C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology

Book I

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

ISBN 978-1-4899-5861-7
ISBN 978-1-4899-5859-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-5859-4


Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969

Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 69-18297

Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.


I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.

R. M.




1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .


2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .


3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.


5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits


6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.


7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .


8. Oscillators


9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units


Works for Further Reading





thermionic valves. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the so-called d.1. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. The characteristics of a resistor . may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various non-linear and active devices.C. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I -V (a) (b) -I Figure 1. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent non-linearity. transducers such as photocells and many other devices. These include the various types of rectifier. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors. a capacitor. for example.c. transistors. D. characteristics. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions.

For the transistor collector characteristics. lf there are more than two variables. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage).QOC -I (a) (b) -I Figure !. while the anode current (h).z=::.3b). the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant.2.3a).1.2a and b.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it. (a) Thermionic.+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK). t1= -[ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C . (b) p-n junction With three-electrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents. the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1. other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics.____ 650°C 6QQ°C -V -Vv=. The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage.:=~---:. as shown in Figure 1. is measured for different values of anode--cathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter. Diode characteristics. Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters. With multi-electrode devices such as pentode valves. A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1.

the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three.4. VcE 3 V etc.c. (Figure 1. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. h 3 mA. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . or as VAK 150 V. VaK. (a) Triode valve. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Active device characteristics. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics.2 V (see Figure 1. VaK. In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown.3.D.C. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA. or h 3 mA. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics.4b). Since these three variables are not independent. (b) Common emitter transistor D. Permissihle range of d. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics.2 V.C. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V.4a).

5.5a. First. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line. In the circuit of Figure 1. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. if one of the three variables. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope -1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. For example. therefore.C. VAK = VHT. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits.C.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. D. Under these conditions. 4 . VGK. circuit and Ioad for valve. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1.c. These.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1. (a) D.

(() <i J E -IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK. volts Figure 1. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply. CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V..6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1. '0 J . Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1.= 15mA Rr. 10 . lt must also lie on the load line. and thus VaK.C. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line.5a with VHT 300 V.6. Reading from the graph we find the 5 .. and the load line is plotted as shown. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = .::. and RL 20k0. the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic. to say -2 V.D.::.

or the voltage gain. the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = -2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency. The value of VAK changes to 289 V.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) -1 0 > -4 (b) (a) Figure 1.(-2) = -133 6 = -22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of -(156. the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · .7.30 Non-linearity So. but with alternating voltages. Since a valve is a nonlinear device. AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. Now suppose Vax is changed from -2 V to -1 V. and in general ßVout ßVAK -30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = . a change of + 1 V.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. It is assumed that the value of wt. we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax.156 . h 8·7 mA. of the circuit is -30. To investigate this we shall now change Vax from -2 V to -8 V. h 7·2 mA. Thus Av = +289.126) = -30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av.C.8 .

supply. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1. For most amplifiers. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode. Biasing In the circuit discussed above. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1.7b.8. This bias is essential since if it were not present.C. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure making VB= -4 V and Es= 4 sin wt. The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa.8 is used. Initially neglecting the a.c. The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal.hRL . the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d.c.1) .7a. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case.A. This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage.hRK VHT . and are shown in Figure 1. In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted.6. source es. This is the result of the non-linearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as non-linear distortion. The reader can investigate this for himself.

VaK = VEK = -VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before. RK 250 n.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. h 7·4 mA. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage -hRK cannot be found directly.2. operating point and voltage amplification. But we have a characteristic for VaK = -1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 -VaK RK lA=--=-=4mA 0·25 Similarly for -2 V. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero. Taking equation 1. source e8 is connected between 8 .c. VaK = -0·25 V. for -3 V h = 12 mA. VAK = 300 .2) Equation 1. If h = 1 mA. bias line has been drawn. RL 19·75 kO.2. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d.1. The point at which this d.c. Consider the circuit in Figure 1.c.c. This gives the same load line as before.1. earth potential. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a.1 and 1. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1.c.8 with values VHT 300 V.6. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d.20h V. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK).GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode. and once again the operating point VAK. if h = 0. From equation 1. A numerical example will illustrate this method. h must lie on this line. Example 1. The second equation is therefore (1. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. Determine the d. h = 8 mA. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points. VaK = 0. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = -0·25 V.

4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d.. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V -20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 .Es -4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth.3 and 1.c. ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = . is simple..2 Equations 1.8). h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA .3) Vgk = -hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1. VAK = 194 V.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28).= -21·25. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia. VAK es = -2. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = -Ia. D. The explanation in this case. The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1.1·075 = .e/es.4) -hRK. 9 .RK. 109V. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and -2 V.0·25(9·6 = 4. AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1. bias line by +2 V and -2 V respectively. This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V.A.C. These are shown in Figure 1. however.6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point.= .

say 25 il.c.6. Vgk becomes es . Rk was 250 Q. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK. voltage iaRK. and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es.h battery bias (113·5).c.C.c. voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.0·1075 = 3·8925.uF 20 = . Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es.=:::= 6 .c.c. but in this case we have neglected the effect of non-linearity of characteristics. Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK. load line. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter.VaK would be 4. This is true for d. but a simple example will illustrate the operation. while the a.uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors. The resultant . then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V.uF or more.1 above.iaRK = es .iaZk. A. Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit. Vgk will be es . so using a figure of 1 000 Hz. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d.0 = es. The cause of the reduction was the a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain. If Xe was. Considering Example 1. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required.c. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C=-- 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 . If the a. the bias point VaK will be unchanged. or very 10 . 6 V working at 100 . hRK.

For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT.9.9) VHT. equation 1.9 gives the a. H. RK has been short circuited by CK.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero. Ioad was 19·75 kil. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + .6) -hRK In the absence of CK. The a. and equation 1.7 must become Vak = (1. In the last example the d. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk. operating point. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . load line).c. Equation 1. load lines.c.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a. the d.9 the a._ (b) (a) Figure 1.c.8 becomes Vgk =es.c. operating point must then move along an a. ia and Vak. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a.5) (1.c. Ioads..A.c. variations in VAK together with the d. (a) Decoupled cathode bias. load line of slope -1/RL (compared with slope -1/(RL + RK) for the d.c. and d.c.7) (1.c.c.c.c. load lines are very different to the d. For the circuits shown in Figure 1.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1.c.8. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d. Circuits having different a. value.iaRL since to a. a. The slope of the a.c..C. quantities.c.T. battery : 200 V _. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d.c.c.c. relationships are VAK = VHT .

c. proceeding as follows.c. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk..c. Once again the a. and thus to a. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. and a.C.c. A. Construct the a.c. The operating point moves up and down the a.C..c. operating point will move up and down the a. These are in parallel to a.10. To simplify this problem.. Assuming any convenient value for VHT. in this case 40 V..c.!. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'. but the a. since the a. resistance of the 1 Slope.c.9 HT battery is negligible.c. a second valve. The calculation of d. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth. draw a d.RL•RK A.c. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to. RL Figure 1. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a.c. load lines are now very different. D. operating point is unchanged. load line Slope-.c. Ioad line is -RLRL' RL RL' + = -20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive. In the circuit of Figure 1. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a.c. and d. Ioad line.c. Ioad value of 4 kO. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 .C.10. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1. Ioad line for the a.c.c. perhaps.c.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph.

c. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown.A.c. Points could be calculated for intermediate values.C. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.c. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum.c.c. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4). The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown. component of ia passes through zero. the a. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . operating point is found by the battery bias Vn.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated.lla and b. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d. The a. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency. The a.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency.ll.c. We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia. In Figure l. In this circuit the d. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph. (a) Triode valve with reactive load. Thus for these values of ia. When however the a. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum.c.

Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods.12. (a) D. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits. The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to non-linearity. bias circ11it and load. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. The circuit is shown in Figure 1.c. operating point for a particular circuit. These methods also enable the d.C. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 .GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. tobe found.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A -VcE' V (b) Figure 1. or the circuit for a required operating point. The common emitter transistor amplifier.

The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter.VnE ± E. The circuit in Figure 1. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = . i. the operating point. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE. An a. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined. four variables must be investigated. The waveform is then further modified by the non-linearity of the output characteristic. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit.Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB.12a. and input and output currents. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics. the base current waveform is distorted by the non-linear input characteristic. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. With a transistor. in the conventional direction for p-n-p transistors. input and output voltages. on both input and output characteristics. A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point.c.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter. 15 . The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter.V cc and V cc/RL.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = . These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = .12b and c respectively.e. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1.Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage.

2 <1: - · ~ ~ c ... 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I ... 30V. 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr... rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c ..-rr...13.0 10 20 30 40 50 1-1- HH~ 1k Q...mV -· ' rTT. 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1. 3oV.I~ -V8 E . " Cl I t' ' ....' . ' f±. . "' ' .... The characteristics for Example 1. ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA .. . Load line 8±-~ H-tH ++l lii · l± m= +t-+++ ~ ~ - 0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 -Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n.

Find also the a.2.20 V and -30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way. If dVBE is 1 volt. If IBis 70 mA.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1. Comment on the effect of the characteristic non-linearity in each case.c.c.13a. Similarlywhen VcEis -10 V. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = -10 V. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d. Therefore at VBE 1 volt. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1.13b. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows.c.13a and b. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = -Vcc Vcc RL -30V 30 = 9. IB = 30 mA . From Figure 1. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1. Two further points for VcE. source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1. operating point.c. supply of 30 V.13a. output voltage if (a) the a.c. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. determine the d. so the slope of the line must be used.13a VBE = -560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known.d/B = 29 mA. operating point. and (b) the a.c. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l -Vcc = 30 mA = -30V The second point cannot be plotted. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1.13b VcE = -14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A .

Thus the peak a. In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n. Rtn· At the operating point. base current is given by 18 . D1 d"Jstortwn c h.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic non-linearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic.c. Vbe- Vce = 520 mV -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 18·5 V -14·5 V -0·5 V -14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 .20 = 10 mA and 70 . For comparison purposes. and the a.c. the d.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a. The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe- 520 mV 30mA 20mA -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 .c. :. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.c.13b.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1. The a.c. VBE varies between -520 mV and -600 mV in a sinusoidal manner. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results . source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected.

output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak..c. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33.m. the a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion. supply voltage Vcc.c.s.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = .c. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc .VBE 10 mV. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions.3. could result in the input and output non-linear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output. MB 5 pA.3·3 = 11·2 V. 19 = 40 fl A . therefore lB === Vcc/RB. First the d. Example 1. The a.c.14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA -29·3 V -14·5 V 60mA 30mA -3. Firstly. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß.3 V -14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3. Secondly.Vcc = -6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d.c. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance. operating point.c. (and a. VBE is very much less than the d. (c) the current gain. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger.VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1.c. For small signa1 amplification.14b determine (a) the d. say 20 Q.

s. lOmV kr.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -6V <! E 1· 5 tl----c~-~.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r.c.m. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30. . Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = -30.s.JÄ ÜJ.14.m. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 t-tA = 20t-tA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 t-tA. mput reststance = 5 t-tA = 2 u An r. The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics.s. the a . input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h .3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE -2·9 V.c. The r.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 -VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1.m. The corresponding values of Vce are -2 V and -4·2 V respectively. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a. a. input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1.s. ic of (2 . operating point moves between ib = 60 t-tA and ib = 20 t-tA. Ic 3 mA.1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA.m. output voltage = (4·2.c. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 t-tA = 62·5.20 j. 20 .

16. This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero.)IE flowing out of the base.c.16. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector.IE flowing out at the collector._.IE + lco (1. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off.s.)IE . Vce of 2·9 .· Figure 1. Waveforms for Example 1. In addition the reverse Figure 1.15. transistor action results in a. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1-a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector. Figure 1.12) h = (1 .15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA. By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1. VcE cannot fall below -0·2 V from the characteristics.11) lc = a.10) IE = Ic +In (1.Ico 21 .a. and (I .m.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed -6 or the transistorwill cut off. base and emitter currents in a transistor.3 \ .a. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead. . A peak a. In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages.

The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 f-lA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor. Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 f-lA respectively.rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995.13) 1 .rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=--h+-1-rx 22 (1.14) 1-rx (1. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB. Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico - 1 _ rx 1-oc rxlco Ico =1-a: This current. is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).1 0.(1. Ico' is very much larger than /co. Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero. the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero.Ico IE=--(:1.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1. we are not concerned with JE.10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic - + rxh = /c - Ic(l .11. Equate to 1.16) .rx Now applying equation 1.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 . Ic.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits.11. To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1. Thus . From equation 1.12. (I . From equation 1. Ico Ico = .

18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1. Example 1.16 becomes lc oc =1 .oc (1.17. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90. lco 1 t-tA and VBE 0·2 V.13 and 1. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.4 IB = ( Simplebias circuit for Example 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1. A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points.0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc t-tA = lco = 10·1 t-tA 1 oc 1 .I+ oc' 1 = --t-tA = 91 t-tA 1-90 91 23 t-tA . -10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1.

' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive.uA Now VcE = -10 + (5 X 1) = -5 V and since VcE may vary between -10 (cut off) and -0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a.. Summarizing.' 130. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second. r~.'@ 30°C /. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 . The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /.uA 0·778 mA -6·1 V 130 131 . operating point without distortion...' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~..uA 1·444mA -2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~.c.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a.'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.18. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~. 1 000 . the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained.' unless the signal level is severely restricted.QOC _ _ lO~C- _ leb 2ooc -Vcc -VcE Figure 1. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V. Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71.' is from 70 to 130.QOC .

The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. lc = oc'h + Ico'. In this case.18. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 t-tA moves up with Ico'. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant.Ico IB = (1 . When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1.18. As can be seen from Figure 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material.21) where K is a constant. at 20°C the permissible peak a. In Example 1. Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero.c. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . Thus for any particular value of VBE. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles.1] (1. In the simple circuit discussed above. In was maintained at a constant value.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K. lEo and thus In doubles. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature. Now IB = IE(l . lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) .19.Ico (1. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature.19.1] .oc) . Again the operating point would move towards bottoming. compared with the exponential term. and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin.4. 2 25 . if temperature rises by 10°C. The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1.

Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1.24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics. Figure 1. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures.21. ..GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature.IERE oc)/E .. .20.lco V' .23) hR' . The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage. .21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C. d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR. Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 . The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1 - VBE but VBE = (1. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1.h. lcoRC20°C) Figure 1..20.IE[RE + (1 - oc)R'] + lcoR' (1. The V"---.

26) + R2 The operating point VcE.25 and 1. -. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = -.25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked. The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'. 01: + RE) . V' much greater than VEB and R' small.18 V' . thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited. This may then be rewritten V' . By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R .22. -Vcc R.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R . emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply.26 and substituting in equation 1.22.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. as shown in Figure 1. Potential divider. Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced.23. RE large. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I.

27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B.31) K may be found directly from equation 1. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values. Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant. These are die (1.32) ~RE.28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1. the voltage across RE. Suppose /e tends to rise. .Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1.22). 28 (1.VBE = constant.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1. For R' to be small.29) K = dleo' die dleo S=- Krx' die = diX' (1.30) (1.27) VeE may then be found from VeE = - Vee ~.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' . Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1. IERE. also cause a change in JE. will also rise.

On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier.VBE R' +RE J + leo . Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' -+ VBE J RE + lco + MIX') . and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples. Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1.27 and substitute from equations 1.33 and 1.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo.IX) In this case if RE~ R'. If the Ioad is 2 kQ. Je 1 mA.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ. If R' ~ RE. S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo . S tends to one and d/e = dleo. This will be discussed in later chapters.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1.IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' . Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1.34 IX'(V'. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. RE can only be I kQ.28).

any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. Ka. This is shown in Figure 1.36 Klc Ka.38) In this circuit.' J From equations 1.'. 1. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc.36 whichever is most convenient. and differentiating we find (1.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma.23.' 1 = 1 + Ma. For large changes.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.33.'(V'. reducing h and thus /c.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector.32. IX (1. Collector feedback.33 and 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.'lco + 1 + Ma. values should be inserted in equations 1. 1.') a.' (R' a.23.' 1 [ X a.·=-. The formulae (equations 1.37 should only be used for small changes in a.27 or 1. Figure 1. This reduces the voltage across RB. 30 .

22 and 1. Figure 1. operating points.c. In Figure 1.24 shows how this is done.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a. circuits will be discussed in later chapters.m.24b the same applies. and hence the maximum permissible r.24.5. output current. Example 1.C. The exact mechanism of these a. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.c. Determine the range of possible d. A.c. voltage across RE. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'. negative feedback.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. As with the triode valve amplifier.c. Assurne VBE is 200mV.c. decoupling circuits In Figure 1. such a. So if XcB ~ RB12.s. currents could be fed back through RB.c.c. First we must find the range of d. The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1.23) the stabilization is performed by d. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier. (a) (b) Figure 1. currents can flow to earth. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions. but in addition a. 31 .25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 50-95.

.' 50.5 For T1.'(V' .. Ico' = = (1 + CJ. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -10V 2kfi 1kfi -Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Cl. 32 .') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1.25. Circuit and graph for Example 1.27 lc = _50 lc - Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl.')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ..

