore. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits. 4 . VGK. if one of the three variables. VAK = VHT. D. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. For example. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point.5.C.

volts Figure 1. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = . Reading from the graph we find the 5 . and thus VaK. lt must also lie on the load line.::.= 15mA Rr. and RL 20k0.D. Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1. the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic.6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1.. 10 .5a with VHT 300 V. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line. to say -2 V. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply. (() <i J E -IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK. CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V.::.C.6. '0 J .. and the load line is plotted as shown.

for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification. a change of + 1 V. h 7·2 mA. h 8·7 mA.8 .C.30 Non-linearity So. AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) -1 0 > -4 (b) (a) Figure 1.(-2) = -133 6 = -22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. Thus Av = +289. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. and in general ßVout ßVAK -30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = . the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = -2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax. Since a valve is a nonlinear device. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · . Now suppose Vax is changed from -2 V to -1 V.7. It is assumed that the value of wt. the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. The value of VAK changes to 289 V. but with alternating voltages.126) = -30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of -(156.156 . To investigate this we shall now change Vax from -2 V to -8 V. or the voltage gain. of the circuit is -30.

In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted. The reader can investigate this for himself.A. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28.7a. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform.c. Biasing In the circuit discussed above. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1. AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected.7b. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. This is the result of the non-linearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as non-linear distortion. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1.hRK VHT .8 is used. The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided. For most amplifiers. Initially neglecting the making VB= -4 V and Es= 4 sin wt.C. source es.c.hRL . This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage. This bias is essential since if it were not present.8.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d.1) . supply. and are shown in Figure 1. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case. the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa.

The point at which this d. If h = 1 mA.2. VAK = 300 . A numerical example will illustrate this method. RK 250 n.2) Equation 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode.c. h 7·4 mA.c.1.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. h = 8 mA.2. if h = 0. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage -hRK cannot be found directly. and once again the operating point VAK. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1.20h V. From equation 1. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = -0·25 V. operating point and voltage amplification. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d. Taking equation 1. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero. But we have a characteristic for VaK = -1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 -VaK RK lA=--=-=4mA 0·25 Similarly for -2 V. VaK = VEK = -VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth. source e8 is connected between 8 .8 with values VHT 300 V. Consider the circuit in Figure 1. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points.c. earth potential. Example 1.1.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h. The second equation is therefore (1. h must lie on this line. Determine the d. VaK = 0. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK). RL 19·75 kO. for -3 V h = 12 mA.c. This gives the same load line as before.1 and 1.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. VaK = -0·25 V. bias line has been drawn. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a.6.c.

9 .Es -4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth.e/es. The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1. 109V. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V -20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va. ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = .A. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = -Ia.= -21·25.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. D. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2. These are shown in Figure 1. h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA . This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia.4) -hRK.0·25(9·6 = 4. The explanation in this case. is simple...3) Vgk = -hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1.2 Equations 1.6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point. VAK es = -2. bias line by +2 V and -2 V respectively. however.3 and 1.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter. VAK = 194 V. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and -2 V.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28).8). AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1.c.1·075 = .= .4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d.C. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 .RK.

6 V working at 100 .C. Considering Example 1. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d.c.c.h battery bias (113·5). or very 10 . Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es. Vgk becomes es . but a simple example will illustrate the operation. hRK.c. This is true for d. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C=-- 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 . If the a. Rk was 250 Q. If Xe was.=:::= 6 . If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK.c.c. The cause of the reduction was the a.c.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain.iaZk. so using a figure of 1 000 Hz. say 25 il. The resultant .0·1075 = 3·8925. voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors. then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V.VaK would be 4. but in this case we have neglected the effect of non-linearity of characteristics.iaRK = es .1 above.6. the bias point VaK will be unchanged. Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK.uF or more.uF 20 = . load line. Vgk will be es . and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es. A.0 = es. voltage iaRK. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required. while the a.

c. The a.c.c. Ioads.c.7) (1._ (b) (a) Figure 1.T.c.c.A. H. quantities. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a. (a) Decoupled cathode bias. The slope of the a.9) VHT. ia and Vak.c.c. In the last example the d. operating point. RK has been short circuited by CK. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 .iaRL since to a.c. battery : 200 V _. the d.9 the a. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d.8 becomes Vgk =es.9 gives the a. load lines are very different to the d. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a.c.8. a.9. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + . relationships are VAK = VHT . load line of slope -1/RL (compared with slope -1/(RL + RK) for the d.6) -hRK In the absence of CK. and equation 1.c.c. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT. equation 1. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1. Equation 1.c. Circuits having different a. load lines. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible.7 must become Vak = (1.c.5) (1.c. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL.c.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d. load line).c.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1.. Ioad was 19·75 kil. and d.C. value.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk.. For the circuits shown in Figure 1.c. variations in VAK together with the d. operating point must then move along an a.

C. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk..c.C. The operating point moves up and down the a. Ioad line for the a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1. operating point will move up and down the a.c. Ioad value of 4 kO. proceeding as follows.c.!. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive. and thus to a.c.C.c. and a.c.c. Ioad line. resistance of the 1 Slope. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1. In the circuit of Figure 1. perhaps.c. These are in parallel to a.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 .c.10.c.c. since the a.RL•RK A. a second valve..c.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a. operating point is unchanged.9 HT battery is negligible. To simplify this problem. load line Slope-. Ioad line is -RLRL' RL RL' + = -20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l.c. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point.c.. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. in this case 40 V.c.c. load lines are now very different. Assuming any convenient value for VHT. A. draw a d. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'. and d. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph. The calculation of d.c. D. Once again the a.. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a. RL Figure 1.10. but the a. Construct the a.

component of ia passes through zero. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.c. In Figure l. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency. In this circuit the d. The a. The a.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum.A. operating point is found by the battery bias Vn. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown. When however the a. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown.c. The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l.lla and b. the a.c.c.c. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph.C. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. (a) Triode valve with reactive load.ll.c. Thus for these values of ia. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4). In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia.c. Points could be calculated for intermediate values. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction.

C. operating point for a particular circuit. The circuit is shown in Figure 1.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. (a) D. These methods also enable the d. The common emitter transistor amplifier. tobe found.c. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to non-linearity. bias circ11it and load.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A -VcE' V (b) Figure 1. Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods.12. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits. or the circuit for a required operating point.

12b and c respectively. The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. on both input and output characteristics. i. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE.c. With a transistor.Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage.12a.VnE ± E. input and output voltages. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = . the operating point. and input and output currents. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit.e. A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1. four variables must be investigated.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line. These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = . An a. The waveform is then further modified by the non-linearity of the output characteristic.V cc and V cc/RL. in the conventional direction for p-n-p transistors. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics. the base current waveform is distorted by the non-linear input characteristic.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = . 15 .Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . The circuit in Figure 1. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter.

. ' f±.. 3oV.. " Cl I t' ' . 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr..I~ -V8 E ....mV -· ' rTT. 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1.. Load line 8±-~ H-tH ++l lii · l± m= +t-+++ ~ ~ - 0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 -Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n..... The characteristics for Example 1. . "' ' .. 30V. 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I . ...' ..0 10 20 30 40 50 1-1- HH~ 1k Q. ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA .13. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c .2 <1: - · ~ ~ c ..-rr..

c.13a VBE = -560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n. output voltage if (a) the a.c. Therefore at VBE 1 volt. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows. Comment on the effect of the characteristic non-linearity in each case. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = -Vcc Vcc RL -30V 30 = 9.d/B = 29 mA.13a. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. Find also the a. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1.2. operating point.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = -10 V.13a.c. If dVBE is 1 volt. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l.c. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. Two further points for VcE. determine the d. supply of 30 V. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. Similarlywhen VcEis -10 V. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1. From Figure 1.13b.13a and b. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1. If IBis 70 mA. and (b) the a. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1. IB = 30 mA .13b VcE = -14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A . source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance.20 V and -30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way.c. operating point.c. so the slope of the line must be used. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l -Vcc = 30 mA = -30V The second point cannot be plotted. VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1.

c.c. The a.c.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a. VBE varies between -520 mV and -600 mV in a sinusoidal manner.20 = 10 mA and 70 . Rtn· At the operating point.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 . Thus the peak a.c. For comparison purposes. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak.13b. source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected. and the a. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic non-linearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results . In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n. the d. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected. base current is given by 18 .c. The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe- 520 mV 30mA 20mA -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . :. Vbe- Vce = 520 mV -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 18·5 V -14·5 V -0·5 V -14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 .30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. D1 d"Jstortwn c h.

input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point.3·3 = 11·2 V. supply voltage Vcc.c. therefore lB === Vcc/RB. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33. VBE is very much less than the d.14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts. The a. Firstly.c.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = .14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty.Vcc = -6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. Secondly. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger. (c) the current gain.s.14b determine (a) the d. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions.3.c.VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p.c. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed.VBE 10 mV. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA -29·3 V -14·5 V 60mA 30mA -3. say 20 Q. (and a.3 V -14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3.c. MB 5 pA. the a. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak. could result in the input and output non-linear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance. For small signa1 amplification. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r..c. First the d. Example 1. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. 19 = 40 fl A . and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß.m. operating point.c. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc . A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1.

1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -6V <! E 1· 5 tl----c~-~. The r. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 t-tA = 20t-tA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 t-tA.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V.c. input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r.s.14. Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = -30. The corresponding values of Vce are -2 V and -4·2 V respectively.20 j.c. The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30. output voltage = (4·2. Ic 3 mA. .m. a. mput reststance = 5 t-tA = 2 u An r.s. the a .m.m. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. operating point moves between ib = 60 t-tA and ib = 20 t-tA. ic of (2 .!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 -VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1.s.m. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h .c. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 t-tA = 62·5. lOmV kr.JÄ ÜJ.s.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE -2·9 V. 20 . (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r.

a. In addition the reverse Figure 1. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1.IE + lco (1.3 \ . Waveforms for Example 1. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead.)IE flowing out of the base.IE flowing out at the collector.16.15.· Figure 1.Ico 21 . transistor action results in a.c.11) lc = a. A peak a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed -6 or the transistorwill cut off. In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages. and (I .s.16. By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1.)IE ._. VcE cannot fall below -0·2 V from the characteristics. Vce of 2·9 . This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1-a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off. . Figure 1. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector. base and emitter currents in a transistor.15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA.a.12) h = (1 .m.10) IE = Ic +In (1.

we are not concerned with JE.(1.14) 1-rx (1. Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 f-lA respectively.Ico IE=--(:1.10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic - + rxh = /c - Ic(l .13) 1 . the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits. Ico' is very much larger than /co. From equation 1. Ic.1 0. is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit). but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 . Equate to 1. Ico Ico = .12. Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico - 1 _ rx 1-oc rxlco Ico =1-a: This current. Thus . To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1.11. (I . From equation 1.rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=--h+-1-rx 22 (1. The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 f-lA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1. Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero.11.rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995.16) .rx Now applying equation 1.

0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc t-tA = lco = 10·1 t-tA 1 oc 1 . A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points. Simplebias circuit for Example 1.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1.13 and 1. Example 1. lco 1 t-tA and VBE 0·2 V.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1.17.16 becomes lc oc =1 .17.I+ oc' 1 = --t-tA = 91 t-tA 1-90 91 23 t-tA .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1.oc (1. -10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90.4 IB = (10.

the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 ...uA 0·778 mA -6·1 V 130 131 .'@ 30°C /. Summarizing.c. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a.QOC . Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71. 1 000 . Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~.. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained.' is from 70 to 130.' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~.uA 1·444mA -2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~. The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /.' unless the signal level is severely restricted. operating point without distortion..' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V.uA Now VcE = -10 + (5 X 1) = -5 V and since VcE may vary between -10 (cut off) and -0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a. r~.'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.' 130.QOC _ _ lO~C- _ leb 2ooc -Vcc -VcE Figure 1.18.

An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant.21) where K is a constant. Now IB = IE(l . lc = oc'h + Ico'. Thus for any particular value of VBE.1] . In was maintained at a constant value. In Example 1. In this case. When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one. In the simple circuit discussed above.4.Ico IB = (1 . The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature.19. if temperature rises by 10°C. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 t-tA moves up with Ico'.19.1] (1.18.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . Again the operating point would move towards bottoming. lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin. at 20°C the permissible peak a.c. As can be seen from Figure 1.oc) . compared with the exponential term. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature.Ico (1. Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero.18. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles. lEo and thus In doubles. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. 2 25 .

20. . d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR.. Figure 1. The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1 - VBE but VBE = (1. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1.20.IERE oc)/E .h.21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C. lcoRC20°C) Figure 1. The V"---.23) hR' ..lco V' .GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature.IE[RE + (1 - oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics. Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 . .21. Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures.. The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage. .

Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced. The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are. -Vcc R. 01: + RE) .26) + R2 The operating point VcE. Potential divider.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R .23.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked. V' much greater than VEB and R' small. This may then be rewritten V' .22.26 and substituting in equation 1. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R .18 V' . Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1.22. emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I. -. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1. as shown in Figure 1.25 and 1.25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1. thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = -. RE large.

28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1.27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered. . Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant. the voltage across RE.32) ~RE. These are die (1.22).Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1. Suppose /e tends to rise. will also rise.27) VeE may then be found from VeE = - Vee ~. For R' to be small.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' . Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes.30) (1.31) K may be found directly from equation 1. also cause a change in JE. IERE.29) K = dleo' die dleo S=- Krx' die = diX' (1.VBE = constant. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B. 28 (1.

VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' -+ VBE J RE + lco + MIX') .33 and 1. RE can only be I kQ. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier. If R' ~ RE.IX) In this case if RE~ R'.IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' . Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1.VBE R' +RE J + leo . This will be discussed in later chapters.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo.27 and substitute from equations 1. If the Ioad is 2 kQ. Je 1 mA. Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1.34 IX'(V'. and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples. S tends to one and d/e = dleo.28). S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo . Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V.

30 .38) In this circuit. values should be inserted in equations 1. 1.32.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones.' 1 = 1 + Ma.' (R' a. This reduces the voltage across RB.36 whichever is most convenient.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.23.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.' 1 [ X a.·=-. Ka. The formulae (equations 1. Figure 1.36 Klc Ka. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc. Collector feedback.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma.27 or 1. This is shown in Figure 1.'(V'.23.'.'lco + 1 + Ma. IX (1.') a.' J From equations 1. For large changes.37 should only be used for small changes in a.33. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector. reducing h and thus /c.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before. 1. and differentiating we find (1.33 and 1.

negative feedback. Figure 1. circuits will be discussed in later chapters.c.24. (a) (b) Figure 1. The exact mechanism of these a. output current. So if XcB ~ RB12.c. operating points.c.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 50-95. and hence the maximum permissible r. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C.m.c.c. In Figure 1.C.22 and 1.c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. currents can flow to earth. decoupling circuits In Figure 1. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.24 shows how this is done. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions.24b the same applies. such a. Determine the range of possible d. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'. As with the triode valve amplifier.c.23) the stabilization is performed by d. voltage across RE. currents could be fed back through RB. First we must find the range of d. Assurne VBE is 200mV. 31 . The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a.s. Example 1. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.5. but in addition a. A.

25.') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -10V 2kfi 1kfi -Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1....')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl. 32 . Circuit and graph for Example 1. Ico' = = (1 + CJ. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.'(V' . Cl.27 lc = _50 lc - Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C.' 50.5 For T1. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.

1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l. Vce must not exceed 3·811 . the a.c. To avoid bottoming with Tz.5·525 = 4·475V. We can 33 .c.0·2 = 3·6 V. Maximum VcE = -10 + 1·825(1 = -5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. the peak a. + 2) V Minimum VcE = -10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = -3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. cut off will occur if peak a. We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor. Vce exceeds 10.28. With T1.32 K = 6.c. Thus to allow for all possibilities. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V. peak a.29 and 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C.c.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1. 1oad is only 2 kil.

A.6 34 6 .26.c. RL 4 '. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1. The peak a.u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 -Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1. Ioad line (lk!l.c.c.C. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cut-off distortion. Finally.3 V. Ic 2 mA. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R.M. The available d..) \ \ <! E . and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C. Circuit and graph for Example 1.c. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE . output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr...m.m.s. output voltage of 1·414 V.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cut-off distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a.25b.S. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98.s.6. the maximum r.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV. design a suitable bias circuit. Cutoff on the a. supply is 6 V. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz.c.

26b.c. Rt.c. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.load line.Ico = 30 f1A .c. RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO. RE. VcE + peak a. The problern is to determine the values of RL.1-IX . so the minimum instantaneous Vce is -3 + 2 = -1 V. Vce + Vbottoming.c. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . To determine K. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co .98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d.c.26a. Now VcE must not fall below -0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d.c. RE may now be found since VcE is given. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature. -3 + 2 + 0·3 = -0·7 V.5 mA (Note this is a d. The a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1. Rz and CE.\ u/co K = I 30 =-= 1-IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1.34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' . and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. the a.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic . signal voltage.33 and 1.Ico 1·998 IX = 0 .. we must find ß/c. the operating VcE is -3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V.

