C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology

Book I

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

ISBN 978-1-4899-5861-7
ISBN 978-1-4899-5859-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-5859-4


Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969

Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 69-18297

Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.


I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.

R. M.




1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .


2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .


3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.


5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits


6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.


7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .


8. Oscillators


9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units


Works for Further Reading





These include the various types of rectifier. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss.c. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. transducers such as photocells and many other devices.1. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors. thermionic valves. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. D. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. The characteristics of a resistor . These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I -V (a) (b) -I Figure 1. characteristics. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the so-called d. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent non-linearity.C.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various non-linear and active devices. a capacitor. transistors. for example. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device.

1. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK).3a). The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . is measured for different values of anode--cathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter. lf there are more than two variables.2a and b. Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters.+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. as shown in Figure 1. t1= -[ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C . In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature.3b). A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage. (b) p-n junction With three-electrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents. while the anode current (h). other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. For the transistor collector characteristics. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1. the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant. Diode characteristics.QOC -I (a) (b) -I Figure !.____ 650°C 6QQ°C -V -Vv=. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage). A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1.:=~---:.z=::. (a) Thermionic.2. With multi-electrode devices such as pentode valves.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it. the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1.

or as VAK 150 V.D.4. VaK. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three.C.2 V (see Figure 1. or h 3 mA. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1.2 V. VaK. In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown.c.3. VcE 3 V etc. (Figure 1. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA. Active device characteristics.C.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V. (a) Triode valve. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics. Since these three variables are not independent.4b). (b) Common emitter transistor D.4a). Permissihle range of d. h 3 mA.

consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. First.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line. (a) D. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits. therefore. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope -1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. VGK.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line. For example. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. circuit and Ioad for valve. if one of the three variables.c.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits.5. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. D.C.5a. VAK = VHT. In the circuit of Figure 1. Under these conditions. 4 . supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected.C. These.

Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1.::. CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V.6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1. and thus VaK.D. 10 . the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic..C. (() <i J E -IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK.6. to say -2 V. '0 J . lt must also lie on the load line.5a with VHT 300 V. and the load line is plotted as shown. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = .. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line. Reading from the graph we find the 5 .= 15mA Rr. volts Figure 1. and RL 20k0.::.

and in general ßVout ßVAK -30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = .8 .156 . or the voltage gain.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · . of the circuit is -30. but with alternating voltages. To investigate this we shall now change Vax from -2 V to -8 V.C. the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = -2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency. h 7·2 mA. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. The value of VAK changes to 289 V. we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax.30 Non-linearity So. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of -(156. for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) -1 0 > -4 (b) (a) Figure 1.(-2) = -133 6 = -22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. a change of + 1 V. the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. Since a valve is a nonlinear device. Thus Av = +289.7. AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. Now suppose Vax is changed from -2 V to -1 V. It is assumed that the value of wt. h 8·7 mA.126) = -30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av.

This is the result of the non-linearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as non-linear distortion. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode.c. For most amplifiers.7b.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d. AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. and are shown in Figure 1. supply.1) . Initially neglecting the a. This bias is essential since if it were not present. The reader can investigate this for himself.hRK VHT . Biasing In the circuit discussed above. The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa.7a.C.c.A.hRL . In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1.8 is used. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided.8. the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1. The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform. source making VB= -4 V and Es= 4 sin wt.6.

1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before. RL 19·75 kO. Consider the circuit in Figure 1. This gives the same load line as before. for -3 V h = 12 mA. If h = 1 mA.2.8 with values VHT 300 V. Example 1. A numerical example will illustrate this method. if h = 0. earth potential. h = 8 mA. The point at which this d. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1.c. h 7·4 mA. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = -0·25 V.20h V. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK). Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero.2. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias.c. Determine the d. Taking equation 1.c. But we have a characteristic for VaK = -1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 -VaK RK lA=--=-=4mA 0·25 Similarly for -2 V. and once again the operating point VAK. bias line has been drawn. VaK = VEK = -VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth.6. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. h must lie on this line.1. The second equation is therefore (1. VaK = -0·25 V. RK 250 n. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h.1. From equation 1.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage -hRK cannot be found directly.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode. source e8 is connected between 8 .c.2) Equation 1. operating point and voltage amplification. VAK = 300 .1 and 1.c. VaK = 0. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d.

4) -hRK.e/es. The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and -2 V.3) Vgk = -hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1. however. bias line by +2 V and -2 V respectively. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V -20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va.4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d. h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA .= .RK. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = -Ia.Es -4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth. D.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28).6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter.1·075 = . VAK es = -2. VAK = 194 V. The explanation in this case. 9 . Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 .. ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = .A.3 and 1.8). The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia.= -21·25.c.2 Equations 1. 109V.0·25(9·6 = 4.C. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2.. This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. These are shown in Figure 1.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es. is simple.

are readily available should lower frequency operation be required.c. Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es. The resultant . Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit.iaRK = es .iaZk.uF or more. or very 10 .c. the bias point VaK will be unchanged.=:::= 6 . The cause of the reduction was the a. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C=-- 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 . Considering Example 1. 6 V working at 100 . A.VaK would be 4. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK. and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.0·1075 = 3·8925.c. so using a figure of 1 000 Hz.uF 20 = .6. but in this case we have neglected the effect of non-linearity of characteristics. If Xe was. while the a.uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors. load line. Rk was 250 Q.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain.0 = es. hRK. If the a. but a simple example will illustrate the operation.c. say 25 il. Vgk becomes es . This is true for d. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d. then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V.h battery bias (113·5).1 above.c. voltage iaRK.c. Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK.C. Vgk will be es .

c._ (b) (a) Figure 1. operating point must then move along an a. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d.c. Ioad was 19·75 kil.c. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d.7) (1.c.c.8. equation 1.c.9 gives the a. relationships are VAK = VHT .9) VHT.. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT.9 the a. The slope of the a. Ioads.c.iaRL since to a. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1.c. load lines. ia and Vak. load lines are very different to the d. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + .c.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero.7 must become Vak = (1.c. and equation 1. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1.C. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk.. load line).c.c. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a.5) (1.9.T.c.A. The a. In the last example the d. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible.8 becomes Vgk =es. battery : 200 V _.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . For the circuits shown in Figure 1. H. the d. Circuits having different a. value. variations in VAK together with the d.c.c.6) -hRK In the absence of CK. Equation 1. and d. (a) Decoupled cathode bias. quantities.c. operating point. RK has been short circuited by CK. a.c.c. load line of slope -1/RL (compared with slope -1/(RL + RK) for the d.

c. Ioad line is -RLRL' RL RL' + = -20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. perhaps. a second valve.RL•RK A.C.10.c. Assuming any convenient value for VHT. A.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a.c. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point. D.c.9 HT battery is negligible.c. Ioad line for the a. These are in parallel to a.c. operating point will move up and down the a. in this case 40 V. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk.c..c. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth. load lines are now very different. draw a d.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to. The operating point moves up and down the a.C.10. and thus to a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1.!.c. proceeding as follows..c. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a. load line Slope-.. Once again the a. In the circuit of Figure 1. operating point is unchanged. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 . RL Figure 1.. but the a. resistance of the 1 Slope.C. since the a. and a.c. To simplify this problem. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive.c.c. The calculation of d.c. Ioad line. and d. Construct the a.c.c.c. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'. Ioad value of 4 kO.

AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l. Points could be calculated for intermediate values.c. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated. When however the a.lla and b.c. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a.c.c.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. The a. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum. In this circuit the d.A. operating point is found by the battery bias Vn. (a) Triode valve with reactive load. Thus for these values of ia. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia.c. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown. component of ia passes through zero.c. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4).ll. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . The a.c. In Figure l. the a.C. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency.

(a) D. The circuit is shown in Figure 1. The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to non-linearity. operating point for a particular circuit.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. These methods also enable the d.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A -VcE' V (b) Figure 1. The common emitter transistor amplifier. bias circ11it and load. or the circuit for a required operating point.12.C. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits. Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . tobe found.c.

four variables must be investigated.12b and c respectively.e.12a. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter. the operating point. As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . input and output voltages.V cc and V cc/RL. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = . The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit. 15 .12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter. These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics.Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . With a transistor.VnE ± E. on both input and output characteristics. and input and output currents. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE. An a.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = . The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. The circuit in Figure 1. A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1. The waveform is then further modified by the non-linearity of the output characteristic. i. It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics. in the conventional direction for p-n-p transistors. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers.c. the base current waveform is distorted by the non-linear input characteristic. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = .Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter.

~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA .. Load line 8±-~ H-tH ++l lii · l± m= +t-+++ ~ ~ - 0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 -Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n..' ... 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr.....I~ -V8 E . "' ' ... 30V..... ' f±. . The characteristics for Example 1..2 <1: - · ~ ~ c .mV -· ' rTT. .. " Cl I t' ' ..0 10 20 30 40 50 1-1- HH~ 1k Q. 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I . 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c . 3oV.-rr.13..

source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance. IB = 30 mA . If dVBE is 1 volt. and (b) the a.2. operating point. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = -10 V. Therefore at VBE 1 volt. Two further points for VcE.13b. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1.c. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1. VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5.13a. If IBis 70 mA. determine the d. Find also the a. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l -Vcc = 30 mA = -30V The second point cannot be plotted. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n. Comment on the effect of the characteristic non-linearity in each case.c. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1.d/B = 29 mA. output voltage if (a) the a. From Figure 1. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = -Vcc Vcc RL -30V 30 = 9. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1.c.13a and b. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows.20 V and -30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way.13b VcE = -14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d.c. so the slope of the line must be used.c. supply of 30 V. Similarlywhen VcEis -10 V. operating point.13a VBE = -560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known.c.13a. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance.

Rtn· At the operating point. For comparison purposes. The a. the d.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a. Thus the peak a. VBE varies between -520 mV and -600 mV in a sinusoidal manner.20 = 10 mA and 70 . Vbe- Vce = 520 mV -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 18·5 V -14·5 V -0·5 V -14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 . In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n.c.c.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic non-linearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic.13b. and the a. D1 d"Jstortwn c h. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 .c.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe- 520 mV 30mA 20mA -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results . :. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak. source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected.c. base current is given by 18 .c.

and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion.c. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA -29·3 V -14·5 V 60mA 30mA -3. the a. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak. Secondly.c. MB 5 pA. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger..VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc .c.Vcc = -6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d. The a.s. VBE is very much less than the d.c.3·3 = 11·2 V. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1.14b determine (a) the d. First the d. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty. 19 = 40 fl A . calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions.14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts. Firstly.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5. operating point. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1.3 V -14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33.3. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance.c.m. therefore lB === Vcc/RB. (c) the current gain. For small signa1 amplification.VBE 10 mV.c. Example 1. supply voltage Vcc. could result in the input and output non-linear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output.c. say 20 Q.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. (and a.

m.JÄ ÜJ. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r.c.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 -VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1. the a . 20 . The characteristics and circuit for Example 1. operating point moves between ib = 60 t-tA and ib = 20 t-tA.s. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a.1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA.s. Ic 3 mA. mput reststance = 5 t-tA = 2 u An r.m.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -6V <! E 1· 5 tl----c~-~.20 j. lOmV kr.s. a.s.14. input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r. The corresponding values of Vce are -2 V and -4·2 V respectively. Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = -30.c.c.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V.m. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. output voltage = (4·2. . ic of (2 . The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE -2·9 V.m. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h . The r. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 t-tA = 62·5. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 t-tA = 20t-tA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 t-tA.

This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero. Vce of 2·9 . base and emitter currents in a transistor. .IE + lco (1.12) h = (1 . The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr.11) lc = a. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector. In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages. In addition the reverse Figure 1. transistor action results in a._.s.16. A peak a. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1-a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector.10) IE = Ic +In (1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed -6 or the transistorwill cut off. and (I .m.c.a.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off. Waveforms for Example 1.16.15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA.a.15.)IE flowing out of the base. VcE cannot fall below -0·2 V from the characteristics.Ico 21 . These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1.)IE . If a current IE flows into the emitter lead. Figure 1.· Figure 1.IE flowing out at the collector. By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1.3 \ .

(1.16) . To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1. is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1.12. (I . From equation 1. From equation 1. Ico' is very much larger than /co. Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 f-lA respectively.13) 1 .11.1 0. the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero. Equate to 1.10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic - + rxh = /c - Ic(l . Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero.rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=--h+-1-rx 22 (1.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 . Ico Ico = . we are not concerned with JE. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB.rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995.14) 1-rx (1. Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico - 1 _ rx 1-oc rxlco Ico =1-a: This current.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits.Ico IE=--(:1.11. Ic. Thus . The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 f-lA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor.rx Now applying equation 1.

4.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1.0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc t-tA = lco = 10·1 t-tA 1 oc 1 .19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1.4 IB = (10.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1. Example 1. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90. Simplebias circuit for Example 1.17. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1.13 and 1.16 becomes lc oc =1 .oc (1. lco 1 t-tA and VBE 0·2 V. A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points.17. -10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.I+ oc' 1 = --t-tA = 91 t-tA 1-90 91 23 t-tA .17.

18. operating point without distortion. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second..'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.c..GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a.uA Now VcE = -10 + (5 X 1) = -5 V and since VcE may vary between -10 (cut off) and -0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a.' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive.'@ 30°C /.uA 0·778 mA -6·1 V 130 131 .' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~.QOC _ _ lO~C- _ leb 2ooc -Vcc -VcE Figure 1. Summarizing. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V. The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /. 1 000 .. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained.. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 .QOC .' unless the signal level is severely restricted.uA 1·444mA -2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~. the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~.' 130. r~.' is from 70 to 130. Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71.

if temperature rises by 10°C.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K. lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin. Now IB = IE(l . As can be seen from Figure 1. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 t-tA moves up with Ico'. The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1. compared with the exponential term. Thus for any particular value of VBE. In Example 1. When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1. 2 25 . In the simple circuit discussed above. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles. at 20°C the permissible peak a.18. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature. lEo and thus In doubles. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material.Ico IB = (1 . Again the operating point would move towards bottoming.21) where K is a constant.Ico (1.c. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one. lc = oc'h + Ico'.1] (1.19. In was maintained at a constant value.19. Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero.1] .oc) . In this case.4.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) .18.

The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1 - VBE but VBE = (1. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1.lco V' . Figure 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature.h. ..IERE oc)/E . . d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR.24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics.20.23) hR' . The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage.21.IE[RE + (1 - oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.. lcoRC20°C) Figure 1.. Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures. Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 .21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C. . The V"---.20.

23. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1. This may then be rewritten V' . -. thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited.26) + R2 The operating point VcE.18 V' .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R .VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1. Potential divider. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = -. V' much greater than VEB and R' small. Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced. as shown in Figure 1. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R . emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply.22. -Vcc R. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I. The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'. RE large. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are. 01: + RE) .22.25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1.25 and 1.26 and substituting in equation 1.

31) K may be found directly from equation 1.27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B. 28 (1. also cause a change in JE.30) (1. Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes. will also rise. Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1.VBE = constant.27) VeE may then be found from VeE = - Vee ~.29) K = dleo' die dleo S=- Krx' die = diX' (1. IERE.22). These are die (1. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' . Suppose /e tends to rise. . the voltage across RE. For R' to be small.32) ~RE. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered.28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1.Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1.

34 IX'(V'. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V. Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1. S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo .IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' .3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' -+ VBE J RE + lco + MIX') . The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier. Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1. On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1. If R' ~ RE. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ. This will be discussed in later chapters. S tends to one and d/e = dleo.28). and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples.27 and substitute from equations 1.33 and 1. If the Ioad is 2 kQ.VBE R' +RE J + leo .34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo. Je 1 mA. RE can only be I kQ.IX) In this case if RE~ R'.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1.

Collector feedback. values should be inserted in equations 1. For large changes.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.23.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones. Ka.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma. 1. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc.'(V'.38) In this circuit.32. 30 .') a.27 or 1. reducing h and thus /c. and differentiating we find (1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.' (R' a.'lco + 1 + Ma.33 and 1.23.' 1 [ X a.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. IX (1. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector.36 whichever is most convenient. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.36 Klc Ka. 1. This is shown in Figure 1.'. The formulae (equations 1.33. Figure 1.·=-. This reduces the voltage across RB.' J From equations 1.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.37 should only be used for small changes in a.' 1 = 1 + Ma.

c. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'. The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions.24. currents could be fed back through RB. Example 1. In Figure 1. decoupling circuits In Figure 1. and hence the maximum permissible r.C. Assurne VBE is 200mV. A.m.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 50-95. (a) (b) Figure 1.c.24 shows how this is done.c. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier. negative feedback. voltage across RE. Figure 1.c. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.22 and 1. 31 . but in addition a. The exact mechanism of these a.23) the stabilization is performed by d. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C. currents can flow to earth.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a. circuits will be discussed in later chapters. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.s. output current.c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. operating points.5.c.c. First we must find the range of d. So if XcB ~ RB12. As with the triode valve amplifier. such a.24b the same applies. Determine the range of possible d.

so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next. Circuit and graph for Example 1.27 lc = _50 lc - Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic.25.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -10V 2kfi 1kfi -Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Ico' = = (1 + CJ. Cl.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl.'(V' ..') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit...' 50.5 For T1. 32 .

c.0·2 = 3·6 V. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C. cut off will occur if peak a. Maximum VcE = -10 + 1·825(1 = -5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. the peak a. To avoid bottoming with Tz. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1.32 K = 6. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l. 1oad is only 2 kil. Vce exceeds 10. the a. + 2) V Minimum VcE = -10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = -3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. peak a.28.29 and 1. We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor.c. Vce must not exceed 3·811 . 1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C.c.5·525 = 4·475V. We can 33 . With T1.c./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l. Thus to allow for all possibilities./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1.

output voltage of 1·414 V.u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 -Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98.S.. and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C. Ic 2 mA. A. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE . = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1. output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R. the maximum r.c. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz.M. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cut-off distortion..load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1. The available d.c.6 34 6 .m. Ioad line (lk!l. The peak a.) \ \ <! E .c.C. supply is 6 V. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cut-off distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a. Finally.25b.c.s.26.c.s. Circuit and graph for Example 1.3 V.. design a suitable bias circuit.m.6. RL 4 '. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV. Cutoff on the a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a.