Vce must not exceed 3·811 . We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor.0·2 = 3·6 V. To avoid bottoming with Tz. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l.c. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l. the a. cut off will occur if peak a.c.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1.28. + 2) V Minimum VcE = -10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = -3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. Vce exceeds 10. Maximum VcE = -10 + 1·825(1 = -5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. With T1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C.29 and 1. 1oad is only 2 kil. the peak a.c. We can 33 .5·525 = 4·475V. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V.c. peak a.32 K = 6. Thus to allow for all possibilities./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1. 1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C.

m. output voltage of 1·414 V.s.c. supply is 6 V. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE . Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cut-off distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98.u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 -Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cut-off distortion.c.m. and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a.M. Ic 2 mA. The peak a.c..6.c.) \ \ <! E . RL 4 '.25b.C. The available d. output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr.6 34 6 ..S.. the maximum r.26.3 V.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1. Cutoff on the a. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R. Finally. A. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV.s. Ioad line (lk!l. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1. Circuit and graph for Example 1. design a suitable bias circuit. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz.c.

26b. RE may now be found since VcE is given. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.c..load line.5 mA (Note this is a d.33 and 1. Vce + Vbottoming.1-IX . RE. signal voltage.\ u/co K = I 30 =-= 1-IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1. The a. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. To determine K. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature.Ico 1·998 IX = 0 .34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' . so the minimum instantaneous Vce is -3 + 2 = -1 V. The problern is to determine the values of RL. -3 + 2 + 0·3 = -0·7 V. and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown. Now VcE must not fall below -0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d.Ico = 30 f1A .c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.c. VcE + peak a. we must find ß/c. the a.c. Rz and CE. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co .c. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO.26a. Rt. the operating VcE is -3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V.c.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic .98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d.

hR' . we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I. t-tF 36 .23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .. = 39 t-tA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1.7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .O·I 49 + + Ic.Ico' (.1 Finally.' = 0·98 1 .0·98 1 (1 K- M = a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a. I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = -:.IERE ' 2.' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~- R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz..

37 . these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible.c. Example 1. conditions.c.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. -5 V. or (b) an H. Find the d. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. (b) 208 V. operating point in each case.7. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to -0·5 V? Ans. operating conditions may be found. (b) 24 or 45·5. Using the circuits described in Example 1.T.7.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. and we have seen how the d. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil.c. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. Summarizing. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H. determine the voltage gain.8. but as with valves. We have found the limitations of these methods. if with (a) VGK is -0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. 4·7 mA. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor. Assurne an a.T. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 4-1 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 3-3 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans.c. (a) 63 V. (a) 25·5. EXAMPLES Example 1.

+ H. Example 1. (a) 24·8 kU. 250V H.27. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1.13. 21·5.c. results in an operating 38 . The d. Ans. (b) 96. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. 32. of 250 V.T. (b) 10 ill. Circuit for Example 1.11 Figure 1. Ans. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1. h 6 mA.T. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0.28. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H. 0·65. (a) 43.T.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. supply of300 V. 154 Q. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt. Example 1. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1. 21·5. 19·2.10. Ans. (b) VAK 150 V.28. Determine the voltage gain. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU.11.27.T + 175V I· Figure 1. Circuit for Example 1. (b) 64·5.12 Example 1.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. 790 Q.9 employs RL 17·15 kU.T. RK 250 Q and an H. (a) 61.9. The circuit described in Example 1. Ans. Example 1. 166 Q. 30·5.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1.12. h 9·75 mA.

A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. supply of 150 V. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. 30 L 315°. T. Ans. Ans. calculate (a) the maximum peak a. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance. (b) 11 V low h. a coil of 0·2 H.7 is operated with a bias voltage of -1· 5 V and an H.14. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. If the frequency is 5kHz. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H.12a. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. (a) 15 mA. Example 1. (b) 60 V. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA.T. Example 1. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled.c. The anode Ioad.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA.15. Ans. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1. (a) 45 V positive VaK. VcE -2·7 V. 60 V. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO. I0 I -VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 -1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 -3·0 -4·5 -6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 .c. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as -6 V.16. is assumed tobe purely inductive.c. Example 1. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad. (b) the maximum peak a.

18. Example 1. calculate a. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. and the supp1y battery 10 V.17. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE -0·2 V. -204 mV.23. and the current gain. Example 1. Example 1. 0·994. RL 1·8 kil. RE 500 n.22. -3·43 V. Example 1. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. 0·46.19. lB and JE. andRE 1 kil.16. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. Example 1. If JE is 2 mA..20. 5·03 mA. and JB. Calculate a. Example 1.22. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. 28·8 kil. Ans. A certain transistor is found to have a. 1·45 mA. Ans.' 45. R2 22 kil. 5·1 mA. 0·125.c. 3·93 mA. 56 t-tA. Ans. The d. 123 t-tA. If the transistor has a. 4·5 V. A transistor having a. 488 Q. 413 Q.'. 36. Calculate the input impedance. 1·944 mA. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . 0·99 and Jco 3 t-tA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1. the voltage gain. A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. RL is 3·3 kil. 32·3. Jco'. 1·24 t-tA. Je. 0·97 and Jco 4 t-tA. 1 V. 133 t-tA. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. 30 t-tA. a 4 kil load. 35. RB 140 kil. and Jco' 0·2 mA. Ans.' 160. Ans.21.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 2-8 2-9 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 7-4 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. and a 40 . Jco.

that it will bottarn at VcE -0·4 V. and (b) if rx' is 150.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. R140 kQ. 1 V.29.23. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. and at 20°C. Ans. 13-9 kQ. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of -0·2 V. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. At the signal frequency. RE 1 kQ. 1 V r. 1·11 V. 3·6 W. 10 f-tF. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is -6 V.s. 70 Q. 41 . 45·6 kQ. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling. Example 1. Ic 2 A. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE -8 V. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. and further. Assuming the transistor to have VBE -0·2 V.24. 195 Q. Example 1.24 Ico of 500 f-lA. (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance.m. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50. rx' 150. Ans.c. an Vcc -12V Figure 1. Ans. 1! Q. Circuit for Example 1.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. the maximum output power. The components are RL 1 kQ. The available d. 2 kQ.

we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit. together with impedances or admittances. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. admittances and generators. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws. having dimension mhos.c. mesh analysis and nodal analysis.e. the four terminal or two port network. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 .2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. In Chapter 1. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. In addition. I= VY (2. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a. t.

Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . Note. I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS.i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current.1.e.1.3) Y=-v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. in general I 1 B ::. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. In this case.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2.4) Y= G + jB (2. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2. i. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively. (2. having dimension ohms.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit. Consider first the simple d. B = 1 R -jX R2 + X2 1 Z= - B -X = R2 + X2 (2. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages. zero. circuit shown in Figure 2.c.

Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I). given that current Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way. the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = -iZa = +jwLi = -i v2 = = -iR ji = wC 44 (:J) . the meter would read . Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. lf however. The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V).Vxy and Vyx =IR= -(E/R) X R = -E as would be expected from the circuit.2. The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference. If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = .I amps and we could say that I= -(E/R).2. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps.

3. rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2. Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2. Impedance in series may be simply added. From Figure 2. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. vz = zZ2 (2. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current. . 45 .FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity.3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. z2 Iv.8) ratio of the impedance values.

The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality.i + -i = i .10 with 2. 46 . Consider Figure 2. . = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2.7 and 2.9) X Y1 iYz = -=---=yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values.3c e = v1 + vz = .8.10) The "reader should now compare 2.+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =." d .9 and 2. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2. (2. . (2. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances.11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples.3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added.

Circuit for Example 2.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit.n.3d = ii + iz = . 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc.1.1 47 . and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. 1 + . Figures 2.4.14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules. Now from Figure 2. Finally. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i .12) inverse ratio of the admittance values.. Potential division between series admittance is in the (2.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :. Example 2. Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %. . 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2.13) of the individual impedances.

io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v. Applying rules 2..7 and 2. Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t. YT - 4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1) -- 4 + ~6 -- 1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2.11. . the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel). and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given.9 and 2.= v amp 6 3+1 ia = - i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 .10). Now. to find io from circuit (a). First consider circuit (a). Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X .13 since all branches are quoted as impedances. the same result as that found when working in admittances. the value of io in terms of i. io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches.


To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia



=1+1 txlx!+1





2 X 3





= 4v + - = 5v amp
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v





+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts

and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,




= - - = -volts



Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most


important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.




Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node

This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.

Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by


+ ia + i4 =


+ is

An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents - i2 and - is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,


+ ia + i4 -

i2 - is


which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.


2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.



Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh

Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1 - Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X


we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.

+ V1 -

IR1 - V2 - IR2 - !Ra+ Va - IR4


or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1 - V2

+ Va =


+ R2 + Ra + R4)

from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written

+ R1(h- i2) -


+ jwL2)i2-

(w-d2) (i2- ia)- e2 = 0

Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the



required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h- lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h - lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six





Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2

possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y

+ 5(h + h - lx)
5(h + h - lx) - 4(/2 -


6 = 3h


0 = -




+ 2/x

-2/x- /2

Collecting terms

6 = 8h



+ 5h -

-5h - 9/2

2 = 2/x



+ 11/x




One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
From 2.17


substitute in 2.16




+ 18/x + 1llx








substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15



= - 5 +5


+ 10 -

10lx - 5lx


Collecting terms, 6

+ 5144 -


= lx (232
5 -

15 )

24·8 = 31·4/x


lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A


Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.



Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents

Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h - i2) fiowing down or (i2 - h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2 - ia) fiowing
down or (ia - i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find

6 = 3h + 5(it- i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,


+ 4i2 + 2(iz -

S(i2 - h)

= 2(i3- i2) + i3

Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h- 5i2





+ 11 i2 - 2i3
-2i2 + 3i3




This is replaced by the constants.m. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5). we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. minus any adjacent loop current.m. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 -2 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 -5 0 6 0 -2 0 -2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 ßa tl 6 0 -2 . h. For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. Here. For any loop. In this case ß = 0 -2 3 -5 11 -2 8 -5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents. Further application of this rule will appear in the next example.f. times the common branch sharing that current. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . sum the e. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches.20 above. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems.5i2 which is the same as equation 2. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. Following this for the first loop: The e. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns.f..

0) + 6(10._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient.0) + 0 0 -2 3 =58 ßa= 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 6 0 = 8(-22.0) -2 = -66 58 i2 = 157 A.0) + 5(10.6( -15 . %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms.22 for Example 2. Alternatively. 2. Now applying this to equations 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants.75 = 157 0 8 6 -5 0 -2 = 8(0 . we may expand on the first column.21 and 2.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 .2.4) . ß= 8 -5 0 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 =8(33-4)+5(-15-0)+0 = 232.20. This process is known as expanding the determinants. The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2 - bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca - 02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row. Unknown -66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .ia = 58 124 = .

9. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) -(4 .KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer. as is the case in the next example.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e.j) .3.f.j) = -5/53° -h(4. -S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -5(0·6 + j0·8) V = -3. for equation 2.m.24) . 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 .j) (7 .j4)i2 Evaluating the e. Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.m.j) + i2(4.j4 V Now solving by determinants .3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations.j + 1 + 2.(4.j)h + (7 . Example 2.f.i2(4 .s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h.-(7_+_j_)---(-4---j-)-.j) {-3-j4) (7-j4) = -. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex.j)i2 (2. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form. but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.j4) 57 (2.9.23) -5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -(4 . Circuit for Example 2.24.1 A -(4 .

10. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters. VB.10.49 42.(3 + j4)(4 . 11 = (6 + j0)(7 .{-19o)A 1484 0·686/-36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°.16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4 - _ 26. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .12.jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: .j) {7 + j)(7 . NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law.j24. Vc.j4) .38. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2.j)(4. This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA. We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances.j) A .jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 . l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan-1 H y/{382 + 132) /-tan-1 HA = J2048 = /-550. Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2.j37 A .{4.4.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants . Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances.j4).

0 = = VA(l -1 VA + 2 + 4) - 1 VB . h + [z =(VA. Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2. In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero.4 This circuit has four nodes. For node A. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz). Thus at node A. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55. i.4. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. V c = 0. Foreach node.VA)Yz Collecting up terms.e. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this.2 For node B. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner.11. Circuit for Example 2. D Figure 2.11.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB. Example 2.O)Y1 +(VA. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance.VB)Yz and at node B -[z =(VB. 3.VBYz -lz = .4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc . and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential.

one in terms of an impedance network.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting.4) . 1= 1VA. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms. use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns.4(-3. Examples using each will also be given.VB+ 8Vc By determinants.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. In some instances. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best.4).4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392. 2 + 1 = -4VA.Vc 3 = -4VA. In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches. and hence the nurober of equations.1) + 1( -8 . I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa.1(-8. 60 . Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. the other in terms of an admittance network.VB.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. nodal analysis will be quicker. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof.12. 7 1 -4 -1 0 -1 -4 3 8 V VB= 7 -1 -4 -1 7 -1 -4 -1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3).4Vc 0 = -VA+ 7VB.0) VB = 7(56 .

2.) = 42 Evaluating.12. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis. Example 2. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1-155 A .13 on pages 45 and 47. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2.(l 12V 6V Figure 2.0.12. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. for the whole circuit. 2. Now applying the same rules. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone.7. Circuit for Example 2.12 and 2. 6.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators.5. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone.

Circuit for Example 2.12. 12 = 11h. Example 2. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2.iz = H A as was found by superposition.13.5iz -6 = -5h By determinants.13. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone -3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = . h + ?iz 84.30 = 77 - iz = 25 54 = 52 A -66 + 60 52 -6 =52 A But the required current I = h .20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 .6. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances. Figure 2.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis.

the network is shownasabox with two terminals. 3 = -2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 24-4 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2=---=20 20 Now v = v1 - 9-26 -17 v2 = .14. In Figure 2.14. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected. Now v = v1 + v2 =- 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I. 63 .THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V.. Figure 2. at node 2. Thevenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem. Thevenin's theorem The two-terminal equivalent is shown on the right.

15b.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the left-hand half of the circuit. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2. 1-l! 1 I= 3 = 1l.15.15. Now.7. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45 - 7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = -:-:10~+--:2::-::R::--L-+---::5:-=R:-L 64 . Circuit for Example 2. 3V Figure 2.

0.j3)(1 . Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .5 .J j5 + j) n To find Votc.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4- j2 . .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem.16. 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1 - = ~~ (1 . j 2.4 - + 6 + j2.16. write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 . 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j -J + (-2 .jt·54) n j12 r\ u .j) . Example 2.j l=--. .j) V .J j3) .j and Now = i(5 - j) = i(5.THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before.j20) + J.j3)i . 7RL Now consider a more difficult a.1 .c.(4 Ztn- + j2)(1 . Circuit for Example 2. example. (1 .J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .v'2/45° 2. and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0.j)(5 = (2·31 .8. 5. 1. Figure 2.

the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance.15. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right.9. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a short-circuit connected across the terminals.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 . Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed.7 using Norton's theorem.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0.17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2. To determine fstc.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. Repeat example 2. Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . i A Ytn = i + i.17.j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A . the load current may be found. . no current will flow in the 5 n resistor. In Figure 2.

1 1 3. Repeat Example 2.j)(3 .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .j2 10(1.j30 .j20 _ 4(3.30 .NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l-0 !YL + :l-ö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL=-=-=5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j) 4(3.j) A When the load is connected.j6 - + 1 + j _ 2(1 .10.j 12 + j2 mhos 5.20 .16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1 - 1 j3 = (I .4 2 .j2) 10(1 .j) 3 -J·2 X lJ 5 -J.j2) + 13(5 .j). For the circuit shown in Figure 2.j) +4 - 2 + j4 10(1 .j63 67 + 65 - j13 A .j3 10(1 . current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances.+ 10(1 - A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 . h = 4(3.75.8 using Norton's theorem.j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3. ----o.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 .j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j2) .j2) A .

18. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables.18. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent. is known as a four-terminal network.e. occurring frequently in electronic circuits. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network. Ioads.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently.26) . One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters. V2 and ]z associated with the network. h. A four-terminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. This approach is similar to the description of two-terminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2. common. In general we may write two equations (2. There are four variables V1. there are six possible sets of parameters. For any particular set ofparameters. or other networks may be connected. but not always.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. Since any two may be taken as independent.

29) (2. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection. I. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2.19.28) which have the form of equations 2.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter. i. Zu relates V1 to h. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible.2' are open circuit. The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2. This can only occur if terminals 2. Since equations 2.27) (2. lz Figure 2.e.29 and 2. Z12 relates V1 to h etc.30 must be true for all values of the independent variables. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. By comparing equations 2. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2. Solution of a four-terminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P.30 above.29 and 2. 69 . Suppose 12 is zero.19.28 with equations 2.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows.25 and 2. Q.26 above. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable.27 and 2.

Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .20. Circuit for Exarnple 2.20. we obtain Z12 = -v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = -v21 h I!=O Example 2.11. .1' be open circuit making h zero. h Figure 2. and 12=0 Z21 = -v21 h 12=0 Similarly.11 Let /2 = 0.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2.30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = -v11 h be defined.29 and 2. if we let terminals 1.

The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier. As h flows into this part of the circuit.22. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. lz Figure 2. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. A loaded four-terminal network 71 . Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2. I. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. From equation 2.22.21. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components.21. 1~ Figure 2.

