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INTERMEDIATE
ELECTRONICS
R. J. MADDOCK
C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology
Book I
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
ISBN 9781489958617
ISBN 9781489958594 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/9781489958594
©
Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969
Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969
Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 6918297
PREFACE
Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
calculations.
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.
V
PREFACE
I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.
R. M.
vi
CONTENTS
Preface
v
1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .
1
2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .
42
3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
94
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.
112
5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits
140
6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.
181
7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .
220
8. Oscillators
255
9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
291
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units
312
Works for Further Reading
315
Index
317
vii
transducers such as photocells and many other devices. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. characteristics. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device. thermionic valves. D. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I V (a) (b) I Figure 1. The characteristics of a resistor . a capacitor. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices.C.c. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent nonlinearity.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various nonlinear and active devices. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the socalled d. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor.1. for example. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss. transistors. These include the various types of rectifier. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors.
QOC I (a) (b) I Figure !. while the anode current (h). For the transistor collector characteristics. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage. A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics. With multielectrode devices such as pentode valves.____ 650°C 6QQ°C V Vv=.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it.1. (a) Thermionic. The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage). A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1.:=~:.z=::.3b). Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters. is measured for different values of anodecathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1. other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics.2. the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. Diode characteristics.2a and b. In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature. lf there are more than two variables. as shown in Figure 1. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK).+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. t1= [ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C . (b) pn junction With threeelectrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents.3a).
h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA.4.2 V (see Figure 1. Permissihle range of d. Active device characteristics. VcE 3 V etc. (Figure 1. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics. or h 3 mA.2 V. h 3 mA.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1.4b). Since these three variables are not independent. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics. In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics. (a) Triode valve.D.3. VaK.c. (b) Common emitter transistor D.4a). or as VAK 150 V.C. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1.C. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three. VaK. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V.
4 .c.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1.C.5a. First. These. VAK = VHT. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. if one of the three variables. For example. (a) D.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line. circuit and Ioad for valve. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. therefore. VGK. Under these conditions.C. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. D. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line.5. In the circuit of Figure 1. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope 1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits.
Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1.D.::. volts Figure 1. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply.5a with VHT 300 V. and the load line is plotted as shown. Reading from the graph we find the 5 . CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V.. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line. (() <i J E IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK.C.6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1. to say 2 V. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = . the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic. and thus VaK.::.6. and RL 20k0. lt must also lie on the load line.. 10 .= 15mA Rr. '0 J .
for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification. or the voltage gain. Thus Av = +289. of the circuit is 30. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · . AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of (156.156 . It is assumed that the value of wt. the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = 2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency. a change of + 1 V. To investigate this we shall now change Vax from 2 V to 8 V. The value of VAK changes to 289 V.7.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) 1 0 > 4 (b) (a) Figure 1.(2) = 133 6 = 22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. Since a valve is a nonlinear device. h 8·7 mA.C.30 Nonlinearity So.8 . we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax. the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. but with alternating voltages. and in general ßVout ßVAK 30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = . h 7·2 mA.126) = 30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av. Now suppose Vax is changed from 2 V to 1 V.
This is the result of the nonlinearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as nonlinear distortion.7b. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d.8 is used.C.by making VB= 4 V and Es= 4 sin wt.7a.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. This bias is essential since if it were not present.c. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. source es. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case.8. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1. In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted. Biasing In the circuit discussed above. The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa.1) . the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage. and are shown in Figure 1. supply. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1.c.6. Initially neglecting the a. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform.hRL . The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal. The reader can investigate this for himself.A.hRK VHT . AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected. For most amplifiers. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided.
Taking equation 1. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage hRK cannot be found directly. RK 250 n. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d.20h V. earth potential. But we have a characteristic for VaK = 1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 VaK RK lA===4mA 0·25 Similarly for 2 V. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = 0·25 V.8 with values VHT 300 V. bias line has been drawn. and once again the operating point VAK.c.6. Consider the circuit in Figure 1. h = 8 mA. VaK = VEK = VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth. A numerical example will illustrate this method.1.c. Example 1.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before.2) Equation 1. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d. for 3 V h = 12 mA. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK). Determine the d.1 and 1. VaK = 0·25 V. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero. RL 19·75 kO. If h = 1 mA. if h = 0. VAK = 300 .h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a.2.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V. The point at which this d. This gives the same load line as before. operating point and voltage amplification. source e8 is connected between 8 .c. h must lie on this line. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h.2. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1. From equation 1. h 7·4 mA.1.c. VaK = 0.c. The second equation is therefore (1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode.
4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d. VAK = 194 V. however.c.4) hRK.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1.RK. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and 2 V.= 21·25.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28). AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1.3 and 1.. 109V. h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA .1·075 = . These are shown in Figure 1. This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter.e/es. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V 20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va. is simple.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es.A. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 . 9 .3) Vgk = hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1. bias line by +2 V and 2 V respectively. D. VAK es = 2.6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point.2 Equations 1. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = Ia.Es 4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth.8). ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = .C. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2.. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia.= . The explanation in this case.0·25(9·6 = 4.
voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.VaK would be 4. Rk was 250 Q.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain.0·1075 = 3·8925. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d. hRK. while the a.C. If Xe was. load line.c.6. but a simple example will illustrate the operation.1 above.c. Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es. The resultant . A. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required. so using a figure of 1 000 Hz. The cause of the reduction was the a. the bias point VaK will be unchanged. Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK. This is true for d.uF 20 = .c.iaZk. Considering Example 1.uF or more.iaRK = es . Vgk becomes es . voltage iaRK. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK.uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors. If the a. say 25 il.=:::= 6 . but in this case we have neglected the effect of nonlinearity of characteristics. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es. or very 10 . Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit. Vgk will be es . then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V.c.c. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C= 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 .0 = es.c. 6 V working at 100 .h battery bias (113·5).
c. H..7 must become Vak = (1. Ioads.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1.9) VHT.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible.9 the a. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + .c.c._ (b) (a) Figure 1. operating point. and d. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d. The a.9. battery : 200 V _. value.c. Ioad was 19·75 kil. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a.c. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d.c. relationships are VAK = VHT .c. the d. operating point must then move along an a.A.c. and equation 1.c. Equation 1. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk.c. load line of slope 1/RL (compared with slope 1/(RL + RK) for the d.5) (1. In the last example the d.c.c. load lines.C.c.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero.c.c. (a) Decoupled cathode bias.9 gives the a. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1. a.8.7) (1. For the circuits shown in Figure 1. load lines are very different to the d.c.c.6) hRK In the absence of CK.. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a. Circuits having different a. load line). equation 1. RK has been short circuited by CK. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL. ia and Vak.iaRL since to a. variations in VAK together with the d. The slope of the a.8 becomes Vgk =es.T.c. quantities.
c. in this case 40 V.RL•RK A.c.c.c. To simplify this problem.c.C. Once again the a. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1.c.c. load line Slope. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'. Ioad value of 4 kO. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 . since the a. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph.. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk. and a.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a. and d. The operating point moves up and down the a.c. Ioad line. operating point will move up and down the a. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. resistance of the 1 Slope.c.. The calculation of d. proceeding as follows.c.c. a second valve.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1. Construct the a. A.C.c. load lines are now very different.c.. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a. Ioad line is RLRL' RL RL' + = 20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. Ioad line for the a. RL Figure 1.C.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to.10.9 HT battery is negligible. draw a d. perhaps.!. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point. operating point is unchanged. These are in parallel to a. D.10. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth..c. Assuming any convenient value for VHT. but the a. In the circuit of Figure 1.c.c. and thus to a. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive.c. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a.
The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l.ll. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . component of ia passes through zero. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown.A. The a. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a. We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J.c. When however the a. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. the a.c. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°. Thus for these values of ia. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph.c. Points could be calculated for intermediate values.c. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction.c. operating point is found by the battery bias Vn.lla and b. In this circuit the d. (a) Triode valve with reactive load. The a. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency.c.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated. In Figure l.c.C. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4). Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d.
Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A VcE' V (b) Figure 1.12. bias circ11it and load.c. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. tobe found. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits.C. (a) D.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. These methods also enable the d. The common emitter transistor amplifier. The circuit is shown in Figure 1. operating point for a particular circuit. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to nonlinearity. or the circuit for a required operating point.
As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = .Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = . the operating point. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit.V cc and V cc/RL. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1. The circuit in Figure 1.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. in the conventional direction for pnp transistors. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line. input and output voltages. A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1. It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = . on both input and output characteristics. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter.12a. These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics. 15 . With a transistor.12b and c respectively. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point. An a.e. The waveform is then further modified by the nonlinearity of the output characteristic. i. four variables must be investigated. The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter.VnE ± E. and input and output currents. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined.Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at .Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. the base current waveform is distorted by the nonlinear input characteristic.c.
2 <1:  · ~ ~ c .0 10 20 30 40 50 11 HH~ 1k Q..' .. .. 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I ..rr..... 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1. 30V. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c ... The characteristics for Example 1. " Cl I t' ' .. .13. Load line 8±~ HtH ++l lii · l± m= +t+++ ~ ~  0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n.... 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr.I~ V8 E . ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA ..... ' f±. "' ' .mV · ' rTT. 3oV.
c.c.13b VcE = 14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A . supply of 30 V. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1. and (b) the a. output voltage if (a) the a. If dVBE is 1 volt. Two further points for VcE.13a VBE = 560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known.13a.20 V and 30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way. From Figure 1. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = Vcc Vcc RL 30V 30 = 9.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l Vcc = 30 mA = 30V The second point cannot be plotted.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = 10 V.c.c.13a and b.13a. Comment on the effect of the characteristic nonlinearity in each case. Find also the a. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n. IB = 30 mA . If IBis 70 mA.2.c.13b. Similarlywhen VcEis 10 V. so the slope of the line must be used. operating point. Therefore at VBE 1 volt.c. determine the d. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d. operating point. source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance.d/B = 29 mA. VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l.
Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 . D1 d"Jstortwn c h. :. Rtn· At the operating point.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a. The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe 520 mV 30mA 20mA 560 mV 600 mV 560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . VBE varies between 520 mV and 600 mV in a sinusoidal manner. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1. and the a.13b. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results .c.c.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. For comparison purposes.c. base current is given by 18 .20 = 10 mA and 70 . output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak. The a. Thus the peak a. Vbe Vce = 520 mV 560 mV 600 mV 560 mV 18·5 V 14·5 V 0·5 V 14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 .0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic nonlinearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic.c. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance. In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n. source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected.c. the d.
The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA 29·3 V 14·5 V 60mA 30mA 3.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty. 19 = 40 fl A .VBE 10 mV. (and a. VBE is very much less than the d.3. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. therefore lB === Vcc/RB. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc .14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5. Example 1.m. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak. supply voltage Vcc.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = . The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33. operating point. could result in the input and output nonlinear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output. (c) the current gain. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance.VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p. The a. say 20 Q.c.c. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point. MB 5 pA.c. the a.14b determine (a) the d.c. First the d..s.c. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger. Firstly.3 V 14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3.Vcc = 6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion. Secondly. For small signa1 amplification. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions.c.3·3 = 11·2 V.c. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r.
1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r. the a .c. The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics. The corresponding values of Vce are 2 V and 4·2 V respectively. output voltage = (4·2.m. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 ttA = 62·5.m.m. lOmV kr. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 ttA = 20ttA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 ttA. Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = 30.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1.s.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS 6V <! E 1· 5 tlc~~.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE 2·9 V. a. Ic 3 mA. The r. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1.c.JÄ ÜJ.s. operating point moves between ib = 60 ttA and ib = 20 ttA. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a. input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r. ic of (2 .c. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h . mput reststance = 5 ttA = 2 u An r.s. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30. .s.20 j. 20 .m.14.
· Figure 1. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector. and (I .12) h = (1 . Figure 1. ._. base and emitter currents in a transistor. In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages.3 \ . transistor action results in a.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off.IE + lco (1. VcE cannot fall below 0·2 V from the characteristics.15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA.IE flowing out at the collector.c. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector.10) IE = Ic +In (1. This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero.15. Waveforms for Example 1.)IE flowing out of the base.16. By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1. In addition the reverse Figure 1. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1.a. A peak a.16.)IE .s. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr. Vce of 2·9 .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed 6 or the transistorwill cut off.a.m.11) lc = a.Ico 21 .
Thus .rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=h+1rx 22 (1.Ico IE=(:1.12. To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1.16) .10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic  + rxh = /c  Ic(l .rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 . is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995. The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 flA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor.11. Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico  1 _ rx 1oc rxlco Ico =1a: This current.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB.rx Now applying equation 1. Equate to 1.14) 1rx (1.1 0. (I . Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero. we are not concerned with JE. From equation 1.11.13) 1 . the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero. Ico' is very much larger than /co.(1. Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 flA respectively. From equation 1. Ic. Ico Ico = .GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits.
16 becomes lc oc =1 .17. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1. A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points.17.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1. Example 1. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1.oc (1. 10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc ttA = lco = 10·1 ttA 1 oc 1 . lco 1 ttA and VBE 0·2 V.4 IB = (10.13 and 1.17.4.18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90.I+ oc' 1 = ttA = 91 ttA 190 91 23 ttA . Simplebias circuit for Example 1.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1.
.' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive. The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /..uA 0·778 mA 6·1 V 130 131 .QOC . Summarizing.' 130. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a.18..c. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 . r~.uA Now VcE = 10 + (5 X 1) = 5 V and since VcE may vary between 10 (cut off) and 0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a.'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.'@ 30°C /. operating point without distortion.' is from 70 to 130.' unless the signal level is severely restricted. the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~.uA 1·444mA 2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V. 1 000 . Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71.QOC _ _ lO~C _ leb 2ooc Vcc VcE Figure 1.. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~.' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~.
Again the operating point would move towards bottoming.19. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature.1] . In the simple circuit discussed above. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one. As can be seen from Figure 1.18. In this case. When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1. lc = oc'h + Ico'. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1. lEo and thus In doubles.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material. Thus for any particular value of VBE.Ico IB = (1 . and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin.19. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature.1] (1. if temperature rises by 10°C. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles. In was maintained at a constant value. In Example 1.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K. 2 25 .oc) . Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero. Now IB = IE(l . compared with the exponential term. at 20°C the permissible peak a.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) .c.Ico (1.4. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 ttA moves up with Ico'.21) where K is a constant.18.
lco V' . lcoRC20°C) Figure 1.21.. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures...20. .21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C. Figure 1.IERE oc)/E . The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1  VBE but VBE = (1. Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 .IE[RE + (1  oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature. d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR. .24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics.20.23) hR' . Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. The V". The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage.h. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1. .
The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'.18 V' .25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1. . V' much greater than VEB and R' small. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are. Vcc R.23. 01: + RE) .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R . This may then be rewritten V' .22.22. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R . Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = . RE large. emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply. as shown in Figure 1. thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited.25 and 1.26 and substituting in equation 1.26) + R2 The operating point VcE.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. Potential divider.
30) (1. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B.27) VeE may then be found from VeE =  Vee ~.22). Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant. IERE. Suppose /e tends to rise. Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes.27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. will also rise. also cause a change in JE. the voltage across RE.Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1. For R' to be small.29) K = dleo' die dleo S= Krx' die = diX' (1. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1.32) ~RE. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values. 28 (1. These are die (1. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' .VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1.VBE = constant. .31) K may be found directly from equation 1.28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1.
TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1. Je 1 mA.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1. If R' ~ RE. Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' + VBE J RE + lco + MIX') . On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo. RE can only be I kQ.VBE R' +RE J + leo .IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' .28). Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.IX) In this case if RE~ R'. This will be discussed in later chapters. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ. and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples.34 IX'(V'. If the Ioad is 2 kQ.27 and substitute from equations 1.33 and 1. S tends to one and d/e = dleo. S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo .
VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma. This reduces the voltage across RB.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships. This is shown in Figure 1. Ka.·=. IX (1.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. and differentiating we find (1.'(V'. reducing h and thus /c.23. For large changes.' 1 = 1 + Ma.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones. values should be inserted in equations 1. Collector feedback. 1. Figure 1.38) In this circuit. The formulae (equations 1.32. 30 .' 1 [ X a. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.33 and 1.'lco + 1 + Ma.33.' J From equations 1.') a.23.27 or 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.37 should only be used for small changes in a.' (R' a. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector.'.36 whichever is most convenient.36 Klc Ka. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc. 1.
Figure 1.C. Assurne VBE is 200mV.m.c. Example 1. voltage across RE. The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1.c. decoupling circuits In Figure 1.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a.c. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier.24 shows how this is done.5. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.s. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions. currents can flow to earth.c. negative feedback. 31 .23) the stabilization is performed by d. circuits will be discussed in later chapters. such a. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C. As with the triode valve amplifier. In Figure 1.c.c. (a) (b) Figure 1.22 and 1. and hence the maximum permissible r. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'. The exact mechanism of these a. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect. output current.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. but in addition a.24. operating points. First we must find the range of d. So if XcB ~ RB12.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 5095. Determine the range of possible d.c. currents could be fed back through RB.24b the same applies. A.
. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C.') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS 10V 2kfi 1kfi Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Circuit and graph for Example 1. Cl.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl.. 32 .')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next.25.5 For T1. Ico' = = (1 + CJ.'(V' .. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.' 50.27 lc = _50 lc  Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic.
We can 33 . Vce must not exceed 3·811 . If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l.c. Thus to allow for all possibilities. 1oad is only 2 kil. + 2) V Minimum VcE = 10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = 3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. the peak a. With T1. cut off will occur if peak a.5·525 = 4·475V.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V.c. Vce exceeds 10. the a. We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1. peak a.29 and 1.0·2 = 3·6 V.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1.c.c. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l. To avoid bottoming with Tz.32 K = 6.28. Maximum VcE = 10 + 1·825(1 = 5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. 1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C.
output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr.c.M.c. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cutoff distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a.c.6 34 6 . and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C. Circuit and graph for Example 1.3 V. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz. The peak a.26. output voltage of 1·414 V.) \ \ <! E . Cutoff on the a.25b.m. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1.s. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV. RL 4 '. supply is 6 V. design a suitable bias circuit.m. the maximum r.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1.. A.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a.S..u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1.s. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98. Ioad line (lk!l. Ic 2 mA.6. Finally.c. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cutoff distortion.c. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R..C. The available d. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE .
c.c.26a.33 and 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.load line. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.26b.Ico = 30 f1A ..c. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature.c. The a.34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' . Rz and CE. we must find ß/c. RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO.98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d.1IX . RE.c. the a. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. Vce + Vbottoming.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic . change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co . Now VcE must not fall below 0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d. The problern is to determine the values of RL. RE may now be found since VcE is given. 3 + 2 + 0·3 = 0·7 V. signal voltage. the operating VcE is 3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V. VcE + peak a. so the minimum instantaneous Vce is 3 + 2 = 1 V.\ u/co K = I 30 == 1IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1.Ico 1·998 IX = 0 . To determine K. Rt.5 mA (Note this is a d.c.