IERE ' 2.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a.23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .Ico' (.. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz. = 39 t-tA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1.7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 ..hR' .O·I 49 + + Ic. t-tF 36 . I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = -:.1 Finally.' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~- R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2.' = 0·98 1 . we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I.0·98 1 (1 K- M = a.

7. We have found the limitations of these methods. operating conditions may be found. Example 1. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. or (b) an H.T. Using the circuits described in Example 1.c. -5 V. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor.c.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. EXAMPLES Example 1. (b) 208 V. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to -0·5 V? Ans. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. but as with valves. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods. Assurne an a.c. (b) 24 or 45·5. 37 . 4·7 mA. operating point in each case. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. (a) 25·5. Find the d. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. and we have seen how the d.7.T. (a) 63 V.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. if with (a) VGK is -0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 4-1 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 3-3 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans. determine the voltage gain.8. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible. conditions.c. Summarizing.

calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance. Ans. Circuit for Example 1. (a) 61.11. Determine the voltage gain. + H. Circuit for Example 1. 21·5.12. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H. of 250 V. supply of300 V.T + 175V I· Figure 1.T.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H. 250V H. (b) 10 ill. Example 1. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0.11 Figure 1.T.T.9 employs RL 17·15 kU.T. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. (a) 24·8 kU.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1.27. 30·5. (a) 43. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1. (b) 96. 19·2. The circuit described in Example 1.10.c.13. 154 Q.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1.28. 21·5. results in an operating 38 . A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1.27. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. 32. (b) VAK 150 V.9. The d. Ans. Ans.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. (b) 64·5. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU.28. h 9·75 mA. RK 250 Q and an H. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt. 790 Q. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. h 6 mA.12 Example 1. 0·65. 166 Q. Example 1. Example 1. Ans.

c. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad.16. (a) 45 V positive VaK. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA. 30 L 315°.c. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance. A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO. Ans. is assumed tobe purely inductive. a coil of 0·2 H. (b) the maximum peak a. The anode Ioad. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as -6 V. Ans. (b) 11 V low h. (a) 15 mA.15. VcE -2·7 V. If the frequency is 5kHz. I0 I -VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 -1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 -3·0 -4·5 -6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . calculate (a) the maximum peak a. Example 1.12a.T. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. Example 1.7 is operated with a bias voltage of -1· 5 V and an H.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA. T.c. supply of 150 V. 60 V. Example 1. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. Ans. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. (b) 60 V. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled.14.

56 t-tA. Calculate the input impedance. Ans. and Jco' 0·2 mA. 5·1 mA. Jco'. and a 40 . 488 Q.22. Example 1. 0·46. 0·99 and Jco 3 t-tA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1. A certain transistor is found to have a. If the transistor has a. Example 1. The d.. RL is 3·3 kil. R2 22 kil. If JE is 2 mA. RL 1·8 kil. the voltage gain. A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. 0·125.19. RE 500 n. 32·3. RB 140 kil. Example 1. 123 t-tA. -3·43 V. 36. calculate a.18. A transistor having a. 1·45 mA. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1.21. Jco.'. andRE 1 kil. Ans. Example 1. 4·5 V. lB and JE.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 2-8 2-9 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 7-4 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. and the supp1y battery 10 V.22. a 4 kil load. Ans.20. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K.17. Ans.c. 413 Q. 35. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. 1 V. and the current gain.23. -204 mV. 0·994. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. 1·944 mA. 30 t-tA. 5·03 mA. 28·8 kil. and JB. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. 1·24 t-tA. Je.16. Example 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS .' 160. 3·93 mA. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE -0·2 V. 133 t-tA. Calculate a. Ans. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. 0·97 and Jco 4 t-tA. Example 1. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a.' 45.

Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of -0·2 V. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. The available d. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. R140 kQ. 3·6 W. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is -6 V.s. Example 1. Assuming the transistor to have VBE -0·2 V. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored. 10 f-tF.c. the maximum output power.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. that it will bottarn at VcE -0·4 V. Ans. 1 V r. and (b) if rx' is 150.29. Ans. Ans.24 Ico of 500 f-lA. an Vcc -12V Figure 1. and at 20°C.24. 2 kQ. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling. Ic 2 A. 13-9 kQ. At the signal frequency. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE -8 V. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. RE 1 kQ. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. The components are RL 1 kQ. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. 70 Q. Circuit for Example 1. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50. and further. 1! Q. 195 Q. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. Example 1. 1 V. rx' 150.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W.23. 1·11 V. 45·6 kQ. 41 .m. (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output.

These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. together with impedances or admittances. In Chapter 1.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. I= VY (2. t. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a.c. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit.e. having dimension mhos. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. mesh analysis and nodal analysis. In addition.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 . we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. the four terminal or two port network. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. admittances and generators. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws.

3) Y=-v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. in general I 1 B ::. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . i.c.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages.4) Y= G + jB (2. B = 1 R -jX R2 + X2 1 Z= - B -X = R2 + X2 (2. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. having dimension ohms. Consider first the simple d.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships. In this case. Note. circuit shown in Figure 2. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. zero.1.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2.1.e. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2. I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS. (2.i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX.

The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V). Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I). the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference.Vxy and Vyx =IR= -(E/R) X R = -E as would be expected from the circuit. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = -iZa = +jwLi = -i v2 = = -iR ji = wC 44 (:J) .2. This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way. Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = . given that current Figure 2. lf however.I amps and we could say that I= -(E/R). the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. the meter would read .2.

vz = zZ2 (2. Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity. Impedance in series may be simply added. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz.8) ratio of the impedance values. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2.3. . rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current.3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. 45 . f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. z2 Iv.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2. From Figure 2.

9 and 2.10 with 2. 46 .9) X Y1 iYz = -=---=yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples. The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2.8. = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2.7 and 2. (2." d .3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added.11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1.10) The "reader should now compare 2. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc. . (2. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances.i + -i = i . . Consider Figure 2.+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =.3c e = v1 + vz = .

Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2. 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit. Now from Figure 2. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i .13) of the individual impedances. Circuit for Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :.12) inverse ratio of the admittance values. Figures 2.. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2. Example 2.4. and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. . In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %.3d = ii + iz = .1. 1 + .14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules.1 47 . Potential division between series admittance is in the (2.n. Finally.

7 and 2. the value of io in terms of i. First consider circuit (a).11..13 since all branches are quoted as impedances. Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t. Applying rules 2. io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches. the same result as that found when working in admittances.= v amp 6 3+1 ia = - i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 . 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X .9 and 2. Now. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2. .10). the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel). Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V. YT - 4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1) -- 4 + ~6 -- 1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given. to find io from circuit (a).


To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia



=1+1 txlx!+1





2 X 3





= 4v + - = 5v amp
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v





+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts

and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,




= - - = -volts



Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most


important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.




Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node

This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.

Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by


+ ia + i4 =


+ is

An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents - i2 and - is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,


+ ia + i4 -

i2 - is


which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.


2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.



Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh

Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1 - Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X


we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.

+ V1 -

IR1 - V2 - IR2 - !Ra+ Va - IR4


or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1 - V2

+ Va =


+ R2 + Ra + R4)

from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written

+ R1(h- i2) -


+ jwL2)i2-

(w-d2) (i2- ia)- e2 = 0

Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the



required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h- lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h - lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six





Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2

possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y

+ 5(h + h - lx)
5(h + h - lx) - 4(/2 -


6 = 3h


0 = -




+ 2/x

-2/x- /2

Collecting terms

6 = 8h



+ 5h -

-5h - 9/2

2 = 2/x



+ 11/x




One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
From 2.17


substitute in 2.16




+ 18/x + 1llx








substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15



= - 5 +5


+ 10 -

10lx - 5lx


Collecting terms, 6

+ 5144 -


= lx (232
5 -

15 )

24·8 = 31·4/x


lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A


Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.



Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents

Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h - i2) fiowing down or (i2 - h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2 - ia) fiowing
down or (ia - i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find

6 = 3h + 5(it- i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,


+ 4i2 + 2(iz -

S(i2 - h)

= 2(i3- i2) + i3

Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h- 5i2





+ 11 i2 - 2i3
-2i2 + 3i3




In this case ß = 0 -2 3 -5 11 -2 8 -5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5).. times the common branch sharing that current.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. Here. This is replaced by the constants.f. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . sum the e. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants.5i2 which is the same as equation 2. minus any adjacent loop current. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 -2 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 -5 0 6 0 -2 0 -2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 ßa tl 6 0 -2 . For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches.20 above. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. Further application of this rule will appear in the next example. h. For any loop. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V.m. Following this for the first loop: The e.m.f.

This process is known as expanding the determinants._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient. Now applying this to equations 2.22 for Example 2.0) + 0 0 -2 3 =58 ßa= 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 6 0 = 8(-22.2. Unknown -66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .0) -2 = -66 58 i2 = 157 A.0) + 5(10.20. we may expand on the first column.75 = 157 0 8 6 -5 0 -2 = 8(0 . the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms. Alternatively.21 and 2. %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants.4) .6( -15 . 2. ß= 8 -5 0 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 =8(33-4)+5(-15-0)+0 = 232. The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2 - bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca - 02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row.ia = 58 124 = .0) + 6(10.

9.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e.24.f. but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.j) {-3-j4) (7-j4) = -.j + 1 + 2.3. Circuit for Example 2.m. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex.24) .j4 V Now solving by determinants . as is the case in the next example. Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Example 2.9.1 A -(4 . -S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -5(0·6 + j0·8) V = -3.-(7_+_j_)---(-4---j-)-.m.f.j) = -5/53° -h(4.j)i2 (2.j) . lt 3 I I (6 + jO) -(4 .KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form.i2(4 .j) + i2(4.3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations. for equation 2.j) (7 .(4.j4)i2 Evaluating the e.s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h.j4) 57 (2.23) -5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -(4 .j)h + (7 . 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 .

49 42.4. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2.(3 + j4)(4 .10. NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law.{4.jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .38.j4) . Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2.12. We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law.{-19o)A 1484 0·686/-36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°. This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA.j24. Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances.16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4 - _ 26.j) A .j) {7 + j)(7 . l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan-1 H y/{382 + 132) /-tan-1 HA = J2048 = /-550. 11 = (6 + j0)(7 . VB.j4).jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants .j37 A . Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .j)(4. Vc.10.

Example 2.VBYz -lz = . 3. D Figure 2.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc .YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this. In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth. h + [z =(VA. Circuit for Example 2.11. Foreach node.2 For node B. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55.e. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. i.VA)Yz Collecting up terms.4 This circuit has four nodes.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance.11. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches. V c = 0. Thus at node A. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. 0 = = VA(l -1 VA + 2 + 4) - 1 VB . equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero. For node A. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner.O)Y1 +(VA.4.VB)Yz and at node B -[z =(VB. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz). Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2.

Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. the other in terms of an admittance network. In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches.4).4Vc 0 = -VA+ 7VB. I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa.1) + 1( -8 . nodal analysis will be quicker. 7 1 -4 -1 0 -1 -4 3 8 V VB= 7 -1 -4 -1 7 -1 -4 -1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3).4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392. use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns. one in terms of an impedance network.VB.12. and hence the nurober of equations. Examples using each will also be given. 60 .0) VB = 7(56 . 1= 1VA.4(-3.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting.4) .VB+ 8Vc By determinants. In some instances.Vc 3 = -4VA.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof. 2 + 1 = -4VA.1(-8. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms.

12 and 2. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2. Example 2. 2.13 on pages 45 and 47. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q.12. 6. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q.7. Circuit for Example 2.) = 42 Evaluating. 2.12.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis. Now applying the same rules.(l 12V 6V Figure 2.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1-155 A .5.0. for the whole circuit. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone.

12 = 11h.13.13.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis. Example 2.30 = 77 - iz = 25 54 = 52 A -66 + 60 52 -6 =52 A But the required current I = h . Circuit for Example 2. Figure 2.20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 . h + ?iz 84. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2.iz = H A as was found by superposition. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances.5iz -6 = -5h By determinants. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone -3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = .12.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2.6.

the network is shownasabox with two terminals.14.. Thevenin's theorem The two-terminal equivalent is shown on the right. 63 .14. 3 = -2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 24-4 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2=---=20 20 Now v = v1 - 9-26 -17 v2 = . at node 2. Thevenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance. Figure 2. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected. Now v = v1 + v2 =- 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I.THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V. In Figure 2.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem.

Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example.7. 1-l! 1 I= 3 = 1l. Now.15b.15.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances. Circuit for Example 2.15. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2. Example 2.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the left-hand half of the circuit.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45 - 7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = -:-:10~+--:2::-::R::--L-+---::5:-=R:-L 64 . 3V Figure 2.

jt·54) n j12 r\ u . Figure 2.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4- j2 .16.J j3) .j and Now = i(5 - j) = i(5.5 .j l=--. j 2.8.j)(5 = (2·31 .j3)(1 . write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 . (1 . Example 2. 1. and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0.J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .j20) + J.0.J j5 + j) n To find Votc. 7RL Now consider a more difficult a. Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2. 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1 - = ~~ (1 .16.4 - + 6 + j2.v'2/45° 2.THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before.j) . . example. 5. Circuit for Example 2.1 . 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j -J + (-2 .(4 Ztn- + j2)(1 .c. .j3)i .j) V .

the load current may be found. Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed.7 using Norton's theorem.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 . i A Ytn = i + i. Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2.17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a short-circuit connected across the terminals. To determine fstc.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. Repeat example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right. In Figure 2.15. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. .17.j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A . the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance.9. no current will flow in the 5 n resistor.

j)(3 .4 2 .j) 4(3.16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1 - 1 j3 = (I .j2) .75. h = 4(3.j2) 10(1 .j2 10(1.j) 3 -J·2 X lJ 5 -J.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j6 - + 1 + j _ 2(1 .j 12 + j2 mhos 5.j20 _ 4(3.10. ----o.j) A When the load is connected.+ 10(1 - A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 .j). 1 1 3. Repeat Example 2.j2) + 13(5 . current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances.j30 .8 using Norton's theorem.30 .j63 67 + 65 - j13 A .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .20 .j3 10(1 .j) +4 - 2 + j4 10(1 . For the circuit shown in Figure 2.j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 .NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l-0 !YL + :l-ö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL=-=-=5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j2) A .

Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2. Ioads. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output.e. A four-terminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. h.18. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently. This approach is similar to the description of two-terminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. There are four variables V1. V2 and ]z associated with the network. One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters. or other networks may be connected. common. For any particular set ofparameters.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. occurring frequently in electronic circuits.26) . there are six possible sets of parameters. Since any two may be taken as independent. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. is known as a four-terminal network. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. In general we may write two equations (2.18. but not always.

29) (2. The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.19. Since equations 2.25 and 2.19.27) (2. By comparing equations 2.30 above. Solution of a four-terminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero.e.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible. Z12 relates V1 to h etc.30 must be true for all values of the independent variables.29 and 2. Suppose 12 is zero.29 and 2. i.26 above. Q.28) which have the form of equations 2.2' are open circuit. I.27 and 2. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows. 69 . Zu relates V1 to h. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection. lz Figure 2. This can only occur if terminals 2.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter.28 with equations 2.

Circuit for Exarnple 2. if we let terminals 1. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2. we obtain Z12 = -v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = -v21 h I!=O Example 2. .30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = -v11 h be defined.1' be open circuit making h zero.20.29 and 2.11 Let /2 = 0.20.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .11. h Figure 2. and 12=0 Z21 = -v21 h 12=0 Similarly.

21.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages.22. I. lz Figure 2.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.21. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2.22. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit. 1~ Figure 2. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts. A loaded four-terminal network 71 . we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components. From equation 2. As h flows into this part of the circuit. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier.

V2 = -hZL Equation 2.32 and 2.32) o. = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL).1 '. The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .29 and rearranging equation 2.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu - (2.Z21Z12 lt=~~~--~~~~=­ The input impedance given by Vt -= Zu(Z22 + ZL) .30 now becomes -hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2.Z21Z12 Also /2=~-=------~------ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h -Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL) - Z21Z12 (2. which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1. There are two further general solutions.Z21V1 + ZL) .0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) .Z21Z12 (2.34) Equations 2.31) Rewriting equation 2.33) -hZL. the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 -= Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .31.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say.

h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2.0. -50 VI. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. Let h = 0. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage.36) Example 2.23. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0. n v2 = -5ovl + 5h 73 .35) and (2. and the load is disconnected.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0). Since the output terminals are open circuit. Circuit for Example 2. Figure 2.12.23. The results that should be obtained are (2. 400.

5ov1 = 105/2 . For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2.35. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 .. 2. Z21 = -1 245 Q and Z22 = -145 n. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 . thus v2 -= VI -400 251 ~4~55 +5 = -39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400- (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL) - Z21Z12 -400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400- This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But . 25h V2 =-50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 = - 12=0 + 5h = -1 245 n Now Iet h = 0. In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors.34 and 2.50 X 5h v2l =-1450 h h=O Z22=- Summarizing Zu = 25 il. and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor.. Z12 = 5 il.32. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn.