The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .33) -hZL.Z21Z12 Also /2=~-=------~------ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h -Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL) - Z21Z12 (2.0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) .Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu - (2. the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 -= Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .Z21V1 + ZL) . which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.31.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say.Z21Z12 (2.29 and rearranging equation 2.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.Z21Z12 lt=~~~--~~~~=­ The input impedance given by Vt -= Zu(Z22 + ZL) .30 now becomes -hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2. = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL).32 and 2.31) Rewriting equation 2. There are two further general solutions.32) o.1 '.34) Equations 2. V2 = -hZL Equation 2.

Figure 2. -50 VI. Let h = 0.36) Example 2. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2. 400. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. Since the output terminals are open circuit. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor. h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only.12. Circuit for Example 2. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0. n v2 = -5ovl + 5h 73 .0.23. The results that should be obtained are (2.23. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2. and the load is disconnected.35) and (2. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0).

25h V2 =-50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 = - 12=0 + 5h = -1 245 n Now Iet h = 0. thus v2 -= VI -400 251 ~4~55 +5 = -39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2.35.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400- (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL) - Z21Z12 -400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400- This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 . In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors. Z12 = 5 il. Z21 = -1 245 Q and Z22 = -145 n. and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor.5ov1 = 105/2 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But .34 and 2.. 2. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 .32..50 X 5h v2l =-1450 h h=O Z22=- Summarizing Zu = 25 il. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn.

The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. relating [z to · V2. h and Vz. The other possible choices. In this case . VI and h. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. is an admittance. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance.37) (2. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. VI and Vz.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a four-terminal network. We shall investigate one of these in detail. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion. is a number and S. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. . Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I = - Ve=O 75 (2. VI and [z. a current ratio.38) V:~ be zero. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. Sinillarly R.

24).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0). Figure 2. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. first Iet Vz equal zero. Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). In this case.13. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit.4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.24.24. this is simple current division between parallel conductances. Thus /z = -h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h. hzz h I 2 X-6 = 8! mho = -Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 . This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. Now hz1 = ~~ =-!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must open-circuit the input to make h = 0.13. First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals.

general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = -hz1 As with Z parameters.25. Figure 2.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it.25. The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. we have potential division across series conductances so. In this case the second equation 77 . Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator.

2.41. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) .35 and 2. 2. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re- = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2.41. Z and h.33.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = -hZs. 2.44 with equations 2.43) and h . h and h. .. we can find.32. The reader should now compare equations + Zs (2. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations.40) Solving by determinants for h. by taking h.42 and 2. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits.44) Equations 2.41) Solving for V2 From which (2. 78 .36. We have now derived two sets of parameters. 2. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results. -hl2 I. V2 as our independent variables.43 and 2.42. 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2.h21h12 From which (2.

47) From which . h h Cu. Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =-V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.46) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or output.Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 . h Input admtttance = Vt y = u - yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2.rrent gatn = .50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1.Yu + Ys . h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.51) 79 .45) (2. (2. +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: .= .26. Equations: V2.

h = -V1 = gu - /z h Current gatn = .54) (2 55) · (2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. one further rule should be discussed.56) (2.) r2 gzz gu s .s . Output tmpedance =-.52) (2.53) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or open circuit output.= g12g21 +ZL g22 . h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. Definitions: · v21 .57) Before applying these results to some examples.g21 gu(g22 ~ . This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .L2 + ZL) - g12g21 = gz2. VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +-g12 y. g21 = -V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.27.gugn~2 + y. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another. Input admtttance .g21g12 (2.

Example 2.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ. so -h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1- I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods.5 = -(0·25 2] 2:1A X -r 0·2) mmho y21 = -0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0.28. First Iet Vz = 0.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters. For the network shown in Figure 2. To determine the y parameters. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 -r 0·5) = 0·25 -r 1 -r 1 -r 0.5 mmho y22 81 . Using 4kn I. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu.Ia. Circuit for Example 2. we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals.14.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters. Figure 2. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 -r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 -r 0·5 -r 1 -r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is .

ow in the admittance yzz.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals. ft = 0·65 and hl - Vt 12=0 X 1Q-3Vl.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also -lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = -0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.29. J. and write an equation for ft. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2. Thus Vz = -(-0·45 X I0-3Vl 0·85 X I0-3 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. This eliminates the y21 generator.0·45 X 10-3 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65.0·258) X 10-3 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl.29. let V1 = 0. Solution for Example 2. Let [z = 0. Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 10-3 = 1·178 kQ .

0·45 X 0·45 === -0·45 Now using equation 2. At= Working in mmho. We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters.55 -g21 + ZL) - At=--~--~~~----­ gu(g22 .0·412 X I0-3(1 g21g12 + -0·53 1-178) X 103 + 10·53 --~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === -0·45 Thus properties of four-terminal networks such as voltage and current gain. These configurations are Series input and output.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi. Interconnection of Four-terminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more four-termina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions. First using y parameters Current gain. Parallel input and output. the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. Series input.49 and 2. and Parallel input.55. 83 .85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = -0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. g12 = hh I (-0·45 X 10-3) X 0.y21y12 + -0·45 X 1 + 0·85). parallel output. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available. series output. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) .

84 . Example 2. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V. and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n.3la.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. First we must find the Z parameters of the sub-network shown in Figure 2. I .15.3lb.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2. Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters.30. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. I. Two four-terminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. Z22 3 Q. 1 I1 V{~ v. series output. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters.

parallel output. by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl - h h-0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0.35.31. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 .Zn + Zs = 7 .FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. and network B has y" parameters.32 shows two networks connected parallel input. Network A has y' parameters.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2. apply equation 2. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 . Circuit for Example 2.15 Since these are open circuit parameters. + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance.

Two four-terminal networks connected series input. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. Two four-terminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network. Series Parallel Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 .33.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output.32. parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters. J Figure 2.

No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice.16. YT Y. io Ht. EXAMPLES Example 2. 87 . SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. Repeat Exarnple 2. are equally essential. Ans. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections. mho. v' i v. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. The theorems in Section 3.

36. Circuit for Example 2.34. (a) 39·6 mV. Circuit for Example 2.35. and (c) the current i ' .19 88 . (a) 1·63 Q. (b) 0·526.34.36. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2. Ans. Ans. Calculate (a) the input valtage v. determine v' 1.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2.18. Figure 2. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i. (c) 0·727v.17 (a) the input impedance v/1. Ans.17. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v. (b) 0·445i. (c) 31·2 mA.35 is 2mho Figure 2. 0·756 V. Example 2. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. Figure 2. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2.ß.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A.19.

20. Example 2. I. 2·2 V. Using mesh analysis. Example 2.20 using nodal analysis.23.37. Circuit for Example 2.25.22 Example 2.38.38.!1.9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 . 37 -j2k. 0·25.22. Circuit for Example 2.20 Example 2. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2. -8 + j26 Ans.EXAMPLES Example 2. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis. Ans. 1 L 7o 18' A. Repeat Examp1e 2.21 using nodal ana1ysis.24.j2) n. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2. mA.!1.19 by converting impedances to admittances. Ans. and using nodal analysis. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. Repeat Example 2.21.37. Repeat Example 2. voltage sources to current sources. V Figure 2. Example 2. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator. For the circuit shown in Figure 2. 4 89 .

Circuit for Example 2. Repeat Example 2. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2.----.29. Example 2. Ans.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2.27.. Figure 2.28. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis. Repeat Example 2. Example 2.21 using Thevenin's theorem.21 using the Superposition theorem. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem.26. Example 2.39. Circuit for Example 2.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1. Ans.40.26 admittance-current generator form.40.5~]R. T . T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2. 0·737 L 121 ° 26'. Repeat Example 2. Example 2...39 to the Figure 2.30. 1·35 Q.-----. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T. 90 . to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .3 using Thevenin's theorem.

35 Figure 2. h22 H mho.43.41. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Z21 = Zl2 t n.31. The circuit shown in Figure 2. Repeat Example 2.43.36. Circuit for Example 2.33 of 106 rad/sec. -1·29. 4.33. Circuit for Example 2.umho. Z22 3t n.32. Zln lJ!l n. 91 .0. hu ~l n. Circuit for Example 2.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. Example 2. Ans.34.35. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. Figure 2. hl2 = -h21 = u. Example 2.42.36 Example 2.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches. Ans.42. Using Norton's theorem. Example 2. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. zu i n. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n. Example 2. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2. 73 .28 using Norton's theorem. Ans. Ans. 0·44 L 2° 30'i.EXAMPLES Example 2.26 using Thevenin's theorem. 14·3 Q. determine the new z parameters. Repeat Example 2. 1·9 X I0-2.

Ans. 393 Q. Ans.40. Circuit for Example 2. 2 X 10-3. -2 X 10-6.44 represents an active device. 600. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. -375 X 103. 2 X }04. Example 2. h21 75. z. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. A 1 54.37. 1 944 Q. 40 mV.31. 45 X 10 3. 0·15. Repeat Example 2. -5·7. Ans.umho. Example 2.44. -3 000.41. 23 . . -0·04.39. 8 X 10-3. A network having hu 1 000 !2. 5 000. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V. 37 n. The T network shown in Figure 2. g. y. 2·39 kQ.38. 5. Z22 500 n.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Z1n.umho. -5 000 n. h22 Example 2. the g parameters. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 . 200 .38 using g parameters. h12 10-3 . is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. h12 10-3 .38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil. 125. Example 2. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil.umho. (b) from the results of (a). h22 200 . Z12 10 n. Z21 92 . A four-terminal network having Zn 100 n. 50 X 10-6.2· 3. Ans. (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. Determine (a) the y parameters. Z1n 1·25 kQ. h21 50.

43 networks. 38. Example 2.42.43. h12 I0. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo. 93 .4 . Figure 2.45. 157.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2.EXAMPLES Example 2. 1 -2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I ----- I il 50fi ~---------------~ 10on I I I I L---------------~ Figure 2. h21 250. 9·8 mV. Circuit for Example 2. hzz 300 p. (Networks in parallel.46. The network shown in Figure 2.42 hu 2 000 0. Circuit for Example 2. Ans.) Ans.46 shows two interconnected four-terminal ·---------------. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.mho.

SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a. +J(mA) -V (vol t s) 20 10 5 - +V (mV) . i.1a. the first 94 . If the switch is in position B. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit. First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.c.$"·~:-~ 6 I 200mV -1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3.e.2 .C. the diode is forward biased. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. (c) A. (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias.3 LOW FREQUENCY.4 R 200 300 .lb. and an alternative approach is desirable. (a) Junction diode characteristics.1.. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.

7·5 mA. If the a. the switch is moved to A. generator has a peak value of 20 m V. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~-- 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 J-LH (c) Figure 3. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA.C. is approximately zero. 0·3 f-tA. Diode equivalent circuits. Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. Thus the a. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 -=-=20MQ R I0-6 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 10-3 I = 20 X I0-3 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown.c. (a) D. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. say 300 n. this current. resistance which is 95 . lf.c.c. giving an operating point of 110 mV.c.2a. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. as in Figure 3. on the other hand. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively.2.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the the Variation in total series resistance due to the non-linearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case. (b) Small signal a. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line.

c. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 10-3 15 x 10-3 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. provided the d. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree.1IRL is shown passing through the d .c. Figure 3. operating point Q.3.LOW FREQUENCY.c. the anode slope resistance. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter.2c. and provided the a. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. series inductance. operating point.c. At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. These are known as ra. The term small signal implies that the a.c. and p the amplification factor. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 . First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. A Ioad line of slope . voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear.c. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. bias current is 7 mA. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor.

a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA.3.. But (3.AB . =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3..c.2) r _ a - g and ra.-.V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _. llVak~o m.4. .~Ia I (3.4) ~Ia = QB. From the graph. i.1) . ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak -Ta. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm. X gm ~Ia. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.Load line 0 0 Figure 3. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !-' the amplification factor.3. when Ia.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3. X -~Vgk ~Vak I = f1. is not constant. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3.e.~Vgk 6.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.. = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.

.Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö. (a) Constant valtage equivalent.--_____. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö.Vgk = f1. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6.Vak Ö. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered.LOW FREQUENCY.5) + RL or (3. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = -fl.Vak gmÖ. when loaded with a resistor RL./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ.Vgk Ö.:--~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk .1: ra gmraRLÖ.VgkRL R 1 + . r----------..RL ra (3./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ.4./aRL = Ö.r-. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 .Ö.Vgk = "'-----7-1 + RL fal But = Ö. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t.6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must. fa + RL t-tRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal.

4a.ra. operating point we can obtain an a.5. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same. As before Vgk = v8. By Figure 3. operating condition indicated by point 0.RL ra.=--- A _ .c.5 are those of a valve having the d. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . so Av Vo = -Vs = -gmva = and and Vo = Vo --':---=- (~ + ~J -gmvara.c. 99 .5. Vgk. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve. changes at a d.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3. The characteristics shown in Figure 3. + RL -"-.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) -fWs ra + RL .:. -fWsRL = laRL = ---'_. The alternative circuit in Figure 3. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3..c.-=ra + RL -(-lRL ra. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a.----..gmraRL v.c.4b can be solved by nodal analysis.

Thus to a. See equation 3. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed..1 Vgk -.c.4a. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage. voltage must be zero.LOW FREQUENCY. Vak g vgkl a . the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem. The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = . so if the alternating current ia is zero. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit.= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a -gm Vgk .6a and by comparison with Figure 3. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0.c. g Y= ../-lVgk. Triode small signal equivalent circuits.6. If a circuit is open then the current is zero.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance.c. This means that the a.e. Now from equation 3. In this case we are concerned with a. Vgk must be zero. i. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB.. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3.!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3.3. 100 . Applying Norton's theorem in the same way. condition..

Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. resulting from an a. for each configuration we can obtain z. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. h. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations. it is 1/ra. 101 . Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a three-terminal device. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured. since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. input Vgk is (See equation 3. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents. There are in fact many more possibilities. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents.6b. by comparison with Figure 3. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3. gmVgk.4b we can see that Figure 3.c. Again.2. it may be treated as a four-terminal network.fva. when Vgk is zero. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. i. g.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve.e.

c.c. quantities measured about a particular d.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d.7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. forward and output respectively.7. 102 . operating point.c. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d. value. fand o for input. Ievel. reverse. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a four-terminal network. r.LOW FREQUENCY.c.

TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3.8a. may frequently be neglected.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic -Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3.8a. i. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a.8b.8. it is the short circuit input resistance. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la . Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q.8. the output characteristic.. This parameter is very small. typically I0-3. 103 hre .c. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3.e. hre ic = -:- I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters. and as we shall see in later chapters. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter. If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3.

b e Figure 3. The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available.10. hre.LOW FREQUENCY. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance. Using conventional currents. Looking at Figure 3. A typical value for hoe is 100 . so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the four-terminal convention.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10-500 depending upon type and application. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T. an output resistance of 10 kQ. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. 104 .umhos.9 but with appropriate notation. i. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 . is therefore positive.e. These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required. But it is usually more convenient to convert.9. It is shown in Figure 3.9. The ratio of the two.

(c) From fundamentals.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e . Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components. and oc0·99. Tb I 000 Q.. Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3. Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common. 105 . rc I MQ. Figure 3. ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1.10. The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50.11.10).11. (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB. ib b - otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3.

The required circuit is shown in Figure 3.. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero. the direction of the current generator. the conversion is completed -oc oc (equation 1. Also putting -1 oc = oc' and (1 . Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters.oc) ~ !. 106 .17). it is convenient to reverse its direction.oc). (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB. Tc !'•• /rx' r. Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. (f) Since ib is the input current. and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 . the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of -ocrc n. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB.m.LOW FREQUENCY.f.12a. and with it. (a) Short circuit output. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5.12. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( -re1 + -rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel.

rx..' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O - Tc Te+--.12) Equations 3.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input.'.'re Tc (3. - rx.11) (3.14) hreTc hrehre hre Te=--=--=rx. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re- Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 . 107 . From equation 3.16) From equation 3. 3.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters. the short circuit ic must be the remainder.-. = rx.=== Te(1 lb + rx.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent.11.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V -. hoe===oc' = -Tc Te+ rx.12.9. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3.13) From equation 3. rx. (3.11 and 3.')ib fiows in Te.' hrehoe hoe (3.10. h re and ic =-:- I lb Vce=O .' in parallel. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx.10. hre Tc=-=hoe hoe (3. 3.12b. The opposite conversions can be found using these results. But Tc/rx.') (3.9) + The current (1 rx. rx.' = hre (3.

umhos. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. Vgk -12 V. Using the equations above: (/.1. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. If they are fundamentally four-terminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z.4 . but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. EXAMPLES Example 3. hre 5 x I0. 108 . and hoe 125 ..125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936-n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. In all such cases. Vg -2 V or (b) RL 60 kO.T. For each case. the OC75. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO.LOW FREQUENCY. A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. 1t is to be operated with an H.4 re = 125 X I0-6 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 10-4 1 300. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I0-6 = 720 kQ I0. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively. hre 90. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. y or g parameters will be more convenient. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO.

EXAMPLES determine the operating point. 9·8 mA. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 -2 -4 -6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 -8 -10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 -12 -14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 -16 1-1 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans. ra 31 kQ. ra 6·6 kf!. or (b) VBE -130 mV. Av. Example 3. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. In each case.29·5.15·8. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. Av. /B 40 A. 110). (a) 153 V.c. (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. operating point is given by (a) VcE -4·5 V. determine the small signal h parameters. 24.2.) 109 . The d. (b) 361 V. 36. 1·5 mA. Ic 8·8 mA.