To determine K. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic .26b.c. RE.Ico = 30 f1A . RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO. signal voltage.c. we must find ß/c. VcE + peak a.c.\ u/co K = I 30 =-= 1-IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1.c.33 and 1. The a. The problern is to determine the values of RL.26a.5 mA (Note this is a d. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co ..Ico 1·998 IX = 0 . RE may now be found since VcE is given. Rz and CE. the operating VcE is -3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V.c. so the minimum instantaneous Vce is -3 + 2 = -1 V. the a.load line. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature.c.98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d. -3 + 2 + 0·3 = -0·7 V. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1.1-IX . Now VcE must not fall below -0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d. Vce + Vbottoming. Rt.

hR' .' = 0·98 1 .. = 39 t-tA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1.7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .O·I 49 + + Ic. I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = -:. we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I. t-tF 36 .1 Finally. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz.0·98 1 (1 K- M = a..IERE ' 2.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a.23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .Ico' (.' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~- R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2.

c. operating conditions may be found. and we have seen how the d. (a) 63 V. Example 1.c.c. Find the d. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d.T. Summarizing. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible. operating point in each case. or (b) an H. -5 V. but as with valves. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor. (a) 25·5.7.8.T. Assurne an a. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to -0·5 V? Ans. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 4-1 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 3-3 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans.c. determine the voltage gain. We have found the limitations of these methods. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. EXAMPLES Example 1. if with (a) VGK is -0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. Using the circuits described in Example 1.7. (b) 208 V. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. (b) 24 or 45·5. 37 . in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. 4·7 mA. conditions.

11 Figure 1. Determine the voltage gain. Example 1. 166 Q.T. 32. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt. Circuit for Example 1. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. Ans. The d. + H. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0. Circuit for Example 1. 21·5. Ans. (b) 96. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1.28. (a) 24·8 kU. (b) 64·5.27.11.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H.9. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H.13. 0·65. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. RK 250 Q and an H. (a) 43. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance. Example 1. h 9·75 mA. (a) 61.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. (b) VAK 150 V. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1. supply of300 V.T.c.9 employs RL 17·15 kU. results in an operating 38 .T.12. (b) 10 ill.10. Ans. The circuit described in Example 1.28. of 250 V. h 6 mA.T.27.T + 175V I· Figure 1.12 Example 1. Example 1. 790 Q. 154 Q.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. Ans. 19·2. 21·5. 250V H. 30·5.

30 L 315°. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO.c.7 is operated with a bias voltage of -1· 5 V and an H. (a) 15 mA. Example 1. If the frequency is 5kHz.c. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as -6 V. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H.c. VcE -2·7 V. Example 1. Ans.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA.15. (b) 11 V low h. (b) 60 V. (b) the maximum peak a. A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. T. Ans. I0 I -VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 -1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 -3·0 -4·5 -6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. Example 1. 60 V. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance.16. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1.12a.14.T. a coil of 0·2 H. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled. The anode Ioad. Ans. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. supply of 150 V. calculate (a) the maximum peak a. is assumed tobe purely inductive. (a) 45 V positive VaK. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage.

A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. 4·5 V. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. A transistor having a. Calculate a. 0·99 and Jco 3 t-tA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1.' 160.21.16. Ans.22. 1·24 t-tA. Je. -3·43 V. A certain transistor is found to have a.20. RL 1·8 kil. RE 500 n. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE -0·2 V. Example 1. Example 1. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. 32·3. a 4 kil load. 123 t-tA. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. Example 1. Ans. If JE is 2 mA. RL is 3·3 kil. 35. 0·994. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. 28·8 kil.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 2-8 2-9 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 7-4 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. 5·1 mA. 56 t-tA. 0·46. the voltage gain. and Jco' 0·2 mA. 0·125.18. 133 t-tA. Ans. 36.22. Jco. 1·45 mA. -204 mV. 1·944 mA. 5·03 mA.c. andRE 1 kil. calculate a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . Example 1.' 45. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. Ans.. 3·93 mA.19. and JB. If the transistor has a. Example 1. 0·97 and Jco 4 t-tA. and the supp1y battery 10 V.17. The d. R2 22 kil. Jco'. 30 t-tA.23.'. Example 1. and a 40 . Ans. and the current gain. 1 V. Calculate the input impedance. RB 140 kil. 413 Q. lB and JE. 488 Q.

The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. RE 1 kQ. 45·6 kQ. Example 1. 10 f-tF. 3·6 W.23. Circuit for Example 1. 2 kQ. that it will bottarn at VcE -0·4 V. Ans.24. 41 . and at 20°C. Example 1. and further. 1 V r.29. an Vcc -12V Figure 1. The components are RL 1 kQ. Assuming the transistor to have VBE -0·2 V. The available d.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. 1! Q. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored.s. Ans. rx' 150. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE -8 V. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50.m. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. 70 Q. 1 V. 13-9 kQ. Ic 2 A.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. 1·11 V. 195 Q. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. the maximum output power. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is -6 V. (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. R140 kQ. Ans. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of -0·2 V. At the signal frequency. and (b) if rx' is 150.24 Ico of 500 f-lA.c. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico.

having dimension mhos. In addition. we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. t.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 . Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws. the four terminal or two port network. In Chapter 1. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance.e. mesh analysis and nodal analysis. admittances and generators. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader. together with impedances or admittances.c. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. I= VY (2. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter.

3) Y=-v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively. in general I 1 B ::. In this case. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2.4) Y= G + jB (2. having dimension ohms. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. circuit shown in Figure 2. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships. B = 1 R -jX R2 + X2 1 Z= - B -X = R2 + X2 (2.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2.1. Consider first the simple d. i. zero. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . Note.e. I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS.i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages.1. (2.c.

Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I). In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = -iZa = +jwLi = -i v2 = = -iR ji = wC 44 (:J) . The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way. Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. lf however. the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed. If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = .2. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps.I amps and we could say that I= -(E/R).2. the meter would read .Vxy and Vyx =IR= -(E/R) X R = -E as would be expected from the circuit. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference. Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. given that current Figure 2.

8) ratio of the impedance values. Impedance in series may be simply added. From Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity. f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits. vz = zZ2 (2. . rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current.3.3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. 45 . z2 Iv. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz.

.10) The "reader should now compare 2. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances.9) X Y1 iYz = -=---=yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values. Consider Figure 2.i + -i = i . = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2. (2. (2. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc." d .+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =.9 and 2. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2.8.10 with 2.3c e = v1 + vz = .3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added.7 and 2. . The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality. 46 .11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1.

3d = ii + iz = . Now from Figure 2. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2.12) inverse ratio of the admittance values. Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit.14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i . Finally. 1 + .1. Example 2.1 47 .13) of the individual impedances.4. . Potential division between series admittance is in the (2.. Circuit for Example 2. and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc.n. Figures 2.

YT - 4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1) -- 4 + ~6 -- 1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. First consider circuit (a). Applying rules 2. to find io from circuit (a). the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel). Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X . and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.= v amp 6 3+1 ia = - i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 . io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v. Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. .11. Now. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2.13 since all branches are quoted as impedances.10).. io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches. the same result as that found when working in admittances.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given.7 and 2. the value of io in terms of i.9 and 2.


To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia



=1+1 txlx!+1





2 X 3





= 4v + - = 5v amp
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v





+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts

and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,




= - - = -volts



Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most


important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.




Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node

This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.

Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by


+ ia + i4 =


+ is

An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents - i2 and - is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,


+ ia + i4 -

i2 - is


which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.


2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.



Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh

Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1 - Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X


we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.

+ V1 -

IR1 - V2 - IR2 - !Ra+ Va - IR4


or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1 - V2

+ Va =


+ R2 + Ra + R4)

from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written

+ R1(h- i2) -


+ jwL2)i2-

(w-d2) (i2- ia)- e2 = 0

Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the



required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h- lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h - lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six





Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2

possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y

+ 5(h + h - lx)
5(h + h - lx) - 4(/2 -


6 = 3h


0 = -




+ 2/x

-2/x- /2

Collecting terms

6 = 8h



+ 5h -

-5h - 9/2

2 = 2/x



+ 11/x




One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
From 2.17


substitute in 2.16




+ 18/x + 1llx








substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15



= - 5 +5


+ 10 -

10lx - 5lx


Collecting terms, 6

+ 5144 -


= lx (232
5 -

15 )

24·8 = 31·4/x


lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A


Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.



Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents

Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h - i2) fiowing down or (i2 - h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2 - ia) fiowing
down or (ia - i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find

6 = 3h + 5(it- i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,


+ 4i2 + 2(iz -

S(i2 - h)

= 2(i3- i2) + i3

Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h- 5i2





+ 11 i2 - 2i3
-2i2 + 3i3




Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. For any loop. minus any adjacent loop current.20 above.f. sum the e. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5).m. Here. For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook. times the common branch sharing that current.. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. h.m. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V. This is replaced by the constants.5i2 which is the same as equation 2.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 -2 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 -5 0 6 0 -2 0 -2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 ßa tl 6 0 -2 . Following this for the first loop: The e. Further application of this rule will appear in the next example. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems.f. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches. In this case ß = 0 -2 3 -5 11 -2 8 -5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents.

=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 . Alternatively.22 for Example 2.75 = 157 0 8 6 -5 0 -2 = 8(0 . Unknown -66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .20. 2.21 and 2._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient.4) .ia = 58 124 = .2.0) + 5(10. ß= 8 -5 0 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 =8(33-4)+5(-15-0)+0 = 232.0) + 0 0 -2 3 =58 ßa= 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 6 0 = 8(-22. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms.6( -15 . %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba. we may expand on the first column. This process is known as expanding the determinants. The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2 - bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca - 02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row.0) + 6(10.0) -2 = -66 58 i2 = 157 A.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants. Now applying this to equations 2.

j4) 57 (2. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) -(4 .9.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex. Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2.3.m.j) + i2(4.j4)i2 Evaluating the e. 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 . Circuit for Example 2.j4 V Now solving by determinants .j) {-3-j4) (7-j4) = -.s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h.m. for equation 2.(4.24) .-(7_+_j_)---(-4---j-)-.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer. Figure 2.9.j) = -5/53° -h(4.j) .j)h + (7 .1 A -(4 .j) (7 .f.j)i2 (2. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form.23) -5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -(4 . but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.j + 1 + 2.f. Example 2. -S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -5(0·6 + j0·8) V = -3.3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations. as is the case in the next example.i2(4 .24.

Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances. Vc. 11 = (6 + j0)(7 .j24. Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law. NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law.{4. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2.jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: .j) {7 + j)(7 .4.j4) .j)(4. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .49 42.10.(3 + j4)(4 .{-19o)A 1484 0·686/-36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°.jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4 - _ 26.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants .j37 A . We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances. VB.j4).38.j) A . This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA.10. l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan-1 H y/{382 + 132) /-tan-1 HA = J2048 = /-550.12. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters.

V c = 0. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. h + [z =(VA.11. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero. i.11. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. 0 = = VA(l -1 VA + 2 + 4) - 1 VB . Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz). For node A.e.VBYz -lz = . Circuit for Example 2. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches.O)Y1 +(VA.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this. Thus at node A.4 This circuit has four nodes.VA)Yz Collecting up terms. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance. D Figure 2. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner. Foreach node.2 For node B.4.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc . In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth. Example 2. 3.VB)Yz and at node B -[z =(VB.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB.

use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa. one in terms of an impedance network. Examples using each will also be given. In some instances.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting. 60 .4(-3. 2 + 1 = -4VA. Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches.VB+ 8Vc By determinants.4) . 1= 1VA.1) + 1( -8 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. the other in terms of an admittance network. nodal analysis will be quicker.4Vc 0 = -VA+ 7VB. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms. I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters.Vc 3 = -4VA. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best. 7 1 -4 -1 0 -1 -4 3 8 V VB= 7 -1 -4 -1 7 -1 -4 -1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3).4).12.1(-8.0) VB = 7(56 . and hence the nurober of equations.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof.4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392.VB.

12. Circuit for Example 2.7.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q. Example 2. for the whole circuit. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1-155 A .) = 42 Evaluating.(l 12V 6V Figure 2. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances. 2. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2.5. 6.12.13 on pages 45 and 47.0. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis.12 and 2. 2.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators. Now applying the same rules. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q.

Circuit for Example 2.5iz -6 = -5h By determinants. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2.20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 .iz = H A as was found by superposition.13. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone -3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = . h + ?iz 84.12.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis. Example 2. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2. 12 = 11h.13.30 = 77 - iz = 25 54 = 52 A -66 + 60 52 -6 =52 A But the required current I = h . Figure 2.6.

63 . Figure 2. In Figure 2. Thevenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.. the network is shownasabox with two terminals.14. Thevenin's theorem The two-terminal equivalent is shown on the right. Now v = v1 + v2 =- 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem. 3 = -2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 24-4 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2=---=20 20 Now v = v1 - 9-26 -17 v2 = . at node 2.14. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected.THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V.

3V Figure 2.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the left-hand half of the circuit. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.7. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances. 1-l! 1 I= 3 = 1l.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45 - 7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = -:-:10~+--:2::-::R::--L-+---::5:-=R:-L 64 .15.15b.15. Example 2. Now.

j) .J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .jt·54) n j12 r\ u .j)(5 = (2·31 . Example 2. j 2.j20) + J. example.v'2/45° 2.4 - + 6 + j2. 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j -J + (-2 .j) V . Figure 2.16.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4- j2 .1 .(4 Ztn- + j2)(1 .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem. Circuit for Example 2. Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2.5 .8.j3)i . 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1 - = ~~ (1 . 1. (1 . write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 . 5. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .0.J j5 + j) n To find Votc.16.j l=--.J j3) . . and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0.THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before.j and Now = i(5 - j) = i(5.c. 7RL Now consider a more difficult a. .j3)(1 .

9.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. the load current may be found. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right. . To determine fstc.17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 . i A Ytn = i + i.j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A . no current will flow in the 5 n resistor. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. Repeat example 2.15. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a short-circuit connected across the terminals. Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed. the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance. In Figure 2.17.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0.7 using Norton's theorem.

For the circuit shown in Figure 2.+ 10(1 - A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 .20 .j 12 + j2 mhos 5. h = 4(3.j).j30 .8 using Norton's theorem.j2) A .4 2 .j2) + 13(5 .NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l-0 !YL + :l-ö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL=-=-=5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j20 _ 4(3.j) 4(3.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 . current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances.j63 67 + 65 - j13 A . 1 1 3.j) +4 - 2 + j4 10(1 .30 .16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1 - 1 j3 = (I .j2) .j2) 10(1 .j) A When the load is connected.10.75. ----o. Repeat Example 2.j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .j) 3 -J·2 X lJ 5 -J.j2 10(1.j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j)(3 .j3 10(1 .j6 - + 1 + j _ 2(1 .j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.

The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. or other networks may be connected.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent. Since any two may be taken as independent.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network.e. In general we may write two equations (2. there are six possible sets of parameters. A four-terminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. There are four variables V1. is known as a four-terminal network. For any particular set ofparameters.18. occurring frequently in electronic circuits. This approach is similar to the description of two-terminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables. V2 and ]z associated with the network. common. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently.26) . 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2.18. but not always. h. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output. Ioads. One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters.

Z12 relates V1 to h etc. By comparing equations 2. I.27 and 2. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable. Solution of a four-terminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2.30 above.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible.25 and 2.19.26 above.29) (2.2' are open circuit.28 with equations 2. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2.27) (2. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection.19.29 and 2. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. Since equations 2. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.29 and 2. i.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage. 69 . This can only occur if terminals 2. lz Figure 2. The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2.28) which have the form of equations 2.30 must be true for all values of the independent variables.e. Suppose 12 is zero. Zu relates V1 to h.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows. Q.

11. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = -v11 h be defined. . h Figure 2. Circuit for Exarnple 2. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.20.11 Let /2 = 0.20.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2. if we let terminals 1.29 and 2. we obtain Z12 = -v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = -v21 h I!=O Example 2.1' be open circuit making h zero. and 12=0 Z21 = -v21 h 12=0 Similarly.

From equation 2.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance.22. As h flows into this part of the circuit. Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts.21.22. I.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components.21. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts. 1~ Figure 2. A loaded four-terminal network 71 . lz Figure 2. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2.