VI and [z. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I = - Ve=O 75 (2. VI and h. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. is a number and S. is an admittance. We shall investigate one of these in detail.37) (2. . relating [z to · V2. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters. h and Vz. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion. In this case . The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. VI and Vz. Sinillarly R. The other possible choices.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a four-terminal network.38) V:~ be zero. a current ratio. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h.

Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations.13.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0). hzz h I 2 X-6 = 8! mho = -Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 .13. Circuit for Example 2. First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2.24). Example 2. Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). In this case. first Iet Vz equal zero. Thus /z = -h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . Figure 2. this is simple current division between parallel conductances.4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2.24.24. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit. For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h. Now hz1 = ~~ =-!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must open-circuit the input to make h = 0.

25. Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz.25. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it. we have potential division across series conductances so. general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. In this case the second equation 77 . V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = -hz1 As with Z parameters. Figure 2.

h21h12 From which (2.41.42. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results.43) and h . .36.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = -hZs. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2. We have now derived two sets of parameters. h and h.40) Solving by determinants for h.44 with equations 2. we can find. 2.32.43 and 2. V2 as our independent variables.. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations. 2.33. 2.39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2.41.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor + Zs (2. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true. Z and h. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re- = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2.35 and 2. -hl2 I.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. 2. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) . = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 . 78 .44) Equations 2. by taking h. The reader should now compare equations 2. 2.42 and 2.41) Solving for V2 From which (2. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form.

The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . Equations: V2. h h Cu. +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . (2.26.50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1.47) From which . Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =-V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2. h Input admtttance = Vt y = u - yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2.51) 79 .= . h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 .rrent gatn = .45) (2.46) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or output.Yu + Ys .

h = -V1 = gu - /z h Current gatn = . one further rule should be discussed.s .gugn~2 + y.54) (2 55) · (2.g21g12 (2.) r2 gzz gu s .52) (2. g21 = -V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . Output tmpedance =-.53) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or open circuit output.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. Definitions: · v21 . VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +-g12 y.= g12g21 +ZL g22 .L2 + ZL) - g12g21 = gz2.27. It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another. Input admtttance . This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .g21 gu(g22 ~ .57) Before applying these results to some examples.56) (2.

Using 4kn I. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 -r 0·5) = 0·25 -r 1 -r 1 -r 0.14. Figure 2. so -h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1- I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2.5 mmho y22 81 .FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters. For the network shown in Figure 2.5 = -(0·25 2] 2:1A X -r 0·2) mmho y21 = -0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 -r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 -r 0·5 -r 1 -r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is .Ia. First Iet Vz = 0. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ. To determine the y parameters.28. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods. we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals.

FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also -lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = -0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.0·258) X 10-3 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz.29. J.29. let V1 = 0.ow in the admittance yzz. Solution for Example 2. Thus Vz = -(-0·45 X I0-3Vl 0·85 X I0-3 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. This eliminates the y21 generator.0·45 X 10-3 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals. ft = 0·65 and hl - Vt 12=0 X 1Q-3Vl. Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 10-3 = 1·178 kQ . U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl. and write an equation for ft. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2. Let [z = 0.

We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters. First using y parameters Current gain. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available. the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. These configurations are Series input and output. series output. parallel output. At= Working in mmho.0·412 X I0-3(1 g21g12 + -0·53 1-178) X 103 + 10·53 --~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === -0·45 Thus properties of four-terminal networks such as voltage and current gain.49 and 2. and Parallel input. Series input.55.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi.55 -g21 + ZL) - At=--~--~~~----­ gu(g22 . 83 .y21y12 + -0·45 X 1 + 0·85). Interconnection of Four-terminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more four-termina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) .85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = -0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. g12 = hh I (-0·45 X 10-3) X 0. Parallel input and output.0·45 X 0·45 === -0·45 Now using equation 2.

First we must find the Z parameters of the sub-network shown in Figure 2.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters.3la. Two four-terminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. Example 2. 84 .15. Z22 3 Q.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. series output.3lb. and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2. I. I . 1 I1 V{~ v. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V.30. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n.

31.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 . + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance.15 Since these are open circuit parameters. Network A has y' parameters.Zn + Zs = 7 . Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 . Circuit for Example 2.32 shows two networks connected parallel input.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. parallel output. apply equation 2. and network B has y" parameters.35. by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl - h h-0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0.

32. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 . Two four-terminal networks connected series input. Series Parallel Figure 2.33. J Figure 2.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output. Two four-terminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters.

the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case.16. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. v' i v. The theorems in Section 3. io Ht. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. EXAMPLES Example 2. mho. Repeat Exarnple 2.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. YT Y. SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. Ans. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters. 87 . are equally essential.

36. 0·756 V. determine v' 1. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2.34. Ans.35. Example 2.35 is 2mho Figure 2. and (c) the current i ' .36.17 (a) the input impedance v/1.19 88 . (b) 0·445i.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A.17.18. (c) 0·727v. Ans. (c) 31·2 mA. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i.19. Figure 2. (b) 0·526. Ans. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v.34. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2. (a) 1·63 Q.ß. Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. (a) 39·6 mV. Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. Calculate (a) the input valtage v. Circuit for Example 2. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv.

-8 + j26 Ans. Repeat Example 2.25. Circuit for Example 2. V Figure 2. 37 -j2k. Example 2.j2) n. Repeat Example 2. 4 89 .21 using nodal ana1ysis.19 by converting impedances to admittances.20 Example 2. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2.38. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. Repeat Examp1e 2. Circuit for Example 2. mA. Example 2. I. 1 L 7o 18' A.!1.38. For the circuit shown in Figure 2. Ans. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator.37. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2.EXAMPLES Example 2. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis. and using nodal analysis.!1. Using mesh analysis. Example 2.23.20 using nodal analysis.9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 . Ans. 0·25. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator. 2·2 V. voltage sources to current sources.22 Example 2.22.

0·737 L 121 ° 26'.3 using Thevenin's theorem.39.40. Repeat Example 2.-----. Example 2.39 to the Figure 2.40.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Example 2.27. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2.26 admittance-current generator form. Circuit for Example 2..29.5~]R.28.21 using the Superposition theorem.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1. Figure 2. Ans. Circuit for Example 2. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem. Example 2..30. 1·35 Q. Repeat Example 2. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .26. Ans.----. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T. Repeat Example 2. 90 .. T . T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis.21 using Thevenin's theorem.

41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. Ans.32. Figure 2. 0·44 L 2° 30'i. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. Z21 = Zl2 t n. The circuit shown in Figure 2. hl2 = -h21 = u.34.43. -1·29. Ans.35. 14·3 Q.33 of 106 rad/sec. Example 2. Zln lJ!l n. If the circuit shown in Figure 2.41. Ans.EXAMPLES Example 2. Z22 3t n.36 Example 2. h22 H mho. determine the new z parameters.umho. 73 .28 using Norton's theorem. Example 2.33. hu ~l n. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2.35 Figure 2.31. Ans. zu i n.43. Circuit for Example 2. Repeat Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. 91 .0. Figure 2. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2.42. Example 2. 1·9 X I0-2. 4. Example 2.42. Circuit for Example 2.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches. Repeat Example 2.26 using Thevenin's theorem.36. Using Norton's theorem.

-0·04. -2 X 10-6. The T network shown in Figure 2. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. 50 X 10-6. Example 2. Ans.41.40. Determine (a) the y parameters.44. h12 10-3 . Ans.39. -5 000 n. 125. 45 X 10 3. 37 n. Z22 500 n. g. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. 2 X }04. 5. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. z. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. Repeat Example 2. h21 50. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 .umho. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V. -375 X 103. 2·39 kQ.38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad. 600. Z1n 1·25 kQ. the g parameters. -5·7. 5 000. h22 Example 2. (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. Z12 10 n. 8 X 10-3.44 represents an active device.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. h21 75.2· 3. Z1n.umho. Z21 92 . 1 944 Q. 40 mV.umho. 2 X 10-3. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. A four-terminal network having Zn 100 n. A network having hu 1 000 !2. -3 000. Ans. A 1 54. . h12 10-3 .37. 0·15. Example 2. 23 . (b) from the results of (a). Ans.31.38. h22 200 . y. 393 Q.38 using g parameters. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. 200 . Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.

43. The network shown in Figure 2. Example 2.42. Figure 2.46. 93 . h21 250.mho. (Networks in parallel. hzz 300 p. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown. 9·8 mV. Circuit for Example 2.EXAMPLES Example 2. 38. h12 I0. Circuit for Example 2. 1 -2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I ----- I il 50fi ~---------------~ 10on I I I I L---------------~ Figure 2.45.43 networks. 157.) Ans.42 hu 2 000 0. Ans. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo.46 shows two interconnected four-terminal ·---------------.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2.4 .

First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3..1. the diode is forward biased.1a. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods.c. i.3 LOW FREQUENCY. +J(mA) -V (vol t s) 20 10 5 - +V (mV) .lb.2 . (c) A. the first 94 . (a) Junction diode characteristics. and an alternative approach is desirable.C.$"·~:-~ 6 I 200mV -1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3.e. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a. If the switch is in position B. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.4 R 200 300 . (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias.

Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. (b) Small signal a. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 10-3 I = 20 X I0-3 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. on the other hand. 7·5 mA.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA. is approximately zero. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. Diode equivalent circuits. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case. giving an operating point of 110 mV. as in Figure 3. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown. resistance which is 95 . this current.2a.c. 0·3 f-tA. Thus the a. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~-- 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 J-LH (c) Figure 3. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 -=-=20MQ R I0-6 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current.c.c. lf. the switch is moved to A. generator has a peak value of 20 m the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics. (a) D. the Variation in total series resistance due to the non-linearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. say 300 n. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively. If the a.C.c.

c. the anode slope resistance. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 .3. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. These are known as ra. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra.c.c. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region. The term small signal implies that the a. provided the d. and provided the a. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 10-3 15 x 10-3 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a.c. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree.1IRL is shown passing through the d . A Ioad line of slope . At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance.LOW FREQUENCY. bias current is 7 mA. voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear.c.c. operating point.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. and p the amplification factor. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor.2c. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. Figure 3. series inductance. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. operating point Q.

= ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.. X -~Vgk ~Vak I = f1.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm.e. a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak -Ta.4) ~Ia = QB. . (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3.4. i.3.AB . is not constant. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !-' the amplification factor.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _.2) r _ a - g and ra.V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia.-. llVak~o m.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3.c.~Ia I (3.1) .~Vgk 6. From the graph. X gm ~Ia. But (3.. when Ia. =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3.Load line 0 0 Figure 3.3. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.

Vgk Ö.Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = -fl. (a) Constant valtage equivalent. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 ./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ. when loaded with a resistor RL. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve.:--~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3..RL ra (3./aRL = Ö.6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk .Vgk = f1.Vak gmÖ.Vgk = "'-----7-1 + RL fal But = Ö. fa + RL t-tRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal.r-. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered. r----------.4.Ö..1: ra gmraRLÖ.LOW FREQUENCY. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6.VgkRL R 1 + .--_____. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö.Vak Ö. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t.5) + RL or (3./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ.

-fWsRL = laRL = ---'_.c. The characteristics shown in Figure 3. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same.4b can be solved by nodal analysis. + RL -"-..4a. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them.gmraRL v. 99 . By Figure 3.-=ra + RL -(-lRL ra. so Av Vo = -Vs = -gmva = and and Vo = Vo --':---=- (~ + ~J -gmvara. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a.ra..:. operating condition indicated by point 0. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve. As before Vgk = v8.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.=--- A _ . The alternative circuit in Figure 3.----.RL ra.5.5.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) -fWs ra + RL .5 are those of a valve having the d. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3.c. operating point we can obtain an a. changes at a d.c.c. Vgk.

See equation 3.!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3..4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a -gm Vgk . the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit./-lVgk. Applying Norton's theorem in the same way. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem.= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3.LOW FREQUENCY. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3.3.4a. voltage must be zero. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. condition. The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = . The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed. Now from equation 3.. g Y= . 100 .. Vak g vgkl a .6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3.. i.6a and by comparison with Figure 3. Triode small signal equivalent circuits.c.e. Thus to a. In this case we are concerned with a. If a circuit is open then the current is zero.c. so if the alternating current ia is zero. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage. This means that the a. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0.c.1 Vgk -.6. Vgk must be zero.

Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation.6b.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve. resulting from an a.e. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents.fva. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. it may be treated as a four-terminal network. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia. since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. when Vgk is zero. i. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3. for each configuration we can obtain z. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a three-terminal device. input Vgk is (See equation 3. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. h. it is 1/ra.2. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections. Again. by comparison with Figure 3. 101 . gmVgk. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter.4b we can see that Figure 3. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector.c. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. g. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured. There are in fact many more possibilities.

7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. fand o for input. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d.c. forward and output respectively. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d. Ievel. quantities measured about a particular d. reverse. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc.c. 102 .c. operating point. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3. r.c. value.LOW FREQUENCY.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i.7.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a four-terminal network.

The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter.8b. may frequently be neglected. 103 hre .e. hre ic = -:- I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3.8.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la .8a. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3. If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3. and as we shall see in later chapters. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters. typically I0-3. i.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic -Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3. This parameter is very small.8a.c. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel. Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q. the output characteristic. it is the short circuit input resistance.8..

an output resistance of 10 kQ. 104 . using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required.9 but with appropriate notation. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T.umhos. b e Figure But it is usually more convenient to convert. so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the four-terminal convention. These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. i. A typical value for hoe is 100 . In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 . The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. hre. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10-500 depending upon type and application. It is shown in Figure 3. Using conventional currents. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor. is therefore positive. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp).e.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. The ratio of the two.LOW FREQUENCY. Looking at Figure 3. To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3.

The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. ib b - otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3. Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common. and oc0·99. rc I MQ.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e . ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1. (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components.10.11.10). 105 . Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3. (c) From fundamentals. Figure 3. Tb I 000 Q..11.

Tc !'•• /rx' r. the direction of the current generator. the conversion is completed -oc oc (equation 1. The required circuit is shown in Figure 3.LOW FREQUENCY. and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 . 106 . the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of -ocrc n.m. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB.17). (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB.f. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. (f) Since ib is the input current.12. it is convenient to reverse its direction.12a.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. Also putting -1 oc = oc' and (1 . and with it.. Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e.oc) ~ !. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( -re1 + -rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5.oc). (a) Short circuit output.

Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals. The opposite conversions can be found using these results.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters. But Tc/rx.9.' = hre (3.. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re- Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 . 107 .' hrehoe hoe (3. h re and ic =-:- I lb Vce=O .'re Tc (3.') (3.11) (3.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O - Tc Te+--.12) Equations 3. - rx. = rx.11.')ib fiows in Te.'. 3.=== Te(1 lb + rx. rx. rx.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx.14) hreTc hrehre hre Te=--=--=rx.12b. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3. hoe===oc' = -Tc Te+ rx. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent. rx.16) From equation 3.12. (3.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx.11 and 3. 3.13) From equation 3. hre Tc=-=hoe hoe (3. the short circuit ic must be the remainder.10.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V -.' in parallel.9) + The current (1 rx. From equation 3.10.-.

108 . and hoe 125 . A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. y or g parameters will be more convenient..125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936-n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. Vg -2 V or (b) RL 60 kO. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them. hre 5 x I0. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. In all such cases. but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter.4 re = 125 X I0-6 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 10-4 1 300. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics. Using the equations above: (/. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. EXAMPLES Example 3.1.4 . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I0-6 = 720 kQ I0. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO.T. the OC75.umhos. If they are fundamentally four-terminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z. 1t is to be operated with an H. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. hre 90. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. For each case.LOW FREQUENCY. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively. Vgk -12 V.

2. determine the small signal h parameters. (b) 361 V. ra 31 kQ. ra 6·6 kf!. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 -2 -4 -6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 -8 -10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 -12 -14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 -16 1-1 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans.EXAMPLES determine the operating point. Av. 1·5 mA. 36. Example 3.c. 9·8 mA.29·5.15·8. 110). /B 40 A. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. The d. or (b) VBE -130 mV.) 109 . Ic 8·8 mA. operating point is given by (a) VcE -4·5 V. Av. (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. In each case. (a) 153 V. 24.

5 X I0-3. (a) 470 0. 6·7 X I0-3 .umho.1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans.umho. iB (pA) for . 45.VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 -VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 2-4 3·6 4·8 6·0 7-6 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 5-6 6·9 8-4 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 3-9 2-9 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 . 35. (b) 1 200 0. 97 . 450 .

h22 80 .EXAMPLES Example 3. 244 0.3. rc 1 MO. 120. Ans. hzt 120. hrb 5 X 10-4 . Ans. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. 12·5 kO.umho.umho. The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. hrb -0·97. (a) 6·25 0. 244 0. 1·5 MO. hoc 33 . (b) 6·25 0. hu 1 000 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits.4. 111 . rb 500 0. (b) htc 550 0. Example 3. hrc -33·3. htz 5 x 10-4 . 0·993. (a) htb 30 0. and oc0·97. hob 1 . hrc + 1.

c. The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. operating point. In this chapter. 1 r. These circuits represent the valve only.c. . Then. equivalent circuits. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk .4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. and p. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4.0b 112 . at the particular d. This procedure is not only time consuming. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. using this method. gm. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means. we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. g g ~ f-l Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits.0. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit.

Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. In general. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e. source of e. If a numerical solution only is required. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. positive H. indicate the sense of the unknown currents. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow. (2) Taking each electrode in turn. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a.f. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va .s and proceeding from cathode to grid.c.m. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations.m. and the input impedance. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen.d. potential at the grid. the equivalent circuit is again used.c. The d.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4.T. connect it to earth through any component.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method.f. the frequency or phase response. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. measured with respect to cathode. add such p.c. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result. The re<1. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid. This 113 .i2)Z1. but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution.s algebraically. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form. since the a.s and e.Vb. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . line is taken as earth. the output voltage or power.m. or current source shown in the complete circuit. If the amplifier output impedance is required.f. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used.

ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4. c.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and -f-les = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + f-t)] (4. and e.. The full circuit is given in Figure 4. c.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution. and Vo -f-lesRI.:. Example 4. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction.. 114 .la and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized. and iaRL due to a positive ia.7) = and the valtage gain.. --=----'---'=-. d and e show the connection of grid. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara.5) lf the output valtage is required. this would have led to Vgk = -iaRk +es and Vo = -iaRL.-----.1.6) Vo = -f-tRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4.1) (Note. iaRk. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram.4) (4. Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4.C.) Continuing with step 5: -f-lVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. cathode and anode respectively to earth.... The valve has amplification factor f-l and anode resistance ra. Vo = iaRL.2) Substituting for Vgk -f-t(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. d.

(g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 . (a) Triode amplifier with un-decoupled cathode resistor. (b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a. (d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4.1.__----.

Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit.s. ra re-arrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator.2.2b the required equivalent circuit.1 g.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4.2. (b) (a) Figure 4. 116 . (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = . Two other series forms will be given as examples. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier.m. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = -. If the constant current form is used. Figure 4. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + -gmesYk (4. The simple cathode follower. THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.

flVgk - Vgk + es (4. Vo = -iaRL since +ia.c. power in the load. volts.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l = - + fl) = es - giving iara. but since result 4.12) (4.135 X I0-3 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.11) Both forms are correct.2b (4. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av.10) iara = es. and kQ -20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now.RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth.9 is simpler.13) Inserting values and working in mA.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4. power due to the direct anode current. 117 .c. this is the best to use.iara 1 + fl (4. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( . In addition there will be d. Writing the circuit equation (4. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety.

but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced.3b Vgk = (4. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + f-l) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + f-l) + ra) (4. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results.15) ß)] (4.16) (4.3. Considering Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4. The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance off-land ra respectively.14) +iaRs.3a. the terminal input impedance. and internal resistance Rs. The grounded grid amplifier.3. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage ia(RL es(l + f-l) . Derive expressions for the valtage gain.f-l( +iaRs. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4.17) .3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure writing mesh equation rearranging es. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia.

:.) + p.4).)RL -=--------~~--~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p. Consider a simple Figure 4.:. Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z.20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn..) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =-:- (4.. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL). es(l + p.--:--::::(4.) _ R s + RL + p..)RL Vo = -----::'--:~.)RL ra + RL (4.) + RL 119 ..CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln - ia v' =es.( 1 + p.) (4. and putting Vo Avt = .4.20) (4.. Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4...21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p.22) ra + Rs(1 + p.iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s - ra Ztn = .

The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = -IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(. replaced by their internal impedances). (See Figure 4.5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4.24) (4.e.26) .f.25) (4.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4.5.. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted. (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. sources suppressed (i.m.

The valve has . R5 (1 . The circuit shown in Figure 4.6a isthat of a cathode follower.u) (4. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. Taking all resistors in kQ. all 121 .6. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth.u)] RL + ra. Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered.u 50 and ra 10 kQ.c. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r. + Rs(l + . bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4. designed to give a high resistive input impedance.4. These are a form of cathode follower. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra.23) as was obtained using the logical approach. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters.s.6b.m.

= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4.m.31 . 122 .ls Ia (4.29) Rearranging and collecting terms.28) (4.3 .7a is tobe used as a difference = .30) 0 = (4. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts.1-5 . VI = 505is + 5ia (4. and all potential differences and e.f. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is.) Using substitution methods. we have: Vgk = 500is [or -5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500t-tis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4. 5 000 . Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical. from equation 4. 25 000 .30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = -:. = . +5is has been neglected.s in volts.31) -25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4.31.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 .5.32) substituting in equation 4.

If substitution methods were used.35) (4.3 9) (4.7b.Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 . we find (4. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear.11e2 .40) These two expressions have the same denominator.f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.36) rearranging: -11e1 -11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4.5 The mesh equations may then be written: .33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = -11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 . On 123 . very unwieldy expressions would appear.37) (4. h and = -11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 . By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL - i2RL = RL(h - i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2.11e1 . Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4. Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4.7.f1Rk(h . and if the first term of this is expanded. the equivalent circuit.

it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 . Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges. and a Ioad RL. and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored.ei)(l + . The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity inter-stage coupling.uRk(e2. The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 . Two examples involving reactive components will be given. this. Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn. The question of whether a frequency is low.u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .u(e1.41) From this result. and stray reactances due to wiring etc. those for minimizing negative feedback. series inductors may be neglected. depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored.e1) + . CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequency-conscious. at low frequencies.12 = .u) 11 .u(e2 .U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .u)](e2. then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms.u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. A triode valve having . Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. [ra + RL + Rk(l + . The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor. .e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra . Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a short-circuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel.e2) volts.12 = . Similarly.u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + .6. high or medium. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically. 11 . .ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h - + (4.u)] -. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling. Therefore .

e.j) = 5 . This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk.7.j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4.CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor.42 -39 X 20 -39 X 2 -78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 .8. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz. -flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4.1.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.j2 = 25 + 4 = -2·69(5 + j2) = -13·45 .c. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4. working in kil: zk = -j x 1 = -j(1 + j) = 1. equation 4.j 1. Av = ra At 159 Hz.6 Figure 4. Rg is necessary to provide a d. where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil. Figure 4. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tan-lfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 . i. connection between grid and earth. Circuits for Example 4.8a shows the complete circuit.

9·25 + 0·16 = -8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = -25·2 .9.8 In this problem. THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4. Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. To sketch the required frequency response curves. the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action.9a and b.j0·4 . In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 . the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4.. and -39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit.---:. the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p.) ~ ra + RL. low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz. In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R).78(3·04 + j0·4) .------ --~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4.:.7.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore -j0·1 -j0·1(1 +j0·1) . 30 --. and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R).j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases. Zk=1-j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01-JO·l -39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) -78 3·04 .

ra = 10 kO. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component. certain components may be neglected as either open-circuit or short-circuit. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose. given that: !-' = 20. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies.5. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. is applied.T.c. Rg =50 kO. output voltage will be developed. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4. = - 10 10 then -wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. and Cs = 100 pF.10b could be solved by mesh analysis. connection to earth. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. (1) The cathode bias circuit. (b) (a) Figure 4. If Rk X. This is provided by Rg across which H. RL = 20 kO. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4.c. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the inter-electrode capacitance of the second valve. 127 . the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated. The first step then. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9.10. Ce= 0·1 fkF.10a.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage.

128 .5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz.c. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. If the reactance is greater than lORg. If 1 -CB = lORg W 1012 1 w=--= lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a short-circuit. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w=--= RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. amplification. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency. low frequencies. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. it may be regarded as open circuit. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered. If these results are examined. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected. and high frequencies. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. (2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor.c. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg.

If the parallel combination Figure 4. and Vo = .43 and 4.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = -2 X 5·89 = -11·78 In Figure 4. Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.= . The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re. the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.gmesRe Rg Figure 4.12. 1 1 I 1 (4.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.gmVgkRe = .11.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.11.12. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 .43) -=-+-+Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es.45) Re= 5·89 kQ f-t 20 gm = .44) -gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.

Iet Re/Xcs = I. (4. The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. (See Appendix 1.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4. 2. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. thus Re I = Xcs = -wCs and I w=--= ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton . From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift. 0·2. and 5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXc8 . d at f rom 17 .46) -gmZe _ -gm(-jXcsRe) Re. 0·5. then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale.) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J0-3 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 . 4. For example.

tan-1 2.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. y'(12 + 22). Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a. Table 4. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. but if more accuracy is required.13. Vo = 1 RgVa Rg - . tan-1 0·5. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan-1 0·2.13.1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken.c. This is shown in Figure 4. and y'(12 + 52). leading to the result shown in Table 4.1. anode voltage Va. y'(12 + 0·52).48) . k Figure 4. The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5. and tan-1 5 from 180°.

Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ -gmRe jXcc(Ta. T he expresswn Ta (4. Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined.49) The term (Rg.52) = Avm.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg. 132 . and Rg. h 11 1 b' . +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta.jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg.50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + . and Vo Avl=-= es TaRL ) -gmRg ( Ta+ RL --~--~~~----~---- ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg -jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4. Therefore TaRL ) .RL Ta. i.gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta. .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x.. RL. RL.Rg + RLRg. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta. J cc (4. is given by the product of the current .51) . + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta.jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4. and Rg. + RL) (4.jXcc .e.44 Avl = Avm -----:-~ I _ jXcc R' (4. + RL) TaRL Ta.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range.jXcc(Ta. from equation 4. it is Re.RL + Ta.50) R L + RL) -gmRgTaRL Ta.gmRe Rg + Ta.

For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2. the frequency must be divided by the same constant.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . tan. first consider the point where Xcc R' -=1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°.1 0·5 etc. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same. To calculate the frequencies.2RgCc 133 . and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. now . The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan-1 0·2.

Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale. EXAMPLES Example 4. -20. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4.Hz Figure 4. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. -33·3.8.14. 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits. Ans. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value.s. By definition. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . An alternating voltage of 50 mV r.9. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ. A triode valve has 11-40 and ra 20 kQ. Example 4. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations. Once the technique has been mastered. -13·3.m. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f.

Calculate the anode-cathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ.11.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ.13. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth. 0·49 V.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. 51·0. 0·808. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. Example 4. 6·72 V.10. 34·3 kQ. ra. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4. Take J-l and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. 17·1 kO. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO.3a) is driven by a source of e. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. -10·5.14. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. 10 kQ.12. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4. Ans. 323 0. 17·5 kO. Ans. Ans. 0·75 V. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. Ans. Example 4. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters J-l and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4. capacity coupled to the load. 0·95. Ans.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ.15. 135 . h 2 mA. If J-l and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. If the anode load is 27 kQ.f.m. Example 4. and VaK -3 V. Example 4. 80 0. 97 0. Example 4. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. Example 4.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier. 1·25 V. Ans. 455 kQ. determine the constants J-l and ra of a suitable valve. Ans. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4.

Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans.15. Circuit for Example 4. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. The circuit shown in Figure 4.16. calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48').c. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt.15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier. The d. or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4). 1·01 sin wt. 28·3. for each valve.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. Example 4. 136 .16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.16.17.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4. Ans. Circuit for Example 4.

-9·62. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans. Ans.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4.18 Example 4. Circuit for Example 4. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.19 Example 4. 35·6. 50 Hz to 10kHz. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range. -30·4.19. The valve has t-t 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode. Ans. 4·88 kQ.Cl 50k. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.20.18. 500. 137 .IlXAMPLES Example 4.17.18. Circuit for Example 4. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 t-tF for this purpose. If f1.17 employs identical valves with t-t 36 and ra 12 kQ. H:T. -13.18.Cl Figure 4.

37kHz.21 Example 4.21. Ans. Ans. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz. 12·1 L 241° 42'. 5·5 Hz.24.22. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies.. 0·01 f. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain. Ce 0·25 f. 0·37 mA/V.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively. The valve parameters are f.23. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ. Ans. -39·15. Take f.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies.. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz.. Example 4.19.lF. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.T.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.. RL 30 kQ.10a has the following components. 9·6 kQ. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Cs 330 pF. 27 kQ. Ans. -31·9. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL. Rg 100 kQ.lF. Circuit for Example 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.+ Figure 4. Example 4. H. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4. 138 .

128Hz to 7·5 kHz. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100.F. 139 . The coupling components are RL 50 kQ. Ce 0·1 p. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO.EXAMPLES Example 4. Ans.25. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ.

the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. When the correct h parameters are available. draw the chosen equivalent. If however. produce the correct solution in all cases. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. for example. applied or generated. base and collector connections. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. hrb. if correctly applied.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. will. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. This will usually depend upon the available information. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving.c. Show all details. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration. or even. i. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. rc. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. hrb. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. there is no need to convert to the required form.e. 140 .

GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn. hre Vce. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. having zero reactance. d and e show the connections of the emitter. and the coupling capacitor. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general shows a single stage amplifier. (hre ib. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit Remernher that batteries or other d. In any case. Components R1. power supplies are short circuit to a. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit.c. hre 5 X 10-4. Figure 5. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. When the h parameters are given. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2.c. Figures 5. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain.3 must be used. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 . The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 . Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. using substitution methods or determinants.Q. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages. is shown as a short circuit. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. etc. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. collector and base respectively.c. to earth. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. the two mesh currents are usually more convenient. Example 5.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho.1. but with T equivalents. The circuit shown in Figure 5. and of the input impedance.

.O.Vcc c RL 4 k!l.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS . e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 142 . (a) Circuit for Example 5. 1'" RE 1k. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5.1.

lf proceeding against the current arrow. This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem.lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification.c. not with respect to earth. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic.s.90ib). 143 . we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied.m. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic .GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J0-6 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method. and by adding any iZ products and generated e. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. Before continuing the solution. take the product as negaitive.) and the signal source. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a. These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5.f.

owing towards earth.71 .1 81 From 5. lb .1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic . _ 13 X 103 . The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic . _ .4 Substituting in 5.9 X 104 lc . = 4ic .2) Rearranging these equations. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !-LA ic = = -0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA -856fLA (Note the minus.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic .5 X 10-4 X 8 OOO(ic.90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5.3) 1 OOOib (5. but the shortest path is usually the most convenient. collecting terms and inserting the value of R'. Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.3) (5. -e' io = . e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5.) 144 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow. or (b) Vce = [ -1 OOO(ic + ib) . or (c) Vce = [5 X I0-4vce + 900ib + R'ib . In this case.71·9 X 104ib e' and .4 OOOic] V. Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.4 OOOic] V. take the product as positive. indicating 180° phase shift.e' .72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic.04 = 1·74 X 10-5e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl.90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.90ib) V.ic = 1 040 A .4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I0-5e' 1.3.

will always Iead to the correct solution. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 . Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib). Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way. since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor.1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'.1040 X 1·74 = .1·74 X 10-5 X 445 = 0·89 ..:-:::--=-: At = 1·74 X 10-5e' ib 105 At=. On the other hand this technique.. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor. This analysis may seem very long. Vo = -icRL = -856 X lQ-5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5.55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth. correctly applied. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =-:lb lQ-3 = 1·74 X lQ-5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib.ibR' = 0·89 . and substituting for terminal current gain -e' 1 040 -ic = -:---=:-:---------.0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo.

(2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances. Vo. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn.2.2. Determine the overall voltage gain. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5. The following points should be noted.2a.2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. the h parameter general solutions may be used. and hoe 105 . 146 . hre 110.. hre 2 X I0. (a) 1(b) Figure 5.umho. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency. these components have been shown as short circuits.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a.4. Example 5. itn and io. as have the Ioad resistors. This also eliminates the emitter resistors. Figure 5. current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters. hte 1·3 kO.c. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero.

6) .umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'.+ -4·7. = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of . Before applying these steps to the problern in hand. To obtain the adrnittance of a component in .umhos. lb2 + 2 X 10-4( -110ib2) 408 X lQ-b 220 v' = 1 300 . I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 -110ib X 10-4 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)10-6 Substituting for v0 in 5·5.5) (5.-4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'.= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 .umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 -21. (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n. divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. Applying this rule. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis. (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2.umhos. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows.

7) (5.(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2. for step 3.umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.100 X 2 X I0-4 -110 .8) Substituting for ibl in 5.7 _ I 300(1471)10.0·022 -58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4. using the general solution found in Chapter 2. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I0-4 = I 300. YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 .1·3 = X 1·471. Ztn2 hrehte = hte.umho Now from the general solution. = -llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 10-4 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)10-6 1 300ibl (5. and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.6 u 2 Ytn -llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 -100 1 300(1 471)10-6 .( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1.285 2 X 10-4 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 .

io Vo YL2 At=-:--=--= AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 10-6 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure.hrehre -110 = 1 300(1 471)10-6 .3:-::0-=-3-+--:-1-=-05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X -Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X -1Ix30·3 4·08 . lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn . -hre Av = -------. refer to step 6. IR 2 io -IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03.6 .110 X 2 X 10-4 = .--~-chte(hoe + YL) .58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 -110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10. . 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + -110ib2 X 303 -110 X 3·03 = ----. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 .GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution.I 10 -IIO X 2 X 10-4 = -2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = -2I6·5 X -58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain.

hrehre Yo = hoe . 3 .umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 .28 .umho Including YL2.umho X 10 = 92·4 .umho 220 I05 .hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors. For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = . 97·2 + 303 .4 = + 260) . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2.umho = = 1 000 655 .42 .umho = 97·2 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 10-4 I 300 + 442 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.umho I 000 .I 7 .umho ~400 . the overall output admittance and impedance.umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 = - - 110 X 2 X I0-4 I 300 + I 530 .