5 X I0-3. 97 . 450 . iB (pA) for .umho. (b) 1 200 0. 45. (a) 470 0.umho.1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans. 35. 6·7 X I0-3 .VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 -VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 2-4 3·6 4·8 6·0 7-6 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 5-6 6·9 8-4 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 3-9 2-9 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 .

Ans.3. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits. hoc 33 . (b) htc 550 0. hrb -0·97. (b) 6·25 0. 244 0. hu 1 000 0. 0·993. 120. rb 500 0. rc 1 MO. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. hzt 120.umho.umho. Example 3. Ans. (a) 6·25 0.4. (a) htb 30 0. and oc0·97. hrc + 1. 12·5 kO. h22 80 . hrb 5 X 10-4 . The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. hrc -33·3. 1·5 MO. 111 . 244 0. hob 1 . htz 5 x 10-4 .EXAMPLES Example 3.

we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. In this chapter. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1.0. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits. operating point. gm. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. and p. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. at the particular d. Then. g g ~ f-l Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. 1 r. This procedure is not only time consuming. equivalent circuits. The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . These circuits represent the valve only. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. .c. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. using this method. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit.c. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means.0b 112 .

but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution. Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. source of e. The re<1. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. This 113 . connect it to earth through any component.s and e. positive H. the frequency or phase response.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method.f.d. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a.c. since the a. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid. or current source shown in the complete circuit. If a numerical solution only is required. potential at the grid. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent.T. indicate the sense of the unknown currents. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. and the input impedance.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result.i2)Z1. the equivalent circuit is again used. If the amplifier output impedance is required.s and proceeding from cathode to grid. line is taken as earth.c. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow.Vb. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary. measured with respect to cathode. add such p.f. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . The d. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction. the output voltage or power.c. In general.s algebraically. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form.m. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used.m.f. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter.m. (2) Taking each electrode in turn.

Example 4. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized. The valve has amplification factor f-l and anode resistance ra.) Continuing with step 5: -f-lVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. c..7) = and the valtage gain. and e. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution.C...:.-----. --=----'---'=-.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and -f-les = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + f-t)] (4. and iaRL due to a positive ia.4) (4. iaRk. and Vo -f-lesRI. d and e show the connection of grid.2) Substituting for Vgk -f-t(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction..1) (Note. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4. Vo = iaRL.6) Vo = -f-tRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4.5) lf the output valtage is required. c. ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4. d. this would have led to Vgk = -iaRk +es and Vo = -iaRL.. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara. cathode and anode respectively to and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b. The full circuit is given in Figure 4.. 114 . Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram.1.

(b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a.1. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 . (a) Triode amplifier with un-decoupled cathode resistor.__----.

2b the required equivalent circuit. ra re-arrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO. (b) (a) Figure 4. Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution. 116 .2. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = .Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + -gmesYk (4.1 g.m.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = -. If the constant current form is used. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier. Two other series forms will be given as examples.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4.2. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r. Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit.s. THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. The simple cathode follower.

2b (4. Writing the circuit equation (4. but since result 4.135 X I0-3 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.12) (4. flVgk - Vgk + es (4.RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth.13) Inserting values and working in mA.c. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( . power due to the direct anode current.11) Both forms are correct.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l = - + fl) = es - giving iara.c. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av. 117 . this is the best to use.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4. and kQ -20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now. In addition there will be d.9 is simpler. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety. power in the load. volts.10) iara = es.iara 1 + fl (4. Vo = -iaRL since +ia.

but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced. The grounded grid ia(RL es(l + f-l) .3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure 4.16) (4.3b Vgk = (4. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es. and internal resistance writing mesh equation rearranging es.3. Considering Figure 4. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia.f-l( +iaRs.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4. Derive expressions for the valtage gain. the terminal input impedance.14) +iaRs. The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance off-land ra respectively.3. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4.17) .15) ß)] (4. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + f-l) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + f-l) + ra) (4.

Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z.4. Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL).22) ra + Rs(1 + p..iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s - ra Ztn = .20) (4..:.--:--::::(4.. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p. and putting Vo Avt = .. es(l + p. Consider a simple Figure 4.) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =-:- (4.( 1 + p...:.4).) + RL 119 .)RL ra + RL (4..)RL -=--------~~--~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p.19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln - ia v' =es.) (4.21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4.) _ R s + RL + p.20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn.CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.) + p.)RL Vo = -----::'--:~.

This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted.e.m.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4.5. The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4.5.25) (4. replaced by their internal impedances).26) . (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = -IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(.f. sources suppressed (i.24) (4./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. (See Figure 4..

m. designed to give a high resistive input impedance.6a isthat of a cathode follower. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra.6.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk.u) (4. all 121 .6b. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth.u 50 and ra 10 kQ. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4.4. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.s. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r. These are a form of cathode follower.23) as was obtained using the logical approach. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair. The circuit shown in Figure 4. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d. Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters.c.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4.u)] RL + ra. The valve has . Taking all resistors in kQ. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4. + Rs(l + . R5 (1 .

3 . 25 000 .31 .) Using substitution methods. +5is has been neglected.5.f.30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = -:.m. VI = 505is + 5ia ( Ia (4. we have: Vgk = 500is [or -5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500t-tis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4.1-5 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in = . from equation 4.28) (4.30) 0 = (4. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is.31) -25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts.s in volts. 5 000 .31.= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4. = . Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 . 122 .7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier. and all potential differences and e.32) substituting in equation 4.29) Rearranging and collecting terms.

a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4.Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 .7.f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.7b. h and = -11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 .40) These two expressions have the same denominator. Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4. and if the first term of this is expanded.f1Rk(h .35) (4.33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = -11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 .5 The mesh equations may then be written: . very unwieldy expressions would appear.34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4.37) (4.36) rearranging: -11e1 -11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4. By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL - i2RL = RL(h - i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2.11e2 . the equivalent circuit. On 123 . Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants. If substitution methods were used. we find (4.3 9) (4.11e1 .

series inductors may be neglected. .u)](e2. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored. The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 . Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn. [ra + RL + Rk(l + . Two examples involving reactive components will be given. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity inter-stage coupling. and a Ioad RL. 11 .u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + .uRk(e2. and stray reactances due to wiring etc. Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a short-circuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel. .41) From this result. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling. high or medium. Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. A triode valve having .ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h - + (4. The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor.e2) volts. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. Therefore .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants. CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequency-conscious.ei)(l + . it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 .U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + . those for minimizing negative feedback. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. The question of whether a frequency is low. depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component.12 = .u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + . and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored.6. at low frequencies. then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored.u(e2 .12 = .u(e1. this.e1) + . Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically.u) 11 .e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra . Similarly.u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO.u)] -.

Rg is necessary to provide a d. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4.1. equation 4.j 1. where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil.6 Figure 4.c.j2 = 25 + 4 = -2·69(5 + j2) = -13·45 .8a shows the complete circuit.42 -39 X 20 -39 X 2 -78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 .42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz.CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor. working in kil: zk = -j x 1 = -j(1 + j) = 1. -flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4.e.j) = 5 .7. This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4.8.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tan-lfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 . i. Circuits for Example 4. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk. Figure 4.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk. connection between grid and earth. Av = ra At 159 Hz. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz.j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4.

:.9a and b.---:.9.------ --~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4. the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4.7. Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R). Zk=1-j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01-JO·l -39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) -78 3·04 . In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R). and -39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit. Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 ..j0·4 .) ~ ra + RL.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore -j0·1 -j0·1(1 +j0·1) .j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases. To sketch the required frequency response curves.78(3·04 + j0·4) . the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p. 30 --. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4.8 In this problem. the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action. 9·25 + 0·16 = -8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = -25·2 . low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz.

= - 10 10 then -wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. Rg =50 kO. ra = 10 kO.5.10b could be solved by mesh analysis.c. connection to earth. (1) The cathode bias circuit. given that: !-' = 20. output voltage will be developed.10. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated. If Rk X.T.c. (b) (a) Figure 4.10a. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. RL = 20 kO. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. certain components may be neglected as either open-circuit or short-circuit. The first step then. and Cs = 100 pF. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the inter-electrode capacitance of the second valve. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. Ce= 0·1 fkF. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. This is provided by Rg across which H. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4. 127 . is applied. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component.

128 . The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. amplification. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. and high frequencies. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a.5. If these results are examined. (2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies.c. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w=--= RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included.c. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a short-circuit. it may be regarded as open circuit. If 1 -CB = lORg W 1012 1 w=--= lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered. If the reactance is greater than lORg. low frequencies.

1 1 I 1 (4. If the parallel combination Figure 4.11.gmesRe Rg Figure 4.43) -=-+-+Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es.12.43 and 4. The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re. and Vo = .44) -gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.12. the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = -2 X 5·89 = -11·78 In Figure 4.= .45) Re= 5·89 kQ f-t 20 gm = .gmVgkRe = .11.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 . Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.

0·5. thus Re I = Xcs = -wCs and I w=--= ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton . (See Appendix 1. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5. 4. The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. d at f rom 17 . then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale. 2.) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J0-3 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 . Iet Re/Xcs = I. For example.46) -gmZe _ -gm(-jXcsRe) Re. 0·2. and 5.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXc8 . (4. From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze.

13. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. and tan-1 5 from 180°. anode voltage Va. but if more accuracy is required. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a. tan-1 0·5. where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4.48) . Vo = 1 RgVa Rg - . k Figure 4. and y'(12 + 52).13. The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan-1 0·2. y'(12 + 22).1. tan-1 2. Table 4. y'(12 + 0·52).c. The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken. This is shown in Figure 4. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). leading to the result shown in Table 4.1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points.

J cc (4. + RL) TaRL Ta. and Rg. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta. and Rg..jXcc .jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg. + RL) (4. it is Re. RL.51) .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va. h 11 1 b' .44 Avl = Avm -----:-~ I _ jXcc R' (4.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. 132 .52) = Avm.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x.e. + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since . Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined. RL.49) The term (Rg. T he expresswn Ta (4. Therefore TaRL ) .Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ -gmRe jXcc(Ta. i. . So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta. is given by the product of the current . and Vo Avl=-= es TaRL ) -gmRg ( Ta+ RL --~--~~~----~---- ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg -jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4.Rg + RLRg.50) R L + RL) -gmRgTaRL Ta.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta.RL + Ta.gmRe Rg + Ta.jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es. from equation 4.jXcc(Ta.50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + .gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta.RL Ta.

For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = .2RgCc 133 . the frequency must be divided by the same constant. The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same. and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. tan. To calculate the frequencies. now .1 0·5 etc. This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan-1 0·2.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°. first consider the point where Xcc R' -=1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant.

An alternating voltage of 50 mV r. By definition. -33·3. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4.9. Example 4. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier. Ans.Hz Figure 4. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations. EXAMPLES Example 4. -13·3.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. Once the technique has been mastered. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters.8. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale.s.14. A triode valve has 11-40 and ra 20 kQ. -20.m.

ra.f. Example 4. and VaK -3 V. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. Ans. 135 . h 2 mA.10.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ. 10 kQ. Ans. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. 17·5 kO. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4. If the anode load is 27 kQ.14. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters J-l and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. 0·49 V. Example 4. Example 4. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. 0·75 V.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. 17·1 kO. Ans. 1·25 V.15. Calculate the anode-cathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. 34·3 kQ. Ans. Example 4. Example 4. Example 4. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. Take J-l and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. Ans. capacity coupled to the load. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. determine the constants J-l and ra of a suitable valve. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4.12.3a) is driven by a source of e. 97 0.11. Ans. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth. 80 0. 0·808.m. -10·5. 51·0. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q.13. 6·72 V. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. Ans. 0·95. If J-l and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. 323 0. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. 455 kQ.

1·01 sin wt. or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4).c. The circuit shown in Figure 4.16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.15. 28·3.16. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. Circuit for Example 4.17.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier. Example 4. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ. The d.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48'). for each valve. 136 . Ans. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.16.

Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range.18 Example 4.18. Circuit for Example 4.Cl Figure 4.20. Circuit for Example 4. Ans. -30·4. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively.17.Cl 50k. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.17 employs identical valves with t-t 36 and ra 12 kQ. Ans.IlXAMPLES Example 4.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4. -9·62. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 t-tF for this purpose.19. H:T. 137 .18. -13. 500. 4·88 kQ. 50 Hz to 10kHz. 35·6. The valve has t-t 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.18. If f1. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans.19 Example 4.

. Cs 330 pF. Ce 0·25 f. Example 4.lF. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz. The valve parameters are f.24. Rg 100 kQ. Ans. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.lF. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Circuit for Example 4.22. 0·01 f.21 Example 4. H.10a has the following components. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL.T. Take f.23.. 12·1 L 241° 42'. 5·5 Hz. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies.19. -31·9.. Ans. 27 kQ. -39·15. Ans. 37kHz.+ Figure 4. Example 4.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies. 0·37 mA/V. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ. 9·6 kQ. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL.21. RL 30 kQ. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz. Ans.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively. 138 .

Ans. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO. 128Hz to 7·5 kHz.25.F. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ.EXAMPLES Example 4. 139 . Ce 0·1 p.

When the correct h parameters are available.c. if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration.e. applied or generated. hrb. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. for example. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. draw the chosen equivalent. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. If however. base and collector connections. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply. there is no need to convert to the required form. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. or even. This will usually depend upon the available information. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. hrb. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. produce the correct solution in all cases. will. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. Show all details. if correctly applied. i. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. rc. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving. the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. 140 .

Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. and the coupling capacitor. etc. but with T equivalents. Example 5.c. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 . Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. Components shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. Figures 5.GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn.3 must be used.c. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method. hre 5 X 10-4. is shown as a short circuit. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. having zero reactance. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit variable. collector and base respectively. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. using substitution methods or and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. The circuit shown in Figure 5. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit.1. (hre ib. hre Vce. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided. Remernher that batteries or other d. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. d and e show the connections of the emitter. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. Figure 5. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4. the two mesh currents are usually more convenient.Q. power supplies are short circuit to a. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. In any case. to shows a single stage amplifier. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 .c. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. When the h parameters are given. and of the input impedance.c. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho. 142 . (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5. 1'" RE 1k.1.Vcc c RL 4 k!l.. e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS .1. (a) Circuit for Example 5.

90ib). The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages.s.GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. Before continuing the solution. and by adding any iZ products and generated e. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. lf proceeding against the current arrow.lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a.) and the signal source.f. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J0-6 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic . This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. take the product as negaitive. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base. These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. not with respect to earth.c.m. 143 . Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic.

90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5.71·9 X 104ib e' and .4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I0-5e' 1.ic = 1 040 A . -e' io = .owing towards earth.90ib) V.1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic .4 OOOic] V.e' .5 X 10-4 X 8 OOO(ic. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !-LA ic = = -0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA -856fLA (Note the minus.3) 1 OOOib (5.71 . _ 13 X 103 . _ .4 Substituting in 5.2) Rearranging these equations.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic .04 = 1·74 X 10-5e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl. Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'. but the shortest path is usually the most convenient.3.72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic.) 144 .3) (5. or (b) Vce = [ -1 OOO(ic + ib) . Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.9 X 104 lc .4 OOOic] V. = 4ic . The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic .1 81 From 5. In this case. collecting terms and inserting the value of R'.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow. or (c) Vce = [5 X I0-4vce + 900ib + R'ib . indicating 180° phase shift. lb . e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5. take the product as positive.90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.

1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'. correctly applied. This analysis may seem very long. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 .1·74 X 10-5 X 445 = 0·89 .1040 X 1·74 = . Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib).0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =-:lb lQ-3 = 1·74 X lQ-5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected..:-:::--=-: At = 1·74 X 10-5e' ib 105 At=. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor. On the other hand this technique.55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth.. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib.ibR' = 0·89 . and substituting for terminal current gain -e' 1 040 -ic = -:---=:-:---------. will always Iead to the correct solution. Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way. since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor. Vo = -icRL = -856 X lQ-5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5.

4. This also eliminates the emitter resistors.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters.umho. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n.c. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach. hre 110. Vo. hre 2 X I0.2. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances. hte 1·3 kO. Determine the overall voltage gain. current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5. 146 .2. Figure 5. Example 5. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency. and hoe 105 .2a. (a) 1(b) Figure 5. as have the Ioad resistors. itn and io. The following points should be noted.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a..2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. the h parameter general solutions may be used. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn. these components have been shown as short circuits.

umhos. (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis.5) (5. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n.+ -4·7.-4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'. The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of . Applying this rule.umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 -21.umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain.= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 . I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2. To obtain the adrnittance of a component in .umhos. Before applying these steps to the problern in hand. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. lb2 + 2 X 10-4( -110ib2) 408 X lQ-b 220 v' = 1 300 . (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl. divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 -110ib X 10-4 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)10-6 Substituting for v0 in 5·5.6) .