Z21Z12 (2.Z21V1 + ZL) . the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 -= Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .34) Equations 2. There are two further general solutions. The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .31.0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) .Z21Z12 lt=~~~--~~~~=­ The input impedance given by Vt -= Zu(Z22 + ZL) . = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL).32) o.29 and rearranging equation 2. V2 = -hZL Equation 2.31) Rewriting equation 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu - (2.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.Z21Z12 Also /2=~-=------~------ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h -Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL) - Z21Z12 (2.33) -hZL.30 now becomes -hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2. which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.1 '.32 and 2.

n v2 = -5ovl + 5h 73 . 400.36) Example 2.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2.0.23.35) and (2. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only.12. Figure 2. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. The results that should be obtained are (2. Since the output terminals are open circuit. and the load is disconnected. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor. -50 VI. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0. VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0).23. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters. Circuit for Example 2. Let h = 0. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n.

and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 . Z12 = 5 il.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400- (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL) - Z21Z12 -400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400- This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245.32.50 X 5h v2l =-1450 h h=O Z22=- Summarizing Zu = 25 il. 2. In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors..35. Z21 = -1 245 Q and Z22 = -145 n. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But .5ov1 = 105/2 . thus v2 -= VI -400 251 ~4~55 +5 = -39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters. 25h V2 =-50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 = - 12=0 + 5h = -1 245 n Now Iet h = 0. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 .34 and 2. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2..

VI and h.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a four-terminal network.38) V:~ be zero. h and Vz. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. relating [z to · V2. In this case . Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. We shall investigate one of these in detail. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. is a number and S. VI and [z. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I = - Ve=O 75 (2. The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load.37) (2. VI and Vz. is an admittance. . a current ratio. The other possible choices. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. Sinillarly R.

24). Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). first Iet Vz equal zero.24. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0).24.4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit.13. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. Thus /z = -h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals. Example 2. Now hz1 = ~~ =-!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must open-circuit the input to make h = 0. Figure 2. In this case. hzz h I 2 X-6 = 8! mho = -Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 . this is simple current division between parallel conductances. For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h.13. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations.

general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. we have potential division across series conductances so. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. In this case the second equation 77 .25. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = -hz1 As with Z parameters.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it.25. Figure 2.

Z and h.42. 2. We have now derived two sets of parameters.40) Solving by determinants for h.h21h12 From which (2. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form. .43 and 2. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2.42 and 2.44) Equations 2.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits.44 with equations 2.35 and 2.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = -hZs.43) and h . 2. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) . we can + Zs (2.33.41. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true. The reader should now compare equations 2.39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2.36. h and h.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations..41) Solving for V2 From which (2. -hl2 I. V2 as our independent variables. 2. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results. 2. by taking h. 78 . we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re- = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2. = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .41. 2.

50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2.46) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or output. h h Cu. Equations: V2.rrent gatn = .47) From which . +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . h Input admtttance = Vt y = u - yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2.51) 79 .Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 . Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =-V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.= .45) (2.26.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1. h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.Yu + Ys . The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . (2.

h = -V1 = gu - /z h Current gatn = . It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another.g21g12 (2. This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .27. VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +-g12 y.) r2 gzz gu s .53) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or open circuit output. g21 = -V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.L2 + ZL) - g12g21 = gz2.gugn~2 + y.52) (2. Output tmpedance =-.57) Before applying these results to some examples. h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. Input admtttance .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1.56) (2. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . Definitions: · v21 .g21 gu(g22 ~ . one further rule should be discussed.54) (2 55) · (2.= g12g21 +ZL g22 .s .

Figure 2.5 mmho y22 81 .14. For the network shown in Figure 2.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ. Using 4kn I. Example 2.5 = -(0·25 2] 2:1A X -r 0·2) mmho y21 = -0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 -r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 -r 0·5 -r 1 -r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is .FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters. we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 -r 0·5) = 0·25 -r 1 -r 1 -r 0. so -h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1- I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2. Circuit for Example 2.Ia. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods. To determine the y parameters. First Iet Vz = 0. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu.28.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters.

Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 10-3 = 1·178 kQ .0·45 X 10-3 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2.29. Thus Vz = -(-0·45 X I0-3Vl 0·85 X I0-3 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. J. This eliminates the y21 generator.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also -lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = -0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. Let [z = 0.0·258) X 10-3 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz. let V1 = 0. and write an equation for ft.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals.29. ft = 0·65 and hl - Vt 12=0 X 1Q-3Vl. Solution for Example 2. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl.ow in the admittance yzz.

We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters. Parallel input and output. parallel output.0·45 X 0·45 === -0·45 Now using equation 2.y21y12 + -0·45 X 1 + 0·85).FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi. and Parallel input. series output.0·412 X I0-3(1 g21g12 + -0·53 1-178) X 103 + 10·53 --~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === -0·45 Thus properties of four-terminal networks such as voltage and current gain.49 and 2. At= Working in mmho. Interconnection of Four-terminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more four-termina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions.85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = -0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. These configurations are Series input and output.55. Series input. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) .55 -g21 + ZL) - At=--~--~~~----­ gu(g22 . First using y parameters Current gain. g12 = hh I (-0·45 X 10-3) X 0. 83 . the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available.

84 . and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. Z22 3 Q.30 shows two networks interconnected series input.3la. Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters. Example 2. 1 I1 V{~ v.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2. I.15.30.3lb. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V. I .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. Two four-terminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. First we must find the Z parameters of the sub-network shown in Figure 2. series output. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n.

32 shows two networks connected parallel input. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 . parallel output.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2. by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl - h h-0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0.Zn + Zs = 7 .15 Since these are open circuit parameters. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 .FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.31. and network B has y" parameters. + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance. apply equation 2. Network A has y' parameters.35.

parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. Two four-terminal networks connected series input. Two four-terminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2.33. Series Parallel Figure 2. J Figure 2. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 .33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output.32.

YT Y.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters. Repeat Exarnple 2. 87 .SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. EXAMPLES Example 2. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections.16. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. mho. SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. io Ht. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. are equally essential. The theorems in Section 3. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. Ans. v' i v. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases.

Circuit for Example 2.34.19 88 . Circuit for Example 2.17.18. Example 2. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2.34. (b) 0·526. Example 2. 0·756 V. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2.ß.36.19. Circuit for Example 2. and (c) the current i ' . Ans. Figure 2. determine v' 1.36. (a) 39·6 mV. (a) 1·63 Q. (b) 0·445i. (c) 31·2 mA.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A. Calculate (a) the input valtage v. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2. Ans. Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Ans. (c) 0·727v.17 (a) the input impedance v/1.35. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i.35 is 2mho Figure 2.

For the circuit shown in Figure 2. Ans.22 Example 2.25.23. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator. Example 2.22.9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 .!1.21 using nodal ana1ysis.20 Example 2. I. 0·25. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator.37.37. Using mesh analysis.24. Circuit for Example 2.EXAMPLES Example 2. Repeat Example 2. Example 2. and using nodal analysis. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis.38. -8 + j26 Ans. 1 L 7o 18' A.!1. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2. voltage sources to current sources.20. 37 -j2k. Circuit for Example 2.20 using nodal analysis.19 by converting impedances to admittances.j2) n. V Figure 2. Example 2. Ans. 4 89 . Repeat Example 2. Repeat Examp1e 2. mA.38. 2·2 V. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2.21.

Repeat Example 2. Example 2. Repeat Example 2.----. Ans.30. Ans. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. Example 2. Example 2.39.21 using Thevenin's theorem. Repeat Example 2. 1·35 Q.26. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T..28.40. T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2.3 using Thevenin's theorem..27.21 using the Superposition theorem. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .-----. Figure 2. T . By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem. 90 .29.40.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1. Circuit for Example 2. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2.26 admittance-current generator form.39 to the Figure 2.. 0·737 L 121 ° 26'.5~]R.

Example 2. Figure 2. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. -1·29. zu i n. hl2 = -h21 = u.26 using Thevenin's theorem.EXAMPLES Example 2. The circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2. Ans. Repeat Example 2. Z21 = Zl2 t n.34. Ans.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. Repeat Example 2.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches. Ans. 0·44 L 2° 30'i. Circuit for Example 2. 91 . determine the new z parameters. Figure 2.36.33 of 106 rad/sec. If the circuit shown in Figure 2.0. Example 2. Example 2. Zln lJ!l n.43.43.31. 4. Ans.36 Example 2. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n.33. 1·9 X I0-2. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. Using Norton's theorem. Z22 3t n.32. Circuit for Example 2. hu ~l n.41.42. Circuit for Example 2. 73 .35. 14·3 Q.35 Figure 2.28 using Norton's theorem. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2. h22 H mho.42.umho.

393 Q.umho. Ans. Ans. -2 X 10-6.37. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 . -0·04. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. . 125. (b) from the results of (a). h12 10-3 . 2 X 10-3. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad.31. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. Z1n. Repeat Example 2. h21 50. 23 . h21 75. Example 2. Ans. The T network shown in Figure 2.39. Example 2. -5 000 n. A 1 54. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q.44 represents an active device. -3 000. Z21 92 .38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil. -5·7. the g parameters.44. Z12 10 n. Circuit for Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Z1n 1·25 kQ. Z22 500 n.2· 3. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. h12 10-3 .umho. y.38 using g parameters. 1 944 Q. Ans. g. 8 X 10-3. 37 n. A network having hu 1 000 !2. 40 mV. 50 X 10-6.umho. 5 000. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. 5. Example 2. 2·39 kQ. 200 . z. 0·15. h22 Example 2. -375 X 103. Determine (a) the y parameters.40.41. A four-terminal network having Zn 100 n. 2 X }04. 45 X 10 3. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q.38. 600. h22 200 . (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters.

h21 250.4 . hzz 300 p.mho.43.43 networks. Figure 2.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo. 38.46. 157. h12 I0. Ans.42 hu 2 000 0. 1 -2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I ----- I il 50fi ~---------------~ 10on I I I I L---------------~ Figure 2. 93 .EXAMPLES Example 2. 9·8 mV. The network shown in Figure 2. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.42. (Networks in parallel.) Ans.45.46 shows two interconnected four-terminal ·---------------. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.

e.$"·~:-~ 6 I 200mV -1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a.c. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2. (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias.C.1. i. +J(mA) -V (vol t s) 20 10 5 - +V (mV) . circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit.. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods.4 R 200 300 . (a) Junction diode characteristics. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. (c) A. the diode is forward biased. the first 94 . If the switch is in position B. and an alternative approach is desirable.1a.3 LOW FREQUENCY. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming. First consider the circuit shown in Figure .

c. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. (b) Small signal a.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. (a) D. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively. on the other hand. resistance which is 95 . as in Figure 3.C. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 -=-=20MQ R I0-6 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current. the Variation in total series resistance due to the non-linearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight giving an operating point of 110 mV.2. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case. 7·5 mA. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 10-3 I = 20 X I0-3 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. Thus the a. is approximately zero. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics. generator has a peak value of 20 m V. If the a.c. Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. 0·3 f-tA. say 300 n. this current. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. the switch is moved to A. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown. lf.c. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. Diode equivalent circuits.2a.c. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~-- 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 J-LH (c) Figure 3.

Figure 3. These are known as ra.LOW FREQUENCY. series inductance. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 10-3 15 x 10-3 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance.c. operating point Q.c. the anode slope resistance. operating point. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 . voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region.c.c. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. provided the d. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. The term small signal implies that the a. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. and provided the a.3. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra. and p the amplification factor. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. bias current is 7 mA.1IRL is shown passing through the d .c.2c. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor.c. A Ioad line of slope .

From the graph. when Ia.2) r _ a - g and ra. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !-' the amplification factor.e.4) ~Ia = QB. But (3. X -~Vgk ~Vak I = f1. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra.~Vgk 6.AB . a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. i. .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3...4.~Ia I (3. X gm ~Ia.3.-. llVak~o m.. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak -Ta. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm.c.1) .Load line 0 0 Figure 3. =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a. = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.3. is not constant.

VgkRL R 1 + . when loaded with a resistor RL. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6.Vgk = f1. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t...Vgk Ö./aRL = Ö. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve.Vak gmÖ. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 . fa + RL t-tRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = -fl.Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ. r----------. (a) Constant valtage equivalent.1: ra gmraRLÖ.LOW FREQUENCY.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk .--_____.Ö.Vak Ö.:--~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3.RL ra (3.5) + RL or (3.Vgk = "'-----7-1 + RL fal But = Ö.6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must.4.r-./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ.

5.gmraRL v.-=ra + RL -(-lRL ra. Vgk. operating condition indicated by point 0. -fWsRL = laRL = ---'_.c.c. The characteristics shown in Figure 3. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . As before Vgk = v8.4a. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3. + RL -"-.c.c..=--- A _ . The alternative circuit in Figure 3.4b can be solved by nodal analysis. so Av Vo = -Vs = -gmva = and and Vo = Vo --':---=- (~ + ~J -gmvara. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve.5 are those of a valve having the d. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a.ra.. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same. 99 .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) -fWs ra + RL .5.:. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve.RL ra. operating point we can obtain an a.----. By Figure 3. changes at a d.

. Now from equation 3.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3.e. Vak g vgkl a . Thus to a.6. In this case we are concerned with a.= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3. i. g Y= . The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = .LOW FREQUENCY.4a.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a -gm Vgk . Vgk must be zero.c. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0..!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3. 100 .c. See equation 3. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit.c. If a circuit is open then the current is zero. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed.1 Vgk -. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage.. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics. voltage must be zero.6a and by comparison with Figure 3. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3. condition. Triode small signal equivalent circuits.. This means that the a./-lVgk. so if the alternating current ia is zero. Applying Norton's theorem in the same way.3.

by comparison with Figure 3. Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a three-terminal device. Again. 101 .) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia.6b.c. it may be treated as a four-terminal network. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve.e. for each configuration we can obtain z.2. i. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured. input Vgk is (See equation 3. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. g. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. There are in fact many more possibilities. since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations. it is 1/ra. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full.fva. h.4b we can see that Figure 3. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. when Vgk is zero. gmVgk. resulting from an a.

Ievel.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i. forward and output respectively.7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a four-terminal network.c.c. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. reverse.7. 102 . First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3.c. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d.LOW FREQUENCY. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc. fand o for input.c. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3. r. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d. operating point. quantities measured about a particular d. value.

8b.8a. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel. 103 hre .8. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3.8a. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a. it is the short circuit input resistance.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic -Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter.8. If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3. Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters. the output characteristic.e. This parameter is very small. typically I0-3. and as we shall see in later chapters.. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la . may frequently be neglected. i. hre ic = -:- I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3.c.

e. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10-500 depending upon type and application. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain.9. so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the four-terminal convention.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. But it is usually more convenient to convert.umhos. These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. A typical value for hoe is 100 . The ratio of the two. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required. is therefore positive.9. It is shown in Figure 3.10. an output resistance of 10 kQ. Using conventional currents.9 but with appropriate notation. hre. 104 . This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor. The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. i. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 . The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T. b e Figure 3. Looking at Figure 3.LOW FREQUENCY.

and oc0·99. rc I MQ.. Tb I 000 Q. (c) From fundamentals. The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. ib b - otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3. ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components. Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3. 105 . Figure 3. Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e .10). (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB.11.10.11.

oc) ~ !.m. (f) Since ib is the input current. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB. it is convenient to reverse its direction. (a) Short circuit output. and with it.f.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3.12. the conversion is completed -oc oc (equation 1. Also putting -1 oc = oc' and (1 . the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of -ocrc n.17). Tc !'•• /rx' r. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( -re1 + -rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel.12a. 106 . and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 . Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters.LOW FREQUENCY.oc). the direction of the current generator. Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB. The required circuit is shown in Figure 3. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5.. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero.

rx.9. - rx.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx. hre Tc=-=hoe hoe (3. But Tc/rx.11.12) Equations 3.16) From equation 3. 3. From equation 3. (3. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re- Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 .10.11 and 3. h re and ic =-:- I lb Vce=O .' hrehoe hoe (3. the short circuit ic must be the remainder. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3.=== Te(1 lb + rx.12b..14) hreTc hrehre hre Te=--=--=rx.9) + The current (1 rx.'.') (3. The opposite conversions can be found using these results.11) (3. 3.12. rx.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O - Tc Te+--. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals.10. 107 .TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V -.'re Tc (3.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input.')ib fiows in Te.' = hre (3.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx. rx.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters. hoe===oc' = -Tc Te+ rx.-. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent.13) From equation 3. = rx.' in parallel.

If they are fundamentally four-terminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z.umhos. 1t is to be operated with an H. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I0-6 = 720 kQ I0.LOW FREQUENCY.. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively.4 .125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936-n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used.T. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them. For each case.4 re = 125 X I0-6 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 10-4 1 300. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. EXAMPLES Example 3. the OC75. Using the equations above: (/. and hoe 125 . hre 90. In all such cases. Vgk -12 V. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters.1. Vg -2 V or (b) RL 60 kO. but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. 108 . A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. y or g parameters will be more convenient. hre 5 x I0.