= 39 ttA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1.hR' .7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .IERE ' 2.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a.O·I 49 + + Ic.0·98 1 (1 K M = a.. ttF 36 . for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz. I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = :. we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I..1 Finally.' = 0·98 1 .' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~ R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2.Ico' (.23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .
Example 1. 5 V. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. and we have seen how the d.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor.c. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to 0·5 V? Ans. but as with valves. Assurne an a.8. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible. EXAMPLES Example 1. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil.T. or (b) an H. operating conditions may be found. Using the circuits described in Example 1. 37 . We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. (b) 24 or 45·5. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 41 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 33 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans. if with (a) VGK is 0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. Summarizing. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods.c. (a) 25·5. conditions. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H. operating point in each case. (b) 208 V. 4·7 mA. (a) 63 V.c.7. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. Find the d. We have found the limitations of these methods.7.c. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers.T. determine the voltage gain.
7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt.11. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1. + H.28.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. Ans. Example 1. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. (b) 64·5. 30·5. 21·5.27. (b) 10 ill. Ans.27. 19·2. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H.c.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. 790 Q. 250V H.12 Example 1.T + 175V I· Figure 1. h 9·75 mA.10. Example 1. (b) VAK 150 V. Ans.11 Figure 1. 21·5. (a) 43.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. Circuit for Example 1. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1.T. Ans. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0.9 employs RL 17·15 kU.28. 154 Q. Circuit for Example 1. The d. of 250 V. RK 250 Q and an H. h 6 mA. Example 1. results in an operating 38 . Determine the voltage gain.T.T.T.9. supply of300 V. The circuit described in Example 1. 0·65. (a) 24·8 kU. 32. 166 Q. (a) 61. (b) 96. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance.12.13.
a coil of 0·2 H. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. (a) 15 mA. (a) 45 V positive VaK. supply of 150 V. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. Example 1. (b) 60 V. Example 1. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. Ans. calculate (a) the maximum peak a. (b) 11 V low h. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion.c.15. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. The anode Ioad. 60 V.c. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as 6 V. If the frequency is 5kHz.T.c. T. Ans. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H. Ans.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA. 30 L 315°. (b) the maximum peak a.12a. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance.16. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO.7 is operated with a bias voltage of 1· 5 V and an H. I0 I VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 3·0 4·5 6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. is assumed tobe purely inductive. VcE 2·7 V. Example 1.14.
133 ttA. If the transistor has a. andRE 1 kil. 56 ttA. the voltage gain. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. Example 1. 0·97 and Jco 4 ttA. 28·8 kil.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 28 29 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 74 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. Ans. 0·125.16. 30 ttA. 5·1 mA.' 45. 123 ttA. A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. Jco'. The d. Calculate the input impedance.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . calculate a. 4·5 V. 1·944 mA. 32·3. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. Ans. Example 1. 1·45 mA. 35. a 4 kil load. 5·03 mA.21. Ans. 1 V. lB and JE. A transistor having a.20. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. 488 Q.23. If JE is 2 mA. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. RE 500 n. Example 1. RB 140 kil. Ans. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. Example 1. Je. and the supp1y battery 10 V. RL is 3·3 kil.' 160. 36. Calculate a. RL 1·8 kil. and JB. Example 1.'. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1. 3·43 V.22. A certain transistor is found to have a. and a 40 . Jco. 0·994. 413 Q. 3·93 mA. and Jco' 0·2 mA. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE 0·2 V.18. 1·24 ttA.22.17. Ans. 0·99 and Jco 3 ttA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1.. and the current gain. Example 1. 204 mV.19. R2 22 kil.c. 0·46.
supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE 8 V. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. 10 ftF.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. 3·6 W. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored. and at 20°C. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. 45·6 kQ. Example 1. 1 V. an Vcc 12V Figure 1.s. that it will bottarn at VcE 0·4 V. and (b) if rx' is 150. (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. Assuming the transistor to have VBE 0·2 V. Ans. The components are RL 1 kQ. rx' 150. the maximum output power. 2 kQ.23.24 Ico of 500 flA. 195 Q.24.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. 1! Q.m. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. At the signal frequency. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. RE 1 kQ. 139 kQ.c. 1 V r. The available d. R140 kQ. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of 0·2 V. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. 1·11 V. 70 Q. Example 1. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50. Ans. Circuit for Example 1. Ic 2 A.29. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is 6 V. and further. 41 . A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling. Ans. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V.
Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader. In Chapter 1. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. admittances and generators. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. In addition. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. I= VY (2. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter. the four terminal or two port network. together with impedances or admittances. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws. t.c.e.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 . The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. mesh analysis and nodal analysis. having dimension mhos.
B = 1 R jX R2 + X2 1 Z=  B X = R2 + X2 (2.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2.e.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships. (2.3) Y=v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. Note.1. having dimension ohms. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. zero. in general I 1 B ::. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2.c. In this case. I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS. Consider first the simple d. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively.i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX. circuit shown in Figure 2.1.4) Y= G + jB (2. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. i.
Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. lf however.I amps and we could say that I= (E/R).Vxy and Vyx =IR= (E/R) X R = E as would be expected from the circuit.2. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = iZa = +jwLi = i v2 = = iR ji = wC 44 (:J) . Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V). If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = . This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I).2. given that current Figure 2. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed. the meter would read . The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference.
7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2.8) ratio of the impedance values. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2. Impedance in series may be simply added. vz = zZ2 (2. rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. z2 Iv. Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits. 45 . From Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity. .3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current.3.
The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples.10) The "reader should now compare 2.9 and 2. = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2.10 with 2.7 and 2. 46 . . Consider Figure 2. The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances. (2.+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2. (2.8.3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added.9) X Y1 iYz = ==yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values.i + i = i .11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1. ." d .3c e = v1 + vz = .
FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :.13) of the individual impedances.n.12) inverse ratio of the admittance values.4.1.14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules. 1 + . and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %.1 47 . Example 2.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit.. Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2. Circuit for Example 2. . Finally. Figures 2. 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2.3d = ii + iz = . Now from Figure 2. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i . Potential division between series admittance is in the (2.
. and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.13 since all branches are quoted as impedances. YT  4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1)  4 + ~6  1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. Now. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X . Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t.= v amp 6 3+1 ia =  i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 . io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches. Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. First consider circuit (a).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given. Applying rules 2.7 and 2. to find io from circuit (a). . the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel).10). io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v. the value of io in terms of i. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2.9 and 2.11. the same result as that found when working in admittances.
FUNDAMENTALS
To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia
V
}
V
=1+1 txlx!+1
2+!+1
=
4v
+
V
1
4
2 X 3
+
1
a
6v
= 4v +  = 5v amp
4+2
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v
X
2
2
V
+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts
and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,
V
X!
V
=   = volts
i+!
3
Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most
49
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
terms.
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.
is
is
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node
This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.
Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by
h
+ ia + i4 =
i2
+ is
An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents  i2 and  is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,
h
+ ia + i4 
i2  is
=0
which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.
50
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.
(b}
(öl}
Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh
Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1  Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X
51
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.
+ V1 
IR1  V2  IR2  !Ra+ Va  IR4
=0
or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1  V2
+ Va =
l(R1
+ R2 + Ra + R4)
from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written
e1
+ R1(h i2) 
(R2
+ jwL2)i2
(wd2) (i2 ia) e2 = 0
Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
MESH ANALYSIS
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the
52
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h  lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six
I,
6V
lz
c
2ß
2V
Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2
possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y
+ 5(h + h  lx)
5(h + h  lx)  4(/2 
A
6 = 3h
B
0 = 
C
2
=
+ 2/x
2/x /2
Collecting terms
6 = 8h
0
lx)
=
+ 5h 
5h  9/2
2 = 2/x
5/x
(2.15)
+ 11/x
(2.16)
+h
(2.17)
One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
follows
From 2.17
(2.18)
substitute in 2.16
SI2
=
18
+ 18/x + 1llx
18
h=5+
or
29
5
(2.19)
Ix
substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15
6
144
232
=  5 +5
lx
53
+ 10 
10lx  5lx
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
Collecting terms, 6
+ 5144 
10
= lx (232
5 
15 )
24·8 = 31·4/x
simplifying,
24·8
lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A
and
Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.
6V
2V
Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents
Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h  i2) fiowing down or (i2  h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2  ia) fiowing
down or (ia  i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find
6 = 3h + 5(it i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,
0
2
=
+ 4i2 + 2(iz 
S(i2  h)
= 2(i3 i2) + i3
Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h 5i2
0
=
2=
5h
+ 11 i2  2i3
2i2 + 3i3
54
i3)
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
20 above.m. Here. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5). This is replaced by the constants. sum the e.. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 2 5 11 2 0 2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 5 0 6 0 2 0 2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 5 5 11 0 2 ßa tl 6 0 2 . Further application of this rule will appear in the next example.5i2 which is the same as equation 2. In this case ß = 0 2 3 5 11 2 8 5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents.f. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems. h.m.f. minus any adjacent loop current. For any loop.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. times the common branch sharing that current. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . Following this for the first loop: The e.
_ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient. %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba. This process is known as expanding the determinants. we may expand on the first column.75 = 157 0 8 6 5 0 2 = 8(0 . 2.22 for Example 2.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 .0) + 0 0 2 3 =58 ßa= 8 5 5 11 0 2 6 0 = 8(22.4) .2. ß= 8 5 0 5 11 2 0 2 3 =8(334)+5(150)+0 = 232.20. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms.0) + 5(10.0) 2 = 66 58 i2 = 157 A.21 and 2. Now applying this to equations 2. Alternatively.0) + 6(10.ia = 58 124 = .6( 15 . Unknown 66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants. The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2  bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca  02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row.
24) . as is the case in the next example.23) 5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = (4 .3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations.j)h + (7 .9. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex. Example 2.j4)i2 Evaluating the e.j) = 5/53° h(4.j) + i2(4.f.m.j4) 57 (2.9.(7_+_j_)(4j).j) (7 .j4 V Now solving by determinants .i2(4 .3. Circuit for Example 2.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer.j) {3j4) (7j4) = .m.1 A (4 . Figure 2.j)i2 (2.j) . 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 . Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2.24.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e.s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h. S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = 5(0·6 + j0·8) V = 3.f.j + 1 + 2. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form. for equation 2. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) (4 . but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.(4.
38.16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4  _ 26.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants .4.10. This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA. NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .j37 A . 11 = (6 + j0)(7 .{4.(3 + j4)(4 .j4) .12. VB. We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances. l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan1 H y/{382 + 132) /tan1 HA = J2048 = /550. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law. Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances. Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters.{19o)A 1484 0·686/36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°.49 42.jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: .j) {7 + j)(7 .j) A .j4).jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .10.j)(4. Vc.j24.
h + [z =(VA.VBYz lz = .e.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB. V c = 0.O)Y1 +(VA. i. For node A. D Figure 2.VB)Yz and at node B [z =(VB.2 For node B.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc . Foreach node. 0 = = VA(l 1 VA + 2 + 4)  1 VB . minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz). Example 2.11. Thus at node A. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this.4. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches.11. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. Circuit for Example 2.VA)Yz Collecting up terms.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero. Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2. In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node.4 This circuit has four nodes. 3. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55.
one in terms of an impedance network. Examples using each will also be given. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best.1(8.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY.4Vc 0 = VA+ 7VB. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa. In some instances.VB.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting. Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section.0) VB = 7(56 . Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof.4) . In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches. and hence the nurober of equations. 2 + 1 = 4VA.Vc 3 = 4VA. 60 .4).VB+ 8Vc By determinants.12. the other in terms of an admittance network. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns. I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters. nodal analysis will be quicker.1) + 1( 8 . 1= 1VA.4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392.4(3. 7 1 4 1 0 1 4 3 8 V VB= 7 1 4 1 7 1 4 1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3).
Example 2.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators.12.7. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone. 6.0. 2. Circuit for Example 2. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone.12 and 2.(l 12V 6V Figure 2. 2.13 on pages 45 and 47. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1155 A . for the whole circuit.12. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2. Now applying the same rules.5.) = 42 Evaluating. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem.
20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 .13.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis.30 = 77  iz = 25 54 = 52 A 66 + 60 52 6 =52 A But the required current I = h .13. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone 3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2.5iz 6 = 5h By determinants. h + ?iz 84. Circuit for Example 2. 12 = 11h.12.6.iz = H A as was found by superposition. Example 2. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances. Figure 2. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2.
THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V. 63 . the network is shownasabox with two terminals. Thevenin's theorem The twoterminal equivalent is shown on the right. In Figure 2. Figure 2. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected.14.. 3 = 2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 244 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2==20 20 Now v = v1  926 17 v2 = .14.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem. at node 2. Now v = v1 + v2 = 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I. Thevenin's theorem states that any twoterminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.
15. Now. Example 2.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the lefthand half of the circuit. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances. 1l! 1 I= 3 = 1l.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45  7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = ::10~+:2::::R::L+::5:=R:L 64 .15b. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2. 3V Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.7.15. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example.
j and Now = i(5  j) = i(5.J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .j) . 5. j 2.j) V .5 . 7RL Now consider a more difficult a.0. Example 2. . 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1  = ~~ (1 .J j5 + j) n To find Votc. .j)(5 = (2·31 .16.4  + 6 + j2. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V . Circuit for Example 2. Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2.16. Figure 2. and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0.8 Applying Thevenin's theorem. (1 .THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before.1 .8.j l=.j3)i . write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 .j3)(1 .~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4 j2 . 1.j20) + J.c. 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j J + (2 .J j3) .jt·54) n j12 r\ u .v'2/45° 2. example.(4 Ztn + j2)(1 .
j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A . i A Ytn = i + i. .7 using Norton's theorem. the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance. no current will flow in the 5 n resistor.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 . To determine fstc. Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right. Repeat example 2.15. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. the load current may be found.17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2.9. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a shortcircuit connected across the terminals. In Figure 2.17.
20 .j2) .j3 10(1 .j) 3 J·2 X lJ 5 J.75.j) 4(3.j30 .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .j) +4  2 + j4 10(1 . current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances.j2) A .30 . o.j) A When the load is connected.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j).j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j2) + 13(5 .j 12 + j2 mhos 5. h = 4(3.16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1  1 j3 = (I .j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3. 1 1 3.j2 10(1.j20 _ 4(3.j)(3 .j63 67 + 65  j13 A . For the circuit shown in Figure 2.8 using Norton's theorem.NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l0 !YL + :lö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL===5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 . Repeat Example 2.j2) 10(1 .4 2 .+ 10(1  A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 .10.j6  + 1 + j _ 2(1 .
This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output.e. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i. One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters. For any particular set ofparameters.26) . This approach is similar to the description of twoterminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. Since any two may be taken as independent. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables. there are six possible sets of parameters. but not always. is known as a fourterminal network.18.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. Ioads. occurring frequently in electronic circuits. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. V2 and ]z associated with the network. or other networks may be connected. common. A fourterminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2.18. There are four variables V1. In general we may write two equations (2. h.
30 must be true for all values of the independent variables.26 above.30 above.25 and 2. Z12 relates V1 to h etc. By comparing equations 2. 69 .29) (2.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible. This can only occur if terminals 2.2' are open circuit.28) which have the form of equations 2.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage. lz Figure 2. I. Solution of a fourterminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P.e.29 and 2. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.29 and 2. i. Suppose 12 is zero.27) (2. Since equations 2.28 with equations 2.19.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter.19. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2. The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2. Zu relates V1 to h. Q.27 and 2. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable.
we obtain Z12 = v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = v21 h I!=O Example 2. if we let terminals 1. Circuit for Exarnple 2. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .20.20.29 and 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2. and 12=0 Z21 = v21 h 12=0 Similarly.30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = v11 h be defined. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.1' be open circuit making h zero.11 Let /2 = 0. . h Figure 2.11.
FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network.21. Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts. I. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages.22. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors. A loaded fourterminal network 71 . /z does not flow in this part of the circuit.21. As h flows into this part of the circuit.22. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit. 1~ Figure 2. From equation 2. lz Figure 2. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2.
There are two further general solutions.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu  (2.30 now becomes hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2. The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .Z21Z12 lt=~~~~~~~= The input impedance given by Vt = Zu(Z22 + ZL) . = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL).Z21Z12 Also /2=~=~ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL)  Z21Z12 (2.29 and rearranging equation 2.32) o.31) Rewriting equation 2.34) Equations 2.Z21V1 + ZL) .Z21Z12 (2.1 '. which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.33) hZL. V2 = hZL Equation 2.0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) .32 and 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say. the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 = Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.31.
FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2.23.35) and (2. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). Circuit for Example 2. 50 VI. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor.12. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. and the load is disconnected. n v2 = 5ovl + 5h 73 .12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q. Since the output terminals are open circuit. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. Figure 2. h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only. 400. VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0).36) Example 2. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2.0. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0.23. The results that should be obtained are (2. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. Let h = 0.
Z12 = 5 il. thus v2 = VI 400 251 ~4~55 +5 = 39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters.32. 25h V2 =50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 =  12=0 + 5h = 1 245 n Now Iet h = 0.. 2. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn. Z21 = 1 245 Q and Z22 = 145 n.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But .5ov1 = 105/2 . In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors.. and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor.50 X 5h v2l =1450 h h=O Z22= Summarizing Zu = 25 il.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400 (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL)  Z21Z12 400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400 This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245.35. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 .34 and 2. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 .
Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a fourterminal network. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. is a number and S.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load. The other possible choices. We shall investigate one of these in detail.38) V:~ be zero. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance. Sinillarly R. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I =  Ve=O 75 (2. VI and h. VI and Vz. VI and [z. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters.37) (2. The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. relating [z to · V2. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. a current ratio. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. is an admittance. . h and Vz. In this case .
first Iet Vz equal zero.24. First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals.24).24. this is simple current division between parallel conductances. hzz h I 2 X6 = 8! mho = Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 . In this case. Example 2. Thus /z = h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . Circuit for Example 2. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h. Figure 2. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0).4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit.13. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations.13. Now hz1 = ~~ =!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must opencircuit the input to make h = 0.
FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded.25. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. we have potential division across series conductances so. Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. Figure 2. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = hz1 As with Z parameters. The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.25. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. In this case the second equation 77 .