285 2 X 10-4 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 . we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.0·022 -58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .7 _ I 300(1471)10.100 X 2 X I0-4 -110 .8) Substituting for ibl in 5.7) (5. using the general solution found in Chapter 2.umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl. for step 3.1·3 = X 1·471. YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 .6 u 2 Ytn -llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 -100 1 300(1 471)10-6 .( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I0-4 = I 300. = -llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 10-4 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)10-6 1 300ibl (5. Ztn2 hrehte = hte.umho Now from the general solution. and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 .

58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 -110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10. lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn .hrehre -110 = 1 300(1 471)10-6 .110 X 2 X 10-4 = .6 .I 10 -IIO X 2 X 10-4 = -2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = -2I6·5 X -58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain. 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + -110ib2 X 303 -110 X 3·03 = ----.GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution.3:-::0-=-3-+--:-1-=-05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X -Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X -1Ix30·3 4·08 . io Vo YL2 At=-:--=--= AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 10-6 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure. refer to step 6. IR 2 io -IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 .--~-chte(hoe + YL) . . -hre Av = -------.

28 . 3 .I 7 . hrehre Yo = hoe .umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) .4 = + 260) .umho X 10 = 92·4 .umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 = - - 110 X 2 X I0-4 I 300 + I 530 . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors. 97·2 + 303 .umho = 97·2 .umho Including YL2.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.umho 220 I05 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2.umho ~400 .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 .42 .umho I 000 .umho = = 1 000 655 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 10-4 I 300 + 442 . the overall output admittance and impedance.

To show the effect of these approximations. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. In each case however. further components are added in parallel.2 voltage. ..3 where es is the source Figure 5. may be neglected or at least rounded off. E.3. the bias components. . Finally.GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5.. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. having an impedance much greater than h1e. . Av= -hre -hreZL .2 is accurate but not really practical. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5. and hoe is neglected.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . The first thing to notice. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. we shall reconsider Example 5. A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances. In any case.

USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem.1. Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 5000-2 kfl 5 kfl-20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies. 152 .1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho -63·5 -63·5 x -208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. Table 5. 600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for.2. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations. hrb. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Avz Z1n2 = -llO 1·300(105 + 303)10-6 =- 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 -90 X . Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b. Having considered the common emitter amplifier.

Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = -Vo = -2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) .3 emitter parameters. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. hoe 250 . these alternative methods will be compared. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5. Example 5.4a.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. In the next example.GENERAL METHODS Table 5. hre 10-3 .3. Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit.umho and hre 65. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. firstly. Figure 5. Take hte 800 n.4.2. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5-300 0·5-2Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications. Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. and secondly.

16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. -:ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'. 258.= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 .umho . = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = -258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I0-3 terms) From the second equation.umho = 60 . 154 Y1n = 71·25 .umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components. From Figure 5. = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib .umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 . so substituting for ic in the first equation. VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = --.4a.I0-3(ib 0 = 4(ic - 65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms. and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel. .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ. + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib .

GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals.3 155 . suppressing any external generators. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :---Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5. (a) I Figure 5.5. as shown in Figure 5. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I0-6 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit.5a.

0·384 X 10-6. I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)10-6 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5. so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I0-3 V.V.384 X I0-6V =:::= .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5.VY' = 0·384 X I0-6V.1 and 5. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5.384 X I0-6 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre.2. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 5-20 (limited by bias components) Low 0·8-0·99 High Bias components Low 20--100 il 156 .) Now writing the nodal equation. Table 5. First Vce = .3.5b.65 X 384 X I0-6V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10.6 Neglecting the first term. IO-av Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l0-6V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.

The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. All the current from the hre generator.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals. hre Vce Figure 5. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents.hre .. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec - hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 . Vbc. Vec. Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = -Vce. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears.6. ib and ie as shown hlc I = -. together with ib flow into the short circuit. Thus and + hreib) hrc = -(hre + 1) and h1c ie = -(ib = h1e Now for ib zero.6. the hre generator becomes -hreVec.

umho For overall Y0 . we require the effective Zs.umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one.10-3 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I0-6 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0.umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given. Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 .umho 1 . The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. or super <X pair.3: htc = 8000 htc = -66 hrc = hoc = 250 . 158 . but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 . This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.c.6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. amplifier.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 . With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. including Ioad. a phase splitter or a d.

4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO). hoe 125 .7a could be treated in a number of ways. In this example only the he parameters are available. hte 1 300 0. 159 . The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d.umho and hre 90. Circuits for Example 5. The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. operating points determined by the circuit. supply.7. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier.c.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. 7a. hre 5 X 10-4.c. Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis.4.c.

vz. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances. which changes the units to volts. The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 . The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1. For ib1. vz and va in terms of is. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI - vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p.A. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. and va. The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary.0·125va -75vz + 0·625va 160 .7b. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59. circuit admittances and external generators. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. For node 2: 90(vl . therefore if VI.0·83vz 0 = 0= -75·5vl + 153vz .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.vz)830 + 90( -830vz) = -vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830) - 125va and for node 3: -90( -830vz) = -125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000.A Now for node I.mho. we may write and ibl = (v1 - ibz = vz)830 pA -vz 830 p. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages.

For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 is 0 0 is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(-75·5 X X75.0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(-75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~-==-~~~~~--~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal. since each stage of a 161 .= ls 1 -:ls is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =-:. This is to be expected. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = -. but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low.X ls X is(153 X 0·625.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants.

hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v. Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. (b) (a) !2 ho.8a.. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d.~· it. hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ". 162 .c. (d) (c) Figure 5..5. common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5. hre 120. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'. Example 5.' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h .. hoe" and hre ". An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000.8b.w 'h. conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance.8. hoe'.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base.

Figure 5. hz1._h_"_ 1 ~ h---. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5.:.1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5.9) we can write a nodal equation. + oe Now. for h12 and h22.10) . across hte'. oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". the parameters for the overall circuit.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations.:.d....8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2. oe II le (5. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h----.. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters. h12. Here Vz ib"=---11 1 hte h----. for h21 and hn. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. and since there is no p. where hn. and short circuit output. are open circuit input. but first we must find h22. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + -h oe _ fz _ 22 - = V2 - h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " -h + le oe 1 h ") + . this can also be deleted. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h---. Under these conditions h and ib are zero. ib" in terms of the node voltage. where Y is the combination of hte ".

I5) (5..12) Once again. oe + -h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5. h in terms of h.11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5.. The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem. For h21. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part.II. By inspection. • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h--.I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____. The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.. we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted.. I .. (5.I h .= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'.I6) .. le h _ h . 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate. V' + hoe'hte 11 (5. the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I . 11 - + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5...8d..14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =-" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5... In this case.

smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as.hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case. hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018. and 5017. 1121 = 120.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METI-IODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6. or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value. 5o14. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb . h _ h ib' - _ hre'.83 kQ 165 .3 = x 10-6 OoOI8 + """1-3 mho = Oo8 + 13-8 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n - 3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu .(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013. this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 10-6 X !50 X 10-6 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 10-6 I 50 X 10-6 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns.

The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. hoe 100 . (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce.Q h12c = 1- h21c = -11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. have neglected the effect of reactances. By means of a general analysis. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4.6. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. and that due to transistor properties. At this point then. the coupling capacitor. independent of frequency. and hre negligible. Av2 . without loss of current gain.c.9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0.3.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 . Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. have not been shown. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components. Figure 5. The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. Capacitors. base current for the first transistor. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded. Example 5. huc = 188 k. as the large h21 permits a very low d. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF.6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. except in phase. hre 110. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value. An even higher input impedance can be achieved. where shown. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. determine. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . Stray capacitance due to wiring.umho.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input.

6 For simpJicity.20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis.9. the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5.19) -Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5.22) .ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance. By definition. Jet 1 Re = -:----=c---=--(5.21) 1 Ztn2=-y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5. Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5.

24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. h .J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXcs. -jXcsRe v = -hrelb x R ·x e .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. - - VcZ!n2 Ztn2- jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies. At low frequencies. and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies. as low frequencies. considering Figure 5.>Re v' = -hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' -hre Avm =-=--Re VI hte (5. RL'(Ztn2 . X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V . frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected. those at which Cs only may be neglected.23) At high frequencies. First. Avh -hre = -h-Re le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5.9b is the same as v'.jXce) Ztn2 v = .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = -C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 -C '. . .telb X . . Av1 and Avh respectively. The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm. will be referred to as medium frequencies. ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2 - J Ce . X es is in parallel with Re. Ve shown in Figure 5.

Forageneral investigation. This results in Avh = -59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5.) Thus from equation 5.22. and 5. from equation let Re/Xcs = 1. 5.23. In this numerical example. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.26) 169 . At any particular frequency.25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5. Avm A vl = ---':'-::-:- (5. 5. 5.19.23. But (Equations 5.24.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.20. Avm = -110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5.24 and 5.

In practice. tan-1 3 and tan-1 5 respectively. Inspection of equation 5.1 2. These results are shown in Table 5. y'5. 170 . I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz. 3... the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz. I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5. At low frequencies.2I. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1). y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan-1 0·25.. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5. At these frequencies. 5. 2wh. . tan.F capacitor would be suitable.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. 2. 3wh. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1.F = 0"63 p.I9 and 5.F Thus in practice a 1 p. etc. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25..4 on page 171.24.. and 5wh respectively.

1 tan.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.10·5 26° 30' T tan-10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan-12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh=-- Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan-11 45° o-5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.96 tan-120 87° 10' IAvml = 1-1 9 tan-1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where -0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42.4.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan. 8 tan.1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll-6 tan.1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 .6 tan-1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan-11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.96 tan.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan-110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2. Xcc Avt 7i.8 tan.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan-10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .1 2 63° 30' = 18.0 tan-1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .

2 . for the single 172 . of the two stage amplifier. etc. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined.4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. Av2 = -hre YL) . the gain of the first stage. This is shown. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1.4. since we are puttmg R ' . The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~.hrehre + -:----:-::------. at each frequency.10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz.. These results arealso shown in Table 5. the gain of the second stage. etc. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. Considering the single stage first.10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies.wCcR' . values of !. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. This is shown in Figure 5. 3. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also.=-:-----::-----::-- hle(hoe -110 = 1 000(100 + 500)10-6 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. . 2. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from -90° (at the top) to +90°. 3. the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed. must be multiplied by Av2. Figure 5. 2.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. i.e. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters.

40 > 3.6. In this case. the locus is a circle. 4 6 f. in Figure 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 . If the ends of all these vectors are joined.MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. 173 . The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift. with the origin on the circumference. plotted in the complex plane. This locus is shown in Figure 5. (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage.Jla.10. we obtain the locus of the gain vector.llb. 30 180° -e- 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters.

Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned.7. Circuits for Example 5.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 . but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.12. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 .6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit. If the transistor employed 4k.12a.O.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5. Example 5.11. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5.

ie + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations. = ib(1 + rx') .10(8lib.lo R L 0 = -lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil. = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = -14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie . + l. rb 800 kil and rx' 80.28) (5. The unknown currents have been se1ected as ib.463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 .ie) 15ir.810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie. -. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain. substituting for i 0 and i'.0·7ib ( V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = -0·03ie + 10(81ib - = ie) + 4(ir + ib . In terms of these = ibrb + iere . the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib - ie = ib . V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 -810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 -14 +814 +4 +10 -810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)-0·7(-14x 15-4x 10)+0 15 450vl .27) (5. inserting values and working in kil and mA. ie.. rc +.29) Rearranging and collecting terms. Figure 5. and ir.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1.

In the majority of the examples. In fact. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit.203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5.0·03Vt 0.28. 176 . however.ib.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter.n Vt Vt = -:lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point.814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required. These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters. mA = ioRL = (ir. Vo Vo Av = . However. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 .= -90 Vi Z. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. In the design of a practical amplifier. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor V = -22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance. ir = 14ie . . the input current is ib + ir. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available.27. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. ib = Vi. feedback methods should be used. The methods used.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are available.

Circuit for Example 5. hoe 90 . -130. hre 75.11. -65·6. v. 862 Q. -65·6. and At against RL.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. 8·83 mV. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. -3 130.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5.14. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. Av. 258 n. Ans. 6·83 kQ. 10 kQ.9.8 using RLO. 960 Q. 645 n. Assurne Xe = 0. 25·7 Q. Ans. 0. Repeat Example 5. -1·97. Figure 5. and oo. Ans.umho. Example 5. 177 .10. -6·72.11 Example 5.8. -56·5. Figure 5. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. 960 Q. Example 5. 100 n.8 taking Xe as being infinite. -36·2.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. -560. Ans. 0.13.8. hre I0-3 .13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n. -0·68.. Circuit for Example 5.

The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. 90 . 3·3 kQ.15 has h1e 1 300 0. hre 0. -76. Example 5. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 . 1100 Q. Ans. 147.15. 2·22 kQ.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ.7a. hoe 80 . Example 5. Repeat Example 5. Ans.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. 8·83 mV. 1 528 Q.13. hoe 80 .15. hoe 120 . hre 150. hre 110.16.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components. Figure 5. Ans. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0. Collector Ioads. Ans. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage. -11·35. 656 Q. A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5.umho.umho. Circuit for Example 5. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. 25·7 Q. 1. hre 5 X 10-4. hre 90.umho. 650 X 1()3.12. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. 496 X 1()3. Example 5.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. 264 Q. Example 5. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5.14.

hre 90.18. 5. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. and hre 0. hoe 130 ftmho. Yb 350 Q.EXAMPLES effective. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit.17. 1 130 L 3° 30'.16. Ans. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. Ans. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor. 444 kHz. and IX 0·992. 1 123 Q. Yc 750 kQ. Ans. Ye Example 5. hre 125. Ans. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. hre 10-3 . 119 ftmho. 63 kn. -6 600. 162 L 168°. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ. -63·3. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies. per stage. hre 5 X 10-4.19.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. Example 5. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. 5 260. 105 Hz. effective inter-stage shunt capacitance 500 pF. Figure 5. 1 122 n. and hoe 130 ftmho. -89. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. 2·10 kil. 7 370. Example 5. hre 80. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF. 20·4 x to-s. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. Circuit for Example 5. 179 .

The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal). the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 .Q. 88 .Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2.Q. -1 270.20.Q. (a) -41·0.Q. 4·0 . 180 . Calculate the voltage gain.Q. 218. In each case.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5. hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 . hre 4 X 10-4. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5. hre 10-3 . Assurne Zs to be 10 k.Q. hte 70.umho. (b) 0·973.umho.8a.90 k. Ans. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k. hoe 500 . hoe 110 . h1e 1· 5 k.Q.Q. 14·6 k.

In this 181 . Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties.c. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. The passive components may vary with temperature and time. Similarly. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. operating conditions. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. current gain or both.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters.c. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. and a change of d. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. and in the event of a replacement. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. and of the device parameters.

These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain.1. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically non-linear. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. and their configuration. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency. where in general A = lAI L 0. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. 182 . In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal.c. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. particularly at high frequencies. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier.

where cp. and So is the output signal. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. but not essentially.2) . S' is the terminal input signal.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6. Usually. S is the input signal applied from an outside source. the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1-lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6.1. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex. lßl is less than one.ßA AS So= 1.

Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain. or temperature changes. Feedback positive \A\. Thus equation 6. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°. d. supply changes. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°. With reference to equation 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 . Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. i. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. and in particular negative feedback. discussed above. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'.e.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6.) Example 6.e. 184 .1. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. the feedback is negative.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback. i. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc.c.


If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine

the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000



where K is a constant.


3 000

= 0·191


the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
3 000


Percentage change

100 per cent

= 59· 3 per cent

Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier



A 2r =

3 000

3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402

1 + 600

. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500 - 402
Percentage change m


100 per cent

= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series



or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback

Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multi-stage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe-1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be


referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.

Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:







+ R 2 Vo


+ R2

(6 .4)

Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by



since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'





1- Avoß
AvoV = 1Avo ß

Gain with feedback




1 - Ap~ vo


Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l - ßAvo)


If this equation is divided by i the input current,



-:-l = -.

- ßAvo)

But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:

= Ztn{l

- ßAvo)


Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback

We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say

V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining



+ Ztn)


ß'. Where

= -=-----=----=-----'R2 + Zs + Ztn


V'= ß'E





Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E - Av' V' = I'Zo'

From equation 6.9
E(l - ßAv') = I'Zo'
Zor = ji = l - ßAv'


The overall output impedance can thus be found from


Z = Zor



+ RL + R1 + Rz

Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback

We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.

.------;!--------,--- --1






c0 t




v---,r-.,- - - - - - - J

Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback

In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor

RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as


Thus if RF ~ Zs

+ Ztn (as is usual)






In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,



= RL + RF + Zo'


With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.

Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,


-IRF (if Ztn

+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)

and writing the mesh equation

E- Av'( -IRF)

= l(Zo' + RF)

arranging and collecting terms,



= IZo' + /RF(l

- Av')

= ~ = Zo' + RF(l- Av')


With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect

Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.

The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8). and internal impedance 1 kO. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.4. Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6.8.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a).86 = 623 from equation 6. 100 ß= . we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . from equations 6. so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6. and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e.7 and 6.f.Applying equation 6. the overall terminal voltage gain. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits. the modified input and output impedance.A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. for both methods.5a.5 and 6. 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 .A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since . the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p. For the amplifier without feedback. the voltage derived feedback.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine.m.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative.