In each case. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. /B 40 A. or (b) VBE -130 mV. 36.c. operating point is given by (a) VcE -4·5 V.15·8.) 109 . 110). 9·8 mA. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 -2 -4 -6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 -8 -10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 -12 -14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 -16 1-1 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans.2. 1·5 mA. Example 3. ra 31 kQ. The d. (b) 361 V. Av.29·5. ra 6·6 kf!. (a) 153 V. 24. Av. Ic 8·8 mA.EXAMPLES determine the operating point. determine the small signal h parameters. (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements.

(a) 470 0.VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 -VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 2-4 3·6 4·8 6·0 7-6 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 5-6 6·9 8-4 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 3-9 2-9 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 . 45.umho. 5 X I0-3.1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans. 6·7 X I0-3 . 35.umho. 97 . 450 . (b) 1 200 0. iB (pA) for .

Ans. 12·5 kO. (a) htb 30 0. h22 80 . The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. (b) 6·25 0. Example 3.3.4. (b) htc 550 0. htz 5 x 10-4 . 120. hoc 33 . hob 1 . hrb 5 X 10-4 . Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. 0·993. rc 1 MO. rb 500 0. 244 0. Ans.umho. (a) 6·25 0.EXAMPLES Example 3.umho. and oc0·97.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits. hzt 120. 244 0. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0. hu 1 000 0. hrb -0·97. hrc -33·3. 111 . 1·5 MO. hrc + 1.

In this chapter. gm. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. 1 r. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means.c. operating point. . Then. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits.0b 112 . at the particular d. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. equivalent circuits. The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same.c. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. g g ~ f-l Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. using this method.0. This procedure is not only time consuming.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1. These circuits represent the valve only. and p. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4.

circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form.s and proceeding from cathode to grid.s algebraically. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow. This 113 .0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution.m.f.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4. The d. the equivalent circuit is again used. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. connect it to earth through any component. measured with respect to cathode.f. Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used. (2) Taking each electrode in turn.d.c.m. indicate the sense of the unknown currents. line is taken as earth.s and e. If the amplifier output impedance is required. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary.c. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution. or current source shown in the complete circuit. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid.f.c.m. potential at the grid.Vb. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result.T. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction. positive H. the output voltage or power.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. The re<1. If a numerical solution only is required. and the input impedance. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . since the a. source of e. add such p. In general. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations.i2)Z1. the frequency or phase response. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e.

Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram..7) = and the valtage gain. d.4) (4. The full circuit is given in Figure 4. c. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL. cathode and anode respectively to earth.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution... c. Example 4.-----.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and -f-les = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + f-t)] (4.6) Vo = -f-tRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4.1. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara.5) lf the output valtage is required. Vo = iaRL. 114 . and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b.) Continuing with step 5: -f-lVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es..1) (Note.. d and e show the connection of grid. and Vo -f-lesRI. The valve has amplification factor f-l and anode resistance ra. ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4. this would have led to Vgk = -iaRk +es and Vo = -iaRL. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4.:. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction.. and e. --=----'---'=-.C. and iaRL due to a positive ia.2) Substituting for Vgk -f-t(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.

(d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4.1. (b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (a) Triode amplifier with un-decoupled cathode resistor.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 .__----.

THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit.s. If the constant current form is used. Figure 4. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO. ra re-arrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4.2. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = . 116 . Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution. The simple cathode follower. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = -.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + -gmesYk (4.2.2b the required equivalent circuit. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4. (b) (a) Figure 4.1 g. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier. Two other series forms will be given as examples.m.

In addition there will be d.9 is simpler. volts.13) Inserting values and working in mA. this is the best to use. and kQ -20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av.10) iara = es.11) Both forms are correct. flVgk - Vgk + es (4.c.iara 1 + fl (4. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( . but since result 4.135 X I0-3 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a. 117 .2b (4.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4. Writing the circuit equation (4.c.12) (4. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety. power in the load.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l = - + fl) = es - giving iara. power due to the direct anode current.RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth. Vo = -iaRL since +ia.

f-l( +iaRs. the terminal input ia(RL es(l + f-l) . The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance off-land ra respectively. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results.14) +iaRs.17) . This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia.3a. Considering Figure 4.3.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4. but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4.3b Vgk = (4.3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure writing mesh equation rearranging es. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + f-l) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + f-l) + ra) (4. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4. and internal resistance Rs. Derive expressions for the valtage gain. The grounded grid amplifier.15) ß)] (4.3.16) (4.

Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln - ia v' =es. and putting Vo Avt = .22) ra + Rs(1 + p.4). Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z.) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =-:- (4.) + RL 119 .:.. es(l + p.)RL Vo = -----::'--:~.)RL ra + RL (4.iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s - ra Ztn = .4.( 1 + p. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4.) _ R s + RL + p..20) (4...20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn..)RL -=--------~~--~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p..) + p.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p.21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL). V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p.:..--:--::::(4.) (4.. Consider a simple Figure 4.

(See Figure 4.f.e. sources suppressed (i.m.5.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4. The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted.5. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = -IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(.24) (4. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation. replaced by their internal impedances).USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4. (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D.25) (4..26) ./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4.

6b. designed to give a high resistive input impedance. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters. all 121 . Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4. + Rs(l + . The circuit shown in Figure 4. The valve has . Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4.23) as was obtained using the logical approach. R5 (1 .m.s. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d.u)] RL + ra. These are a form of cathode follower.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.u 50 and ra 10 kQ.6.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4.4. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk.c.u) (4. Taking all resistors in kQ. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r.6a isthat of a cathode follower. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra.

5.m.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is.32) substituting in equation 4. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.31 .3 .ls Ia (4.s in volts. 25 000 . +5is has been neglected.f. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts. = .28) (4.1-5 .= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4.) Using substitution methods. from equation 4. and all potential differences and e. we have: Vgk = 500is [or -5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500t-tis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4. 5 000 .7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier. Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical.30) 0 = ( = .29) Rearranging and collecting terms.31) -25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4.30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = -:.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 . 122 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA.31. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4. VI = 505is + 5ia (4.

36) rearranging: -11e1 -11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4. By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL - i2RL = RL(h - i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2. and if the first term of this is expanded.7b.f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.11e2 . On 123 .Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 . we find (4. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear.3 9) (4.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4. Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.40) These two expressions have the same denominator.f1Rk(h . Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants. h and = -11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 .34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4. very unwieldy expressions would appear.33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.35) (4.37) (4.5 The mesh equations may then be written: . the equivalent circuit.Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = -11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 .7. If substitution methods were used.11e1 .

CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequency-conscious. A triode valve having . Similarly.u)] -. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms.41) From this result. Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges.uRk(e2.u(e1. 11 . those for minimizing negative feedback.u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + . Therefore .12 = . it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 .U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants. [ra + RL + Rk(l + . then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored.u(e2 . The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored.u)](e2. series inductors may be neglected. high or medium.ei)(l + .e1) + . depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component. Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn.12 = . and a Ioad RL. and stray reactances due to wiring etc. Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a short-circuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel.6. . this. .e2) volts. The question of whether a frequency is low. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity inter-stage coupling.u) 11 . Two examples involving reactive components will be given.ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h - + (4. Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. at low frequencies. and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 .e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra .

This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz. Figure 4.j) = 5 .42 -39 X 20 -39 X 2 -78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 .CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk.6 Figure 4.e. i. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz. Av = ra At 159 Hz.8a shows the complete circuit. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.7. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4.1.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tan-lfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 .j 1. working in kil: zk = -j x 1 = -j(1 + j) = 1. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4. Rg is necessary to provide a d. connection between grid and earth. where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil. -flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4. Circuits for Example 4.c.8.j2 = 25 + 4 = -2·69(5 + j2) = -13·45 . equation 4.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk.j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4.

9.j0·4 . low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz.78(3·04 + j0·4) . 9·25 + 0·16 = -8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = -25·2 . and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R). Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. Zk=1-j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01-JO·l -39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) -78 3·04 . Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 . the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action.7. and -39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4.j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases. 30 --.8 In this problem. the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore -j0·1 -j0·1(1 +j0·1) .---:..:.9a and b.------ --~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4. To sketch the required frequency response curves. the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p. In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R).) ~ ra + RL.

= - 10 10 then -wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. connection to earth. If Rk X. output voltage will be developed. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies. Rg =50 kO. The first step then. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated. is applied. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4.10b could be solved by mesh analysis.c. ra = 10 kO.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage. Ce= 0·1 fkF. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the inter-electrode capacitance of the second valve. given that: !-' = 20.10a. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. 127 . is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. RL = 20 kO.10. and Cs = 100 pF. This is provided by Rg across which H. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a.T.5. (1) The cathode bias circuit. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4.c. certain components may be neglected as either open-circuit or short-circuit. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. (b) (a) Figure 4. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose.

both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected. If 1 -CB = lORg W 1012 1 w=--= lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. If these results are examined. (2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz.c. amplification. and high frequencies. it may be regarded as open circuit. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a.5. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. low frequencies. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a short-circuit. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. 128 . If the reactance is greater than lORg. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w=--= RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg.c.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz.

44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.= .43 and 4.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.12.45) Re= 5·89 kQ f-t 20 gm = .gmesRe Rg Figure 4.12.44) -gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4. and Vo = . Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4. the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.11.gmVgkRe = .43) -=-+-+Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es. The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re.11.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = -2 X 5·89 = -11·78 In Figure 4. 1 1 I 1 (4. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 . If the parallel combination Figure 4.

Iet Re/Xcs = I. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze. The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. d at f rom 17 . thus Re I = Xcs = -wCs and I w=--= ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton .46) -gmZe _ -gm(-jXcsRe) Re. (See Appendix 1. Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J0-3 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 .) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. 2. then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4. (4. From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift. 4. 0·2. For example.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. and 5. 0·5.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXc8 .

where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4.13.48) . the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. tan-1 0·5.c. The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5. leading to the result shown in Table 4. but if more accuracy is required. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). tan-1 2.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. and tan-1 5 from 180°. Table 4.1. Vo = 1 RgVa Rg - . k Figure 4. and y'(12 + 52). anode voltage Va. The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan-1 0·2. Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. This is shown in Figure 4. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. y'(12 + 22).13. y'(12 + 0·52).1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points.

and Rg.jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta. + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .jXcc .RL + Ta.RL Ta.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined. + RL) (4. T he expresswn Ta (4. Therefore TaRL ) . + RL) TaRL Ta.gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta. h 11 1 b' .e.50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + .51) .Rg + RLRg.50) R L + RL) -gmRgTaRL Ta. J cc (4. from equation 4.49) The term (Rg.gmRe Rg + Ta.44 Avl = Avm -----:-~ I _ jXcc R' (4. RL..jXcc(Ta.jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg. 132 . and Rg.52) = Avm. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x.Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ -gmRe jXcc(Ta.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta. and Vo Avl=-= es TaRL ) -gmRg ( Ta+ RL --~--~~~----~---- ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg -jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4. is given by the product of the current . it is Re. RL. . i.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg.

1 0·5 etc.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . the frequency must be divided by the same constant. For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2. and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same. The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. first consider the point where Xcc R' -=1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant. This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan-1 0·2.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°.2RgCc 133 . To calculate the frequencies. tan. now .

7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ. By definition. EXAMPLES Example 4. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. Once the technique has been mastered. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier.9. A triode valve has 11-40 and ra 20 kQ. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ.s. -33·3. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4. Ans.Hz Figure 4. Example 4. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 .m. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4. An alternating voltage of 50 mV r.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. -20.8. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. -13·3.14. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations.

12. 323 0. capacity coupled to the load.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. and VaK -3 V. Calculate the anode-cathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ. 51·0. If the anode load is 27 kQ. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. Example 4. Example 4. Example 4.11. h 2 mA. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. ra. Take J-l and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4. 17·5 kO. determine the constants J-l and ra of a suitable valve. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. Ans. 80 0. Example 4.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ. -10·5. Ans.m. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters J-l and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. 455 kQ.f. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth.13. 34·3 kQ. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. Ans. Ans.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. 0·75 V. Example 4. Example 4. Ans. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4.10. 17·1 kO. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. 0·95.14. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier. 97 0. 0·808. 6·72 V. 0·49 V. Ans. If J-l and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. 135 .15.3a) is driven by a source of e. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. 1·25 V. Ans. 10 kQ.

or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4). Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively. The circuit shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. 28·3.16.15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier.17.15.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. The d. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. Ans. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4. Example 4. for each valve. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48'). 1·01 sin wt. Circuit for Example 4. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ.16.16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.c. 136 .

19 Example 4.IlXAMPLES Example 4. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 t-tF for this purpose. -9·62. 4·88 kQ.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4.18. Circuit for Example 4. H:T. Ans. 50 Hz to 10kHz.18. -13. 500. 35·6.18 Example 4. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.18. The valve has t-t 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode. -30·4. Ans.17 employs identical valves with t-t 36 and ra 12 kQ. Circuit for Example 4. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans.17. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range. If f1.Cl Figure 4. 137 .20.Cl 50k.19.

calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL.+ Figure 4. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz. Example 4. H. Ce 0·25 f. 0·01 f. 27 kQ. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz.10a has the following components. Rg 100 kQ. Ans. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively.. -31·9.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. 12·1 L 241° 42'.lF. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ..T. 37kHz.21 Example 4. Ans. Example 4. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain.24. -39·15. RL 30 kQ. 9·6 kQ.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.23. Take f. 5·5 Hz.22.19.21. Ans.lF.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies. 0·37 mA/V. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Ans. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies. Cs 330 pF. 138 .. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4. The valve parameters are f..

139 .25. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO. Ans.F. 128Hz to 7·5 kHz. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ. Ce 0·1 p.EXAMPLES Example 4.

Show all details. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. rc. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. or even. produce the correct solution in all cases. i. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re. When the correct h parameters are available. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. hrb. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. base and collector connections. 140 . the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. will. if correctly applied. hrb. applied or generated. If however. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration.c. draw the chosen equivalent. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply.e.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. This will usually depend upon the available information. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. for example. there is no need to convert to the required form.

lb shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. When the h parameters are given. Components R1.c. In any case. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided.3 must be used. having zero reactance. collector and base respectively. The circuit shown in Figure 5. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. using substitution methods or determinants.Q. and the coupling capacitor. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit variable. and of the input impedance. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. hre 5 X 10-4. Remernher that batteries or other d. Figure 5. but with T equivalents. to earth. hre Vce. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. etc.1. Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. Figures 5. is shown as a short circuit.c. power supplies are short circuit to a. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. Example shows a single stage amplifier. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method.c. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 . the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete (hre ib. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 . the two mesh currents are usually more convenient.GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. d and e show the connections of the emitter.c. 142 . e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5.1..1.Vcc c RL 4 k!l. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5. (a) Circuit for Example 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS . 1'" RE 1k.

This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. lf proceeding against the current arrow. 143 . The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic .f. This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J0-6 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method.s. not with respect to earth.90ib).lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages. take the product as negaitive.) and the signal source.m.GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter.c. Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem. These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. Before continuing the solution. and by adding any iZ products and generated e. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base.

90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5. The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic .3.e' . _ 13 X 103 . Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.owing towards earth. Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow.71·9 X 104ib e' and .72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic. or (b) Vce = [ -1 OOO(ic + ib) .3) 1 OOOib (5.9 X 104 lc . = 4ic . take the product as positive. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !-LA ic = = -0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA -856fLA (Note the minus.5 X 10-4 X 8 OOO(ic. or (c) Vce = [5 X I0-4vce + 900ib + R'ib .1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic .71 . indicating 180° phase shift. _ .4 Substituting in 5.90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.) 144 .90ib) V. In this case. -e' io = . collecting terms and inserting the value of R'. lb .4 OOOic] V.3) (5.1 81 From 5.4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I0-5e' 1.4 OOOic] V.ic = 1 040 A .2) Rearranging these equations. but the shortest path is usually the most convenient. e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5.04 = 1·74 X 10-5e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl.

. On the other hand this technique.ibR' = 0·89 . This analysis may seem very long. Vo = -icRL = -856 X lQ-5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5. will always Iead to the correct solution.:-:::--=-: At = 1·74 X 10-5e' ib 105 At=. Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib). Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =-:lb lQ-3 = 1·74 X lQ-5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected. since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor.1040 X 1·74 = . correctly applied..55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth.1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'. and substituting for terminal current gain -e' 1 040 -ic = -:---=:-:---------.0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 .1·74 X 10-5 X 445 = 0·89 .

and hoe 105 .c. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn.umho.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. the h parameter general solutions may be used. itn and io. Determine the overall voltage gain.2. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a. The following points should be noted. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency. hte 1·3 kO. as have the Ioad resistors.2a. hre 2 X I0. Figure 5. Example 5. hre 110. (a) 1(b) Figure 5. these components have been shown as short circuits.. 146 .2. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances. Vo. current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5.2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier.4. This also eliminates the emitter resistors. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n.

(5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n.umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 -21. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. To obtain the adrnittance of a component in . Applying this rule. Before applying these steps to the problern in hand.umhos. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit.umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis. and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 -110ib X 10-4 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)10-6 Substituting for v0 in 5·5. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows. (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'.5) (5. I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of .6) . divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . lb2 + 2 X 10-4( -110ib2) 408 X lQ-b 220 v' = 1 300 .= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 .-4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5.+ -4·7.umhos. a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2.