40) Solving by determinants for h.h21h12 From which (2. Z and h. 78 .44) Equations 2.32. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true. 2.42 and 2.36. we can find. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. hl2 I.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = hZs.33. h and h.43) and h . = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2. V2 as our independent variables. 2. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results.42. 2.43 and 2. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) .39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2. .43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form. by taking h..41.41. We have now derived two sets of parameters.41) Solving for V2 From which (2.35 and 2. 2. 2.44 with equations 2. = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .hn + Zs (2. The reader should now compare equations 2.
Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.= .Yu + Ys .50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2. The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . (2.45) (2. Equations: V2. h h Cu.rrent gatn = .51) 79 .46) Conditions for defining parametersshort circuit input or output.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1.26.47) From which .Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 . +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . h Input admtttance = Vt y = u  yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2. h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.
gugn~2 + y. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. g21 = V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2. one further rule should be discussed. VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +g12 y.g21g12 (2. It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another. Input admtttance .56) (2.57) Before applying these results to some examples.53) Conditions for defining parametersshort circuit input or open circuit output. Output tmpedance =. Definitions: · v21 . This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .s .g21 gu(g22 ~ .27.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. h = V1 = gu  /z h Current gatn = .L2 + ZL)  g12g21 = gz2.52) (2.) r2 gzz gu s .54) (2 55) · (2.= g12g21 +ZL g22 .
To determine the y parameters.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters.5 mmho y22 81 . Using 4kn I. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 r 0·5) = 0·25 r 1 r 1 r 0.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters. First Iet Vz = 0. Example 2.14. we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals. Circuit for Example 2. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 r 0·5 r 1 r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is . so h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1 I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2. Figure 2.Ia. For the network shown in Figure 2. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu.5 = (0·25 2] 2:1A X r 0·2) mmho y21 = 0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0.28. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ.
Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 103 = 1·178 kQ . J. Solution for Example 2.29.0·45 X 103 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2. Thus Vz = (0·45 X I03Vl 0·85 X I03 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. Let [z = 0. and write an equation for ft.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = 0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.29. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl. let V1 = 0.0·258) X 103 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz.ow in the admittance yzz. ft = 0·65 and hl  Vt 12=0 X 1Q3Vl. This eliminates the y21 generator.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals.
55 g21 + ZL)  At=~~~~ gu(g22 . These configurations are Series input and output. At= Working in mmho. First using y parameters Current gain.49 and 2.y21y12 + 0·45 X 1 + 0·85). parallel output. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) . and Parallel input.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi.0·45 X 0·45 === 0·45 Now using equation 2. g12 = hh I (0·45 X 103) X 0. the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. series output. Parallel input and output. 83 .85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = 0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available.55. Series input. Interconnection of Fourterminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more fourtermina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions.0·412 X I03(1 g21g12 + 0·53 1178) X 103 + 10·53 ~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === 0·45 Thus properties of fourterminal networks such as voltage and current gain. We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters.
Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters. Z22 3 Q. First we must find the Z parameters of the subnetwork shown in Figure 2. 1 I1 V{~ v.30.15.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. series output. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters. and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2.3lb.3la.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n. I . I. Two fourterminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. 84 . Example 2. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n.
Zn + Zs = 7 . + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 . and network B has y" parameters. apply equation 2.31.15 Since these are open circuit parameters. Network A has y' parameters.32 shows two networks connected parallel input. parallel output.35. Circuit for Example 2.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 . by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl  h h0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0.
32. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. J Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output. Series Parallel Figure 2. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 .33. parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters. Two fourterminal networks connected series input. Two fourterminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network.
io Ht. Ans. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections. mho. SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters.16. Repeat Exarnple 2. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. The theorems in Section 3.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. v' i v. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. 87 . particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. are equally essential. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. EXAMPLES Example 2. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case. YT Y.
(b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. Circuit for Example 2. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v. (b) 0·445i. and (c) the current i ' .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.ß.34. Ans. Circuit for Example 2.19 88 .18. Ans.19.17 (a) the input impedance v/1.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i. Example 2. Figure 2. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2. (b) 0·526. 0·756 V.36. Example 2. (a) 1·63 Q. Figure 2. (c) 0·727v. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2. (a) 39·6 mV.17.36.35. determine v' 1. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2. (c) 31·2 mA.34. Ans. Calculate (a) the input valtage v.35 is 2mho Figure 2.
I.22.22 Example 2. Repeat Examp1e 2. 1 L 7o 18' A. 37 j2k.!1.20 Example 2.37.21 using nodal ana1ysis. Ans.37.24. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator.23.9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 . determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis. 4 89 .38. Using mesh analysis. and using nodal analysis. For the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2. V Figure 2.j2) n. Ans. Example 2.25.38. 0·25. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2.19 by converting impedances to admittances. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2. voltage sources to current sources. Example 2.20. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator. mA.EXAMPLES Example 2. 2·2 V.!1.21.20 using nodal analysis. Repeat Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. 8 + j26 Ans. Repeat Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.
and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T.27. Circuit for Example 2. 0·737 L 121 ° 26'. Repeat Example 2. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2.29. Example 2.5~]R..21 using the Superposition theorem. Example 2.39 to the Figure 2.40. T .3 using Thevenin's theorem. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .26 admittancecurrent generator form. Example 2.. Figure 2. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1.. Repeat Example 2..21 using Thevenin's theorem. Example 2. 90 . 1·35 Q.30.26. Ans. Circuit for Example 2.39.28.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Ans.. T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2. Repeat Example 2.40.
EXAMPLES Example 2.43.36. 0·44 L 2° 30'i. 91 . Repeat Example 2. 1·29.42. 4. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. Ans.35. Figure 2.umho. Ans.28 using Norton's theorem. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2.35 Figure 2. Example 2. Figure 2. Using Norton's theorem. Ans.36 Example 2. Z22 3t n.42. Example 2. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. The circuit shown in Figure 2.33 of 106 rad/sec. determine the new z parameters.32. 1·9 X I02. Circuit for Example 2. 73 . Ans.33. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n. Z21 = Zl2 t n.31.26 using Thevenin's theorem. Circuit for Example 2. hu ~l n. Example 2. hl2 = h21 = u.41.43. Example 2. zu i n.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. h22 H mho. Circuit for Example 2. 14·3 Q. Zln lJ!l n.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches.34.0. Repeat Example 2.
38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil. The T network shown in Figure 2. 5 000. Circuit for Example 2. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 .40. 2 X 103.umho. 2 X 106. h22 Example 2. A 1 54. Repeat Example 2. 1 944 Q. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. 2·39 kQ. the g parameters. h22 200 . Z12 10 n. Z22 500 n. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. Ans. 3 000. A network having hu 1 000 !2.38 using g parameters. Example 2. h12 103 . h12 103 . determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. Z1n 1·25 kQ.44 represents an active device. g. 8 X 103. h21 75. 5·7. Z1n. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. 45 X 10 3. (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. h21 50. 2 X }04. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. 50 X 106. Ans. .41. y. 0·15. A fourterminal network having Zn 100 n.38. Ans. Determine (a) the y parameters. (b) from the results of (a).umho.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Example 2. Ans. 40 mV. 23 . 200 . 375 X 103.umho. 600. 125. 393 Q.39.37.31.44. Z21 92 . Example 2. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad.2· 3. z. 0·04. 5 000 n. 37 n. 5.
hzz 300 p. The network shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.42 hu 2 000 0.) Ans.46 shows two interconnected fourterminal ·.46. (Networks in parallel. h21 250. 1 2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I  I il 50fi ~~ 10on I I I I L~ Figure 2.EXAMPLES Example 2.4 . Example 2. 93 .42.mho.45. Figure 2. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2.43. Ans. 9·8 mV. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo. 157. 38. Circuit for Example 2.43 networks. h12 I0.
c. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.2 . Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. If the switch is in position B. (c) A. First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3. (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias.1a. the first 94 .$"·~:~ 6 I 200mV 1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2.4 R 200 300 .e.3 LOW FREQUENCY.lb. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a.. the diode is forward biased. +J(mA) V (vol t s) 20 10 5  +V (mV) . i. and an alternative approach is desirable.1.C. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods. (a) Junction diode characteristics.
INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 ==20MQ R I06 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~ 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 JLH (c) Figure 3. lf. Thus the a.c. the switch is moved to A. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively.C. is approximately zero. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA. the Variation in total series resistance due to the nonlinearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. say 300 n. (b) Small signal a. this current.c. resistance which is 95 . Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown. generator has a peak value of 20 m V. (a) D. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics.c. Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. If the a.2. 0·3 ftA. Diode equivalent circuits.lc. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case.c.2a. on the other hand. as in Figure 3. giving an operating point of 110 mV. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 103 I = 20 X I03 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. 7·5 mA.
c. operating point.c. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'.c. Figure 3. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance.1IRL is shown passing through the d . voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear.LOW FREQUENCY.2c.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. the anode slope resistance. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. These are known as ra. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 103 15 x 103 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a. At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear.c. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 . VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region.c. provided the d. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. and provided the a. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. A Ioad line of slope . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. The term small signal implies that the a. operating point Q.3.c. and p the amplification factor. bias current is 7 mA. series inductance. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency.
when Ia. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra.1) .V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.4.3.3. =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3.~Ia I (3. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !' the amplification factor. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.4) ~Ia = QB. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3. a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. From the graph. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak Ta.e.~Vgk 6.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3..c. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm.2) r _ a  g and ra. X gm ~Ia.. i.AB .. = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _.. . X ~Vgk ~Vak I = f1. But (3. is not constant.Load line 0 0 Figure 3. llVak~o m.
Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered.Vak Ö.:~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3.r.5) + RL or (3.4. r.Ö. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve.Vak gmÖ./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = fl.Vgk Ö.LOW FREQUENCY.Vgk = "'71 + RL fal But = Ö. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 ._____. (a) Constant valtage equivalent. when loaded with a resistor RL. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6./aRL = Ö.VgkRL R 1 + .Vgk = f1.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk ./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t.RL ra (3. fa + RL ttRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal.1: ra gmraRLÖ..6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must.. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö.
Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve.4b can be solved by nodal analysis.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) fWs ra + RL . operating point we can obtain an a. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them. As before Vgk = v8.ra..= A _ . + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3. + RL ".VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.. so Av Vo = Vs = gmva = and and Vo = Vo ':= (~ + ~J gmvara. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a.c. Vgk. operating condition indicated by point 0.c. The alternative circuit in Figure 3.. fWsRL = laRL = '_.=ra + RL (lRL ra. By Figure 3. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve.gmraRL v.:. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . changes at a d.c. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same.RL ra.5 are those of a valve having the d. The characteristics shown in Figure 3. 99 .c.5.4a.5.
See equation 3. the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics.. g Y= . condition. In this case we are concerned with a. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a gm Vgk . hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. Thus to a. Triode small signal equivalent circuits. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit.1 Vgk .. Applying Norton's theorem in the same way.6a and by comparison with Figure 3. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem. 100 . Now from equation 3.c. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed. voltage must be zero. Vgk must be zero. so if the alternating current ia is zero. If a circuit is open then the current is zero.= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3.. i./lVgk. This means that the a.!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage.c.LOW FREQUENCY. Vak g vgkl a . The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = .3. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance.c.e..6.4a.
since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor. it may be treated as a fourterminal network.e.4b we can see that Figure 3. when Vgk is zero. for each configuration we can obtain z. g.6b. Again. Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. resulting from an a. it is 1/ra.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. h. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. There are in fact many more possibilities. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a threeterminal device.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve.fva. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents.2. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. i. gmVgk.c. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. 101 . With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. by comparison with Figure 3. input Vgk is (See equation 3. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured.
7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. value. r. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc. operating point.c.c. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d.7.c. Ievel. forward and output respectively.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i. quantities measured about a particular d.LOW FREQUENCY. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3. reverse. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3. 102 .7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a fourterminal network. fand o for input.c.
If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3.8a.8b. hre ic = : I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3. 103 hre .8a. may frequently be neglected. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter. the output characteristic. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters..c. Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q. it is the short circuit input resistance. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la .8. This parameter is very small. and as we shall see in later chapters.8. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel.e.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3. i. typically I03.
hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance.e. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor.9. It is shown in Figure 3. hre. i. Looking at Figure 3.LOW FREQUENCY.umhos. To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. The ratio of the two. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. 104 . so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the fourterminal convention. an output resistance of 10 kQ. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). b e Figure 3. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10500 depending upon type and application. Using conventional currents. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T. is therefore positive.10.9.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. A typical value for hoe is 100 . These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 .9 but with appropriate notation. But it is usually more convenient to convert.
10). Tb I 000 Q. ib b  otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3. and oc0·99. (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB.. The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components.11. Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e . rc I MQ. 105 . Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3.10.11. Figure 3. ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1. (c) From fundamentals.
(e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB.LOW FREQUENCY. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB.oc) ~ !. and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 .17). ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( re1 + rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel.12.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. the conversion is completed oc oc (equation 1. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. Also putting 1 oc = oc' and (1 . it is convenient to reverse its direction. the direction of the current generator.m. 106 . Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of ocrc n. (a) Short circuit output. Tc !'•• /rx' r.oc). and with it.. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5.12a.f. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e. (f) Since ib is the input current. Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters. The required circuit is shown in Figure 3.
' hrehoe hoe (3.' in parallel.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters. (3.12. the short circuit ic must be the remainder.11 and 3. h re and ic =: I lb Vce=O . The opposite conversions can be found using these results..12b. hoe===oc' = Tc Te+ rx. But Tc/rx. = rx. 3. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 . rx.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O  Tc Te+.' = hre (3. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3.11.'.12) Equations 3. hre Tc==hoe hoe (3. From equation 3.9. rx.=== Te(1 lb + rx.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V .'re Tc (3. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent.16) From equation 3. 107 .13) From equation 3.9) + The current (1 rx.. rx.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx.')ib fiows in Te.11) (3. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals.14) hreTc hrehre hre Te===rx.  rx.') (3.10. 3.10.
Vgk 12 V. Vg 2 V or (b) RL 60 kO.T.125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. 108 . One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them. In all such cases. hre 90. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO.umhos. EXAMPLES Example 3. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. the OC75. Using the equations above: (/. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I06 = 720 kQ I0. For each case.4 re = 125 X I06 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 104 1 300.1. and hoe 125 . but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. y or g parameters will be more convenient.LOW FREQUENCY.. hre 5 x I0. 1t is to be operated with an H.4 . If they are fundamentally fourterminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics.
(b) 361 V. 36. (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. or (b) VBE 130 mV.2. Ic 8·8 mA. 110). operating point is given by (a) VcE 4·5 V.15·8. Av. ra 31 kQ.EXAMPLES determine the operating point. In each case. Example 3. 9·8 mA. (a) 153 V. Av.) 109 . VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 2 4 6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 8 10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 12 14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 16 11 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans.c. The d. determine the small signal h parameters. 24. 1·5 mA. /B 40 A. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. ra 6·6 kf!.29·5.
45.VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 24 3·6 4·8 6·0 76 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 56 6·9 84 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 39 29 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 . (a) 470 0. 450 . 97 . (b) 1 200 0. iB (pA) for . 35.1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans.umho.umho. 5 X I03. 6·7 X I03 .
The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. Ans.4. 0·993. rb 500 0. Example 3. h22 80 . (a) 6·25 0. hob 1 .3. 111 . hoc 33 . hrb 0·97. (b) htc 550 0. rc 1 MO.umho. (b) 6·25 0. and oc0·97. hzt 120. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. 244 0.EXAMPLES Example 3. hrb 5 X 104 . Ans. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0.umho. hrc 33·3. 244 0. hrc + 1. 120. hu 1 000 0. 1·5 MO. 12·5 kO. htz 5 x 104 . (a) htb 30 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits.
The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. using this method. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means.0.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1.c. g g ~ fl Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. In this chapter. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. Then. The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits. and p. 1 r. . but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. operating point. This procedure is not only time consuming. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4.0b 112 . These circuits represent the valve only. at the particular d. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra.c. we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. gm. equivalent circuits. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits.
s and proceeding from cathode to grid. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form. but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4.m.s algebraically. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . positive H. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary. or current source shown in the complete circuit. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e. The re<1. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations. since the a.c.m. the equivalent circuit is again used. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. If the amplifier output impedance is required.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter.f. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . indicate the sense of the unknown currents.c. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result. Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. add such p. line is taken as earth. In general. connect it to earth through any component. This 113 . potential at the grid.m.s and e. source of e. If a numerical solution only is required. the output voltage or power. measured with respect to cathode. and the input impedance.d. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification.f. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used.c.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method. the frequency or phase response. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution.Vb. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow.i2)Z1. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen.f. (2) Taking each electrode in turn.T. The d. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used.
if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4.:. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es. c.la and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b. ra + RL + Rk(1 + fl) (4.2) Substituting for Vgk ft(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.. and iaRL due to a positive ia.4) (4.. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL. iaRk. The valve has amplification factor fl and anode resistance ra.1) (Note.6) Vo = ftRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + fl) (4. Example 4. this would have led to Vgk = iaRk +es and Vo = iaRL. cathode and anode respectively to earth. c. and Vo flesRI.) Continuing with step 5: flVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.. d and e show the connection of grid. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized.. =''=.5) lf the output valtage is required. and e. 114 . d.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and fles = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + ft)] (4. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram.... Vo = iaRL.C.7) = and the valtage gain.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution.1. Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. The full circuit is given in Figure 4.
(a) Triode amplifier with undecoupled cathode resistor.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a. (d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4. (b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 .__.1.
8) Then by putting Ya 1 = . (b) (a) Figure 4. If the constant current form is used. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit.m. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r.2. Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4. The simple cathode follower. Figure 4. 116 . THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.2. Two other series forms will be given as examples. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4. ra rearrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + gmesYk (4.1 g.2b the required equivalent circuit. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier.s.
but since result 4. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( .RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth. 117 .10) iara = es. In addition there will be d.c.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l =  + fl) = es  giving iara. flVgk  Vgk + es (4. volts. and kQ 20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now.9 is simpler. power due to the direct anode current. this is the best to use.2b (4. power in the load. Writing the circuit equation (4.iara 1 + fl (4.12) (4.c.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4.11) Both forms are correct.13) Inserting values and working in mA. Vo = iaRL since +ia. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety.135 X I03 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.
g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4.16) (4.3. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + fl) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + fl) + ra) (4. Derive expressions for the valtage gain.es writing mesh equation rearranging es.14) +iaRs. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results.fl( +iaRs.3a. the terminal input impedance. and internal resistance Rs.3. Considering Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4.es)= ia(RL es(l + fl) . The grounded grid amplifier.3b Vgk = (4. The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance offland ra respectively.17) .3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure 4. but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced.15) ß)] (4.