A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ. 1 795 = 192 . and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ.14).24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback. and using equations 6. If the original input current 0·5 f-lA was applied. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6. 6. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14.8 we find.23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'.7 and 6. the current gain is unchanged.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.12. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ. 6. Zor =I lOkQ + = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 f-tA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ. To return to the problem. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1.A With reference to equation 6.

_ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9.1. as has the input current. Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback. f. lo - As before. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 . Ztn 1 000 0. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback. From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 .13. This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. as a result of the increase in input impedance. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback. the current gain has not been reduced. Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback.8 mV . 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. we refer to equation 6.1.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV .

but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased. the output impedance is reduced.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box.n - v' G2 Figure 6. Fora multi-stage transistor amplifier.'. and a short circuit current gain A.5. I' is l•. CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. A.n=:=h- le in parallel with the bias components. the two quantities to be added must be currents. /li0 io YL Y. 194 . With voltage derived feedback.5. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '. these would be given by: I Y. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance.

5. YL is the finalload.16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback. I = 1.ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But . The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.19) Atois 1.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL. is I' .21) 195 . Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 .(1 . This is given by: At'YL' (6.19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.ßAto) (6. the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6. and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network. lo = (6.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6.ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .v1)G2 = v'G2 (6.ßAto) is .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6.15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.ßAto .= Ytn and .= .

the input impedance is reduced).24. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6.n G2 Figure 6. with simple negative feedback. the current gain is reduced.20 and 6. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals.e. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback. G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. I' Y. that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback. The effect of YL.6.6. and the input admittance is increased (i.2.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6. The reader may have noticed by this stage. Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance.

7. .7. Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6. I ---i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6. is shown in Figure 6. we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo. is I' I ~Ys io y. Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback. YL will be the predominent term and equation 6. resulting in voltage derived feedback. Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 .23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result.24) With typical values.24 will approximate to YL.CUR.n . 197 ß and .'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I". Y.ß"At' (6.

and output admittance. Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn.20 and 6. Example 6. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low.25) Also. the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and .26) Using these values of ß and A10. I + GF'(l.3.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. 198 . suppressing the source generator. input admittance. (6. the overall current gain. and calculating the resulting V. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied. The amplifier described in Example 6.21 respectively.At") (6. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals.

= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s. and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback. 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 . Also 1 YL = .= 250 .= --.umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL . 1 = Zo' = . .umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q). 6.17 and 6.umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6.21. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative. .umho 1 -25-1 = 238 .umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn -:. 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) . Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 .umho ln Yo At .100 .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.16. 199 1 786 . 6.umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.umho .18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 .20 and 6.15.

27.uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q).' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).umho. 200 .24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 . The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6.25 and 6.26.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 . ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6. Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 . applying equations 6.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.20 and 6. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).umho + 280) = 3 130 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance.21. This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 .umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.22 and 6. = Yor = At" = = 9·9 .umho = 56 .umho 101\ 0 A. GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 .

21. Y0 350 . Y1n 8 780 . SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers. With a current amplifier. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 . when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived).umho. the voltage gain is reduced. A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'. and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance.umho. Yo 3 130 . Ytn 1 786 .umho.umho. Y1n 1 000 .EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance.umho. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input. the current gain and input impedance are reduced. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1. and the input impedance is increased. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit. In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n.umho. the output impedance is reduced. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. Yo 305 . a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'. Now moving to the output terminals.8.

This may be illustrated by an example. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. -135°. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. By means of sketched vector diagrams. First we must be clear about the information supplied. v0 = A L 0 V'. At three different frequencies. and in Chapter 8. These effects are shown in equations 6.10 and 6. -90°. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. naturally increases the output impedance. since the gain is 5 L 0. The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. and that the calculation of Af(l .ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation.4. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. 202 . the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. Example 6. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities. (b) -90°. oo.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. and that is that ßA must be less than one. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance.27. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. (c) +45°.

4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies. and (c) positive. ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°.8. Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multi-stage RC coupled amplifier. 203 .6. the gain and phase shift with feedback determined. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. (b) negative. and by measurement of vectors or by calculation. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6. Forasinglestage amplifier. IJvo ~ -~vo t's (b) -f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5.11 for Example 5.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl.

the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle. The origin of the (1 . 02Q. we must find. The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. For this. and 02R are the (1 . To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback.ßA) vector.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference.9a. the vector (I . then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. and /h respectively. Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift. having its origin on the circumference. Since this is the locus of (. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.ßA). origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . and we require (1 . we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( -ßA).atfm.9b. for each frequency. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown. This is shown in Figure 6. Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ß-io L ()0. Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X.9a ft (a) Figure 6. fm .9.(l. and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left. Next the locus of -ßA is required.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency.9a.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 . In Figure 6. the scale of Figure 6.9b.ßA). each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6.ßA) vector would remain at 01.9b iscorrect. The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6.ßA)is3 L 0°. From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages. 02P. Thus Figure 6.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1.

The same cardioid may be used to represent (. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . 205 .10a and b. Examination of Figure 6 . say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter. draw the overall gain and phase response. A table may now be drawn up.4. A two stage amplifier. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response.6. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520.= 880. it is applied over two or more stages.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L -26·5° respectively. the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20.ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.10b is to apply to the problern in hand. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point -ßA = -(3 520 X -8·5 X I0-4) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm. If the ß factor is -8·5 x I0-4 . This will now be illustrated by an example. Example 6.ßA I can never be less than one.ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L -26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = . the gain must be squared. With reference to Table 6.9b shows that 11 . having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5. Before we can apply the methods outlined above. the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined. If Figure 6. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted. This is shown in Figure 6. Since at each frequency.5. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram.ßA) and (1 .

10.1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 -129° -87° 0·01 972 -32° 0·02 870 -15° 0·03 879 -70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° .24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3. cp' = 38°. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6.ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined. Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1-.1.ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 . Table 6. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11.ßA).THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .

phase shift. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback. To obtain the relative gain in each case. 207 .FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback.. and relative gain against log frequency.. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency.. Figure 6.lfl ~ +250° 1-0 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° -00 -50° 0·4 -1500 -250° Figure 6. it is convenient to plot graphs of gain.11 shows graphs of gain..I:. From these curves the following results may be obtained.11.. relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback.:c .. Graphs of gain. :. ~co (/) co·- fU~ <llOl o. relative gain and phase <ll <ll > ..r:. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency.

THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l .10b shows that this will occur when 11 . the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage. Examination of Figure 6. For the locus shown in Figure 6.12 shows the form of the locus of -ßA and (1 . Figure 6. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l . This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks. but it cannot rise to infinity. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. The origin 01 isthat applicable to the -ßA locus. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency. then 11 .ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. Consideration of Figure 6. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges.12b the amplifier must have four stages.ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l . In each case the distance to 01 must be unity.ßA) scale. 03. and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation.11. are possible origins for the (1 . we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback. and since it is not symmetrical.ßAol is also reduced. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 . In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive. was cut by the locus. the origin for -ßA.ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus. 04 etc. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6.10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. and if this distance is smaller. Figure 6. allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. 02.ßA). If the origin for (1 .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback. -ßA and hence ß must be 208 . Oz. In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies.

i. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case.e. giving positive feedback.ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75. 03 is the origin for (1 .= -0 = 1-ßA .ßAI is zero and Ar A A =.e. If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li . no input is required for an output to be present.ßA I is about . The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies.ßAI cannot equal zero. (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6. Locus of (1 .FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger. In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously.ßAI is at 03. With the origin at 02 li . 209 . since the gain is infinite.. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased.ßA) with more feedback than 02. Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased. but it can be less than one. oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4. i.12.

the amplifier will be unstable. that is troublesome. U nstable. care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier. but if it is applied over three or more stages. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. Origin Position 02-03 Oa-04 04-0s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. bandwidth increased. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. oscillation at /1 only. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. or second harmonic. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. Unstable. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 . we might expect a stable condition again.12b is given below. positive FB at high and low frequencies. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency. but also voltages at twice. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. In general the non-Iinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for.

+ ßD + ßD (6. The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced. Consider the system shown in Figure 6.ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6. and O·I V at 3 kHz.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D . and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel.13.30 into equation 6.13.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on non-linear distortion Since we have an amplifier.28 So = AS' 1 .ßA) and (6.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback.30) 1. So = AS' +D (6. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6. 0·5 V at 2kHz. So must contain a component AS'.29) S'(l .

But from equation 6.31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6.6 212 .ßA D (6. Example 6. 2 I• Feedback .32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel.ßA AßD + +D .AßD I . This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I .14..14. using the methods described in Chapter 1. A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6.31) + 1. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively. Figure 6..6.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6.ßA ASt = I .

and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present. Now toreturn to the problem. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. Figure 6. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero.15. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ß-ß' 2(6. In Figure 6.T.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 .15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal. + ß') x 100 per cent Further. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'. on Figure 6. Severe distortion :. and es is 2·5 sin wtV. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor.

11. load line. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V. load line for 40 kQ. The resulting d.D. but ß may be obtained from equation 6. has been drawn. (b) Without feedback. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = -hRK t es and -hRK- es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. as has the d. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed.c.c.c. VaK -3 V.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected. h 1·5 mA. the operating point moves between VBK -0·5 V to VaK -5·5 V. current derived negative feedback is applied. bias line for 2 kQ. Peak Vo 191 .H. = 2 x 4 . Peak v0 = 194. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter.c. But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 . The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d. along a 38 kQ a. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . operating point is VAK 139 V.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 0-47 S. es must be increased. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained.

since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case.16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . In other words.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. In the 215 . From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. Figure 6. = 2 x 4 .24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% ------n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger.H.D. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S.-1-9 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component. Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result. In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. v0 with feedback is slightly distorted. ßv0 is also slightly distorted. ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier.

0·012. 216 . A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain. In a prototype. and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined.------v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) --es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo -5 200 (distorted) . Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain.16. 80. Ans.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits. Waveforms for Example 6.7.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500.

The amplifier described in Example 6.10. 24·5. (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback. 91·2.8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. 4·96 kO. 47·5 kO. Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 .11. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. 48·8 0. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0. Example 6. A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. Ans.!l Figure 6. and 400kfi -10' i ' 2k.umho.EXAMPLES Example 6. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance. If the load and source are unchanged.9. Ans. 25·8 kO. Ans. 169 0. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO. 1 013 . Example 6.17. Circuit for Example 6. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. determine the current ratio i0 /i8 . Example 6. 38·7.umho. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. For the circuit shown in Figure 8 217 .

Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L -45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L-65° 2 100 L -90° 3 300 L -130° 4 400 L -155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L -45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. Check your answer by calculations. Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. Example 6.Q. I I 50. (c) neither.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance. Ans.4 . Ans.12. 1/1 760. 1 MHz. Example 6. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. (a) negative. Example 6. ß L 200°. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°.3 .14. 450 kHz-oo. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. whether the feedback is positive or negative. 10. is applied. 218 . An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of -95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k. phase shifting. 0-60 Hz. Ans. (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. 161. The total loading per stage is 600 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX.13. (b) positive. Ans. 2·6 MHz. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° -30°. ß = 0·059 L -245° By means of vector diagrams. determine for each case.

B. RL 13 kO. Example 6.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. N. 8·9 per cent. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are -3 200 and 800 n respectively. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion). 2·12 MO. Ans.16.EXAMPLES Example 6. lf RK is adequately decoupled. The source impedance is 600 n. Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. calculate the value required for RF. 43 V peak to peak. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base.T. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt.15. 32 per cent. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. Ans. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. Checkthese results using feedback theory.. and RK 1·2 kO. 47 V peak to peak. 219 .F.

la shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. Figure 7. Figure 7.ßA so for simple negative feedback. INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions. The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .ßA 220 . In this shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier..1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. In this situation.I . Figure 7. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. with feedback derived from a later stage.7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations. if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined. l is = I . either A or ß must be negative. The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' .

In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter. In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered.1. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare. 221 . The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier.1 c. (a) Current amplifier. Connections for feedback amplifiers. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7.

PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier.umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ. -hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er.umho and A1' = -hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .umho = hoe = 90 . The required circuit is shown in Figure 7.24 to 6. hoe 90 . l . Figure 7. The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6.2.27 inclusive. Since hre is zero. hre 120. Y1n Yo' 1 = -hle = 1 250 . First the equivalent amplifier components are required. t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative.2.1.umho and from equation 6. In the circuit shown in Figure 7. With a . the transistor parameters are hle 800 n. Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier.- -SOkO = 12·5 . Circuit for Example 7..25 {J GF 12·5 = -h = -500 = 0·025 222 = -120 .fi h .1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback. Example 7. . For negative feedback {J must be positive.2. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO.

Y1nr = Y.'YL YL + GF + -120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = .A.99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: -99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I .ßA1o Au= -28·6 Equation 6. In each case the voltage gain was reduced. or by finding 1 ~pA. A!o = Yo' A.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z.8.n(1 .26. This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6.ßA.umho = 2100 .7. Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods. part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6. .') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .12 and 6. and with the equivalent circuit problems.3 shows how the 223 . Figure 7. 6.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback. 6.n. the input and output impedances were increased. 6.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l .umho The resu1ting output impedance -i-or = 476 n.13).o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6.11.umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.umho + 99·6 X 0·025) .

using the notation shown. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now. Current derived.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +-. 224 . The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7.3. =V'.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback. since V' is less than es.

n Figure 7. the circuit YL of 250 .4.umho and hre 90. Using feedback methods. for Z1n.12.umho 900 =-!. Circuit for Example 7. and the output impedance. hre 5 X 10-4..7 Avo -1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 .2 and current gain.4 Z1n = 900.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero. we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7.90 -90 X 5 X 10-4 =- 1300 Note. hoe 125 . = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6. As with the last example.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)10-6. A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0.11 and 6.33 = 225 -283 .. find the terminal voltage 4k.2. Yo' = 125 X 10-6 - Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ-4 = 75 . the output voltage and current.Cl 1k . Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10. 6.

8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V.13.7 =56 226 .umho Now using potential divider methods.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t -283 283 = -3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.uA To calculate the terminal current gain. RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly.56·2 m = 15·7 . the base input current ib is required. To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ-6 A = 880 . _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 . Working in admittances.uA . and Vo = 3·48 V. the overall input impedance should include the bias components. = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance. . 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 .

which would slightly modify ß. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback.8 + 0.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At -hreYL = -----=-YL + hoe -90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = . The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 . This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ .5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high. but when the bias components are included. 1. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations. Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr -hreZL hte = -90 X 4 000 900 = -400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3.

A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2.5. the solutions may be found from equations 6. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence.5. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter. An and Z1n1. Since we have current derived current feedback. since. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). the steps in the solution will be: A12. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. So. will be.15 to 6. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. Yor. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 . A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL.23. 228 . thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2). as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7.signs.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (-ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. making approximations where valid. Here. The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). Au and Ztnr.

hoe 150 . and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r.f.3. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent. must be changed if the 400.umho.6.m.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. shown in Figure 7.3 required output current is to be maintained.f.6. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. hre 140.s.!1 Gz Figure 7.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X -hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + -hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X -I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X - 0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 . If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed. of a driving source.m. Circuit for Example 7.m. The output current in the amplifier. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base. of internal impedance 600 n. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil. Determine also by how much the e.

ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 .f.!i:l'-) kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6. -140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10. D Dr = I .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e. = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho. and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.6 =-51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + . Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.m.32.




and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho

ß --

This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:



Ztnr =

450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150

But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000

5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000

112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV

Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate four-terminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can


find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r------------- -,





L -








- -- -




- - -

- - - - __ J


L------ - - - - - - - - - - - Figure 7.7. Interconnected four-terminal network circuit for
Example 7.4

the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two four-terminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.

These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.


Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:



vl = yu = 100 kil =

10 ,umho

Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,



= 100kil

= v1 =

-10 ,umho

But the network is symmetrical, so


y12 = -10 ,umho

10 ,umho,

Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero



= -hte =

1 000 ,umho

where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and

= hoe = 100 ,umho

where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:

h = -

X -





hoe + YLI + Ytn2


X hoe


+ Ytn3




Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.




= 729

1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
-90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho

x 2. 1 x 2 . 1



165·5 mho


Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.


The combined parameters may now be written,



1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho



-10 ,umho
110 ,umho

The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,

-10 X 165·5 X 106

= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10-a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho


From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:

~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
yu(y22 + YL) - y21Y12
I65·5 X 10-6 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000) - ( -IO X I65·5
= -1..,..0_10__x--II.,..,0---










+ 10


To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.


= y22- yu +

Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho

with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.


The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.

Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ


of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.




Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5

To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05




Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,




Vr = (1

+ ßA1A2)

+ ßA1A2)

Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only

6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 -0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. overall gain and input impedance with feedback. (6) U sing ßof0·05. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz.umho -100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)10-6 - 83 "4 1 kO 1 000 . The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.6 = . We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits. resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network.umho = 1100 . (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 . it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage.8. (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note. hz =(I 000 + 100) .umho -100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10. This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q-6 -47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 .

3) 238 .9 and solve by nodal analysis. i1 the base current for Tri. Ii• Figure 7.5 First.9.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7.1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7.05 = 16·1 (7. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 t-tmho = 1 000 t-tmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = -0·98 x -83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7.