(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2. for step 3.100 X 2 X I0-4 -110 .umho Now from the general solution.7) (5.1·3 = X 1·471.0·022 -58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 . Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1.285 2 X 10-4 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 . and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 . Ztn2 hrehte = hte. = -llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 10-4 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)10-6 1 300ibl (5.6 u 2 Ytn -llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 -100 1 300(1 471)10-6 .8) Substituting for ibl in 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I0-4 = I 300. using the general solution found in Chapter 2.umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.7 _ I 300(1471)10. YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 .umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.

io Vo YL2 At=-:--=--= AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 10-6 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure.I 10 -IIO X 2 X 10-4 = -2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = -2I6·5 X -58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain.hrehre -110 = 1 300(1 471)10-6 .6 .58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 -110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10. . lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn . -hre Av = -------.110 X 2 X 10-4 = .3:-::0-=-3-+--:-1-=-05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X -Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X -1Ix30·3 4·08 . 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + -110ib2 X 303 -110 X 3·03 = ----. refer to step 6.GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 .--~-chte(hoe + YL) . IR 2 io -IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03.

42 .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.umho = = 1 000 655 .umho Including YL2. 97·2 + 303 .umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 .28 .4 = + 260) . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .umho ~400 .umho X 10 = 92·4 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2.umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 = - - 110 X 2 X I0-4 I 300 + I 530 . 3 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 10-4 I 300 + 442 .umho 220 I05 .umho I 000 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) . hrehre Yo = hoe . the overall output admittance and impedance.umho = 97·2 .I 7 .hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors.

Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last.2 voltage. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. . In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage.GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5.. E.3 where es is the source Figure 5. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero. .3. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. To show the effect of these approximations. The first thing to notice. . so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5..2 is accurate but not really practical. having an impedance much greater than h1e. the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. and hoe is neglected.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . In any case. may be neglected or at least rounded off. In each case however. the bias components. Av= -hre -hreZL . is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. we shall reconsider Example 5. further components are added in parallel. A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances. Finally.

600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. 152 .2. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations. Having considered the common emitter amplifier. Avz Z1n2 = -llO 1·300(105 + 303)10-6 =- 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 -90 X . Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 5000-2 kfl 5 kfl-20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem. Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b.1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho -63·5 -63·5 x -208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. hrb. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Table 5.1.

Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = -Vo = -2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) . Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5.2. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5-300 0·5-2Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications.4a. Example 5.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. these alternative methods will be compared. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions.umho and hre 65. by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5. hoe 250 . Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit. hre 10-3 . firstly. In the next example. Figure 5. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions.3.4. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents. and secondly. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. Take hte 800 n.3 emitter parameters.GENERAL METHODS Table 5.

.4a. -:ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ. From Figure 5.I0-3(ib 0 = 4(ic - 65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms. + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib . so substituting for ic in the first equation. = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = -258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I0-3 terms) From the second equation. 258. 154 Y1n = 71·25 .umho = 60 . YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel. and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = --.umho .umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 .umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components. = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib .= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 .

5a. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. suppressing any external generators. (a) I Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5.5.3 155 . Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :---Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals.GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I0-6 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit.

65 X 384 X I0-6V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'.384 X I0-6V =:::= . I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)10-6 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5.2. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 5-20 (limited by bias components) Low 0·8-0·99 High Bias components Low 20--100 il 156 . 0·384 X 10-6.6 Neglecting the first term.VY' = 0·384 X I0-6V. First Vce = . Table 5. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator.V.3.384 X I0-6 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5.1 and 5.) Now writing the nodal equation. so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I0-3 V.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX. IO-av Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l0-6V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.5b.

Thus and + hreib) hrc = -(hre + 1) and h1c ie = -(ib = h1e Now for ib zero.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals.6.6. together with ib flow into the short circuit. Vec. ib and ie as shown hlc I = -.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears. the hre generator becomes -hreVec. The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5.hre . Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec - hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 . All the current from the hre generator. Vbc. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = -Vce. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents.. hre Vce Figure 5.

umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 . but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 . a phase splitter or a d. we require the effective Zs. Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 .c. or super <X pair.umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . 158 .10-3 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I0-6 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0. This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected. With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier.umho For overall Y0 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.umho 1 .6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. amplifier. including Ioad. ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given.umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier.3: htc = 8000 htc = -66 hrc = hoc = 250 .

7. hoe 125 . Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d. supply. so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO).4. hte 1 300 0.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d.c. 159 . The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier. 7a. In this example only the he parameters are available. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5.c. hre 5 X 10-4.c.7a could be treated in a number of ways. operating points determined by the circuit. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a.umho and hre 90. Circuits for Example 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5.

vz)830 + 90( -830vz) = -vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830) - 125va and for node 3: -90( -830vz) = -125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000. vz.0·125va -75vz + 0·625va 160 . circuit admittances and external generators. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages.0·83vz 0 = 0= -75·5vl + 153vz .A Now for node I. therefore if VI. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 . which changes the units to volts. For ib1. vz and va in terms of is. and va. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI - vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p.A. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances.mho.7b. The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary. For node 2: 90(vl . The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. we may write and ibl = (v1 - ibz = vz)830 pA -vz 830 p. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59.

0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = -. but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low. This is to be expected. For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 is 0 0 is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(-75·5 X X75.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants. since each stage of a 161 .X ls X is(153 X 0·625.0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(-75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~-==-~~~~~--~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.= ls 1 -:ls is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =-:.

. 162 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base. hoe'. conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.c.8b. A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d. Example 5.8. hoe" and hre ".8a. hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ".' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h . common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. hre 120.5. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v.w 'h. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance.~· it. Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'. (d) (c) Figure 5.. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5.. (b) (a) !2 ho.

..1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5. Figure 5. Here Vz ib"=---11 1 hte h----. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h---.. h12. for h12 and h22.10) . oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". + oe Now.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations. where hn. oe II le (5.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit._h_"_ 1 ~ h---. for h21 and hn. and short circuit output. ib" in terms of the node voltage.:. the parameters for the overall circuit. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h----. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated. are open circuit input. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5. and since there is no p. Under these conditions h and ib are zero. where Y is the combination of hte ".:. across hte'.d.. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + -h oe _ fz _ 22 - = V2 - h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " -h + le oe 1 h ") + . this can also be deleted. hz1.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2.9) we can write a nodal equation. but first we must find h22. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters.

V' + hoe'hte 11 (5.. 11 - + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5..11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5.. The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit.I6) .II. I .. The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.I5) (5.. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately.. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem...12) Once again.. • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h--.I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part. h in terms of h.= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate. In this case. we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output.14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =-" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5.8d. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition. oe + -h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5. For h21.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted.. le h _ h . By inspection. the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I .I h .. (5.

h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value. and 5017.3 = x 10-6 OoOI8 + """1-3 mho = Oo8 + 13-8 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 10-6 X !50 X 10-6 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 10-6 I 50 X 10-6 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.83 kQ 165 . this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2. 1121 = 120. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb .hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case. 5o14.0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns. smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METI-IODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6. hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018. h _ h ib' - _ hre'. the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n - 3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu .(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013.

Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4. where shown. Stray capacitance due to wiring. base current for the first transistor. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value. hre 110. Av2 . The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. without loss of current gain.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards.3. determine. independent of frequency. have neglected the effect of reactances. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . the coupling capacitor. Capacitors. At this point then. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce.9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. and that due to transistor properties. By means of a general analysis. huc = 188 k. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF.Q h12c = 1- h21c = -11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. have not been shown. as the large h21 permits a very low d. except in phase.c.6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. Example 5. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. and hre negligible. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. Figure 5. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 .6. hoe 100 . The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. An even higher input impedance can be achieved.umho.

20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5. By definition. the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5.22) . Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5.21) 1 Ztn2=-y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5.6 For simpJicity. Jet 1 Re = -:----=c---=--(5.19) -Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V.9.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance.

9b is the same as v'. ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2 - J Ce .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies. .J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXcs.telb X . X es is in parallel with Re. Ve shown in Figure 5. First. .jXce) Ztn2 v = . At low frequencies. -jXcsRe v = -hrelb x R ·x e .>Re v' = -hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' -hre Avm =-=--Re VI hte (5. considering Figure 5. frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected. The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm. RL'(Ztn2 . Avh -hre = -h-Re le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. those at which Cs only may be neglected. X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V . as low frequencies. will be referred to as medium frequencies. h .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = -C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 -C '. . Av1 and Avh respectively.23) At high frequencies. - - VcZ!n2 Ztn2- jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies.24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies.

20.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed. 5.23.26) 169 . 5.22. This results in Avh = -59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5.24 and 5.25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5. Avm = -110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.24. In this numerical example. Avm A vl = ---':'-::-:- (5. let Re/Xcs = 1. But (Equations 5. from equation 5. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies.) Thus from equation 5. Forageneral investigation. At any particular frequency.19.21. 5. and

.2I. 3wh.F Thus in practice a 1 p.1 2. and 5wh respectively. In practice. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5.F = 0"63 p. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1).24. 5. I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5. Inspection of equation 5. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. tan. y'5. These results are shown in Table 5. 2wh.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. At these frequencies..F capacitor would be suitable. 3. tan-1 3 and tan-1 5 respectively.. 2. etc. At low frequencies. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1.4 on page 171.. 170 . . y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan-1 0·25.I9 and 5. the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz.. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p.

96 tan-120 87° 10' IAvml = 1-1 9 tan-1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where -0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .96 tan.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan-10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan. 8 tan.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 .8 tan.' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan-11 45° o-5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.1 2 63° 30' = 18. Xcc Avt 7i.1 tan.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan-110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.10·5 26° 30' T tan-10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan-12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh=-- Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll-6 tan.4.0 tan-1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .6 tan-1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan-11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.

2 . The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case.e. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies. for the single 172 . while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from -90° (at the top) to +90°. must be multiplied by Av2. 3.wCcR' . This is shown.hrehre + -:----:-::------. These results arealso shown in Table 5. i. etc.10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz. 2. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~. This is shown in Figure 5. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. Figure 5. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. at each frequency. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1. the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive.10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. Considering the single stage first. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters.4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. 2. Av2 = -hre YL) . . the gain of the second stage. etc. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies.4. values of !. 3. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed. the gain of the first stage.=-:-----::-----::-- hle(hoe -110 = 1 000(100 + 500)10-6 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. of the two stage amplifier. since we are puttmg R ' ..

Jla. with the origin on the circumference.6. In this case. in Figure 5.10. plotted in the complex plane.MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. 173 .40 > 3. The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5. (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. we obtain the locus of the gain vector. 4 6 f. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. If the ends of all these vectors are joined. 30 180° -e- 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 .llb. the locus is a circle. This locus is shown in Figure 5.

If the transistor employed 4k. but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 . we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.O.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5. Example 5.7. Circuits for Example 5. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 .12.11.12a.

ie). In terms of these 15ir. V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 -810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 -14 +814 +4 +10 -810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)-0·7(-14x 15-4x 10)+0 15 450vl .463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 .810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie.. -. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib - ie = ib .lo R L 0 = -lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. rc +.10(8lib. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain.27) ( + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations. rb 800 kil and rx' 80.29) Rearranging and collecting terms.28) (5. = ib(1 + rx') . inserting values and working in kil and mA.0·7ib (5.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1. and ir. ie. Figure 5. = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = -14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie .ie = ibrb + iere . The unknown currents have been se1ected as ib. V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = -0·03ie + 10(81ib - = ie) + 4(ir + ib . substituting for i 0 and i'. + l.

USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5.203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point. In fact. In the design of a practical amplifier.n Vt Vt = -:lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5. ib = Vi. mA = ioRL = (ir. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. however.= -90 Vi Z. These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters. However.28. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required.27. feedback methods should be used. circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are available. Vo Vo Av = . 176 . The methods V = -22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance. In the majority of the examples. .814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 .0·03Vt 0. ir = 14ie . the input current is ib + ir.

6·83 kQ. 100 n. -3 130. Ans. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n.. -6·72. 862 Q. Assurne Xe = 0.8 using RLO. Ans.13.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5. -560. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. 25·7 Q. and oo. Av. 0.8. hre 75. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. and At against RL. Example 5.umho. hoe 90 .EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. Ans. -130. Ans. 177 . -0·68. 645 n. Repeat Example 5. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5.10. 0.14. Example 5. -56·5.11.8 taking Xe as being infinite. hre I0-3 . Circuit for Example 5.8. v. Figure 5. -65·6. 960 Q. -1·97. -36·2.11 Example 5.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. Figure 5. 960 Q. 258 n. 8·83 mV. 10 kQ. Circuit for Example 5.9. -65·6.

If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ. Example 5. Ans. -11·35.7a. Figure 5. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. hoe 80 . Repeat Example 5.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. hre 90. Example 5. -76.15 has h1e 1 300 0. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. 496 X 1()3. hre 5 X 10-4.umho. The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. hre 150. hoe 120 .14. hre 0. Ans.16. 8·83 mV. 25·7 Q.15. 264 Q. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage. Circuit for Example 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. hoe 80 .umho.13. 147.umho.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. Ans. Example 5. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5. 1. 1 528 Q. Collector Ioads. Example 5. 2·22 kQ.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances.15. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components. hre 110. 656 Q.12. Ans. A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5. 3·3 kQ. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. 650 X 1()3. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 . 1100 Q. 90 .

63 kn. 179 .18. 105 Hz. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. and hoe 130 ftmho. and hre 0. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. Ans.17. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies.16. Yb 350 Q. 5 260. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. Ans. Ans. hre 10-3 . Ans. hre 125. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. and IX 0·992. per stage. 7 370.19. 2·10 kil. -89.EXAMPLES effective. 1 123 Q. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. hoe 130 ftmho. 444 kHz. 162 L 168°. 5. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. Yc 750 kQ. Example 5. hre 5 X 10-4. Example 5. 119 ftmho. -6 600. effective inter-stage shunt capacitance 500 pF. hre 80. 20·4 x to-s. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ. 1 122 n. Circuit for Example 5. hre 90. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor. 1 130 L 3° 30'. Ye Example 5. -63·3. Figure 5.

-1 270. (a) -41·0. 218. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5. hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 .Q. hre 10-3 . hte 70.Q.90 k.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2.Q. 88 .Q. (b) 0·973. 180 . 14·6 k. hoe 500 .8a.umho. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal). hre 4 X 10-4.umho. Ans.Q.20. h1e 1· 5 k. Assurne Zs to be 10 k. Calculate the voltage gain.Q.Q.Q. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k. the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5. 4·0 . In each case. hoe 110 .

a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. and a change of d. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. and in the event of a replacement. The passive components may vary with temperature and time. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. In this 181 . current gain or both. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain.c. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. and of the device parameters. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. operating conditions.c. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. Similarly.

but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive. The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier. 182 . Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically non-linear. and their configuration. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components. where in general A = lAI L 0. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency.c. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. particularly at high frequencies.1.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit.

ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6.1.2) . but not essentially. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp. lßl is less than one. Usually.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1. S' is the terminal input signal. where cp.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6. the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1-lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6.ßA AS So= 1. and So is the output signal. S is the input signal applied from an outside source.

Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. With reference to equation 6. or temperature changes. Thus equation 6. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. i. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'. discussed above. supply changes. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges.e. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 .c. 184 .e. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. the feedback is negative. d.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6. and in particular negative feedback. Feedback positive \A\.1. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback.) Example 6. i. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1.


If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine

the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000



where K is a constant.


3 000

= 0·191


the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
3 000


Percentage change

100 per cent

= 59· 3 per cent

Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier



A 2r =

3 000

3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402

1 + 600

. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500 - 402
Percentage change m


100 per cent

= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series



or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback

Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multi-stage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe-1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be


referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.

Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:







+ R 2 Vo


+ R2

(6 .4)

Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by



since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'





1- Avoß
AvoV = 1Avo ß

Gain with feedback




1 - Ap~ vo


Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l - ßAvo)


If this equation is divided by i the input current,



-:-l = -.

- ßAvo)

But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:

= Ztn{l

- ßAvo)


Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback

We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say

V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining



+ Ztn)


ß'. Where

= -=-----=----=-----'R2 + Zs + Ztn


V'= ß'E





Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E - Av' V' = I'Zo'

From equation 6.9
E(l - ßAv') = I'Zo'
Zor = ji = l - ßAv'


The overall output impedance can thus be found from


Z = Zor



+ RL + R1 + Rz

Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback

We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.

.------;!--------,--- --1






c0 t




v---,r-.,- - - - - - - J

Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback

In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor

RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as


Thus if RF ~ Zs

+ Ztn (as is usual)






In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,



= RL + RF + Zo'


With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.

Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,


-IRF (if Ztn

+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)

and writing the mesh equation

E- Av'( -IRF)

= l(Zo' + RF)

arranging and collecting terms,



= IZo' + /RF(l

- Av')

= ~ = Zo' + RF(l- Av')


With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect

Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.

5 and 6. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 . The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since . the overall terminal voltage gain. and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e. 100 ß= . for both methods. the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.f. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ. For the amplifier without feedback.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8).7 and 6.8.A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. from equations 6.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a). so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6.4.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits. the modified input and output impedance.5a.m.Applying equation 6. and internal impedance 1 kO. Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative.86 = 623 from equation 6. the voltage derived feedback.

and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ. If the original input current 0·5 f-lA was applied. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6. the current gain is unchanged.A With reference to equation 6.23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ.12. Zor =I lOkQ + 6.11.23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'. 6. 6. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ. To return to the problem.8 we find.10. 1 795 = 192 . io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ.7 and 6. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so. and using equations 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1.A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 f-tA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6.14.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback.14).