.4). Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4. Consider a simple Figure 4. es(l + p.)RL =~~~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p..) + p. and putting Vo Avt = .4. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL).22) ra + Rs(1 + p.:::::(4.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p.) (4.CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.:.)RL Vo = ::':~.iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s  ra Ztn = .)RL ra + RL (4.) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =: (4. Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier....19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln  ia v' =es.( 1 + p.20) (4..20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn.) + RL 119 .) _ R s + RL + p. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p..21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator..:.
5. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation. sources suppressed (i.5.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D. replaced by their internal impedances). (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4.24) (4. The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. (See Figure 4..e. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(.f. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4.25) (4.26) .m./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4.
m. Taking all resistors in kQ. + Rs(l + . Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered.6b. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4. These are a form of cathode follower.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters. R5 (1 .6. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk. The valve has . The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra.4. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4.u 50 and ra 10 kQ. The circuit shown in Figure 4. designed to give a high resistive input impedance.c. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r.u)] RL + ra.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.23) as was obtained using the logical approach.6a isthat of a cathode follower.s. all 121 . signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.u) (4.
Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts. +5is has been neglected.ls Ia (4.f.3 . and all potential differences and e.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 . we have: Vgk = 500is [or 5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500ttis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4.= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4.29) Rearranging and collecting terms.32) substituting in equation 4.31 .m.ls = .7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA. 122 .30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = :.30) 0 = (4.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is.28) (4.31) 25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4. 25 000 .15 . = .5. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4. VI = 505is + 5ia (4.s in volts. 5 000 .31.) Using substitution methods. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4. from equation 4.
h and = 11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 . Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4. and if the first term of this is expanded.35) (4.34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4. we find (4.36) rearranging: 11e1 11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4.7b.f1Rk(h .33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4. very unwieldy expressions would appear.3 9) (4.40) These two expressions have the same denominator. By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL  i2RL = RL(h  i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2.5 The mesh equations may then be written: .Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = 11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 .11e1 .11e2 . If substitution methods were used. Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants. On 123 . the equivalent circuit.7.37) (4. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear.Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 .f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.
U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .12 = . and stray reactances due to wiring etc. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically.u)](e2.u)] . Therefore . then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored. A triode valve having . Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms.u(e2 .ei)(l + . Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn. Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a shortcircuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel. depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component. . those for minimizing negative feedback.uRk(e2. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. 11 .u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .e1) + . [ra + RL + Rk(l + . CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequencyconscious. The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor.41) From this result. and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored. Two examples involving reactive components will be given. The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 .e2) volts. high or medium. and a Ioad RL. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity interstage coupling. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants.u(e1. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. The question of whether a frequency is low.e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra . and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored.ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h  + (4. it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 . this.6.12 = . series inductors may be neglected.u) 11 . .u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + . In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling.u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. Similarly. at low frequencies.
j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tanlfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 .7.j) = 5 .j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4. working in kil: zk = j x 1 = j(1 + j) = 1.6 Figure 4.c.8a shows the complete circuit. Circuits for Example 4. Figure 4. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz. equation 4. i.e.j 1.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.8. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz. Av = ra At 159 Hz.42 39 X 20 39 X 2 78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 .CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor. Rg is necessary to provide a d. connection between grid and earth. flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk. This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4.1.j2 = 25 + 4 = 2·69(5 + j2) = 13·45 . where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil.
9.8 In this problem. Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action. 9·25 + 0·16 = 8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = 25·2 . and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R). To sketch the required frequency response curves.78(3·04 + j0·4) .9a and b. low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz.:.. THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4. ~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4. 30 .j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases. Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 . the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4.:.) ~ ra + RL.j0·4 . the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10.7. Zk=1j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01JO·l 39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) 78 3·04 . In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R).USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore j0·1 j0·1(1 +j0·1) . and 39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit.
This is provided by Rg across which H. is applied. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. certain components may be neglected as either opencircuit or shortcircuit. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4. (1) The cathode bias circuit.10. given that: !' = 20. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. If Rk X. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the interelectrode capacitance of the second valve. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. Rg =50 kO. and Cs = 100 pF. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies.c. Ce= 0·1 fkF. The first step then.10a. (b) (a) Figure 4. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. connection to earth.5. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve.10b could be solved by mesh analysis. =  10 10 then wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. RL = 20 kO.c. 127 .T. ra = 10 kO. output voltage will be developed.
This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included. amplification. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w== RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. 128 .c. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered.5. If the reactance is greater than lORg.c. low frequencies. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. and high frequencies.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. If 1 CB = lORg W 1012 1 w== lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a shortcircuit. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. (2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. it may be regarded as open circuit. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. If these results are examined. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency.
gmesRe Rg Figure 4.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4. The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.= .11. the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.45) Re= 5·89 kQ ft 20 gm = .43) =++Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es.gmVgkRe = . and Vo = . High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 .44) gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.43 and 4.12.12. If the parallel combination Figure 4. Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.11.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = 2 X 5·89 = 11·78 In Figure 4. 1 1 I 1 (4.
and 5. 4. For example. then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze. thus Re I = Xcs = wCs and I w== ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton .) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. 0·5. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5. (4. From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift.46) gmZe _ gm(jXcsRe) Re. 2. (See Appendix 1. Iet Re/Xcs = I. 0·2.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. d at f rom 17 .jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by jXc8 . Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J03 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 .
anode voltage Va. y'(12 + 0·52).c. where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4.13. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan1 0·2. and y'(12 + 52).THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. k Figure 4.48) . Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a.1. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. Vo = 1 RgVa Rg  . y'(12 + 22).1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points. tan1 0·5. but if more accuracy is required. Table 4. leading to the result shown in Table 4. This is shown in Figure 4. The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5.13. and tan1 5 from 180°. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. tan1 2. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22).
Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined.jXcc(Ta. + RL) (4.Rg + RLRg.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta.RL + Ta.jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg. is given by the product of the current . .gmRe Rg + Ta.50) R L + RL) gmRgTaRL Ta.Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ gmRe jXcc(Ta. h 11 1 b' . and Rg. and Vo Avl== es TaRL ) gmRg ( Ta+ RL ~~~~~ ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4. Therefore TaRL ) .jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta. from equation 4. T he expresswn Ta (4.51) .52) = Avm. + RL) TaRL Ta.44 Avl = Avm :~ I _ jXcc R' (4.e.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg. + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + .RL Ta+ RL = R' (4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va.49) The term (Rg. J cc (4. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x. and Rg. it is Re.gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta.jXcc . RL.. RL. 132 .RL Ta.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. i.
The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°. To calculate the frequencies. tan.1 0·5 etc. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same. the frequency must be divided by the same constant. now . and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case.2RgCc 133 . This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan1 0·2.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . first consider the point where Xcc R' =1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant.
33·3.s. 20.9. A triode valve has 1140 and ra 20 kQ.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations.m. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. Ans.14. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ. EXAMPLES Example 4.Hz Figure 4. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4.8. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . By definition. Example 4. 13·3. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4. An alternating voltage of 50 mV r. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits. Once the technique has been mastered.
Ans.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth. 34·3 kQ. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier.13. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. and VaK 3 V. h 2 mA. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. 17·1 kO.10.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. Example 4. 17·5 kO. 6·72 V. If the anode load is 27 kQ.12. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. Calculate the anodecathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ. ra. 51·0. Example 4. Example 4. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4. Ans. Ans. 0·75 V. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. 455 kQ. 0·49 V. If Jl and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. Example 4.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ.14. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO.m. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters Jl and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. 1·25 V. Take Jl and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. capacity coupled to the load. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. Ans. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. 10·5. 0·95. Example 4. 323 0. determine the constants Jl and ra of a suitable valve.3a) is driven by a source of e. 97 0. Ans. Ans.15. 135 . find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. Example 4. 10 kQ.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. 0·808. 80 0. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4. Ans.f.11.
calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48').15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4. for each valve.17. Circuit for Example 4.16. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. The circuit shown in Figure 4. The d. or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4). 136 . Circuit for Example 4. Ans. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ.15. 1·01 sin wt. 28·3.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit.c. Example 4. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4.16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.16.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively.
18.Cl Figure 4. H:T. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans. 35·6.18. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. Ans. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range. If f1.20. 9·62.18. 13. 4·88 kQ.17.18 Example 4.IlXAMPLES Example 4. 137 .17 employs identical valves with tt 36 and ra 12 kQ.Cl 50k. Circuit for Example 4. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 ttF for this purpose. Ans. Circuit for Example 4. 50 Hz to 10kHz.19. 30·4. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4.19 Example 4. 500. The valve has tt 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode.
5·5 Hz. 39·15. 27 kQ.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.. H. Example 4. 0·37 mA/V. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain. 0·01 f. 138 . 12·1 L 241° 42'. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Ans.21.lF. Ce 0·25 f. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz.. Cs 330 pF.10a has the following components. Example 4. Ans.24. 31·9. Take f.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies.19. Rg 100 kQ. Ans. The valve parameters are f.lF.. Ans. RL 30 kQ.T. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ.+ Figure 4. 37kHz..21 Example 4.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL. Circuit for Example 4.23. 9·6 kQ. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL.22.