3.3 where es is the source Figure 5. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value. . Finally. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. Av= -hre -hreZL .. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. we shall reconsider Example 5. To show the effect of these approximations. . and hoe is neglected.. so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5. In each case however.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. E. In any case. A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances. The first thing to notice.2 voltage. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last. further components are added in parallel.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . may be neglected or at least rounded off.2 is accurate but not really practical. the bias components. . the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. having an impedance much greater than h1e.GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5.

600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. 152 .2.1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho -63·5 -63·5 x -208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. hrb. Having considered the common emitter amplifier. Table 5. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Avz Z1n2 = -llO 1·300(105 + 303)10-6 =- 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 -90 X . Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations.1. Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 5000-2 kfl 5 kfl-20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies.

Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit.GENERAL METHODS Table 5. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. and secondly. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. Take hte 800 n. firstly.3 emitter parameters. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5-300 0·5-2Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications. by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5.3. Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. hoe 250 .4. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. these alternative methods will be compared. In the next example. Example 5.4a. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5.umho and hre 65. Figure 5. hre 10-3 . Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = -Vo = -2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) .2.

= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 . -:ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'. = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = -258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I0-3 terms) From the second equation. 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib .umho = 60 . VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = --. YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel. so substituting for ic in the first equation. . From Figure 5. 154 Y1n = 71·25 . = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib .4a.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ.umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components.umho . 258.umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 .I0-3(ib 0 = 4(ic - 65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms.

Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I0-6 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit. (a) I Figure 5.5a.GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals.3 155 . the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :---Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. suppressing any external generators. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5. as shown in Figure 5.5.

Table 5. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 5-20 (limited by bias components) Low 0·8-0·99 High Bias components Low 20--100 il 156 .6 Neglecting the first term.) Now writing the nodal equation. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator.384 X I0-6V =:::= .65 X 384 X I0-6V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10. I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)10-6 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5.5b. IO-av Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l0-6V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.V.1 and 5.3.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5. 0·384 X 10-6.2. so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I0-3 V. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'. First Vce = .384 X I0-6 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.VY' = 0·384 X I0-6V.

GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec - hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 .. hre Vce Figure 5.hre . Vec. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = -Vce. The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. Thus and + hreib) hrc = -(hre + 1) and h1c ie = -(ib = h1e Now for ib zero. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears.6. together with ib flow into the short circuit. the hre generator becomes -hreVec.6. All the current from the hre generator. Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears. ib and ie as shown hlc I = -.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals. Vbc.

ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given.umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier. including Ioad.umho 1 .10-3 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I0-6 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0. 158 . a phase splitter or a d.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 .3: htc = 8000 htc = -66 hrc = hoc = 250 . The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one.c.6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. or super <X pair. Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 . With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.umho For overall Y0 . This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected. amplifier. we require the effective Zs.umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found.

hte 1 300 0.umho and hre 90. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. 159 .7a could be treated in a number of ways. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d.c. supply. so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis.c.c. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5. Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO). hoe 125 . The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5.7. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. 7a. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5. operating points determined by the circuit. Circuits for Example 5. hre 5 X 10-4. In this example only the he parameters are available.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d.4.

Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1. we may write and ibl = (v1 - ibz = vz)830 pA -vz 830 p. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. therefore if VI. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI - vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p.vz)830 + 90( -830vz) = -vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830) - 125va and for node 3: -90( -830vz) = -125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000. The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1.7b. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59. and va. which changes the units to volts. vz.0·125va -75vz + 0·625va 160 .mho. For ib1. circuit admittances and external generators.A Now for node I.0·83vz 0 = 0= -75·5vl + 153vz . The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 . The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. For node 2: 90(vl . vz and va in terms of is.A.

For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 is 0 0 is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(-75·5 X X75. since each stage of a 161 .0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625.X ls X is(153 X 0·625. but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low. This is to be expected.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(-75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~-==-~~~~~--~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = -.= ls 1 -:ls is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =-:.0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal.

5. Example 5.. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair.w 'h.8. hoe" and hre ". and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance.' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h .~· it. A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d. (b) (a) !2 ho. 162 .8a. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. (d) (c) Figure 5. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v.8b. conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000. common collector amplifier has no phase reversal.. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5. hoe'.. hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ".c. hre 120.

h12. where hn. where Y is the combination of hte ". + oe Now.. the parameters for the overall circuit. for h12 and h22. for h21 and hn. are open circuit input.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. ib" in terms of the node voltage.._h_"_ 1 ~ h---.:. and short circuit output. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated. Under these conditions h and ib are zero.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations.. hz1.9) we can write a nodal equation.1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5.:. this can also be deleted. and since there is no p. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h---.d. oe II le (5. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h----. Figure 5. across hte'.10) . hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + -h oe _ fz _ 22 - = V2 - h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " -h + le oe 1 h ") + . oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". but first we must find h22.. Here Vz ib"=---11 1 hte h----.

. le h _ h ... For h21. V' + hoe'hte 11 (5.11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5. In this case.II..I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____.= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'.I6) .I h . The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. 11 - + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part...12) Once again. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate. oe + -h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5. (5.I5) (5.. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted.. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition. the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I . h in terms of h.14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =-" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5... The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately. • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h--.8d. By inspection.. I . we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output.

1121 = 120.3 = x 10-6 OoOI8 + """1-3 mho = Oo8 + 13-8 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb . practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 10-6 X !50 X 10-6 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 10-6 I 50 X 10-6 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J. the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n - 3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu . hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018. this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as. or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value. h _ h ib' - _ hre'.0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns. and 5017.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METI-IODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6. 5o14.(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013.hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case.83 kQ 165 .

as the large h21 permits a very low d. Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. Example 5. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded. hoe 100 . At this point then.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input.3. and that due to transistor properties.c. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. Av2 .9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. base current for the first transistor. the coupling capacitor. By means of a general analysis. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. determine. The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. without loss of current gain. except in phase. huc = 188 k.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards. independent of frequency. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. hre 110. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. Capacitors. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 .umho. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value.6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. have not been shown. Stray capacitance due to wiring. and hre negligible.6. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. where shown. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. have neglected the effect of reactances. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components. An even higher input impedance can be achieved.Q h12c = 1- h21c = -11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. Figure 5. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4.

20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5.19) -Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V. Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero. the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5.22) .21) 1 Ztn2=-y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5. By definition. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5.9. Jet 1 Re = -:----=c---=--(5. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis.6 For simpJicity.

Avh -hre = -h-Re le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. . - - VcZ!n2 Ztn2- jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies. and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies.telb X .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = -C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 -C '. X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V .jXce) Ztn2 v = . those at which Cs only may be neglected. First. Av1 and Avh respectively. as low frequencies.>Re v' = -hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' -hre Avm =-=--Re VI hte (5.J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXcs.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. h . The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm. At low frequencies.9b is the same as v'. RL'(Ztn2 . considering Figure 5.24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. Ve shown in Figure 5. -jXcsRe v = -hrelb x R ·x e . frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected. will be referred to as medium frequencies.23) At high frequencies. . . ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2 - J Ce . X es is in parallel with Re.

25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5. Avm A vl = ---':'-::-:- (5. This results in Avh = -59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5. In this numerical example. At any particular frequency.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed. and 5. Avm = -110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5.26) 169 .19.20. let Re/Xcs = 1. Forageneral investigation.20. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.23.22. from equation 5. 5.) Thus from equation 5. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5.21. 5. 5.24 and 5. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.23. But (Equations 5.23.24.

tan-1 3 and tan-1 5 respectively. and 5wh respectively. y'5. tan.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan-1 0·25.F capacitor would be suitable.1 2. etc. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. 5.24..2I. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz. At these frequencies.I9 and 5. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p.4 on page 171. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5. .F Thus in practice a 1 p. At low frequencies. In practice.. 2wh.. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1). 3. Inspection of equation 5. These results are shown in Table 5.. the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz. 3wh. 170 . I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5. 2..F = 0"63 p.

8 tan.4.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan-110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.1 tan. Xcc Avt 7i.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan-10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll-6 tan.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.0 tan-1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .96 tan-120 87° 10' IAvml = 1-1 9 tan-1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where -0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42.96 tan.8 tan.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .6 tan-1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan-11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .10·5 26° 30' T tan-10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan-12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh=-- Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan-11 45° o-5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.1 2 63° 30' = 18.1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 .

t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1. for the single 172 .10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. i.4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. etc. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed.4. Considering the single stage first. 2. etc.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies. . An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. the gain of the second stage.wCcR' .hrehre + -:----:-::------. 3.10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz.2 . 2. The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case.=-:-----::-----::-- hle(hoe -110 = 1 000(100 + 500)10-6 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from -90° (at the top) to +90°. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. This is shown. the gain of the first stage. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive. Figure 5. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~.. since we are puttmg R ' . Av2 = -hre YL) .e. must be multiplied by Av2. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. 3. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters. at each frequency. of the two stage amplifier. values of !. This is shown in Figure 5. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined. These results arealso shown in Table 5.

llb.6.MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. in Figure 5. This locus is shown in Figure 5. we obtain the locus of the gain vector. the locus is a circle. 4 6 f. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. 173 . plotted in the complex plane. (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift.40 > 3. 30 180° -e- 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5. In this case. If the ends of all these vectors are joined.10. with the origin on the circumference.Jla. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 .

Example 5.12. If the transistor employed 4k.O. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 .12a. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5.7. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9. but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 .11. Circuits for Example 5.

29) Rearranging and collecting terms. Figure 5. rc +. inserting values and working in kil and 15ir. In terms of these three.. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain. substituting for i 0 and i'. + l.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 ! and ir. V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 -810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 -14 +814 +4 +10 -810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)-0·7(-14x 15-4x 10)+0 15 450vl .28) (5.810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie.27) (5.0·7ib (5.10(8lib.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. The unknown currents have been se1ected as ib. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib - ie = ib .463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 . = ib(1 + rx') .ie = ibrb + iere .ie + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations. rb 800 kil and rx' 80.lo R L 0 = -lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil. = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = -14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie . -. V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = -0·03ie + 10(81ib - = ie) + 4(ir + ib . ie.

It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point. In fact. 176 . the input current is ib + ir.814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v.ib. ib = Vi. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. feedback methods should be used. mA = ioRL = (ir. Vo Vo Av = .203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit. .0·03Vt 0. In the majority of the examples. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers. however.27. ir = 14ie . circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are V = -22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter. The methods used. These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters.28.= -90 Vi Z. In the design of a practical amplifier.n Vt Vt = -:lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 . This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required. However.

Circuit for Example 5.14. 645 n.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. 6·83 kQ.9. -65·6. Av. Ans. Ans.8.8. hre I0-3 . and At against RL. Repeat Example 5. -65·6. v. 100 n. -36·2. 177 . 25·7 Q. hoe 90 . 258 n.11. 0.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. -56·5. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. Assurne Xe = 0. Example 5.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5.8 using RLO.8 taking Xe as being infinite.umho. Example 5. Figure 5. Ans. 10 kQ. 960 Q.13. 960 Q. -130.11 Example 5. 0. and oo. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. -0·68. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. -3 130. 862 Q. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. -6·72. 8·83 mV.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n. Circuit for Example 5. -1·97. hre 75.10. Figure 5. Ans.. -560.

Ans. The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 . Collector Ioads. 496 X 1()3. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ. hoe 120 . 656 Q.12.7a. 147. 90 .15. 1 528 Q. 3·3 kQ. 8·83 mV. 1. Example 5. Example 5. hre 90. -11·35.umho.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0.umho.13. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5. Ans. Repeat Example 5.15 has h1e 1 300 0.14. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. hre 5 X 10-4.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage.15. 650 X 1()3.umho. -76. 264 Q. 1100 Q.16. hoe 80 . hoe 80 . A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components. Ans. Ans. Example 5. Circuit for Example 5. Figure 5. Example 5. hre 110. 2·22 kQ. 25·7 Q.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. hre 150. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. hre 0.

and hoe 130 ftmho. 179 . 162 L 168°. hre 90. 5 260. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance. effective inter-stage shunt capacitance 500 pF. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. and IX 0·992. Ans. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. and hre 0.EXAMPLES effective. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. hre 125.16. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor. -89. 5. hre 80. 7 370.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. Circuit for Example 5.17. hoe 130 ftmho. 1 122 n. 63 kn.18. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. -6 600. Yc 750 kQ. 105 Hz. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. hre 10-3 . coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF.19. 2·10 kil. Yb 350 Q. Example 5. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ. Example 5. per stage. 20·4 x to-s. hre 5 X 10-4. 1 130 L 3° 30'. Ans. 444 kHz. 1 123 Q. -63·3. Ye Example 5. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit. 119 ftmho. Ans. Ans.

-1 270.umho. hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 .Q. 88 . In each case. 4·0 . 14·6 k. (b) 0·973.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2.Q. hoe 110 .umho.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5. the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 . hte 70. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k.Q.20. 218. hre 4 X 10-4. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5.90 k. Assurne Zs to be 10 k.Q. Ans.Q.Q.Q.Q. 180 . Calculate the voltage gain.8a. hre 10-3 . h1e 1· 5 k. hoe 500 . (a) -41·0. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal).

Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. The passive components may vary with temperature and time. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. and of the device parameters. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. operating conditions. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. current gain or both.c.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. and in the event of a replacement. In this 181 . and a change of d. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. Similarly. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance.c. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load.

The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. 182 . where in general A = lAI L 0. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. particularly at high frequencies. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically non-linear. These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits.1. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. and their configuration. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components.c. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6.

but not essentially. lßl is less than one. and So is the output signal. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex. Usually.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. S' is the terminal input signal. where cp. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß. the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1-lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6.ßA AS So= 1. S is the input signal applied from an outside source.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.1.2) .Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6.

2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above.e. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced. Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 . discussed above. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain.e. Thus equation 6. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges. supply changes.c. or temperature changes.) Example 6. i. the feedback is negative.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. Feedback positive \A\. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback.1. 184 . Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. and in particular negative feedback. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. d. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°. With reference to equation 6. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'. i.


If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine

the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000



where K is a constant.


3 000

= 0·191


the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
3 000


Percentage change

100 per cent

= 59· 3 per cent

Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier



A 2r =

3 000

3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402

1 + 600

. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500 - 402
Percentage change m


100 per cent

= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series



or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback

Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multi-stage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe-1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be


referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.

Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:







+ R 2 Vo


+ R2

(6 .4)

Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by



since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'





1- Avoß
AvoV = 1Avo ß

Gain with feedback




1 - Ap~ vo


Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l - ßAvo)


If this equation is divided by i the input current,



-:-l = -.

- ßAvo)

But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:

= Ztn{l

- ßAvo)


Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback

We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say

V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining



+ Ztn)


ß'. Where

= -=-----=----=-----'R2 + Zs + Ztn


V'= ß'E





Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E - Av' V' = I'Zo'

From equation 6.9
E(l - ßAv') = I'Zo'
Zor = ji = l - ßAv'


The overall output impedance can thus be found from


Z = Zor



+ RL + R1 + Rz

Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback

We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.

.------;!--------,--- --1






c0 t




v---,r-.,- - - - - - - J

Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback

In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor

RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as


Thus if RF ~ Zs

+ Ztn (as is usual)






In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,



= RL + RF + Zo'


With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.

Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,


-IRF (if Ztn

+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)

and writing the mesh equation

E- Av'( -IRF)

= l(Zo' + RF)

arranging and collecting terms,



= IZo' + /RF(l

- Av')

= ~ = Zo' + RF(l- Av')


With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect

Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.

so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine.Applying equation 6. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.m.4.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits. For the amplifier without feedback.86 = 623 from equation 6.5a. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2. for both methods. the overall terminal voltage gain. the voltage derived feedback.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative. and internal impedance 1 kO. 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 .5 and 6.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since . from equations 6. the modified input and output impedance. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8). and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a).A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. 100 ß= . The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6. the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.f.8.7 and 6.

A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 f-tA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. 6. the current gain is unchanged. Zor =I lOkQ + 6.14.A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ.8 we find. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.12.7 and 6.14).24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback. 6. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6.10. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ. and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1.11.A With reference to equation 6. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so. 1 795 = 192 .23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14. If the original input current 0·5 f-lA was applied. To return to the problem. and using equations 6.23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .

Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback. we refer to equation 6.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . Ztn 1 000 0. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback. This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. as has the input current.1. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 . as a result of the increase in input impedance. f. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9. the current gain has not been reduced.13. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 .8 mV .1. lo - As before. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback. 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback.

194 . With voltage derived feedback.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. these would be given by: I Y. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. /li0 io YL Y. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased.n - v' G2 Figure 6. A.5.n=:=h- le in parallel with the bias components. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box.'. and a short circuit current gain A. the two quantities to be added must be currents.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance. Fora multi-stage transistor amplifier. the output impedance is reduced. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n.5. I' is l•. CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '.

ßAto) is . the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But . and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network. I = 1.19) Atois 1. lo = (6.= Ytn and .21) 195 .16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback.v1)G2 = v'G2 (6. YL is the finalload.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6.ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL. The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6. This is given by: At'YL' (6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6.19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6.ßAto) (6.ßAto . Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 .(1 .= .15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.5. is I' .

that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback. First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6. The effect of YL. Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals. Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V.e. the current gain is reduced. and the input admittance is increased (i.20 and 6. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance.6.n G2 Figure 6. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . with simple negative feedback.6. G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. the input impedance is reduced).24.2. The reader may have noticed by this stage.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6. I' Y.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6.

Y.23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 . we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo. YL will be the predominent term and equation 6. . is shown in Figure 6. Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6.CUR. resulting in voltage derived feedback.24 will approximate to YL. is I' I ~Ys io y.ß"At' (6.24) With typical values.'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I".n .7. Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback. Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.7. I ---i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6. 197 ß and .

3.At") (6. the overall current gain. (6. suppressing the source generator. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. Example 6. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals.26) Using these values of ß and A10.20 and 6. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal.21 respectively. I + GF'(l. 198 . Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn. the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6. and output admittance.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and .27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. input admittance. and calculating the resulting V.25) Also.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. The amplifier described in Example 6. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case.

umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn -:.= --. 1 = Zo' = .21. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative. 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 . 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) . . Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 .= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s.umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.umho . 6.20 and 6. and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback.18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 .umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL .17 and 6.16.umho ln Yo At .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.= 250 .umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q).umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6. 199 1 786 . Also 1 YL = .100 . 6.15.umho 1 -25-1 = 238 . .

22 and 6. = Yor = At" = = 9·9 . applying equations 6.umho = 56 .25 and 6. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b). The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6. GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 .20 and 6.26.21.uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q). 200 . This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 .24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 .umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).umho + 280) = 3 130 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance. ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.umho 101\ 0 A.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 . Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 .umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).umho.27.

umho. Y1n 1 000 . and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. the current gain and input impedance are reduced. With a current amplifier.umho. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'. the output impedance is reduced. Yo 305 . We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input. and the input impedance is increased. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 .EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel.umho.umho.umho. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1.umho. SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers.21. Yo 3 130 . the voltage gain is reduced. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av.8. In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance. Ytn 1 786 . and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. Now moving to the output terminals. Y1n 8 780 . Y0 350 . A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived). + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit.

and in Chapter 8. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. oo. This may be illustrated by an example. The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. naturally increases the output impedance. the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. 202 . (b) -90°. By means of sketched vector diagrams. (c) +45°. These effects are shown in equations 6.10 and 6. and that is that ßA must be less than one.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. v0 = A L 0 V'.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. First we must be clear about the information supplied.4. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. and that the calculation of Af(l . A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). -90°. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. Example 6. At three different frequencies.27. and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector. -135°. since the gain is 5 L 0.

and by measurement of vectors or by calculation.8. and (c) positive.4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies.6. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6. IJvo ~ -~vo t's (b) -f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multi-stage RC coupled amplifier.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6. Forasinglestage amplifier. ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°. the gain and phase shift with feedback determined.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. (b) negative. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5.11 for Example 5. 203 .

andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 .atfm. Since this is the locus of (. In Figure 6. Next the locus of -ßA is required. Thus Figure 6.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference. The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing. 02P. and /h respectively. fm .ßA) vector would remain at 01. Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. we must find. For this. To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback.ßA) vector. the scale of Figure 6.9b. 02Q.ßA)is3 L 0°. we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( -ßA). then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. The origin of the (1 . the vector (I . for each frequency. having its origin on the circumference.(l.ßA). This is shown in Figure 6.9a ft (a) Figure 6.9a. each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . and 02R are the (1 . and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1.9b iscorrect.9a. Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ß-io L ()0. Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle.9.ßA). From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages.9b. and we require (1 . The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6.

This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter.4.10a and b. If Figure 6.ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin.10b is to apply to the problern in hand. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. With reference to Table 6. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. Since at each frequency. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response. the gain must be squared.9b shows that 11 .ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L -26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520. Example 6. 205 . The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L -26·5° respectively. A table may now be drawn up. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. it is applied over two or more stages. If the ß factor is -8·5 x I0-4 . the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . This is shown in Figure 6. draw the overall gain and phase response. A two stage amplifier. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.6.ßA I can never be less than one. This will now be illustrated by an example. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point -ßA = -(3 520 X -8·5 X I0-4) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm.ßA) and (1 . the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20. Before we can apply the methods outlined above.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = .5. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. Examination of Figure 6 . having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5.= 880.

5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6. Table 6.ßA).ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 .1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 -129° -87° 0·01 972 -32° 0·02 870 -15° 0·03 879 -70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° .24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.10. Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1-. cp' = 38°.1.

From these curves the following results may be obtained.r:. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency.. relative gain and phase <ll <ll > . ~co (/) co·- fU~ <llOl o. :. To obtain the relative gain in each case. it is convenient to plot graphs of gain. and relative gain against log frequency..:c . lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency...11.lfl ~ +250° 1-0 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° -00 -50° 0·4 -1500 -250° Figure 6.I:.11 shows graphs of gain. 207 .. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback. Graphs of gain. relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback. phase shift... Figure 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback.

ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite.10b shows that this will occur when 11 . In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity. then 11 .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback.12b the amplifier must have four stages. the origin for -ßA.10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. and if this distance is smaller. If the origin for (1 .ßA) scale. was cut by the locus. 02.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus. Oz.12 shows the form of the locus of -ßA and (1 .ßA). The origin 01 isthat applicable to the -ßA locus. Consideration of Figure 6. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6. For the locus shown in Figure 6. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l . but it cannot rise to infinity.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks. 04 etc. This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency. and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges. Examination of Figure 6. are possible origins for the (1 . Figure 6.11. the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l .ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied. 03. Figure 6. -ßA and hence ß must be 208 .ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 . In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained.ßAol is also reduced. and since it is not symmetrical. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l .

ßA I is about . The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies. With the origin at 02 li . oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =.e.12. Locus of (1 . i. since the gain is infinite.ßA) with more feedback than 02.ßAI is at 03. i. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case. 209 .= -0 = 1-ßA .ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75. 03 is the origin for (1 . If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li .e. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased. (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger. Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased. but it can be less than one.. no input is required for an output to be present. In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously.ßAI cannot equal zero. giving positive feedback.

Unstable. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04.12b is given below. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier. U nstable. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier. Origin Position 02-03 Oa-04 04-0s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. but also voltages at twice. In general the non-Iinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. oscillation at /1 only. we might expect a stable condition again. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . or second harmonic. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. positive FB at high and low frequencies.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. the amplifier will be unstable. but if it is applied over three or more stages. that is troublesome. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency. care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. bandwidth increased. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 .

The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced.ßA) and (6.30) 1. Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on non-linear distortion Since we have an amplifier.13.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage. + ßD + ßD (6. and O·I V at 3 kHz.13. 0·5 V at 2kHz. So must contain a component AS'.29) S'(l . In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So. and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. So = AS' +D (6. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion.ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D .30 into equation 6.28 So = AS' 1 . Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced. Consider the system shown in Figure 6.

Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.ßA D (6.32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback..ßA ASt = I .31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6.6 212 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I ..ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6. using the methods described in Chapter 1. 2 I• Feedback . A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6.ßA AßD + +D .14.6.31) + 1.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel. This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. Figure 6.AßD I . Example 6. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically.14. But from equation 6.

+ ß') x 100 per cent Further. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line.15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 . Now toreturn to the problem. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'.T. In Figure 6. Figure 6. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. Severe distortion :.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ß-ß' 2(6. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. on Figure 6. and es is 2·5 sin wtV.15. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal.

(b) Without feedback. Peak Vo 191 . The resulting d.c. bias line for 2 kQ. but ß may be obtained from equation 6. as has the d. = 2 x 4 . h 1·5 mA. has been drawn.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . along a 38 kQ a. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected. But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 .c. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. load line. Peak v0 = 194. operating point is VAK 139 V. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = -hRK t es and -hRK- es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained. es must be increased. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter. load line for 40 kQ.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 0-47 S. The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph.11.D. current derived negative feedback is applied. VaK -3 V. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V.H.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case.c.c. the operating point moves between VBK -0·5 V to VaK -5·5 V.

D.-1-9 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% ------n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier. Figure 6. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. v0 with feedback is slightly distorted.16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively. In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component. In the 215 . In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers. Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S.H.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . = 2 x 4 . ßv0 is also slightly distorted. In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself. In other words.

THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits.16. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) --es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo -5 200 (distorted) . 216 . In a prototype. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. 80.7. Waveforms for Example 6. 0·012.------v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6. Ans. and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined. A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain.

For the circuit shown in Figure 6. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. 47·5 kO. 24·5.8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. Example 6.11 8 217 . determine the current ratio i0 /i8 . Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback. 25·8 kO.11. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs.17.EXAMPLES Example 6. 4·96 kO. If the load and source are unchanged. Ans. 169 0. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before.10. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000. This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied. 91·2. Ans.umho. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0. The amplifier described in Example 6.!l Figure 6. Ans. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance. A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. Example 6. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance. Example 6. 38·7. 48·8 0.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. and 400kfi -10' i ' 2k. Circuit for Example 6.umho. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO.8. 1 013 .9.17.

whether the feedback is positive or negative. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L -45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L-65° 2 100 L -90° 3 300 L -130° 4 400 L -155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L -45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. 0-60 Hz. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. 450 kHz-oo. (c) neither. phase shifting. Example 6. Check your answer by calculations. 1 MHz. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° -30°. (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. Ans. The total loading per stage is 600 . is applied. An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of -95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k.12.3 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX. (b) positive. determine for each case.Q. 161.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance. Example 6. Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. Ans. Ans. ß L 200°. I I 50. Example 6. 2·6 MHz. ß = 0·059 L -245° By means of vector diagrams. (a) negative. Ans.4 . 1/1 760.14. 218 .13. 10.

A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1. Ans.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. 2·12 MO. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base.. calculate the value required for RF. lf RK is adequately decoupled. The source impedance is 600 n. Example 6.EXAMPLES Example 6.T. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. 8·9 per cent. 43 V peak to peak. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion). RL 13 kO. Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. Checkthese results using feedback theory. 47 V peak to peak. 219 .15.16.B. Ans.F. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. N. 32 per cent. and RK 1·2 kO. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are -3 200 and 800 n respectively.

if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions. with feedback derived from a later stage.ßA so for simple negative feedback. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal. l is = I .1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .I . either A or ß must be negative. Figure 7.ßA 220 . we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier.. Figure 7. The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' . In this chapter. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. In this situation. Figure shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined.7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.

In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare.1 c. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered. Connections for feedback amplifiers. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier. 221 . The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative. In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback.1. (a) Current amplifier.

Figure 7.umho and A1' = -hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .25 {J GF 12·5 = -h = -500 = 0·025 222 = -120 .1. hoe 90 . Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier.umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ. For negative feedback {J must be positive. Since hre is zero.umho and from equation 6. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO. The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6.2. . In the circuit shown in Figure 7. hre 120.1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback. t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative.2.umho = hoe = 90 . l . Y1n Yo' 1 = -hle = 1 250 . -hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er. the transistor parameters are hle 800 n.24 to 6. Example 7..- -SOkO = 12·5 . Circuit for Example h . With a . The required circuit is shown in Figure 7. First the equivalent amplifier components are required.2.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier.27 inclusive.

'YL YL + GF + -120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = .umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6. .27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l .o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 . the input and output impedances were increased.21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6. and with the equivalent circuit problems.') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: -99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I .1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback.umho = 2100 . Figure 7.13). In each case the voltage gain was reduced. or by finding 1 ~pA.umho + 99·6 X 0·025) . 6. This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6.7.12 and 6. Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods. 6.umho The resu1ting output impedance -i-or = 476 n.8.n(1 .3 shows how the 223 .n.ßA. part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.A. 6.11. A!o = Yo' A.26. Y1nr = Y.ßA1o Au= -28·6 Equation 6.

PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. Current derived.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +-. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6. since V' is less than es. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now. =V'. The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback. 224 . using the notation shown.3.

As with the last example. A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7. we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier. = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6.90 -90 X 5 X 10-4 =- 1300 Note.umho and hre 90.umho 900 =-!.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)10-6.33 = 225 -283 . hre 5 X 10-4. 6.n Figure 7.7 Avo -1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 . Using feedback methods.Cl 1k .SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7.4 Z1n = 900. Yo' = 125 X 10-6 - Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ-4 = 75 .umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero.12. find the terminal voltage 4k. hoe 125 . Circuit for Example 7. and the output impedance. Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10.4.. for Z1n.2 and current gain.2.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0.. the output voltage and current.11 and 6. the circuit YL of 250 .

Working in admittances. = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance. 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 .umho Now using potential divider methods. _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 . RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly. the base input current ib is required.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t -283 283 = -3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.uA . .7 =56 226 .8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V.uA To calculate the terminal current gain. and Vo = 3·48 V.56·2 m = 15·7 .13. the overall input impedance should include the bias components. To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ-6 A = 880 .

8 + 0. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 . Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr -hreZL hte = -90 X 4 000 900 = -400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback. which would slightly modify ß. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3. but when the bias components are included. Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ . Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At -hreYL = -----=-YL + hoe -90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = . 1. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances.5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high.

Au and Ztnr. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). the solutions may be found from equations 6.5. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL. Since we have current derived current feedback. the steps in the solution will be: A12. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (-ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2.23. thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2). Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. will be. Here. An and Z1n1. 228 . So.signs.15 to 6. The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7. Yor. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2. making approximations where valid. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. since. A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2.5.

6. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X -hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + -hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X -I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X - 0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 . If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed. shown in Figure 7. hre 140. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200. hoe 150 . determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base.!1 Gz Figure 7. of a driving source.m.umho. Determine also by how much the e.6. The output current in the amplifier. Circuit for Example 7.s.f.m.m.3.f. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent. must be changed if the 400.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e.3 required output current is to be maintained. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. of internal impedance 600 n.

!i:l'-) kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho.6 =-51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + . -140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10. D Dr = I . and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 .32. Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.m.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e. = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2.f.




and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho

ß --

This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:



Ztnr =

450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150

But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000

5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000

112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV

Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate four-terminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can


find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r------------- -,





L -








- -- -




- - -

- - - - __ J


L------ - - - - - - - - - - - Figure 7.7. Interconnected four-terminal network circuit for
Example 7.4

the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two four-terminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.

These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.


Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:



vl = yu = 100 kil =

10 ,umho

Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,



= 100kil

= v1 =

-10 ,umho

But the network is symmetrical, so


y12 = -10 ,umho

10 ,umho,

Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero



= -hte =

1 000 ,umho

where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and

= hoe = 100 ,umho

where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:

h = -

X -





hoe + YLI + Ytn2


X hoe


+ Ytn3




Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.




= 729

1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
-90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho

x 2. 1 x 2 . 1



165·5 mho


Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.


The combined parameters may now be written,



1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho



-10 ,umho
110 ,umho

The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,

-10 X 165·5 X 106

= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10-a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho


From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:

~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
yu(y22 + YL) - y21Y12
I65·5 X 10-6 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000) - ( -IO X I65·5
= -1..,..0_10__x--II.,..,0---










+ 10


To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.


= y22- yu +

Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho

with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.


The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.

Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ


of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.




Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5

To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05




Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,




Vr = (1

+ ßA1A2)

+ ßA1A2)

Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only

We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7. overall gain and input impedance with feedback. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network.umho = 1100 . This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 .6 = . (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback.umho -100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10.umho -100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)10-6 - 83 "4 1 kO 1 000 .6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 -0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . (6) U sing ßof0·05. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. hz =(I 000 + 100) . (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl. resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one. it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q-6 -47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 . This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl. in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.8.

9 and solve by nodal analysis.9. i1 the base current for Tri. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = -0·98 x -83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7.1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7.05 = 16·1 (7.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 t-tmho = 1 000 t-tmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.5 First.3) 238 . Ii• Figure 7.

6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7.5.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105). and l2 -hreV1 = -IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)10-6 V V2 -IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7.524 = 241 v1 (7.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now.0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2.524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = -0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants.3 and 7. admittance must be expressed in mmho. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 . V2 = . Substituting from equation 7. 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.4) i2 = -47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts.6.0·105Vo -100(-47·5)Vl ~ -0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2.7) .