This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback. we refer to equation 6. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 .VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . lo - As before.13. Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback. f. From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 .1. 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9. as has the input current.8 mV . the current gain has not been reduced. as a result of the increase in input impedance. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. Ztn 1 000 0.1. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 .

The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6. the output impedance is reduced. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. the two quantities to be added must be currents. CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased. and a short circuit current gain A.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor. A.5.'. 194 .5. I' is l•. /li0 io YL Y. With voltage derived feedback. these would be given by: I Y.n - v' G2 Figure 6.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box. Fora multi-stage transistor amplifier. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '.n=:=h- le in parallel with the bias components. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n.

The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL. This is given by: At'YL' (6.= .20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6.19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.ßAto) (6.ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But .ßAto .(1 . the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' . is I' .= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.v1)G2 = v'G2 (6. YL is the finalload.= Ytn and .5.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6. Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 . lo = (6.21) 195 . and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network. I = 1.15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback.19) Atois 1.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6.ßAto) is .

Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6. Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V.6.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback.20 and 6.e. the input impedance is reduced).2.24. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback.6. I' Y. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V. the current gain is reduced.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6.n G2 Figure 6. with simple negative feedback. The reader may have noticed by this stage. and the input admittance is increased (i. First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. The effect of YL.

Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback.7. Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6. we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo.7. Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result.'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I".ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 . .CUR. is I' I ~Ys io y. Y. 197 ß and . I ---i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6.n . resulting in voltage derived feedback. is shown in Figure 6.24) With typical values. YL will be the predominent term and equation 6.24 will approximate to YL.ß"At' (6.

input admittance.At") (6.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied. and calculating the resulting V. (6. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case. the overall current gain.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6.3. Example 6. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals.25) Also. I + GF'(l.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal. Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn. suppressing the source generator.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and . and output admittance. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. 198 .21 respectively. The amplifier described in Example 6.20 and 6.26) Using these values of ß and A10.

21.15. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative.= --. 6. Also 1 YL = .umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn -:. 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 .umho .= 250 . Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 . .100 . . 199 1 786 .umho 1 -25-1 = 238 .20 and 6.17 and 6. 6. 1 = Zo' = .umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier. and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback.16.= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s.umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6.umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q).18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 . 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) .umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL .umho ln Yo At .

The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6.umho + 280) = 3 130 .umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.26. GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 . This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 .umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.27.uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q).21. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance.umho = 56 . applying equations 6.20 and 6. 200 .24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 . Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 .' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 . ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6. = Yor = At" = = 9·9 .umho 101\ 0 A.22 and 6.umho.25 and 6.

umho. In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n. Ytn 1 786 . Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'. the current gain and input impedance are reduced.umho. We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained. + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit. A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. Yo 305 . and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. Now moving to the output terminals. when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived).EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 . A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input.umho. Y0 350 .umho. With a current amplifier. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel. Yo 3 130 . Y1n 1 000 .umho. the voltage gain is reduced. the output impedance is reduced. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av.8.21. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance. and the input impedance is increased. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'.umho. SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance. Y1n 8 780 .

10 and 6.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. 202 . If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. oo. The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'. This may be illustrated by an example. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector.4. These effects are shown in equations 6. At three different frequencies. the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. -90°. and in Chapter 8. -135°. and that the calculation of Af(l . Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector. since the gain is 5 L 0. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities. First we must be clear about the information supplied. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. and that is that ßA must be less than one. (b) -90°. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. (c) +45°.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. v0 = A L 0 V'.27. Example 6. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. naturally increases the output impedance. By means of sketched vector diagrams.

the gain and phase shift with feedback determined. and (c) positive.6.11 for Example 5. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5. IJvo ~ -~vo t's (b) -f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6. (b) negative.8.4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multi-stage RC coupled amplifier. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. and by measurement of vectors or by calculation. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6. ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. Forasinglestage amplifier.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. 203 . Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6.

with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown. origin 02 is the origin for the (1 .ßA). Thus Figure 6.ßA)is3 L 0°.(l. and 02R are the (1 .9.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency. the scale of Figure 6. To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback. fm . The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6.9a.atfm. Next the locus of -ßA is required.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1. The origin of the (1 . each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6. the vector (I . But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. having its origin on the circumference. 02P.9b iscorrect. This is shown in Figure 6. Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift.ßA) vector.ßA).9b. we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( -ßA). 02Q. Since this is the locus of (.9b.9a ft (a) Figure 6. and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left. and we require (1 . Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X. for each frequency. and /h respectively. For this.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 .9a. we must find. From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages. then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle.ßA) vector would remain at 01. Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ß-io L ()0. In Figure 6. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing.

Since at each frequency. A two stage amplifier.6. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response. With reference to Table 6. Before we can apply the methods outlined above.4. Example 6. the gain must be squared. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = .9b shows that 11 . employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. If Figure 6. Examination of Figure 6 . This will now be illustrated by an example. the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined.= 880. 205 . having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L -26·5° respectively.ßA) and (1 . If the ß factor is -8·5 x I0-4 .ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin. the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20.10a and b. it is applied over two or more stages. This is shown in Figure 6. This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 .ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L -26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback.5. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point -ßA = -(3 520 X -8·5 X I0-4) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies.ßA I can never be less than one. draw the overall gain and phase response. A table may now be drawn up. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520.10b is to apply to the problern in hand.

THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 . cp' = 38°.24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 -129° -87° 0·01 972 -32° 0·02 870 -15° 0·03 879 -70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° . Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6. Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1-.10. Table 6.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined.ßA). For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11.1.6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6.

. :. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency. Figure 6. it is convenient to plot graphs of gain. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency.:c . Graphs of gain. and relative gain against log frequency..I:.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback.lfl ~ +250° 1-0 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° -00 -50° 0·4 -1500 -250° Figure 6.. relative gain and phase <ll <ll > . ~co (/) co·- fU~ <llOl o... relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback.11 shows graphs of gain. 207 .. To obtain the relative gain in each case.11. From these curves the following results may be obtained.r:. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback.. phase shift.

This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6. For the locus shown in Figure 6. In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity.ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges. are possible origins for the (1 . The origin 01 isthat applicable to the -ßA locus. the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage. and since it is not symmetrical. If the origin for (1 . 04 etc. and if this distance is smaller. the origin for -ßA. we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback.ßA) scale.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency. 02. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l . Examination of Figure 6. and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation. Consideration of Figure 6. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. 03. Figure 6. was cut by the locus.12b the amplifier must have four stages.10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. Oz.ßA). This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks.12 shows the form of the locus of -ßA and (1 .ßAol is also reduced. Figure 6.10b shows that this will occur when 11 . the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 . In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus.ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite.ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l . then 11 . -ßA and hence ß must be 208 . allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. but it cannot rise to infinity. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback.11.

Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased. The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies. With the origin at 02 li . 03 is the origin for (1 .ßA I is about . (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =. i. oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4. i. If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li .ßAI is at 03.ßAI cannot equal zero. no input is required for an output to be present. since the gain is infinite. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case.e.ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75.12..= -0 = 1-ßA . 209 . In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously. giving positive feedback. Locus of (1 .FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger.ßA) with more feedback than 02. but it can be less than one.e.

but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. but also voltages at twice. that is troublesome. oscillation at /1 only. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 . REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier.12b is given below. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier. positive FB at high and low frequencies. Origin Position 02-03 Oa-04 04-0s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. but if it is applied over three or more stages. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . bandwidth increased. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier. U nstable. Unstable. we might expect a stable condition again. the amplifier will be unstable. In general the non-Iinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. or second harmonic. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO.

REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage. So = AS' +D (6. + ßD + ßD (6. and O·I V at 3 kHz.13.30 into equation 6. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced.29) S'(l .ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on non-linear distortion Since we have an amplifier. and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So. So must contain a component AS'.30) 1.13.28 So = AS' 1 . Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6. 0·5 V at 2kHz.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S.ßA) and (6. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback. Consider the system shown in Figure 6.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D .

.ßA ASt = I .31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel. 2 I• Feedback .ßA AßD + +D . using the methods described in Chapter 1.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I . Example 6.ßA D (6.14..AßD I .32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback. But from equation 6.31) + 1. A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6. Figure 6.6. This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically. Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.14.6 212 .

+ ß') x 100 per cent Further. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ß-ß' 2(6.T. on Figure 6. In Figure 6. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero. Figure 6.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 . Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H.15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present. Severe distortion :. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. and es is 2·5 sin wtV. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. Now toreturn to the problem. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated.15.

Peak Vo 191 . VaK -3 V. But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 .c. but ß may be obtained from equation 6. load line for 40 kQ.D. has been drawn.c.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d. Peak v0 = 194.H. bias line for 2 kQ. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = -hRK t es and -hRK- es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. operating point is VAK 139 V. es must be increased. as has the d. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . (b) Without feedback.c. load line. the operating point moves between VBK -0·5 V to VaK -5·5 V.c. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained.11.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 0-47 S. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected. current derived negative feedback is applied. = 2 x 4 . h 1·5 mA. The resulting d. The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph. along a 38 kQ a.

Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result. = 2 x 4 . In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. In other words. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component.-1-9 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line.H. ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively. In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. ßv0 is also slightly distorted. v0 with feedback is slightly distorted.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% ------n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger. In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself. In the 215 .16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . Figure 6.D. From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = .

A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150.6 EXAMPLES Example 6.16. Ans.7. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500. In a prototype. 216 . Waveforms for Example 6. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain. 80. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) --es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo -5 200 (distorted) .------v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6. 0·012.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain. and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined.

A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . 25·8 kO. Example 6. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0.8. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs. The amplifier described in Example 6. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO.10. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load.umho. Circuit for Example 6. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load.17. Ans. Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. 24·5. Ans.umho.11 8 217 . (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback. determine the current ratio i0 /i8 .8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance. 48·8 0. Example 6.11.17. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000.9.EXAMPLES Example 6. 91·2. and 400kfi -10' i ' 2k. For the circuit shown in Figure 6. 38·7. 1 013 . The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. 169 0. If the load and source are unchanged.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance.!l Figure 6. 4·96 kO. 47·5 kO. Example 6. Ans.

ß = 0·059 L -245° By means of vector diagrams. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. Check your answer by calculations. phase shifting. Ans.4 . (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. (a) negative. 10. is applied. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°. 2·6 MHz. ß L 200°. Example 6.12. whether the feedback is positive or negative. 1/1 760. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of -95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k. (b) positive. 218 . (c) neither. The total loading per stage is 600 . Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° -30°. 161.Q. 450 kHz-oo. I I 50. Ans.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance.3 . Example 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX. Example 6. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L -45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L-65° 2 100 L -90° 3 300 L -130° 4 400 L -155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L -45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies.14. 1 MHz. determine for each case. Ans. 0-60 Hz.13. Ans.

A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. The source impedance is 600 n.16. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion). Checkthese results using feedback theory. 8·9 per cent.F. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. RL 13 kO.T. Example 6. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1. 43 V peak to peak. lf RK is adequately decoupled.15. N. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. Ans. Ans. calculate the value required for RF. 47 V peak to peak. 2·12 MO.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are -3 200 and 800 n respectively..B. Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. and RK 1·2 kO. 219 . 32 per cent.EXAMPLES Example 6. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base.

INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier. Figure shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined.ßA 220 ..1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. Figure 7. with feedback derived from a later stage. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal. The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .I . l is = I . In this chapter. we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations.ßA so for simple negative feedback. Figure 7. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' .7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. either A or ß must be negative. In this situation.

(b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare.1. Connections for feedback amplifiers. In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter. 221 . The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. (a) Current amplifier. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative. In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback.1 c.

In the circuit shown in Figure 7.2. Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier.umho and from equation 6. Since hre is zero. Circuit for Example 7.- -SOkO = 12·5 . The required circuit is shown in Figure 7.umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier.1.umho = hoe = 90 . For negative feedback {J must be positive. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 h .2. Example 7. First the equivalent amplifier components are required.1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback. l .2.25 {J GF 12·5 = -h = -500 = 0·025 222 = -120 . Y1n Yo' 1 = -hle = 1 250 . hoe 90 . t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative.27 inclusive..umho and A1' = -hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .24 to 6. hre 120. . The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6. With a . the transistor parameters are hle 800 n. -hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er. Figure 7.

the input and output impedances were increased. and with the equivalent circuit problems.99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: -99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I . Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods.ßA.') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6.n(1 .3 shows how the 223 .8. In each case the voltage gain was reduced. or by finding 1 ~pA.umho The resu1ting output impedance -i-or = 476 n.21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback.'YL YL + GF + -120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = . This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6.26.A.umho = 2100 .ßA1o Au= -28·6 Equation 6. A!o = Yo' A.13).11. part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .umho + 99·6 X 0·025) .SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6. .n. 6. Y1nr = Y.12 and 6.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z. 6. 6.umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l . Figure 7.7.

since V' is less than es.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6. 224 . The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback. =V'.3. Current derived.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +-. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5. using the notation shown.

11 and 6.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero. 6. hoe 125 . Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0. for Z1n.90 -90 X 5 X 10-4 =- 1300 Note.n Figure 7. and the output impedance. hre 5 X 10-4.4 Z1n = 900.. Yo' = 125 X 10-6 - Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ-4 = 75 .33 = 225 -283 . = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6.2 and current gain. find the terminal voltage 4k.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)10-6.umho and hre 90.umho 900 =-!.Cl 1k . Using feedback methods. A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.12.2.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7. the output voltage and current.4.7 Avo -1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 . As with the last example. Circuit for Example 7.. the circuit YL of 250 . we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier.

uA To calculate the terminal current gain. . and Vo = 3·48 V. the overall input impedance should include the bias components.uA .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t -283 283 = -3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.13. Working in admittances.8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6. = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance. _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 . RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly.7 =56 226 .56·2 m = 15·7 .umho Now using potential divider methods. = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 . the base input current ib is required. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V. To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ-6 A = 880 .

an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows. 1. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. which would slightly modify ß. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback.5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ . Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations. Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr -hreZL hte = -90 X 4 000 900 = -400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. but when the bias components are included.8 + 0. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 . This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At -hreYL = -----=-YL + hoe -90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = .

15 to 6. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. since. will be.signs. making approximations where valid. 228 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. Au and Ztnr.5. as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2. Here. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). Yor.5. A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2. So. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. An and Z1n1. the solutions may be found from equations 6. thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2). The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . Since we have current derived current feedback.23. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (-ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). the steps in the solution will be: A12. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 .

m.3. Circuit for Example 7. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent.umho.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200.m.3 required output current is to be maintained.s. The output current in the amplifier.!1 Gz Figure 7.6. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e. must be changed if the 400. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base.m.f. If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X -hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + -hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X -I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X - 0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 .6. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. Determine also by how much the e. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r. of internal impedance 600 n. of a driving source. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil. shown in Figure 7. hre 140.f.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. hoe 150 .

Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.6 =-51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + . D Dr = I .m.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e. = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2.f.ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 . we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho. and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.!i:l'-) kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6.32. -140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10.




and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho

ß --

This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:



Ztnr =

450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150

But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000

5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000

112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV

Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate four-terminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can


find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r------------- -,





L -








- -- -




- - -

- - - - __ J


L------ - - - - - - - - - - - Figure 7.7. Interconnected four-terminal network circuit for
Example 7.4

the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two four-terminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.

These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.


Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:



vl = yu = 100 kil =

10 ,umho

Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,



= 100kil

= v1 =

-10 ,umho

But the network is symmetrical, so


y12 = -10 ,umho

10 ,umho,

Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero



= -hte =

1 000 ,umho

where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and

= hoe = 100 ,umho

where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:

h = -

X -





hoe + YLI + Ytn2


X hoe


+ Ytn3




Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.




= 729

1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
-90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho

x 2. 1 x 2 . 1



165·5 mho


Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.


The combined parameters may now be written,



1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho



-10 ,umho
110 ,umho

The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,

-10 X 165·5 X 106

= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10-a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho


From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:

~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
yu(y22 + YL) - y21Y12
I65·5 X 10-6 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000) - ( -IO X I65·5
= -1..,..0_10__x--II.,..,0---










+ 10


To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.


= y22- yu +

Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho

with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.


The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.

Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ


of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.




Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5

To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05




Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,




Vr = (1

+ ßA1A2)

+ ßA1A2)

Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only

(2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl. in certain cases this ß may be greater than one.8. (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback.umho = 1100 .6 = .6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 -0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. (6) U sing ßof0·05.umho -100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10. resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 .umho -100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)10-6 - 83 "4 1 kO 1 000 . (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note. it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl. overall gain and input impedance with feedback. This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q-6 -47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 . hz =(I 000 + 100) . We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits.

i1 the base current for Tri. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = -0·98 x -83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0.5 First. Ii• Figure 7.9.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 t-tmho = 1 000 t-tmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.05 = 16·1 (7.1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7.9 and solve by nodal analysis.3) 238 .