6. V2 = . admittance must be expressed in mmho.4) i2 = -47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions. and l2 -hreV1 = -IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)10-6 V V2 -IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts.6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1.3 and 7.0·105Vo -100(-47·5)Vl ~ -0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr.O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = -0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105). Substituting from equation 7.0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2. 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7.5.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 .524 = 241 v1 (7. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2.524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.7) .

we shall consider a valve amplifier.1 and 7.8 with results 7. The remaining procedure then follows normal four-terminal network practice. The current amplifier for Example 7. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added.. The circuits for Examples 7.4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters.7 and 7. ll = 242 kO 1 (7 . an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback.2 respectively (16.~. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon four-terminal network theory was not used for this example. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages. and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). and the circuit for Example 7. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · . d ance = -:Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :. Forthis situation. Apart from this.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified. is ib + ic. since h for the amplifier is ib. 240 . h for the network.1 and 7. while the current flowing out of the common terminal. the overall h parameters would be obtained.8) Comparing results 7. Unfortunately this is not valid. Other situations however do permit the four-terminal network approach. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. and in parallel with the output of the amplifier. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback.1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. suggesting the use of g parameters..

There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at -30. Figure 7. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ.6 When no feedback is applied. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad.10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. 10k.ll. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = -gmRe = -3 X lQ. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7. ra 1 MQ.9) .6. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (-30)3 Re~RL Avm = -27 X X 104 = -30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages.10. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.3 :.

w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 -27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ-8 +4 25 1Q-15w2 . 242 . X lQ-30) w2=----------~~~~~~--------~ -5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ-15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ-15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies.1 -5 X 10-15 ± y(25 X lQ-30 12·5 X 1Q-3o X 1Q-16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S. Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.2 X 25 X 1Q-l6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q-30w4 +5 X X 10-32w4 X or (7.I0-12 X 1 . and there is overall current derived feedback.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab -27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7.9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 .w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 .10) + j2wC Re .

11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( -18·75)2 = -10 580 X -30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1. but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage.12) ... -10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3. At this frequency....92 = X 10_4 -2060 At the upper 3 db frequency..gmZL = 25·35/180° - But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L -32° 36' .-------.02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 ... in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = -30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104 - (7. 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 10-4 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' f-lmho h 1 = YL2 = 10-4 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L -32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = .THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback. the overall ßis unchanged..~-o-: 243 (7.-..

7 350 x 3·92 X I0-4 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .1 + I·2I._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ---::2-=-s.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' . The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique. This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6. Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i.11.ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I .-=3-=-5-x--::0-:·2:-=_ _ _ _ _ __ I - L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 .6 - = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 . Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 . The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored.ßAm = = Ah I 1 . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 . but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback.j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L -49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback. Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad.

10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 . at high frequency.w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27. 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q-32w4 . Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values.COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .11.27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q-28 + 1·69 12·5 X I0-30 =0 X 10-28) --------~~~------~--------~ 3·66 w2 = .w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2.1·6 X 1Q-14w2 . ß for the local Figure 7.x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=-:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored.27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10-s. In the last example. Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 . negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio.6·4w2Cs2Re2 .ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 10-4 X 10 580 = v'2ll .ßAml But v'2 -4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe .

The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately -hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. -hreZL . Taking account of the components shown.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. say. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO.11. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. is to prevent instability. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 t-tF then CE must be 0·0025 pF.12). hte 1 kO. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel. If overall feedback is applied to. Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(10-3 ::25 X 10-10) j10-2 + jw2·5 X 10-Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect.

12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback. COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . (b) (a) Figure 7.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier.12. Figure 7. This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors.

the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. In Figure 7.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present.13. will now be considered. The circuit shown in Figure 7. based on this circuit.7.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. The procedure would be to determine first. second to find Av1 and An including local feedback . A final example. Circuit for Example 7.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . finally to account for the effect of current feedback.c.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d. Example 7. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7.

umho and hre negligible. hre I40.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q. The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0. hoe I20 .6 = .umho). All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency.89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q-6 = 0·1395 -77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = -6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q . -140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 .umho -140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)10-6 = -?? 12000 -140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = . Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = .352 and and A 13 = -140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 .

834 Overall At= l 389 = -4·9 X X -77·5 X -89 -20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0.umho = 0·74 .umho = 1 389 .4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1. then Ytn = 105 .umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri.umho By current division -140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = .389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 10-3 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10-a x 212 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 . then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.uA 250 .umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier. Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.

-6·72.11 using feedback methods. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . 251 . Ans. Example 7. 4·88 kQ. wlt. -10·5.20x 300 3. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base. RL1 4 kQ. -1·97. hoe 125 ftiDho. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. 6·8 kQ. Example 7. 264 Q. Ans. 17·5 kQ. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit.19 using feedback methods. EXAMPLES Example 7. Example 7. Ans. -11·4. Repeat Example 4. in any particular situation. Repeat Example 5.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam . feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. Ans. including those with common base or common collector stages.8.5 x 10_3 = -20 300 = -282 72 = -282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. RL2 1 kQ. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. Repeat Example 4. Many other forms are used. 656 Q. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better.9. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations. Example 7. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. -9·62.10 using feedback methods. For convenience.10. 525.11. 490 !2. For more general analysis. Ans. Repeat Example 5.12.13 using feedback methods.

Q resistor connected between them. 0·475 V. hoe I25 .Q feedback resistor.Q. Feedback is provided by a 400 . 3·98 k. Example 7. Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance.Q.16. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components.umho.Q and 100 .Q.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k. Example 7.Q. and hre 0.Q.Q.14. 200 k.Q. 43·5.13. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base. Ans. Figure 7.15.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter.14.Q per stage. 0·004 . RLl 2 k.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Ans. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 .m.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory. RL2 4 k.Q.17 252 . A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n.Q in parallel with 8 k. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. -250. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7.f. hre 60 and hre 0.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k.Q per stage.14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 . Repeat Example 7.umho. Ans. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 . Circuit for Example 7. hoe 100 . Example 7. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k.Q. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance. 0·224 . hre 75. Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e.Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k.

(a) 46·1. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. (b) -18 4oo. Circuits for Example 7. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. hoe 80 . 83 mV. (c) Figure 7. Find also the resulting output voltage.15. calcu1ate the required value of Rp. and an open circuit valtage gain of -150. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. Ans. hre 140. (c) -77·3. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0.17.EXAMPLES Example 7. 287. 253 . 10k. kO. 17 kO. Example 7. Calculate Av.18. 95 n. At. 6·23 kO.15. -1 310. 4·5 kO. The amplifier shown in Figure 7.O. and neg1igible hre.umho. Zout 2 2MO. -1 820. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. 88·5 n. Ans.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO.14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0.

The amplifier shown in Figure 7. 254 . Figure 7. hre 100. The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. 0·99 MHz. Circuit for Example 7. Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. hoe 125 . 212.umho and hre 0.O.16. Ans.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n.19.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF.

is to be infinite. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200.f. (1/ß) at that frequency. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°. We shall consider four cases.1) If the gain. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1- lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. This resulted in self oscillation. Then if A ?. two conditions must be fulfilled. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. 255 .m. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages.000 MHz. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero. For oscillation at a particular frequency. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. Ar. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. or an output when no inputwas present.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6. the system will oscillate.

..1.Xc1Xc2 .jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 .1. V2 V1 - -jXc2R2 ~~--~~~--~~~--~~~--~~~ R1R2 . In equation 8. ß will have the required angle.jXc2R2 ß= and if (8.jR1Xc2 . i. X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8.jXc2). having no imaginary component.e. Thus the whole expression must be real. the angle of the numerator is -90°. This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero.2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°. R1R2 - XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = .J C2 .OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°.4) .jR2Xc1 .X 2.2. Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.R .J X c1 . Using normal potential division methods.3) (8.X - The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. we can write -jXc2R2 V2 = R2 .

and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier._J wC 257 .6) If. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8. Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: -jXc2R2 -jR2Xc1. So. 1 (8. wC R. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier.5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency. cancelling the -j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =-+-+ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC).jR1Xcz. Suitable values of R1. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R--. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive. as before.

7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance. jCR Z=R-C- =R [( .J) (8. Taking typical 1-l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively. the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 . jR2 C C jCR R-C j] = -3 R (. 2 1 ... (1 .2. Figure 8.2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles. The feedback network has equal capacitors. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3. The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance.OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8.J) ..2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz. and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8. Figure 8. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3.j) 1 . Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil. and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite.5.

2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz. When the supplies are switched an.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. This process is shawn in Figure 8. 259 . A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. supplies switched aff.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50.2a. Applying equatian 8. either because af change in parameters with large signals. The circuit begins ta ascillate. Figure 8. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO. say 1 kO. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall.3. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming.c. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. and hre Av~h-ZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required.

3. supply and that the d. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8. This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f.3d).c.c.c.c.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.3b. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8. In Figure 8. supply voltage.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 .b. Figure 8. Since ß is one third. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = -4 V. network -2 ~-'---t----r-----'--\----r---'----t---r----l-4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off -6 -8 Figure 8. conditions Figure 8.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced. Limitation of amplitude by d.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d.

..t. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.4.2·67- The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it. Since negative feedback is employed. R1 Figure 8. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude.c. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel.4 shows a circuit employing this technique..3g is nearly sinusoidal. Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß.en_t_al_o-'-/~p __8__ 3 i/p .c. 261 .RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8. Figure 8. Then as the signal amplitude increases.. Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs.. the input impedance for Trl will be large.

When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.5. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain. .2. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators.y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + .w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8.. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown. the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents. f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8.c. In this case. Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division. A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal. Following the same reasoning.t.). in this case negative (n.OSCILLATORS path.. The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals. we may deduce that for zero phase shift w -j(G1G2) _ - C1C2 1 .5. jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= . C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C.8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8.10) . at the required frequency.

therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance. Example 8.12).11) which. The amplifier shown in Figure 8. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = -ß = h. This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift. for equal components = 3. and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift.= 1 + -Gz + -Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8.1. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex. and -12V Figure 8.6. If YL ~ Yo.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. Since the Ioad is reactive (8. and to reduce the output admittance as required. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance. it must have zero phase shift. The input a. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived.6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8. current feedback.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered. Amplifier circuit for Example 8.1 263 . Yo may be neglected.

series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz.umho (47·6/3) . 750 n.e. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO. The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo = - = 100 1 017 . All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d. removing any possibility of loading by the network. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel. conditions and stability. i.umho -100 1 500(1 100)10-6 =- 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local -60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= -1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6. the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. hoe 90 . the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network. Thus for the calculation of Avo.umho. Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= -47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 10-6 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 .c. But feedback must reduce this to 3. hre 100 and hre 0.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 .

2·7k.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 .----'VI --t 0006J.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency.t .c. The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.7.F 5·2k.7. Now.313 .Q. by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold.U F = 0·006 p.1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil. = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone. 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 .Q . Figure 8.1F 0·006 f-LF n. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. 265 . f 21r~R (equation 8. Solution for Example 8.I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3.

h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho). Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network.OSCILLATORS Finally. the voltage gain is required.j) = 7·8(1 . 1 kO. Neglecting hoe.ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 .j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier.12) and putting G as 1 mmho. -hre Avo=h-Y !e L and (1 . to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied. taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 . Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8. Forthis calculation. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor.umho . the R will be the Ioad of Tr2.

RC OSCILLATORS The current gain.umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO.0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 . 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory. including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I .ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 . The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 . Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 .ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T-1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor.33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.

uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. 1k. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate.10. The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks.8. 1k Q Figure 8. at a particular frequency. From equation 8.I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used. All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.c. Solution for Example 8. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 .OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally.t.8.uF = 0·03 . 0 03 f-!F n.O. 268 . to give 180° phase shift.ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .

9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively.9. phase shifting. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. ß. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. is I/29th. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 .RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits. With these circuits. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified. With the circuit in Figure 8. Figure 8.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors. but forthat in Figure 8.9.9b. such networks may be either voltage. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. or current. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8.9a. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8.

GVa -GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 -GV1 Node 3: 270 (8. and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis. Example 8.10. Only one example will be considered here.14) . 20 X 5 --g-x Ztn = 20 X 1 5 --g-+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) . Oscillator circuit for Example 8. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components. The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis. From first principles. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8.2.10.OSCILLATORS network component. Figure 8.umho respectively and hre can be neglected.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) . hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 .

.= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8... ß= Ga Ga .17) (8.5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8...15) + j3wCG2 - 4w2C2G .. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero .0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG .14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined.18 ß= G2 -1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8.jwCG2 (8 . equation 8.jwaca ..2G3 + j4wCG2 - w2C2G - jwCG2 (8.w2C 2) ...18) At this frequency...2Ga .-G G+jwC 0 -G 2G + jwC -G 0 -G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2.G2] + G[ -G(2G + jwC).19) . and or w = Gy'6 -c rad/sec v'6. -G G+jwC -G 2G 0 ltn + jwC -G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X .....0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2. 16) If ß is to be real.RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants.

17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this.2Ga .2G3 .jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C .jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 . the current gain may be taken as At = -hre X y tn =- Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be -29.OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG -= 3G2G' + j4wCGG' - w2C2) . · from equation 8.4w2C2G .jwaca . and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this. Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8.14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and re-writing equation 8. first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC.

4w2 C2G . if an a. Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 -----34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance.2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =---------------------w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G' - = 4·65 - G2 - ---c. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.c. With these. second. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. the current iL 273 . the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho. Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. first. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. Thus.34·5 . y[(4 X 1·938 X 10-6) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ-6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 10-8 = 13-1kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G' - Ga . signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk.11.2·5 . At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit. Neglecting the effect of r. - 1·25 10·7 . frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. . the anode voltage ( -[IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal. and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance.

11.3. A tuned anode oscillator methods. This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. 274 . A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form.T. Figure 8. If this is such that Vgk is given by -jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. If two coils have mutual inductance between them. Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C. The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 .OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°.12. the system will oscillate. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols. At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. As a result of the mutual inductance M. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large.+ Figure 8. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa .

L a = -ra + J VawC + r + jOJ .21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra - w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now. therefore Va may be cancelled. Real parts. the required results can be obtained. dividing by w. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation. + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8. ±JwMgm Va . 275 (8. La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0.12. but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0. Va Va + JW .LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: .22) . and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. Figure 8.20) (8. + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts.

Now from wL Q r=- and rl = 106 X 5 X 10-3 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 10-4 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging. we can see that if !-' is sufficiently large.20. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !-' are known. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 10-4 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil.21. La Crra (8. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1.23: fJ. 1 C=-47T2. from equation 8.=-+- M M First. equation 8. = 5 X I0-3 10_4 + 200 X 10-12 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !-' of only 40.f2La Substituting values. for each coil we can find r. so this arrangement would not oscillate. 276 . and putting 4rr2.23) fJ. Thus for each set of values.22 can be rearranged to.

of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . A tuned collector oscillator.13. (a) e (b) Figure 8. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 10-3 10-4 + 5 000 X 10-12 X 104 X 10 X 2 to-4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit. (a) Full circuit.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. the p.13. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit.

13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example. L c + jwC = lc. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 . R1. R2.27 by -jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C. 1 ) + . 278 . Re and Ce provide the correct d.25) Rearranging equation 8. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW -c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb.28) Without expansion.24) and 1 ) . C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.26. both jwMi terms will be positive. zc = -(hle 1 + jwLb)ib . the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated.13a shows the complete circuit.26) Substituting for ic in 8. By mesh analysis: 1 (8.25 from 8. L c + :--c JW lb = J. (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8. M" .27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.f. M JW .j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft -hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8.: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated.13b. The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e. lb · M"lb + JW (8.OSCILLATORS Figure 8.c. Thus multiplying equation 8.24 . operating point.m.

w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol.4.+--L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8.29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8.30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C -M . 1 Lc'C w2=::=-- (8.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb.32) Example 8.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'..h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 .

1·6mH 100fi 2k. First the values of C and M are required. and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.14. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .6 I0-3 I0-3 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I0-6 62·5 + 2·5 X X 10-12 4 X + 1·6 X 10. Figure 8.umho = 625 . Circuit for the solution of Example 8.umho. Since 1 1012 w = 106. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 .4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series. C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I0-3 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I0-3 === 1012 106 =-Hz 27T Also from 8.32.OSCILLATORS of hre. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) .O.14.

Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ. the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2.y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation.j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2- Now w - 0·753 X 10-3 X 625 X 10-12 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 . 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained. 10 281 . since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' .j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720. h _ 1 010 tmmum re - = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 10-6 H 625 X 10-12 2·74 10-1 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 10-6 10-4.0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 . The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' .LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 10-3 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7.

Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods. YLl and YL2.umho and negligible hre. One further example will be considered. h1e 1 300 0. hoe 125 . Figure 8. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance. and by combining Rm. and RB2.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. Example 8.16c is obtained by combining h0 e. and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent. 282 . and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency.15.5.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8. and h1e together as h1e'. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation.15. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. The simplified version in Figure 8.

1H (c) (a) L c.33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) .5. (b) Equivalent circuit. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.34) L 200f.34) . (b) Figure 8. 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.16.umho (8.

' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 . Node 2: v2 1 .hre ii I = - vl jwL + V2 ...38 into 8.-:--L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8.36) . V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled..36 (8.37) (8.41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (-:-C:::-1-+-C:::-2-:-)h:-t-:el 1 284 ) (8.OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis.oC1 + JW :--L h Node 1: .39 and h from 8. -hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel .42) . 1 ) o = v1 ( -h + y. Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = -wL + wLh -..+ wC2 . But (h I (8.37.38) ll=-1 hte and from equation 8.h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8..wL wLh 1 .w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8. LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .39) Substituting for V2 from 8.w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.40) Following the usual technique..

LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1.44) 285 ..074) 107 co = 1.CO2LCl)h.40.41 1 (8. -hre' = ( I .umho = 793 ..35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent. the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09. For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8.umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO. + -. jcoL ( JCOC2-· j ) --.325 = 468 . hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2 - 1 (8. whichinequation8.-::--::-::--::-::-::..42becomes 1·092 = 1·18.umho YL2 = 793. 101 2 ( 200 X I0-6 X 325 X I0-6) co 2 1 + --:-:--::-::--.200 X I0-6 X 91 1 100 X I0-12 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0. Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero. 200 X t0-6YL' 1100 X 10-12 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 .43) But from equation 8.

but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load. 21·25. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. Ans. EXAMPLES Example 8. network 22·2 kQ.6. and an accurate analysis should include these components. this is no Ionger true. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 f-LF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator.F.7. Find also the frequency of oscillation. In the extreme case shown above.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q.c. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ.D. P. The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . Tuningrange for available variable capacitor. Example 8.J. 1 kQ. Ce and Cs may be neglected. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation. Frequency stability with change of d. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. supplies. 3·5 kHz. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits.

0.17 is connected between output and input.uF. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr. hoe 125 .7 and the frequency of oscillation. Ans. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8. 287 . 1·43 kHz.umho and hre 0. In the absence of a negative feedback network. Example 8. Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz. hte 1·3 kO.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 . Circuit for Example 8.1F Figure 8.18. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ. Circuit for Example 8.umho. 0·074 . Calculate the value of R' . Ans.8 C2.18 employs transistors with hre 90. 0·56 0.8./p Tr2 collector 5k .17. R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. 65. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz. 1k l"25J.

Ans.OSCILLATORS Example 8. 3·23 kQ. hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. The oscillator shown in Figure 8. 0·0066 . Ans.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 . Figure 8.m. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8.T.10. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk. lower it. 0·286 . output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz.9 frequency? Determine the r.umho. Circuit for Example 8. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator. 61·5 V.9. 1·3 kHz. 35. 288 . hre 120.19.c. calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation.) Example 8. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors.umho.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz. bias voltage of -4 V.11.uF. 383 Q.s. Example 8.uF. hoe 150 .

I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n.EXAMPLES ________-----~ ~----~1-c Figure 8. If the valve in Example 8. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60. 0·02. Example 8.11 Example 8. 1 380 pF. 8·2 kHz. Neglect the effect of hoe.13. 970 pF. Circuit for Example 8. Ans. Circuit for Example 8. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. Ans.21.20. A current amplifier. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. hre and the bias components. (b) the minimum coupling between the coils. I! 289 . Determine (a) the tuning capacitor.21.12 Example 8. 46. -16.14. 0·785.12. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. is tobe used as an oscillator. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. I 160 pF. ra 5 kQ.

Figure 8. Ans. hre. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. 28 Q.OSCILLATORS Example 8. Circuit for Example 8.15. Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected. 840kHz.16. 290 .22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 . Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe. 1 080 pF. bias components and coil resistance.22.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations. Example 8.umho.

we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits.5 k (a) Figure 9. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device. In this chapter... p. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance..___. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve. These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors.9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal. a ._ca~. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced... The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag.1.1a.._____ --} ____. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium.

i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown.5.4 and 9. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. To analyse this situation. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF. but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included.3. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain.2. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage.6) .2.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9.') 292 (9. i2 = jwCag(Vgk - Vo) (9. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc- Figure 9.4) (9. From equations 9. 9.2. Cak and any externalload present. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown. and with reference to Figure 9. 9. i (9. By inspection. including ra.1) Yln=- Vgk (9.

gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors.1. Cag 1·5 pF. Since the gain of a stage is given by . Cak 1 pF.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' . X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance.10) If ZL' is approximately resistive.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . and the 20 kQ load. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec.11) If ZL' is capacitive. Equation 9. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF.3. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL').gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve. Cgk 2·5 pF. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V.33° 42' 293 . = 5·~5 L YL -33° 42' = 4·6 .10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak. YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ-12 X 106 . If ZL' is inductive. The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9.1.3. G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. ra 10 kQ.wCaggmX' (9. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = --!..

Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 10-12 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 . ra. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance.j8•25 = Yu' = 4. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L -66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 30·8)) X 106 . If the anode 1oad is inductive. the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 . Rg.782 + 8. this becomes. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback. the remainder being provided by RL.252 kO = 0·0525 = -10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO -(0·525 . in the RC coupled common cathode configuration.j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L -93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9.11.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9.

First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF. In practice.1....50= 50 pF. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9. Rg . The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH..4a. . determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR'). A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a non-decaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency.J. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9. 1 w2=:=- LC C 1012 I0-4 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :. 1 I I I . Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9.4b. Valve input capacitance = 100.. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9...2. 295 .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit.4.4a and the valve used in Example 9.1.

20 X I0-10 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 10-12 X Inserting values. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. the negative input conductance to the valve. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit.uH 107 10X' G~. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book.uH) and the electron transit time. and the collector base junctions.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values. must equal Go. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n. An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex.L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 10-4 = X 50 I0-10 10_4 ll = 20 ~>-' mho For oscillation. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 13-3 . (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF.u and ra. and there is the 296 . the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 . Pentodes also have the advantage of very high . two further effects must be considered. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits.

In addition the current gain IX or IX'.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. rb·e 250 . In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. 300 . but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa.40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type. is reduced with increase in frequency.5 000 pF rce 20 . /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db. The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 .40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 . The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data.5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection.5. depending on configuration. cb'C 5 . For any particular transistor type. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation. In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency.250 Q. is approached. i. 297 .5 Mn.3 000 Q. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave.30 pF. Figure 9. to approximately 0·7. 'b'C 2 .e. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits.

fb•e. Cb·e 150 pF.~. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho.j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000 - j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L -9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = -22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = -22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J .Vce(O· 39 + j94) -38 OOOVb•e = . A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz. Cb'e 15 pF. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) . gce = 8·2 11mho.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb'- jXbefb•e . Working in f-lA. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ.JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 f-lA. rb·e 790 Q. rb•e 2·6 MQ. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V. 1012 For Cb•e.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . gb·c gL = 2011mho. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho.13) (38 000 . Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined. If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. volts.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only.12) (9.

In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO.13. output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L -102 o = 9·4 L o -102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the -j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9. the effect of rw must be included. the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad.gmZL'Vb. Neglecting rb·c.c.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I0-6 X 103 = 16·6 X I0-3 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L -85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = . lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small.14) If the overall voltage gain is required. This approach will be used for the second part of the question. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L -85° 42' Q .e Vce = -38 X 2 X 0·06 L -85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9.

c. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit.14 and 9. In some cases. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. the four parameters are all comp1ex. for transistors intended for high frequency applications. arealso supplied. conditions. In the published data. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = -~-· 10-3 x 4·5 L +94° = 10-6 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L -37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation. 300 . the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. app1ying equations 9. At these high frequencies.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' -=1+- = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible.15) Overall vo1tage gain. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point.


and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.

Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
four-terminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier








Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration

with a resistive load, and secondly a multi-stage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:

+ jl3w

X 10-12) mho

Yre 500 X I0- 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 10-6

+ j2w

X 10-12)


If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 f-lA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,




= yu- yzz +


- yz1
= yu(y22 + YL)- y21Y12


We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.


At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 10-6 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 10-6 mho


10-12 mho




10-12 mho

Now working in millimhos:
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28


+ Jl6-

17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o

= 28 + j16- 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02- j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho

j6·5 sin 108°

Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
10(30 + j10)
ltn- (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) f-l
_ 10(3 + j)(4 - j1·5) A
16 + 2·25

= 0·548(12

+ 1·5 + j4 -

j4·5) f-lA

= 7·4 - j0·274 f-lA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 f-lA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.





34 L 292°

= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5)- 34 L 292°
-0·252 L 292°

x 0·5 L 250° V

20·2- 40 + j11·5 + j70- 17(cos 182°
-0·252 L 292°
- -19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV

= 2·8mV


+ j sin 182°)



If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from


I Ytnl


7·4 X I0-6
v(32 + 12) X 10-2 V

= 0·232 mV
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE- 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE- 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°

The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.

RF 2

Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5

The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.


In each case the required operating point is VcE- 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:

VcE = -6 = -10
Taking lE === Ic


+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +


+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ


The stability factor

+(X')+ RB= 0·05

K = RE(l

RB= Ra+ R 4 and
Insertmg values 0·05

Also V'


+ RFI) = 3 kQ


3 +RB

= 3( 1 + 150) +RB

+ RB =


RE= (RE2


60 + 20RB
-19 = 20·9 kQ





(using conventional polarities)

= -=V_c_,c_R_4_


Ra+ R4

f co'

- -rJ.IIB=



lB =

1 000

--.sü -

2 t-tA

= 4·7 t-tA
V' = -20·9 X 0·0047 - 3 - 0·3
= -3·4 V


Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
Ra+ R4


20' 9 =Ra+ R4


-3·4 =



From equation 9.23
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9



Ra= 61·5 kQ

Substitutingin equation 9.25
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ

In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.

= 68 kQ

= 33 kQ

and R4

Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.

Xe= 30 Q

= 2n450



From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.

A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should

be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18


RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ

From stability considerations:
1 +RB

0"05 = 151 +RB


+ RB =



+ 20RB

RB= 6·9kQ
RB= R1 + R2



Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= -0·0047


6·9- 1- 0·3

V'= -10R2
R1 + R2

= -1·33 V


From 9.27


+ R2 =


1.33 = 7·5R2



Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ

So, from 9.28,



= 8 kQ

In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 J-lF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.

= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho




X 1Q3





X 1Q3



37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho



From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,




0·004 L 270°

= 0·25 + j0·05- 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho

Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25

+ j0·05- 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05- 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho


To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
h(yoe + YL) - 0
v1 =

v2 =

0- hyre



-yre vl . To find the overall current gain. may be obtained from equation 9. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents. current splitting factors due to bias components. · First we must find the effective load on Trl.JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1 - -37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9. YLI err.31 by 9.32.32) YL) .3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9. 37 L 180° L 38° 42' -37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9. Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included.Yoe + YL -37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 = - Av (9.33) The current gain.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9. YL1. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 .30 A v-Substituting values v2.29.32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 . which is unaffected by the local feedback.31. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j .

0 . .33. 9.36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9.0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 . At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' . 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .5 L 1o 42 .32 neg1ecting Yoe. 9. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 .34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 --=--=------:-7---:-:--::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 .' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9. = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :.37) 308 .35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9. -37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 -37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9. 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9.35 and 9.5 L 1o 42 .34.36.

ß= 2·21 2 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary. But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I0-2(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()-2 X 3 = l _ 0 . 309 .7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle.38 is obviously correct.79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 10-2 mmho = 43 k. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß.13 ß= -540 ± -540 ± = 0 -yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 -540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104 - Taking the positive sign. and 100 = I+ ß will be real.38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Re-arranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß.8 X 1()-2 = 0·79 X 10-2 (9. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100.

They are not applicable to circuits involving large a.8. 6·86 L -27° kQ. signals or switching circuits.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.O. EXAMPLES Example 9. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9. In general. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known.. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits.6. In each case a 0·01 p.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book. 0·01 uF 47 k. Ans. Figure 9. Repeat Example 9.5 made in the above calculations. Circuit for the solution to Example 9.c.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be -10 V ::-f'"~ 1k.O. 310 . 587 L 277° 42'.8.

Av 34 L 100°. Example 9.f.uH and Q factor 25. 2 pF. yre0·02 L 320° mho. 420 pF. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9. Av 155 L 164° 30'. Yoe(150 x 1()-6 + jco x 1()-12) mho. Z1n 102 L -8° n. 37·5 L 70° 48'. Example 9. Yre 350 X 10-6 L 300° mho.3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz.8. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 10-12) mho. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. Z1n 390 L -49° n.7. having a coil of inductance 2 . transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Use the exact method at 100 kHz. Ans. An r. 311 . Ans.9. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals.EXAMPLES Example 9. 4·5. Ans.

Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1.4) In practice. The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. and P2 the output power. lf it is an attenuator. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. If P1 is the input power.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 . Also.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = -10 log10 ~: (A1. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations.

Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~. In practice.APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies. 313 . expression Al. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. even where the condition is not maintained.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al. wh and WL. If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance.

S. New York. Transistor Electronics. D. 1962.. Ryder. Hakim. Englewood Cliffs. J. New York. London. B. W. Electronics. L. 1050. Parker. 1964. New York. K. Burford and H. Pitman Technical Books. 3rd edn. McGrawHill Book Co. Feedback Circuit Analysis. 1964. Prentice-Hall. 1966. Inc.. Field Effect Transistors. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry. Sevin.. Transistors. Dean. D. J. 1966. 315 . G. New Jersey.. Verner. D. McGraw-Hill Book Co. London. Rossoff. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices. S.. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Edward Arnold Technical Books. lliffe Books Ltd. De Witt and A. 1965. Le Croissette. L. J. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.. 1957.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. London.. P.

141. 153. 18. 30 triode. 121 Collector feedback. 2.C. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. application to network analysis. transistor. 21. 151 cathode coupled. 166 common emitter. 14. current feedback. 170. 158 emitter coupled. 14. 99. 291 Feedback composite. 152 common collector. 229 Amplifier. 162 D. 235 properties. 10. 202. 153. 122 common base. 34 Darlington connection. 3. 21. 1 Ioad lines. 96. 241 graphical analysis. 17 Emitter follower. 134. voltage feedback. 15. 25. bias line. 24. 166 single stage. 212 Bias decoupling. voltage feedback. shunt applied. 306 definition. 33 Cathode follower. 34 reactive Ioads. emitter resistor stabilization. 6. current feedback. 173. 296 valve. 11. series applied. 103 diode. 182 317 . 189 current derived. 94 for high frequency. valve. 220 frequency response. 291 small signal. 5. 19 Decibel. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. 3. 31. 12 Amplification. 245 Cut off. 25. 223 three stage. 303 Biasing transistor. 21. 15. 10.INDEX A. 118 long tailed pair. 303 two stage. non-linear. 114 single stage. 212 grounded grid. 101. 195. 194. 55 Diode characteristics. 126. 240 transistor multi-stage. 181. Ioad lines. 27. 30 Complex feedback factors. 126. 222 single stage. 116 modified. 11. 152 difference. 5. 194 current derived. 247 current amplifiers. 159 feedback. voltage feedback. 127. 131. current feedback. 124 Bias stabilization. transistor approximate solutions. current feedback. 140. 4. 221 single stage. transistor. 8 characteristics. 181 RC coupled. 146 two stage. 312 Determinants. 122.C. 7 Bottoming. 235 Anode characteristics. 158. 19 operating point. 134. 24. 14. 94 Thevenin and Norton. 227. 158 multi-stage. 2. 210. 100 transistor. 231 three stage. 122. 19. 32.

101 equivalent circuits. 187. 190. 75. 245 g parameters. 185 negative. 190. 152. 201 vector diagrams. transistor. 273 tuned collector.INDEX Feedback-(Contd. transistor biasing. 66. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 282 LC. 241 voltage derived. 42 notation. 303 Superposition theorem. 202. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 261 Negative input conductance. 195. 159 common emitter. 150. 256 Output impedance. 81. 27. 198 effect on output impedance. 248 effect on output admittance. 231. 297 Input resistance. emitter resistor bias. 195. 60 318 . 74. 141. 68 interconnections. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 255 single stage RC. 248 input connections. 186. 42 applications. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 268 RC. 255 amplitude stability. 273 Miller. 143. 208 Four terminal networks. 259 crystal. 155 Potential divider. 196. 45 Oscillators. 203 voltage amplifiers. 190 gain stability. series applied. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. calculation. 184 positive. 184 Stability factors. 198 effect on input impedance. 99. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 210 effect on frequency response. 187. 184. 295 phase shift. 159. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 83. 220 instability. 50. 188. 240 Frequency compensation. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. shunt applied. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 101 general solutions. 185. 268 tuned anode. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 18 Inter-electrode capacitances. 295 current Wien bridge. 52 ' Miller feedback. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 28. 198 effect on input admittance.163 238 284 Noise.) effect on distortion. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 43 Nodalanalysis. 303 Simple negative feedback. 80. 86 common base. 184. 58. 241 effect on gain. 159 common collector. 202. 87 h parameters. 157. 119. 187 voltage derived.

68. 21. generat solutions. 105 Transistor black box representation. 3. general method. 36. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 104. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. graphical analysis. 79. 14. 85. 68 Voltage amplification. 15 output Ioad line. 5 Valve. 15 Two port networks. 21 leakage currents. 71 319 . input admittance at high frequencies. 140 fundamental current relationships. 232. general method. 84 z parameters. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 79. 102 characteristics. 300 z parameters. 27. 303 temperature effects. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 99. 23 equivalent circuit. 24 simple bias circuit. 81. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 112 y parameters. 29. 14 input Ioad line. 63.

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