240 .. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback. the overall h parameters would be obtained. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback. h for the network. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified. ll = 242 kO 1 (7 . and in parallel with the output of the amplifier. d ance = -:Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :. while the current flowing out of the common terminal.7 and 7. Other situations however do permit the four-terminal network approach.1 and 7. Unfortunately this is not valid. Forthis situation. The remaining procedure then follows normal four-terminal network practice. The feedback network is connected in series with the input.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · . and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added.~. suggesting the use of g parameters. The current amplifier for Example 7. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit.2 respectively (16.8 with results 7. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages.1 and 7. we shall consider a valve amplifier..4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters. and the circuit for Example 7. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon four-terminal network theory was not used for this example. since h for the amplifier is ib. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages. The circuits for Examples 7. is ib + ic.8) Comparing results 7.1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent. Apart from this.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters.

10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. 10k.10.6. ra 1 MQ. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = -gmRe = -3 X lQ.ll. Figure 7.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ. There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at -30.3 :. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency.6 When no feedback is applied. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (-30)3 Re~RL Avm = -27 X X 104 = -30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7.9) . At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7.

1 -5 X 10-15 ± y(25 X lQ-30 12·5 X 1Q-3o X 1Q-16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S.w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab -27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7. 242 .10) + j2wC Re . and there is overall current derived feedback.I0-12 X 1 .2 X 25 X 1Q-l6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q-30w4 +5 X X 10-32w4 X or (7. X lQ-30) w2=----------~~~~~~--------~ -5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ-15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ-15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies.w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 -27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ-8 +4 25 1Q-15w2 .9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 . Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.

At this frequency.92 = X 10_4 -2060 At the upper 3 db frequency.-.11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( -18·75)2 = -10 580 X -30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1.. -10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = -30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104 - (7....02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 .-------.12) . 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 10-4 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' f-lmho h 1 = YL2 = 10-4 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L -32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = . the overall ßis unchanged..gmZL = 25·35/180° - But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L -32° 36' ..~-o-: 243 (7..... but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback.

_ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 . The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 . Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad. The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored. Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 .j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L -49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback.ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ---::2-=-s.7 350 x 3·92 X I0-4 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I . but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback.-=3-=-5-x--::0-:·2:-=_ _ _ _ _ __ I - L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 .6 - = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 . Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i. This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6.1 + I·2I.11.ßAm = = Ah I 1 .

In the last example.6·4w2Cs2Re2 .x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=-:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored.27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10-s.10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 .ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 10-4 X 10 580 = v'2ll .11. negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio. at high frequency.ßAml But v'2 -4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe .27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q-28 + 1·69 12·5 X I0-30 =0 X 10-28) --------~~~------~--------~ 3·66 w2 = . Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 .COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2. Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values. ß for the local Figure 7.w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27.1·6 X 1Q-14w2 . 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q-32w4 .

Taking account of the components shown. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . hte 1 kO. say. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 t-tF then CE must be 0·0025 pF. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO.11. -hreZL . 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path. The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately -hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7. and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. is to prevent instability. If overall feedback is applied to. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel.12). let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(10-3 ::25 X 10-10) j10-2 + jw2·5 X 10-Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect.

12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits.12. Figure 7.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier. (b) (a) Figure 7. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier. This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback.

Example 7. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5.c. will now be considered.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d. finally to account for the effect of current feedback. The procedure would be to determine first.7. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter. The circuit shown in Figure 7. second to find Av1 and An including local feedback . Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present. based on this circuit. A final example. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed. In Figure 7.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first.13. Circuit for Example 7. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop.

hoe I20 .umho).umho -140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)10-6 = -?? 12000 -140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = .6 = .umho and hre negligible.77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = . All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency. Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 . -140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 . hre I40. The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.352 and and A 13 = -140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 .COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q.89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q-6 = 0·1395 -77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = -6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q .

umho By current division -140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1.4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 .umho = 1 389 . then Ytn = 105 .uA 250 . then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10. 834 Overall At= l 389 = -4·9 X X -77·5 X -89 -20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0.umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier.umho = 0·74 . Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri.389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 10-3 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10-a x 212 .

combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. Many other forms are used. hoe 125 ftiDho. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. Repeat Example 5. Ans.10 using feedback methods. 525. Ans. Example 7. RL2 1 kQ.12. EXAMPLES Example 7. For convenience. -9·62. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. 490 !2. Example 7. Example 7.13 using feedback methods. -1·97.9. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base. -11·4.11. For more general analysis. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. RL1 4 kQ. Repeat Example 5. 264 Q.19 using feedback methods. Example 7. 251 .10. Repeat Example 4. including those with common base or common collector stages. Ans.11 using feedback methods.5 x 10_3 = -20 300 = -282 72 = -282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. Ans. Repeat Example 4. 4·88 kQ. wlt. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. in any particular situation. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations.8.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam .20x 300 3. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . -6·72. 656 Q. 17·5 kQ. Ans. 6·8 kQ. -10·5.

Figure 7. RL2 4 k. Example 7. -250. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 .Q feedback resistor.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k.Q.Q.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 .m. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components.Q. hre 75. hoe 100 .Q and 100 . Example 7. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7. Ans. 200 k.Q resistor connected between them.16. and hre 0.Q.Q. hre 60 and hre 0. 0·475 V.Q in parallel with 8 k. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k. 0·004 .14. hoe I25 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n.f.Q per stage.13.Q. 0·224 . RLl 2 k.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter.15.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory. Ans.Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k. Repeat Example 7. 3·98 k.Q per stage. Ans.14. Feedback is provided by a 400 . calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance. Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 . Example 7.Q. Circuit for Example 7. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance.umho. 43·5.Q.17 252 .14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k.umho. Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance.Q.

hoe 80 . At. Ans. -1 310.umho. 17 kO. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO. 95 n. 253 . calcu1ate the required value of Rp. kO.EXAMPLES Example 7. Zout 2 2MO. Calculate Av. 10k. and an open circuit valtage gain of -150. 6·23 kO. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. The amplifier shown in Figure 7.15. 4·5 kO. Ans. Find also the resulting output voltage. Example 7. (b) -18 4oo. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. 287. 88·5 n. (c) -77·3. Circuits for Example 7. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. hre 140.O. -1 820.18. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO.14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0. and neg1igible hre. 83 mV.17. (a) 46·1.15. (c) Figure 7.

Ans. The amplifier shown in Figure 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. 254 . 0·99 MHz. hoe 125 . hre 100. Circuit for Example 7.O.umho and hre 0. Figure 7.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF.16. The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n. 212.19.

255 .m. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose.f. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero. or an output when no inputwas present. This resulted in self oscillation.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6.000 MHz. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1- lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages. two conditions must be fulfilled. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200. is to be infinite. Then if A ?. For oscillation at a particular frequency. (1/ß) at that frequency. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same. We shall consider four cases. Ar. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. the system will oscillate. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°.1) If the gain. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e.

e.2. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°. Using normal potential division methods.X 2.3) (8. we can write -jXc2R2 V2 = R2 . In equation 8.J X c1 .jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 .X - The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. Thus the whole expression must be real.jR1Xc2 . i.OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8.J C2 .2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°.jXc2R2 ß= and if (8. having no imaginary component.jR2Xc1 .. V2 V1 - -jXc2R2 ~~--~~~--~~~--~~~--~~~ R1R2 . Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2. X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8. the angle of the numerator is -90°. This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero..jXc2). ß will have the required angle.Xc1Xc2 .1. R1R2 - XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = .4) .1.R .

the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. Suitable values of R1. So.5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency. 1 (8. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R--.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. wC R. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: -jXc2R2 -jR2Xc1.6) If. cancelling the -j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =-+-+ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC). To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage._J wC 257 . as before. Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2.jR1Xcz.

2. The feedback network has equal capacitors..7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance. (1 . the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 .j) 1 . Figure 8. Taking typical 1-l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively. The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3..J) . 2 1 . and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8. jCR Z=R-C- =R [( . Figure 8..OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8. and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil.5. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3. jR2 C C jCR R-C j] = -3 R (.2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles.J) (8.2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz.

The circuit begins ta ascillate.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit.2a. Figure 8. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. Applying equatian 8. say 1 kO. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. and hre Av~h-ZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50.3.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. When the supplies are switched an. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO. 259 . Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming.c. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. supplies switched aff. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. This process is shawn in Figure 8. either because af change in parameters with large signals.

This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8.3d). Limitation of amplitude by d.3b.c.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 . Since ß is one third. Figure 8.c.3.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced. supply voltage. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = -4 V.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d. In Figure 8. supply and that the d. network -2 ~-'---t----r-----'--\----r---'----t---r----l-4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off -6 -8 Figure 8. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8.b.c.c. conditions Figure 8.

2·67- The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it. 261 .c. Since negative feedback is employed.4 shows a circuit employing this technique.. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude. Then as the signal amplitude increases.3g is nearly sinusoidal. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n..c.4.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.t. Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs. Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß. Figure 8. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d. R1 Figure 8... The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel.. the input impedance for Trl will be large. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before.en_t_al_o-'-/~p __8__ 3 i/p . Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage.

OSCILLATORS path. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8.10) . A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal.5. In this case. at the required frequency.. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown. Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division.).2..5.8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.c. in this case negative (n. Following the same reasoning. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier. the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain. . we may deduce that for zero phase shift w -j(G1G2) _ - C1C2 1 .w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8. When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt.y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + . jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= . The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals. f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8.t. Figure 8.

current feedback. Example 8. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = -ß = h.1. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8.= 1 + -Gz + -Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift.6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. Amplifier circuit for Example 8.1 263 . Since the Ioad is reactive (8. it must have zero phase shift. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived.12). This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. and -12V Figure 8. If YL ~ Yo. and to reduce the output admittance as required.6. Yo may be neglected. The input a. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. The amplifier shown in Figure 8. and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1.11) which. for equal components = 3.

the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network. conditions and stability. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo = - = 100 1 017 . removing any possibility of loading by the network. 750 n. series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 . hre 100 and hre 0. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel. i. the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß. The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. But feedback must reduce this to 3.e. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= -47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 10-6 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 . Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO.c.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network.umho. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz.umho -100 1 500(1 100)10-6 =- 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local -60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= -1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6. hoe 90 . Thus for the calculation of Avo.umho (47·6/3) . All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d.

Q. The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. Solution for Example 8. Now.t . = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone. 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6.Q .F 5·2k.c.1F 0·006 f-LF n. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. 2·7k. 265 .U F = 0·006 p. f 21r~R (equation 8.I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 .----'VI --t 0006J.7.313 .7.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 .1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil. Figure 8. by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold.

umho . taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 . the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. Forthis calculation.j) = 7·8(1 . the R will be the Ioad of Tr2. -hre Avo=h-Y !e L and (1 .j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier. Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho).12) and putting G as 1 mmho. Neglecting hoe. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8. 1 kO.OSCILLATORS Finally. to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied. Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 . Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network.ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. the voltage gain is required.

The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 . In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory.ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T-1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor.33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue. Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 . 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I .ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO.0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 .RC OSCILLATORS The current gain.

268 . 1k Q Figure 8.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.c. All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network. 1k. The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks.t. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1. to give 180° phase shift.uF = 0·03 .uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 . Solution for Example 8.O.ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used. at a particular frequency. 0 03 f-!F n.10.8. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate.8.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally. From equation 8.

With the circuit in Figure 8.9b. phase shifting. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency.9. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8. but forthat in Figure 8. With these circuits.9. or current. is I/29th.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 .RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8.9a. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. such networks may be either voltage. ß. Figure 8.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance.

GVa -GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 -GV1 Node 3: 270 (8. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8. 20 X 5 --g-x Ztn = 20 X 1 5 --g-+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) . The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) . and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis. From first principles.10. Figure 8.umho respectively and hre can be neglected. Only one example will be considered here.2. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods.OSCILLATORS network component.14) . Example 8. hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . Oscillator circuit for Example 8.10.

jwCG2 (8 .jwaca .0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2.19) .18) At this frequency. and or w = Gy'6 -c rad/sec v'6..17) (8.18 ß= G2 -1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8...G2] + G[ -G(2G + jwC).= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8..2Ga . equation 8..2G3 + j4wCG2 - w2C2G - jwCG2 (8..RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero .5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8...14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined....15) + j3wCG2 - 4w2C2G .w2C 2) .-G G+jwC 0 -G 2G + jwC -G 0 -G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2.0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG ... 16) If ß is to be real.. ß= Ga Ga . -G G+jwC -G 2G 0 ltn + jwC -G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X ..

2G3 . Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8. first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC. · from equation 8.jwaca .4w2C2G .OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C . the current gain may be taken as At = -hre X y tn =- Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be -29.17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this.2Ga . and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this.15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG -= 3G2G' + j4wCGG' - w2C2) .jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 .14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and re-writing equation 8.

if an a. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho.11. Thus. With these.c. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type. y[(4 X 1·938 X 10-6) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ-6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 10-8 = 13-1kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G' - Ga .2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =---------------------w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G' - = 4·65 - G2 - ---c.34·5 . frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. Neglecting the effect of r. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators.4w2 C2G . Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 -----34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance. the current iL 273 . the anode voltage ( -[IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. first. second. . - 1·25 10·7 . and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance. the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback.2·5 .

274 . At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils. As a result of the mutual inductance M. Figure 8.3. This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H.OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form. If two coils have mutual inductance between them. The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 . The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large.12. If this is such that Vgk is given by -jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero.11. the system will oscillate. A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa .T. A tuned anode oscillator methods.+ Figure 8. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C.

Real parts.12. ±JwMgm Va . therefore Va may be cancelled. dividing by w. Figure 8. + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts. L a = -ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0. 275 (8. the required results can be obtained.LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: . but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0.22) .20) (8. Va Va + JW . + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8.21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra - w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now.

20.21. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz. and putting 4rr2. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !-' are known.f2La Substituting values. = 5 X I0-3 10_4 + 200 X 10-12 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !-' of only 40.23: fJ. Thus for each set of values. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil. so this arrangement would not oscillate. 276 . for each coil we can find r. Now from wL Q r=- and rl = 106 X 5 X 10-3 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 10-4 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8. we can see that if !-' is sufficiently large. La Crra (8. from equation 8. 1 C=-47T2. equation 8. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1.22 can be rearranged to.=-+- M M First.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 10-4 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit.23) fJ.

(a) e (b) Figure 8.13. (a) Full circuit.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit.13. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 10-3 10-4 + 5 000 X 10-12 X 104 X 10 X 2 to-4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit. A tuned collector oscillator. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. the p. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils.

13b. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb. Re and Ce provide the correct d.13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example.24) and 1 ) .: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated. 278 . (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.26) Substituting for ic in 8.13a shows the complete circuit. R2.24 . L c + :--c JW lb = J.m.28) Without expansion. both jwMi terms will be positive.26.j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated.f. lb · M"lb + JW (8. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW -c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. L c + jwC = lc. M JW . Thus multiplying equation 8. The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e.27 by -jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C.25) Rearranging equation 8.25 from 8. operating point. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft -hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. R1. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 . C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.c.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled. M" . 1 ) + .OSCILLATORS Figure 8. zc = -(hle 1 + jwLb)ib . By mesh analysis: 1 (8.

30) and the frequency of oscillation (8.30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C -M . w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8.29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected.+--L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8.h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb. 1 Lc'C w2=::=-- (8.32) Example 8.w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 .LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol..4.

First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) .umho.O. C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I0-3 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8. First the values of C and M are required.14. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.OSCILLATORS of hre.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I0-3 === 1012 106 =-Hz 27T Also from 8. Since 1 1012 w = 106. Figure 8. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I0-6 62·5 + 2·5 X X 10-12 4 X + 1·6 X 10.4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series.6 I0-3 I0-3 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'.32.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 . 1·6mH 100fi 2k.14. Circuit for the solution of Example 8.umho = 625 . and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .

LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 10-3 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7. the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' . 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained.j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2- Now w - 0·753 X 10-3 X 625 X 10-12 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 .y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation. Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ.j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720.0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 . h _ 1 010 tmmum re - = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 10-6 H 625 X 10-12 2·74 10-1 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 10-6 10-4. 10 281 . The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' .

282 . Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease.15. hoe 125 . The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods. and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent.16c is obtained by combining h0 e. and by combining Rm.5. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. YLl and YL2. Example 8. and h1e together as h1e'.umho and negligible hre.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation.15. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance. and RB2. One further example will be considered. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib. and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters. h1e 1 300 0.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. The simplified version in Figure 8. Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8.

LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) . (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h. (b) Equivalent circuit. (b) Figure 8.1H (c) (a) L c. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.16.34) L 200f.34) .5.33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8.umho (8. 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8.

hre ii I = - vl jwL + V2 .h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8. 1 ) o = v1 ( -h + y.OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis...w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.38) ll=-1 hte and from equation 8..+ wC2 .oC1 + JW :--L h Node 1: ..39 and h from 8.w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8.40) Following the usual technique. LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .wL wLh 1 .-:--L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8.38 into 8.37) (8. But (h I (8.36 (8.36) .39) Substituting for V2 from 8..37. -hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel .. Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = -wL + wLh -.42) .' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 .41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (-:-C:::-1-+-C:::-2-:-)h:-t-:el 1 284 ) (8. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled. Node 2: v2 1 .

umho YL2 = 793.umho = 793 .35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1. Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero.200 X I0-6 X 91 1 100 X I0-12 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0.44) 285 .. 101 2 ( 200 X I0-6 X 325 X I0-6) co 2 1 + --:-:--::-::--. -hre' = ( I . the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09.42becomes 1·092 = 1·18. For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8.. + -.CO2LCl)h.umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO..325 = 468 . jcoL ( JCOC2-· j ) --.074) 107 co = 1. 200 X t0-6YL' 1100 X 10-12 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 .35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent.43) But from equation 8.-::--::-::--::-::-::. hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2 - 1 (8.40. whichinequation8.LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied.41 1 (8.

The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . Find also the frequency of oscillation. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. In the extreme case shown above. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ. and an accurate analysis should include these components. this is no Ionger true. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. EXAMPLES Example 8.c. Ce and Cs may be neglected. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 f-LF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load. 21·25. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits. Ans. supplies.7. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. Frequency stability with change of d. 3·5 kHz. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator. 1 kQ. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. P. The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. network 22·2 kQ. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. Example 8.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances.D.J.F.6.

7 and the frequency of oscillation.0. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8. Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ.8 C2. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8.17.18 employs transistors with hre 90. Circuit for Example 8. If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8.18. R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. 0·56 0.uF. Example 8.umho. hte 1·3 kO. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr.1F Figure 8. Calculate the value of R' . 0·074 . 65.17 is connected between output and input. Ans.8./p Tr2 collector 5k . In the absence of a negative feedback network. Ans.umho and hre 0. hoe 125 . 287 . 1·43 kHz. Circuit for Example 8.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 . 1k l"25J.

Figure 8. 288 . Circuit for Example 8.T. Example 8. Ans. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk. hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. Ans. calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. hoe 150 . A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator.uF. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors.9 frequency? Determine the r.m.uF. 61·5 V. 1·3 kHz. 0·0066 . Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 .c. 35. lower it.umho. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. 0·286 .11. 3·23 kQ.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d. The oscillator shown in Figure 8.umho. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz.9.10. 383 Q. hre 120.OSCILLATORS Example 8.) Example 8.19. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H.s. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation. bias voltage of -4 V.

21. is tobe used as an oscillator. 0·02. Figure 8. I! 289 .14. 46.13. 0·785. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n. 8·2 kHz. Circuit for Example 8.20. hre and the bias components. I 160 pF.12. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. Ans. 970 pF. -16. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. 1 380 pF. Ans. If the valve in Example 8. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. Example 8. ra 5 kQ.21. (b) the minimum coupling between the coils. Neglect the effect of hoe. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60.12 Example 8. A current amplifier.11 Example 8.EXAMPLES ________-----~ ~----~1-c Figure 8.

Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8.16. hre. Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe.15.22. 28 Q. 840kHz. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected.umho.OSCILLATORS Example 8.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 . 1 080 pF. Figure 8. Example 8. Circuit for Example 8. Ans. bias components and coil resistance. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. 290 .

5 k (a) Figure 9.. In this chapter. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9._____ --} ____. These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors. p..9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal.1.. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device. The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance. a .._ca~..1a. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits.___..

2. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF.4 and 9. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown.1) Yln=- Vgk (9. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9. i2 = jwCag(Vgk - Vo) (9. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9.2. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc- Figure 9.5.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included.6) . but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input. From equations 9. 9.2. and with reference to Figure 9. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage. By inspection.3. 9. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. including ra. i (9. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad.') 292 (9. To analyse this situation. Cak and any externalload present.4) (9.

umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = --!. X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' . Cgk 2·5 pF. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V. Equation 9. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL').10) If ZL' is approximately resistive.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). Cag 1·5 pF.gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative. Since the gain of a stage is given by . Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. and the 20 kQ load. YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ-12 X 106 ..3. Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9.1. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF.1.wCaggmX' (9.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ.3. gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors. ra 10 kQ. Cak 1 pF. If ZL' is inductive. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative. = 5·~5 L YL -33° 42' = 4·6 .33° 42' 293 .11) If ZL' is capacitive. The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9.

ra. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit. in the RC coupled common cathode configuration. Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 10-12 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 .252 kO = 0·0525 = -10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO -(0·525 .11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve. the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 .j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L -93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9. Rg. this becomes. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 30·8)) X 106 . the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance. the remainder being provided by RL.j8•25 = Yu' = 4. If the anode 1oad is inductive. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L -66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback.11.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9.782 + 8.

Valve input capacitance = 100. Rg . The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency.4a and the valve used in Example 9. A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a non-decaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit.J.. 295 .50= 50 pF. 1 I I I . First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency.1.4b. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9.. Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance.. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9. 1 w2=:=- LC C 1012 I0-4 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :. . the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9.1.4a.. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9.2.4.. In practice.. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR')..

similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits.u and ra. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 . the negative input conductance to the valve. Pentodes also have the advantage of very high .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o. two further effects must be considered.L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 10-4 = X 50 I0-10 10_4 ll = 20 ~>-' mho For oscillation. must equal Go. and there is the 296 .uH 107 10X' G~. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 13-3 . 20 X I0-10 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 10-12 X Inserting values. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base.uH) and the electron transit time. and the collector base junctions. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex.

The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data.5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. depending on configuration. For any particular transistor type. In addition the current gain IX or IX'. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. 297 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection.e.3 000 Q. is reduced with increase in frequency. rb·e 250 . The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db. /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. 300 . In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits.40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type.5 000 pF rce 20 .5 Mn.40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 . In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency. to approximately 0·7. i. but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa. but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 . /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. Figure 9.5. is approached.30 pF. 'b'C 2 . cb'C 5 .250 Q. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation.

ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V. rb·e 790 Q. 1012 For Cb•e. Cb'e 15 pF. Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) .JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 f-lA. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only. volts.~. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho. gb·c gL = 2011mho.Vce(O· 39 + j94) -38 OOOVb•e = .j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000 - j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L -9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = -22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = -22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. fb•e.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb'- jXbefb•e .13) (38 000 .12) (9. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q. gce = 8·2 11mho. Cb·e 150 pF. Working in f-lA. rb•e 2·6 MQ.

output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L -102 o = 9·4 L o -102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the -j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9. This approach will be used for the second part of the question. the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad. Neglecting rb·c. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L -85° 42' Q .gmZL'Vb.13.e Vce = -38 X 2 X 0·06 L -85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9.c. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I0-6 X 103 = 16·6 X I0-3 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L -85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. the effect of rw must be included. In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO.14) If the overall voltage gain is required. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation.

arealso supplied.14 and 9. for transistors intended for high frequency applications. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple.15) Overall vo1tage gain. In the published data.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = -~-· 10-3 x 4·5 L +94° = 10-6 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L -37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters. app1ying equations 9. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point. the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d.c. the four parameters are all comp1ex. At these high frequencies. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. In some cases. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' -=1+- = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42. 300 . conditions. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9.


and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.

Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
four-terminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier








Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration

with a resistive load, and secondly a multi-stage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:

+ jl3w

X 10-12) mho

Yre 500 X I0- 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 10-6

+ j2w

X 10-12)


If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 f-lA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,




= yu- yzz +


- yz1
= yu(y22 + YL)- y21Y12


We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.


At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 10-6 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 10-6 mho


10-12 mho




10-12 mho

Now working in millimhos:
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28


+ Jl6-

17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o

= 28 + j16- 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02- j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho

j6·5 sin 108°

Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
10(30 + j10)
ltn- (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) f-l
_ 10(3 + j)(4 - j1·5) A
16 + 2·25

= 0·548(12

+ 1·5 + j4 -

j4·5) f-lA

= 7·4 - j0·274 f-lA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 f-lA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.





34 L 292°

= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5)- 34 L 292°
-0·252 L 292°

x 0·5 L 250° V

20·2- 40 + j11·5 + j70- 17(cos 182°
-0·252 L 292°
- -19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV

= 2·8mV


+ j sin 182°)



If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from


I Ytnl


7·4 X I0-6
v(32 + 12) X 10-2 V

= 0·232 mV
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE- 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE- 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°

The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.

RF 2

Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5

The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.


In each case the required operating point is VcE- 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:

VcE = -6 = -10
Taking lE === Ic


+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +


+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ


The stability factor

+(X')+ RB= 0·05

K = RE(l

RB= Ra+ R 4 and
Insertmg values 0·05

Also V'


+ RFI) = 3 kQ


3 +RB

= 3( 1 + 150) +RB

+ RB =


RE= (RE2


60 + 20RB
-19 = 20·9 kQ





(using conventional polarities)

= -=V_c_,c_R_4_


Ra+ R4

f co'

- -rJ.IIB=



lB =

1 000

--.sü -

2 t-tA

= 4·7 t-tA
V' = -20·9 X 0·0047 - 3 - 0·3
= -3·4 V


Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
Ra+ R4


20' 9 =Ra+ R4


-3·4 =



From equation 9.23
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9



Ra= 61·5 kQ

Substitutingin equation 9.25
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ

In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.

= 68 kQ

= 33 kQ

and R4

Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.

Xe= 30 Q

= 2n450



From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.

A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should

be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18


RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ

From stability considerations:
1 +RB

0"05 = 151 +RB


+ RB =



+ 20RB

RB= 6·9kQ
RB= R1 + R2



Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= -0·0047


6·9- 1- 0·3

V'= -10R2
R1 + R2

= -1·33 V


From 9.27


+ R2 =


1.33 = 7·5R2



Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ

So, from 9.28,



= 8 kQ

In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 J-lF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.

= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho




X 1Q3





X 1Q3



37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho



From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,




0·004 L 270°

= 0·25 + j0·05- 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho

Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25

+ j0·05- 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05- 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho


To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
h(yoe + YL) - 0
v1 =

v2 =

0- hyre



· First we must find the effective load on Trl. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j .33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9. YLI err. current splitting factors due to bias components.33) The current gain.-yre vl . 37 L 180° L 38° 42' -37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9.32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 .29.30 A v-Substituting values v2. Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included.JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1 - -37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9.3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents. may be obtained from equation 9.32.31 by 9. To find the overall current gain. YL1.31. which is unaffected by the local feedback.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 .32) YL) .Yoe + YL -37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 = - Av (9.

32 neg1ecting Yoe.5 L 1o 42 . 9.34. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9.5 L 1o 42 .33.37) 308 . -37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 -37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9.' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9. 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9.0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .0 .34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 --=--=------:-7---:-:--::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 . At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L. 9. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9.36.36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9. 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions.35 and 9. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 . . = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :.

ß= 2·21 2 . At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9.79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 10-2 mmho = 43 k. and 100 = I+ ß will be real.7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle.8 X 1()-2 = 0·79 X 10-2 (9.38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. 309 .13 ß= -540 ± -540 ± = 0 -yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 -540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104 - Taking the positive sign.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.38 is obviously correct. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Re-arranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß. But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I0-2(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()-2 X 3 = l _ 0 .

O.c. They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9. 6·86 L -27° kQ.8. Repeat Example 9.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.5 made in the above calculations.8. Figure 9. In each case a 0·01 p.6. 0·01 uF 47 k..MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively. Circuit for the solution to Example 9. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be -10 V ::-f'"~ 1k. Ans. EXAMPLES Example 9. signals or switching circuits.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known. In general. 310 . 587 L 277° 42'.O.

Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 10-12) mho. Use the exact method at 100 kHz. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes. Ans.8. 420 pF. 2 pF. Z1n 102 L -8° n. 311 .f.7.3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz.9. Av 34 L 100°. Z1n 390 L -49° n. Yre 350 X 10-6 L 300° mho. Yoe(150 x 1()-6 + jco x 1()-12) mho. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit.uH and Q factor 25. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. An r. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. Ans. Example 9. yre0·02 L 320° mho. 37·5 L 70° 48'. Example 9. Ans.EXAMPLES Example 9. 4·5. having a coil of inductance 2 . If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Av 155 L 164° 30'.

4) In practice. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 .3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al. Also. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. lf it is an attenuator. The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. and P2 the output power. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e. If P1 is the input power. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = -10 log10 ~: (A1. Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober.

APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. In practice. expression Al. are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. even where the condition is not maintained.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1. 313 . If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies. wh and WL.

De Witt and A. D. Hakim. 315 . New York. 1965.. Field Effect Transistors. New York. 1962. J.. D. S. 1050. New York. K. 1966. Englewood Cliffs. Ryder. New York. lliffe Books Ltd. Electronics.. J. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry. Pitman Technical Books. 1964. J. L. W. Rossoff. 1957.. L. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Edward Arnold Technical Books. Dean.. 1966. Burford and H. Feedback Circuit Analysis.. S. New Jersey.. B. D. Parker. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices. Sevin. McGrawHill Book Co. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 3rd edn. London. Transistors. Inc. Le Croissette.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. London. Verner. 1964. G. Prentice-Hall. P. London. Transistor Electronics.

27. 158. 24. 221 single stage. current feedback. voltage feedback. 189 current derived. 166 single stage. 245 Cut off. 14.INDEX A. 99. transistor. 2. 124 Bias stabilization. 5. 122. 14. 118 long tailed pair. 241 graphical analysis. 194 current derived. 30 Complex feedback factors. 96. 30 triode. 151 cathode coupled. 55 Diode characteristics. voltage feedback. 195. 141. current feedback. 306 definition. 127. 3. 227. 1 Ioad lines. 229 Amplifier. non-linear. 21. 235 properties. 2. current feedback. 11. 114 single stage. voltage feedback. Ioad lines. 194. 21. transistor approximate solutions. 103 diode. 146 two stage. 25. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. 19 Decibel. 25. 152 common collector. 10. 19. 212 Bias decoupling. 31. 158 multi-stage. 122. 32. 131. 17 Emitter follower. 134. 126. 231 three stage. 153. 94 Thevenin and Norton. 181 RC coupled. 101. 222 single stage. shunt applied. transistor. 4. 34 Darlington connection. 116 modified. 94 for high frequency. 14. 158 emitter coupled. 303 Biasing transistor. 153. 166 common emitter. 122 common base. 212 grounded grid.C. 134. 34 reactive Ioads. 235 Anode characteristics. 126. 33 Cathode follower. 15. 10. 15. 210. 140. 182 317 . 21. 303 two stage. 247 current amplifiers. series applied. bias line. 100 transistor. 173. 24. 312 Determinants.C. 18. 3. valve. 162 D. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. 152 difference. 291 small signal. 170. 240 transistor multi-stage. emitter resistor stabilization. 6. 7 Bottoming. 5. 11. 220 frequency response. 202. 121 Collector feedback. 12 Amplification. 181. 223 three stage. 296 valve. current feedback. 19 operating point. 291 Feedback composite. 159 feedback. 8 characteristics. application to network analysis.

27. 273 Miller. 101 equivalent circuits. 256 Output impedance. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 81. 240 Frequency compensation. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 152. 155 Potential divider. 259 crystal. 198 effect on input admittance. 187. 141. 157. 50. 186. 195. 42 notation. 241 effect on gain. 119. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 248 input connections. 42 applications. 66. calculation. transistor. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 185 negative. 99. 184. 202. 159 common emitter. 245 g parameters. 143. 261 Negative input conductance. 190. 159 common collector. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 303 Superposition theorem. 297 Input resistance. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 74. 45 Oscillators. 184. 68 interconnections. 198 effect on input impedance. 220 instability. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 241 voltage derived. 255 amplitude stability. 101 general solutions. 190. 268 tuned anode.INDEX Feedback-(Contd. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 210 effect on frequency response. 187 voltage derived. series applied. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 190 gain stability. 80. 28. 273 tuned collector. 295 current Wien bridge. 52 ' Miller feedback. 60 318 . 195. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. transistor biasing. 303 Simple negative feedback. 75. 202. 86 common base. emitter resistor bias. 18 Inter-electrode capacitances. 83. 208 Four terminal networks. 187. 150. 248 effect on output admittance. 255 single stage RC. 295 phase shift. 198 effect on output impedance. 159. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 282 LC. 58. 203 voltage amplifiers. 268 RC. 231. shunt applied. 87 h parameters. 184 Stability factors. 201 vector diagrams. 43 Nodalanalysis.) effect on distortion. 196. 184 positive. 188. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 185.163 238 284 Noise.

174 Thevenin's theorem. 99. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. 23 equivalent circuit. 303 temperature effects. 36. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. 85. 5 Valve. generat solutions. 15 output Ioad line. 300 z parameters. general method. 68. 27. 14 input Ioad line. 79. 140 fundamental current relationships. 105 Transistor black box representation. 68 Voltage amplification. 24 simple bias circuit. 79. 232. general method. 29.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 21 leakage currents. 14. input admittance at high frequencies. 15 Two port networks. graphical analysis. 21. 81. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 102 characteristics. 112 y parameters. 3. 84 z parameters. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 63. 71 319 . 104.

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