Substituting from equation 7.5.6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.6.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105).0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 . 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2.4) i2 = -47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions. admittance must be expressed in mmho.524 = 241 v1 (7. V2 = .O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = -0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants.3 and 7.0·105Vo -100(-47·5)Vl ~ -0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr. and l2 -hreV1 = -IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)10-6 V V2 -IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7.7) .524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7.

and in parallel with the output of the amplifier. 240 .3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added. The circuits for Examples 7. we shall consider a valve amplifier. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback.8 with results 7. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback.4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. Unfortunately this is not valid. d ance = -:Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :.2 respectively (16..2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters. the overall h parameters would be obtained. is ib + ic. and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods.7 and 7. Apart from this. The current amplifier for Example 7. since h for the amplifier is ib. and the circuit for Example 7.8) Comparing results 7. while the current flowing out of the common terminal. h for the network. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. suggesting the use of g parameters. The remaining procedure then follows normal four-terminal network practice. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages. Forthis situation.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · ..1 and 7.1 and 7. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified. Other situations however do permit the four-terminal network approach. ll = 242 kO 1 (7 .~. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon four-terminal network theory was not used for this example.1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent.

There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at -30. ra 1 MQ.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. Figure 7. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = -gmRe = -3 X lQ.ll. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ. 10k. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7.10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (-30)3 Re~RL Avm = -27 X X 104 = -30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages.3 :. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency.6. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used.9) .10. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7.6 When no feedback is applied.

w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 .2 X 25 X 1Q-l6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q-30w4 +5 X X 10-32w4 X or (7.w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 -27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ-8 +4 25 1Q-15w2 .1 -5 X 10-15 ± y(25 X lQ-30 12·5 X 1Q-3o X 1Q-16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab -27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7. and there is overall current derived feedback.I0-12 X 1 .10) + j2wC Re . 242 . X lQ-30) w2=----------~~~~~~--------~ -5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ-15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ-15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies. Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 .

-------. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = -30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104 - (7.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback.11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( -18·75)2 = -10 580 X -30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1..-..gmZL = 25·35/180° - But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L -32° 36' .~-o-: 243 (7..12) . the overall ßis unchanged.. but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage.92 = X 10_4 -2060 At the upper 3 db frequency.. At this frequency..... 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 10-4 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' f-lmho h 1 = YL2 = 10-4 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L -32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = .02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 .. -10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3.

The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 .7 350 x 3·92 X I0-4 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .1 + I·2I. The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored.ßAm = = Ah I 1 .6 - = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 . but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' .j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L -49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ---::2-=-s. Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 .ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I . This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6.-=3-=-5-x--::0-:·2:-=_ _ _ _ _ __ I - L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 . Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad. Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i.11.

1·6 X 1Q-14w2 .10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 .w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27.ßAml But v'2 -4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe .ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 10-4 X 10 580 = v'2ll . at high frequency.COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=-:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored. Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 .6·4w2Cs2Re2 .11.w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2. ß for the local Figure 7. 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q-32w4 .27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q-28 + 1·69 12·5 X I0-30 =0 X 10-28) --------~~~------~--------~ 3·66 w2 = . negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio. In the last example.27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10-s. Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values.

The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately -hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. a four and J= 2rr X 246 .11. and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. -hreZL . This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. hte 1 kO. say. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 t-tF then CE must be 0·0025 pF. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7. Taking account of the components shown. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(10-3 ::25 X 10-10) j10-2 + jw2·5 X 10-Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path. If overall feedback is applied to. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. is to prevent instability.12). Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel.

COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. Figure 7.12. This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. (b) (a) Figure 7.12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors.

Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. second to find Av1 and An including local feedback .7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d.13. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. Circuit for Example 7.c.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present. will now be considered. The circuit shown in Figure 7. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . Example 7. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first.7. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages. The procedure would be to determine first. based on this circuit. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. finally to account for the effect of current feedback. In Figure 7. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. A final example.

umho and hre negligible. hre I40. All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency.mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 . hoe I20 .6 = .352 and and A 13 = -140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 .89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q-6 = 0·1395 -77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = -6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q .77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = . -140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.umho -140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)10-6 = -?? 12000 -140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = . Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .umho).COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q. The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.

umho = 0·74 .389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 10-3 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10-a x 212 .umho = 1 389 . then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 . Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri. 834 Overall At= l 389 = -4·9 X X -77·5 X -89 -20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0.uA 250 .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1.umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier.4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 . then Ytn = 105 .umho By current division -140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = .

11 using feedback methods.19 using feedback methods. -11·4. Ans. Repeat Example 5.13 using feedback methods. Ans. Ans. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 .5 x 10_3 = -20 300 = -282 72 = -282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. 17·5 kQ. Many other forms are used.9. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. RL2 1 kQ. Repeat Example 4. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. 6·8 kQ. For convenience.8. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. Ans. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. 656 Q. For more general analysis. 525.10 using feedback methods. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. -1·97. including those with common base or common collector stages. -10·5. Repeat Example 5. wlt. Example 7. Example 7. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. Ans. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit.20x 300 3. 490 !2.12.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam . In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations. 251 . in any particular situation. EXAMPLES Example 7. Repeat Example 4. Example 7.10. -9·62. 4·88 kQ. hoe 125 ftiDho. Example 7. 264 Q. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. RL1 4 kQ. -6·72.11.

Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k.umho.17 252 . hre 60 and hre 0.Q.16.15. hoe I25 . Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance.Q per stage.Q.Q per stage. 0·224 .Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k. Example 7. hoe 100 .14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7. Ans.m. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k. RL2 4 k.Q resistor connected between them. Feedback is provided by a 400 . Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 .umho. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 . and hre 0. RLl 2 k. -250. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e. 200 k.Q. Circuit for Example 7. 0·004 .14. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance.Q and 100 . Figure 7.f. Ans.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter. Example 7. A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.Q. 43·5.Q. Ans.Q feedback resistor.13.Q in parallel with 8 k. 0·475 V. Repeat Example 7.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k.Q. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance. hre 75.Q. 3·98 k.14. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base.Q. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 .Q. Example 7.

17.15. Find also the resulting output voltage. (a) 46·1. calcu1ate the required value of Rp. 4·5 kO. 253 . The amplifier shown in Figure 7. hre 140. and an open circuit valtage gain of -150. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO. 287. Calculate Av. Ans. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0.O. 95 n. (c) Figure 7. -1 820. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. Circuits for Example 7. Ans. 10k. (c) -77·3. hoe 80 . 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. kO. 6·23 kO. 88·5 n.15. and neg1igible hre. (b) -18 4oo.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO.18. -1 310.EXAMPLES Example 7. Zout 2 2MO. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7.14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. 83 mV.umho. 17 kO. At. Example 7.

hre 100. 0·99 MHz.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Circuit for Example 7. 254 . The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k. Figure 7.umho and hre 0. hoe 125 . Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF. Ans.16. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. 212.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n.19.O.

but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same. Then if A ?. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. two conditions must be fulfilled. is to be infinite.m. We shall consider four cases. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1- lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. the system will oscillate. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero. or an output when no inputwas present.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. 255 . voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required.1) If the gain. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages.000 MHz. (1/ß) at that frequency. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. This resulted in self oscillation. For oscillation at a particular frequency. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200.f. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. Ar.

This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero. having no imaginary component.1.2.X 2.jR1Xc2 . if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°.1.jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 .OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8.J C2 . the angle of the numerator is -90°. In equation 8.jR2Xc1 .J X c1 . V2 V1 - -jXc2R2 ~~--~~~--~~~--~~~--~~~ R1R2 .. we can write -jXc2R2 V2 = R2 .R .X - The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8.3) (8.jXc2R2 ß= and if (8.jXc2). Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.4) . X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8..2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°. ß will have the required angle.e. i.Xc1Xc2 . R1R2 - XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = . Thus the whole expression must be real. Using normal potential division methods.

wC R.5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: -jXc2R2 -jR2Xc1. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R--. as before. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3.6) If. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. cancelling the -j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =-+-+ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC). So.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive. 1 (8. Suitable values of R1. Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8.jR1Xcz._J wC 257 . Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2.

OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8. 2 1 . Taking typical 1-l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively.5. (1 . Figure 8. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3. the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 . and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8..2. jCR Z=R-C- =R [( . The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance. The feedback network has equal capacitors. Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil...J) .7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance.J) (8.2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz.2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3. Figure 8. and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. jR2 C C jCR R-C j] = -3 R (.j) 1 .

R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte.2a.3. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit. say 1 kO. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value. This process is shawn in Figure 8.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. either because af change in parameters with large signals. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. supplies switched aff. The circuit begins ta ascillate. and hre Av~h-ZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain. Applying equatian 8. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo.c. When the supplies are switched an. 259 . Figure 8. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO.

c. supply voltage. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8.3d). In Figure 8.3.c. Figure 8.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced.c. supply and that the d.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.3b. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = -4 V.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d. This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f. network -2 ~-'---t----r-----'--\----r---'----t---r----l-4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off -6 -8 Figure 8.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 . The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8. Limitation of amplitude by d.b.c. conditions Figure 8. Since ß is one third.

Figure 8. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n.4. Then as the signal amplitude increases.c. Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.c. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel. Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs.3g is nearly sinusoidal.t.. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage. R1 Figure 8... the input impedance for Trl will be large.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8. 261 . Since negative feedback is employed.. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d.4 shows a circuit employing this technique.en_t_al_o-'-/~p __8__ 3 i/p ..2·67- The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it.

at the required frequency. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.5. . The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals.c. Figure 8.OSCILLATORS path.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C.2.). in this case negative (n. When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt.w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8.. jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= .8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8. Following the same reasoning. A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal. we may deduce that for zero phase shift w -j(G1G2) _ - C1C2 1 . f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown..t. Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2.5. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain. In this case. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier.y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + .10) . the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents.

1. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex.6.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered. The input a. Yo may be neglected.1 263 .11) which.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency.= 1 + -Gz + -Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8. and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1. Example 8. The amplifier shown in Figure 8.12). Since the Ioad is reactive (8. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived. for equal components = 3. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = -ß = h.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. Amplifier circuit for Example 8. and -12V Figure 8. and to reduce the output admittance as required. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift.6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. it must have zero phase shift. current feedback. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier. If YL ~ Yo. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8.

Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived. the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network. removing any possibility of loading by the network. Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO.e. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß.umho (47·6/3) . The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo = - = 100 1 017 . This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel.c. the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. hoe 90 . 750 n. hre 100 and hre 0. i. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= -47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 10-6 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 . All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d. But feedback must reduce this to 3.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 .umho -100 1 500(1 100)10-6 =- 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local -60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= -1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6. series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network.umho. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz. Thus for the calculation of Avo. conditions and stability.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network.

= 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone.1F 0·006 f-LF n. f 21r~R (equation 8.7. 2·7k.Q.F 5·2k.U F = 0·006 p.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 .7. Figure 8. 265 .8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold. Now.----'VI --t 0006J. 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6. Solution for Example 8.c.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 .I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3. The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.Q .1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil.313 .t .

j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho). Forthis calculation. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8.j) = 7·8(1 . the voltage gain is required. taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 .ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 . Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network. -hre Avo=h-Y !e L and (1 . 1 kO. Neglecting hoe. the R will be the Ioad of Tr2.12) and putting G as 1 mmho.umho . Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base.OSCILLATORS Finally.

RC OSCILLATORS The current gain. In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory.umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO. Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 . The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 .ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T-1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor.ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 . 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I .33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.

All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network.10.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.O.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally. The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks. From equation 8.8. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate. 1k Q Figure 8. 268 .ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 . The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1.uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.t.uF = 0·03 .8. Solution for Example 8. at a particular frequency. 1k. 0 03 f-!F n.I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 . to give 180° phase shift.c.

In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. is I/29th. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8. or current.9b. but forthat in Figure 8. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 . phase shifting. With these circuits. such networks may be either voltage. Figure 8. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation.9.RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors.9. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. With the circuit in Figure 8. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency. ß.9a. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified.

Oscillator circuit for Example 8. while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods. The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis.GVa -GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 -GV1 Node 3: 270 (8. Figure 8.10.14) .GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) .10.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components. Only one example will be considered here.OSCILLATORS network component.umho respectively and hre can be neglected. 20 X 5 --g-x Ztn = 20 X 1 5 --g-+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) . and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8. From first principles. hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . Example 8.2.

G2] + G[ -G(2G + jwC).-G G+jwC 0 -G 2G + jwC -G 0 -G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2..5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8.15) + j3wCG2 - 4w2C2G .2Ga .. equation 8.17) (8. 16) If ß is to be real..0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG .= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8.. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero ....19) .. and or w = Gy'6 -c rad/sec v'6..18) At this frequency.0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2.2G3 + j4wCG2 - w2C2G - jwCG2 (8..jwCG2 (8 .w2C 2) .14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined.jwaca ..RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants.. -G G+jwC -G 2G 0 ltn + jwC -G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X .18 ß= G2 -1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8.. ß= Ga Ga ...

Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8. · from equation 8.4w2C2G .jwaca .jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 . the current gain may be taken as At = -hre X y tn =- Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be -29. and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this.17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this.15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG -= 3G2G' + j4wCGG' - w2C2) .14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and re-writing equation 8. first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC.jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C .2Ga .OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.2G3 .

first. if an a. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. the current iL 273 . Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network. . LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance.34·5 . the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho.2·5 . At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit.11. the anode voltage ( -[IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal.c. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. y[(4 X 1·938 X 10-6) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ-6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 10-8 = 13-1kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G' - Ga . Thus. With these. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 -----34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance. Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons.2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =---------------------w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G' - = 4·65 - G2 - ---c.4w2 C2G . Neglecting the effect of r. frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. - 1·25 10·7 . Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. second.

The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form. This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. 274 .11. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20.12. A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil. A tuned anode oscillator methods. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large.T. Figure 8.+ Figure 8. If this is such that Vgk is given by -jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. the system will oscillate. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols.3. As a result of the mutual inductance M. Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa . The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 .OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°. If two coils have mutual inductance between them.

therefore Va may be cancelled. Figure 8. Real parts. L a = -ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8.22) . the required results can be obtained. ±JwMgm Va . 275 (8. Va Va + JW .LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: .21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation.20) (8. La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0. dividing by w.12. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra - w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now. + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts. but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0.

from equation 8. = 5 X I0-3 10_4 + 200 X 10-12 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !-' of only 40. 1 C=-47T2.=-+- M M First. Thus for each set of values. Now from wL Q r=- and rl = 106 X 5 X 10-3 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 10-4 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8.f2La Substituting values. so this arrangement would not oscillate.21. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8. La Crra (8. we can see that if !-' is sufficiently large.22 can be rearranged to.20. equation 8.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !-' are known. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging.23: fJ. 276 . Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil. and putting 4rr2. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1.23) fJ.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 10-4 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz. for each coil we can find r.

13. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit. the p.13. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 10-3 10-4 + 5 000 X 10-12 X 104 X 10 X 2 to-4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. A tuned collector oscillator. (a) Full circuit.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. (a) e (b) Figure 8.

effectively earthing one end of coil Lb. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 . R2. both jwMi terms will be positive. L c + :--c JW lb = J. lb · M"lb + JW (8. L c + jwC = lc.28) Without expansion.c.27 by -jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C. Thus multiplying equation 8.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled.OSCILLATORS Figure 8.13a shows the complete circuit. M JW . M" . Re and Ce provide the correct d. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW -c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft -hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8.26) Substituting for ic in 8. 278 . R1. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8.f.26.j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. By mesh analysis: 1 (8.13b. operating point.m. the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated.25) Rearranging equation 8.: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated. zc = -(hle 1 + jwLb)ib . C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.24 . 1 ) + .24) and 1 ) .13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example. The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e.25 from 8.

4.30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C -M .+--L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol.w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8..29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'.h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging.32) Example 8.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 . Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb. 1 Lc'C w2=::=-- (8.

umho. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) .umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 . Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I0-6 62·5 + 2·5 X X 10-12 4 X + 1·6 X 10.OSCILLATORS of hre. C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I0-3 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8.6 I0-3 I0-3 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .14.32.4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I0-3 === 1012 106 =-Hz 27T Also from 8.14. Since 1 1012 w = 106.O. Figure 8. and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.umho = 625 . 1·6mH 100fi 2k. Circuit for the solution of Example 8. First the values of C and M are required.

LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 10-3 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7. Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ. 10 281 . The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' . h _ 1 010 tmmum re - = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 10-6 H 625 X 10-12 2·74 10-1 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 10-6 10-4. 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained.j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2- Now w - 0·753 X 10-3 X 625 X 10-12 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 .j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' . the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2.y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation.0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 .

Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation. 282 . For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. hoe 125 . The simplified version in Figure 8. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods. and RB2.15.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent. One further example will be considered.5. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8.15. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib. h1e 1 300 0.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. Example 8.16c is obtained by combining h0 e. and h1e together as h1e'. and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8.umho and negligible hre. Figure 8. Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease. YLl and YL2. and by combining Rm.

(b) Equivalent circuit. 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8.34) .33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.umho (8.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) .34) L 200f.1H (c) (a) L c. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.5. (b) Figure 8.16.

42) .w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis.hre ii I = - vl jwL + V2 .+ wC2 .37. Node 2: v2 1 .38 into 8. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled.36) .-:--L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8. Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = -wL + wLh -.w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8. LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .39 and h from 8..38) ll=-1 hte and from equation 8. -hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel .41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (-:-C:::-1-+-C:::-2-:-)h:-t-:el 1 284 ) (8.....37) (8. 1 ) o = v1 ( -h + y.' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 ..39) Substituting for V2 from 8.h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8.oC1 + JW :--L h Node 1: .40) Following the usual technique.36 (8. But (h I (8.wL wLh 1 .

LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied.325 = 468 .umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO. whichinequation8.42becomes 1·092 = 1·18.44) 285 .074) 107 co = 1.-::--::-::--::-::-::.umho = 793 . Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero..35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent. the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09.. + -.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1. jcoL ( JCOC2-· j ) --.CO2LCl)h. 200 X t0-6YL' 1100 X 10-12 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 . hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2 - 1 (8.43) But from equation 8.41 1 (8. 101 2 ( 200 X I0-6 X 325 X I0-6) co 2 1 + --:-:--::-::--. -hre' = ( I ..40. For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8.200 X I0-6 X 91 1 100 X I0-12 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0.umho YL2 = 793.

The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ. Example 8. The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances. Ans. EXAMPLES Example 8. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load. Ce and Cs may be neglected. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits.6. P.7.J. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q. and an accurate analysis should include these components. In the extreme case shown above. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . Frequency stability with change of d.D. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. network 22·2 kQ. 21·25. this is no Ionger true. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. Find also the frequency of oscillation. supplies.c. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation.F. 1 kQ. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 f-LF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. 3·5 kHz.

EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 . 1k l"25J.1F Figure 8.18. R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. 0·56 0. 287 . Circuit for Example 8. Example 8. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr./p Tr2 collector 5k . 0·074 .17.7 and the frequency of oscillation. In the absence of a negative feedback network. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8.uF. 1·43 kHz. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ. Calculate the value of R' . Circuit for Example 8.0.umho.umho and hre 0. Ans. hoe 125 . Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz.18 employs transistors with hre 90.8 C2. If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8. hte 1·3 kO. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz. 65. Ans.8.17 is connected between output and input.

lower it. Figure 8. hre 120.T.umho. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H. Circuit for Example 8.11. output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans.) Example 8. The oscillator shown in Figure 8. 0·0066 . + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. Example 8. 288 .m. Ans. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. 1·3 kHz. Ans. 35. 0·286 .OSCILLATORS Example 8.9 frequency? Determine the r. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk. 61·5 V. hoe 150 .uF. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator. calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre.s. 3·23 kQ. bias voltage of -4 V.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 . hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors.10. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz.9. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation.c. 383 Q.uF.umho.19.

A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively.11 Example 8. 0·02. hre and the bias components.14. If the valve in Example 8. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. 0·785.21. 1 380 pF. I! 289 . A current amplifier. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. Ans.12 Example 8. (b) the minimum coupling between the coils. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n. Circuit for Example 8. Example 8. Ans. 970 pF. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor. I 160 pF. is tobe used as an oscillator.12.EXAMPLES ________-----~ ~----~1-c Figure 8. ra 5 kQ. Figure 8.21. 46.20. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. Circuit for Example 8. Neglect the effect of hoe.13. -16. 8·2 kHz.

Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe.16. hre. Circuit for Example 8.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 .umho.22. Ans.OSCILLATORS Example 8. 1 080 pF.15. bias components and coil resistance.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations. 28 Q. Figure 8. 290 . Example 8. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected. 840kHz. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8.

The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance.1.5 k (a) Figure 9. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal. a ._____ --} ____.. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors._ca~.. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9.___. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag.1a... In this chapter. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device. p...9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons.

5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. By inspection. i (9. but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage.6) . From equations 9. To analyse this situation.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown. i2 = jwCag(Vgk - Vo) (9. and with reference to Figure 9. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF.2. 9. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output.4) (9.1) Yln=- Vgk (9.4 and 9. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc- Figure 9. Cak and any externalload present.') 292 (9.2. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages. including ra.5.2. 9.3.

gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL')..33° 42' 293 . = 5·~5 L YL -33° 42' = 4·6 .3. Equation 9.1. and the 20 kQ load. Cgk 2·5 pF.10) If ZL' is approximately resistive. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ-12 X 106 .11) If ZL' is capacitive.wCaggmX' (9. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF. If ZL' is inductive. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ. Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9. gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors.1. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = --!. Since the gain of a stage is given by . ra 10 kQ. The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9. Cag 1·5 pF.3. Cak 1 pF. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' .

the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 .782 + 8.11. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L -66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode. ra. the remainder being provided by RL.j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L -93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9. Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 10-12 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 . Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 30·8)) X 106 . If the anode 1oad is inductive.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve.j8•25 = Yu' = 4.252 kO = 0·0525 = -10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO -(0·525 .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9. in the RC coupled common cathode configuration. Rg. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. this becomes. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit.

In practice. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec.2. .4. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9.J. The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency.. Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9.50= 50 pF..4a and the valve used in Example 9.. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF. A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a non-decaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency... This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance.. Valve input capacitance = 100. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9. First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency. 1 w2=:=- LC C 1012 I0-4 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :.1. 295 .1. 1 I I I .4a. Rg . But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR'). A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9.4b..

must equal Go. two further effects must be considered. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n. and the collector base junctions. An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values.uH) and the electron transit time. the negative input conductance to the valve. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. 20 X I0-10 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 10-12 X Inserting values. similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o.uH 107 10X' G~. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. and there is the 296 . These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF. Pentodes also have the advantage of very high .u and ra. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 13-3 . Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book.L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 10-4 = X 50 I0-10 10_4 ll = 20 ~>-' mho For oscillation.

HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. is approached. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db. Figure 9. is reduced with increase in frequency. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 . but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. 'b'C 2 .40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 .5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. to approximately 0·7.250 Q. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. For any particular transistor type. The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data. rb·e 250 . The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. 300 .40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type. depending on configuration. i.5.5 Mn. In addition the current gain IX or IX'. In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits.e. In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency. 297 .30 pF.3 000 Q.5 000 pF rce 20 . cb'C 5 . but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa.

JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 f-lA. 1012 For Cb•e.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V.~. If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only. Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined. Working in f-lA.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 .Vce(O· 39 + j94) -38 OOOVb•e = . rb·e 790 Q. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q. gb·c gL = 2011mho. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ. rb•e 2·6 MQ. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . Cb·e 150 pF. Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb'- jXbefb•e . volts.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. fb•e.j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000 - j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L -9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = -22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = -22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . Cb'e 15 pF. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) .13) (38 000 . gce = 8·2 11mho. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho.12) (9.

122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I0-6 X 103 = 16·6 X I0-3 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L -85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = .14) If the overall voltage gain is required.c.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO. the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad. output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L -102 o = 9·4 L o -102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the -j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9.e Vce = -38 X 2 X 0·06 L -85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small. Neglecting rb·c.13. the effect of rw must be included. This approach will be used for the second part of the question. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L -85° 42' Q .gmZL'Vb.

Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. conditions. for transistors intended for high frequency applications.14 and 9. In some cases.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' -=1+- = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42.15) Overall vo1tage gain. the four parameters are all comp1ex. the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point. At these high frequencies. In the published data. arealso supplied.c. 300 . app1ying equations 9.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = -~-· 10-3 x 4·5 L +94° = 10-6 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L -37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9.


and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.

Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
four-terminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier








Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration

with a resistive load, and secondly a multi-stage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:

+ jl3w

X 10-12) mho

Yre 500 X I0- 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 10-6

+ j2w

X 10-12)


If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 f-lA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,




= yu- yzz +


- yz1
= yu(y22 + YL)- y21Y12


We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.


At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 10-6 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 10-6 mho


10-12 mho




10-12 mho

Now working in millimhos:
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28


+ Jl6-

17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o

= 28 + j16- 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02- j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho

j6·5 sin 108°

Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
10(30 + j10)
ltn- (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) f-l
_ 10(3 + j)(4 - j1·5) A
16 + 2·25

= 0·548(12

+ 1·5 + j4 -

j4·5) f-lA

= 7·4 - j0·274 f-lA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 f-lA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.





34 L 292°

= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5)- 34 L 292°
-0·252 L 292°

x 0·5 L 250° V

20·2- 40 + j11·5 + j70- 17(cos 182°
-0·252 L 292°
- -19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV

= 2·8mV


+ j sin 182°)



If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from


I Ytnl


7·4 X I0-6
v(32 + 12) X 10-2 V

= 0·232 mV
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE- 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE- 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°

The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.

RF 2

Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5

The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.


In each case the required operating point is VcE- 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:

VcE = -6 = -10
Taking lE === Ic


+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +


+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ


The stability factor

+(X')+ RB= 0·05

K = RE(l

RB= Ra+ R 4 and
Insertmg values 0·05

Also V'


+ RFI) = 3 kQ


3 +RB

= 3( 1 + 150) +RB

+ RB =


RE= (RE2


60 + 20RB
-19 = 20·9 kQ





(using conventional polarities)

= -=V_c_,c_R_4_


Ra+ R4

f co'

- -rJ.IIB=



lB =

1 000

--.sü -

2 t-tA

= 4·7 t-tA
V' = -20·9 X 0·0047 - 3 - 0·3
= -3·4 V


Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
Ra+ R4


20' 9 =Ra+ R4


-3·4 =



From equation 9.23
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9



Ra= 61·5 kQ

Substitutingin equation 9.25
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ

In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.

= 68 kQ

= 33 kQ

and R4

Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.

Xe= 30 Q

= 2n450



From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.

A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should

be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18


RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ

From stability considerations:
1 +RB

0"05 = 151 +RB


+ RB =



+ 20RB

RB= 6·9kQ
RB= R1 + R2



Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= -0·0047


6·9- 1- 0·3

V'= -10R2
R1 + R2

= -1·33 V


From 9.27


+ R2 =


1.33 = 7·5R2



Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ

So, from 9.28,



= 8 kQ

In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 J-lF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.

= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho




X 1Q3





X 1Q3



37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho



From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,




0·004 L 270°

= 0·25 + j0·05- 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho

Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25

+ j0·05- 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05- 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho


To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
h(yoe + YL) - 0
v1 =

v2 =

0- hyre



may be obtained from equation 9. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 . 37 L 180° L 38° 42' -37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j .-yre vl .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9. which is unaffected by the local feedback.32) YL) .3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9.29. YL1. To find the overall current gain.30 A v-Substituting values v2.Yoe + YL -37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 = - Av (9.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9. YLI err. current splitting factors due to bias components.31 by 9. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents.JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1 - -37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9.32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 . Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included. · First we must find the effective load on Trl.31.32.33) The current gain.

36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9.5 L 1o 42 .33.35 and 9. = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :.0 . -37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 -37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9.35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions. 9. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 .' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9. . 9.0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 --=--=------:-7---:-:--::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 .32 neg1ecting Yoe. At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L.34. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9.36. 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' .37) 308 .5 L 1o 42 .

13 ß= -540 ± -540 ± = 0 -yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 -540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104 - Taking the positive sign.38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. 309 .7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle.8 X 1()-2 = 0·79 X 10-2 (9.38 is obviously correct. But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I0-2(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()-2 X 3 = l _ 0 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9.79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 10-2 mmho = 43 k. ß= 2·21 2 . and 100 = I+ ß will be real.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Re-arranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.

EXAMPLES Example 9. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known. In general..6. 6·86 L -27° kQ.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively. They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. signals or switching circuits.c.O.8. 0·01 uF 47 k. Figure 9.O.5 made in the above calculations. 587 L 277° 42'. 310 . Ans. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9.8. In each case a 0·01 p. Circuit for the solution to Example 9. Repeat Example 9. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be -10 V ::-f'"~ 1k. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book.

having a coil of inductance 2 .f. yre0·02 L 320° mho. Yre 350 X 10-6 L 300° mho. Av 155 L 164° 30'. 311 . If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. 420 pF.8.uH and Q factor 25. 2 pF. Example 9. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes.3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 10-12) mho. If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Z1n 390 L -49° n. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9.EXAMPLES Example 9. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. Yoe(150 x 1()-6 + jco x 1()-12) mho. Ans. 37·5 L 70° 48'. 4·5. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals. Ans. Z1n 102 L -8° n. An r. Ans. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. Av 34 L 100°.7.9. Example 9. Use the exact method at 100 kHz.

Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober. If P1 is the input power. Also. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. and P2 the output power.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. lf it is an attenuator. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units. then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = -10 log10 ~: (A1. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 .4) In practice. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient.

Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. even where the condition is not maintained.APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. expression Al. Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. In practice. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies. 313 . are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1. wh and WL. If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance.

London. W. 1962. New York.. De Witt and A. New York. J. Sevin. Englewood Cliffs. G. lliffe Books Ltd. McGraw-Hill Book Co. J. Inc. Le Croissette. Pitman Technical Books. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices. J. K. New York. McGrawHill Book Co. Verner... 1050. 3rd edn. Ryder. McGraw-Hill Book Co. S. Feedback Circuit Analysis. 1966. New York. B. Hakim. Electronics. Dean. 1964. Parker. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. D. New Jersey. Field Effect Transistors. 315 .. Transistor Electronics.. S.. Transistors. Burford and H. D. 1957. Rossoff. Edward Arnold Technical Books. D. L. London. Prentice-Hall.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. London. 1965. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry. 1966. 1964. L. P.

306 definition. 231 three stage. 245 Cut off. 24. 229 Amplifier. 173. 296 valve. 3. 14. 181 RC coupled. 122. 127. 19 operating point. 18. 223 three stage. 31. 152 common collector. 158 emitter coupled. transistor. 210. emitter resistor stabilization.INDEX A. 235 Anode characteristics. 166 single stage. 19 Decibel. 21. 99. 6. 15. non-linear. 34 Darlington connection. 8 characteristics. 30 triode. 303 Biasing transistor. voltage feedback. 134. 100 transistor. 5. 11. 33 Cathode follower. 241 graphical analysis. 2. current feedback. 116 modified. 19. voltage feedback. application to network analysis. 189 current derived. 312 Determinants. 118 long tailed pair. 194. 181. 220 frequency response. 158. 10. 21. 126. 94 Thevenin and Norton. 27. 291 Feedback composite. 121 Collector feedback. 25. 12 Amplification. 140. bias line. 21. 17 Emitter follower. 227. 5. transistor approximate solutions. 202. 303 two stage. 34 reactive Ioads. 10. 212 Bias decoupling. 122 common base. 141. 25. 153. 194 current derived. 134. current feedback. 14.C. 126. 240 transistor multi-stage. current feedback. 30 Complex feedback factors. 24. 14. 170. 94 for high frequency. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. 2. 291 small signal. 146 two stage. 96. 159 feedback. current feedback. 162 D. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. 11. 222 single stage. valve. 195. series applied. 103 diode. 101. 7 Bottoming. 131. 153.C. voltage feedback. 124 Bias stabilization. 32. 151 cathode coupled. 114 single stage. 182 317 . 3. 152 difference. shunt applied. 212 grounded grid. Ioad lines. 122. 247 current amplifiers. 235 properties. transistor. 55 Diode characteristics. 166 common emitter. 15. 1 Ioad lines. 4. 221 single stage. 158 multi-stage.

87 h parameters. 101 general solutions. 18 Inter-electrode capacitances. shunt applied. 297 Input resistance. 303 Simple negative feedback. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 42 notation. 198 effect on input impedance. 184 Stability factors. 68 interconnections. calculation. 155 Potential divider. 241 effect on gain. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 184 positive. 66. 203 voltage amplifiers. 81. 187. emitter resistor bias. transistor biasing. 293 Network analysis fundamentals.INDEX Feedback-(Contd. 187. 220 instability. 152. 198 effect on input admittance. 159 common collector. 303 Superposition theorem. 240 Frequency compensation. 186. 45 Oscillators. 27. 141. 259 crystal. 241 voltage derived. 201 vector diagrams.163 238 284 Noise. 208 Four terminal networks. 159 common emitter. 58. 190 gain stability. 190. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 185 negative. 273 tuned collector. 83. 295 phase shift. 50. 295 current Wien bridge. series applied. 184. 255 amplitude stability. 202. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 99. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 80. 159. 52 ' Miller feedback. 261 Negative input conductance. 268 RC. 273 Miller. 196. 282 LC. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 188. 248 effect on output admittance. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 150. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 157. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 184. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 185. 202. 195. 190. 198 effect on output impedance. 245 g parameters. 101 equivalent circuits. 268 tuned anode. 256 Output impedance. 28. 210 effect on frequency response. 255 single stage RC. 74. 86 common base. 119. 231. 195. transistor. 187 voltage derived. 43 Nodalanalysis. 248 input connections. 42 applications. 75. 143. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw.) effect on distortion. 60 318 .

81. 14. 36. 71 319 . 104. 140 fundamental current relationships. 14 input Ioad line. 29. general method. 105 Transistor black box representation. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 112 y parameters. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 68 Voltage amplification. 23 equivalent circuit. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. graphical analysis. 99. 5 Valve. 232. 300 z parameters. 84 z parameters.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 63. generat solutions. 21. 102 characteristics. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 27. 3. 68. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 15 output Ioad line. 15 Two port networks. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. general method. input admittance at high frequencies. 79. 303 temperature effects. 21 leakage currents. 24 simple bias circuit. 85. 79.

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