128Hz to 7·5 kHz. Ans.25. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100. Ce 0·1 p. 139 .F. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO.EXAMPLES Example 4.
if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving. If however. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. This will usually depend upon the available information. the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. or even.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. hrb. 140 . Show all details. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. if correctly applied. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. applied or generated. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. base and collector connections. When the correct h parameters are available. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. hrb. produce the correct solution in all cases. there is no need to convert to the required form.c. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used.e. i. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. for example. rc. will. draw the chosen equivalent. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined.
d and e show the connections of the emitter. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. Components R1. collector and base respectively. Example 5. Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. having zero reactance. and of the input impedance. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho.lc. hre Vce.c.Q. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 .c. Remernher that batteries or other d. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 . but with T equivalents. hre 5 X 104. The circuit shown in Figure 5. In any case. (hre ib. When the h parameters are given.c. the two mesh currents are usually more convenient. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a.3 must be used. Figures 5. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. to earth. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1.la shows a single stage amplifier.1. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n.c. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages. Figure 5. power supplies are short circuit to a. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. and the coupling capacitor.GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. is shown as a short circuit.lb shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit variable. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. using substitution methods or determinants. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. etc.
1'" RE 1k.1.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS .O.1. e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5.. (a) Circuit for Example 5.la 142 .Vcc c RL 4 k!l. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5.
These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. not with respect to earth. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages.c.GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. and by adding any iZ products and generated e. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic. take the product as negaitive. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied.90ib). Before continuing the solution. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a.) and the signal source. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic . The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. lf proceeding against the current arrow. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J06 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. 143 . Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem.f.m.s.lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification.
Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !LA ic = = 0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA 856fLA (Note the minus.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow.3) (5.3. or (c) Vce = [5 X I04vce + 900ib + R'ib . Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.04 = 1·74 X 105e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl.71 .4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I05e' 1.4 OOOic] V.2) Rearranging these equations.3) 1 OOOib (5. or (b) Vce = [ 1 OOO(ic + ib) .90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5.) 144 .360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic . e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5.1 81 From 5.ic = 1 040 A . _ 13 X 103 .90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.4 OOOic] V. In this case.72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic. = 4ic .5 X 104 X 8 OOO(ic. but the shortest path is usually the most convenient. take the product as positive.90ib) V.owing towards earth.1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic . _ .9 X 104 lc . e' io = . Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.71·9 X 104ib e' and . collecting terms and inserting the value of R'.4 Substituting in 5. indicating 180° phase shift. The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic . lb .e' .
Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way. Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib). Vo = icRL = 856 X lQ5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5. On the other hand this technique. since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines.. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =:lb lQ3 = 1·74 X lQ5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor.1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'.55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 . will always Iead to the correct solution.1040 X 1·74 = . correctly applied.::::=: At = 1·74 X 105e' ib 105 At=.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib. and substituting for terminal current gain e' 1 040 ic = :=::..1·74 X 105 X 445 = 0·89 .0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo.ibR' = 0·89 . This analysis may seem very long.
2. The following points should be noted. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency.umho. hre 110. (a) 1(b) Figure 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a.2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. Determine the overall voltage gain. Figure 5. and hoe 105 . Example 5. these components have been shown as short circuits. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances.2a. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn. the h parameter general solutions may be used.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters.2..c.4. hte 1·3 kO. hre 2 X I0. itn and io. This also eliminates the emitter resistors. Vo. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n. as have the Ioad resistors. 146 . current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5.
4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n.= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 . Before applying these steps to the problern in hand. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain.umhos. The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of .umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n.umhos. Applying this rule. (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl. divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. To obtain the adrnittance of a component in . lb2 + 2 X 104( 110ib2) 408 X lQb 220 v' = 1 300 .umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 21.6) . This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis. a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 110ib X 104 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)106 Substituting for v0 in 5·5. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows.+ 4·7.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'. I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 .5) (5.
6 u 2 Ytn llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 100 1 300(1 471)106 .umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl. using the general solution found in Chapter 2.285 2 X 104 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 . for step 3. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2. YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 .1·3 = X 1·471.100 X 2 X I04 110 .( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly. Ztn2 hrehte = hte. = llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 104 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)106 1 300ibl (5.(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2.8) Substituting for ibl in 5. and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 .7 _ I 300(1471)10.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I04 = I 300.7) (5.umho Now from the general solution.0·022 58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .
58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10.6 . 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + 110ib2 X 303 110 X 3·03 = . IR 2 io IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03.hrehre 110 = 1 300(1 471)106 .I 10 IIO X 2 X 104 = 2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = 2I6·5 X 58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain.~chte(hoe + YL) .3:::0=3+:1=05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X 1Ix30·3 4·08 . . refer to step 6. hre Av = .110 X 2 X 104 = . io Vo YL2 At=:== AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 106 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure.GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 . lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn .
umho = = 1 000 655 .4 = + 260) .42 .umho 220 I05 . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .28 .umho X 10 = 92·4 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 104 I 300 + 442 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) . hrehre Yo = hoe . the overall output admittance and impedance.umho ~400 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.umho I 000 . 3 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2. 97·2 + 303 .hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors.umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 .umho Including YL2.umho = 97·2 .I 7 .umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 =   110 X 2 X I04 I 300 + I 530 .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 .
Finally. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. . In any case. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5.2 voltage. further components are added in parallel. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero. the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5.. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. the bias components. To show the effect of these approximations.3 where es is the source Figure 5. may be neglected or at least rounded off. . E. The first thing to notice. In each case however.2 is accurate but not really practical.3. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. . so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. having an impedance much greater than h1e.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances. and hoe is neglected. Av= hre hreZL ..GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5. we shall reconsider Example 5.
Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b. 600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 50002 kfl 5 kfl20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem. hrb. 152 . a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations. Having considered the common emitter amplifier. Avz Z1n2 = llO 1·300(105 + 303)106 = 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 90 X .1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho 63·5 63·5 x 208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error.1.2. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Table 5.
3. firstly. by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5.2. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5. and secondly.GENERAL METHODS Table 5.3 emitter parameters. Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. In the next example. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. these alternative methods will be compared.4.umho and hre 65. Take hte 800 n. hre 103 . Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = Vo = 2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) . hoe 250 . by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. Figure 5.4a.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5300 0·52Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications. Example 5.
umho . + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib . 154 Y1n = 71·25 .umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 . .I03(ib 0 = 4(ic  65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms.4a. 258. = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib . From Figure 5.= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ.umho = 60 . YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel. and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. so substituting for ic in the first equation. :ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'.umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components. VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = . = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = 258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I03 terms) From the second equation.
Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain. (a) I Figure 5. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I06 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5.5.3 155 .5a. suppressing any external generators.GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. as shown in Figure 5.
6 Neglecting the first term. 0·384 X 106.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5.) Now writing the nodal equation.V.65 X 384 X I06V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10. Table 5. IOav Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l06V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.1 and 5.2. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'.384 X I06V =:::= . care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5.VY' = 0·384 X I06V. First Vce = . so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I03 V. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 520 (limited by bias components) Low 0·80·99 High Bias components Low 20100 il 156 . I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)106 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.3.384 X I06 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre.5b.
I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals.6. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = Vce. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters. Thus and + hreib) hrc = (hre + 1) and h1c ie = (ib = h1e Now for ib zero. the hre generator becomes hreVec. together with ib flow into the short circuit. ib and ie as shown hlc I = . Vbc. Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec  hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 .6. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents. Vec. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears.hre . The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. hre Vce Figure 5.. All the current from the hre generator.
3: htc = 8000 htc = 66 hrc = hoc = 250 . This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.umho 1 . 158 . a phase splitter or a d. The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one. or super <X pair. amplifier.103 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I06 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 .6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. we require the effective Zs. With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier. ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given.c.umho For overall Y0 .umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 .umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. including Ioad. but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 .
The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a.4.c.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. 7a.7. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5. hre 5 X 104. operating points determined by the circuit. 159 . In this example only the he parameters are available. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO). so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis. supply. hte 1 300 0. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d.7a could be treated in a number of ways.umho and hre 90. Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known.c. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. hoe 125 .c. Circuits for Example 5. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier.
therefore if VI. The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary. which changes the units to volts. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages.A Now for node I.0·83vz 0 = 0= 75·5vl + 153vz . The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59. For ib1. we may write and ibl = (v1  ibz = vz)830 pA vz 830 p. For node 2: 90(vl .A.7b. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 .mho. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI  vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p. and va.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. vz. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances.0·125va 75vz + 0·625va 160 . vz and va in terms of is. circuit admittances and external generators. The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance.vz)830 + 90( 830vz) = vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830)  125va and for node 3: 90( 830vz) = 125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages.
but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low. since each stage of a 161 .0·125 X 75) + 0·83(75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~==~~~~~~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants.= ls 1 :ls is 0 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 1·08 75·5 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =:. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = .0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal.X ls X is(153 X 0·625. This is to be expected. For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 75·5 0 0·83 +153 75 is 0 0 is 0 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(75·5 X X75.
Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000.w 'h. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair.5..~· it..' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h . 162 ..c. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'. hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ". common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. hoe'. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance. A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v. (b) (a) !2 ho. (d) (c) Figure 5. hre 120. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.8a.8b. hoe" and hre ".8.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base. Example 5. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5.
:. where hn. and since there is no p.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h._h_"_ 1 ~ h. but first we must find h22. this can also be deleted.. + oe Now. for h21 and hn. and short circuit output. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + h oe _ fz _ 22  = V2  h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " h + le oe 1 h ") + .9) we can write a nodal equation. Under these conditions h and ib are zero. oe II le (5. the parameters for the overall circuit..d.. for h12 and h22. oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". hz1. Here Vz ib"=11 1 hte h. are open circuit input.1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5. Figure 5. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h. ib" in terms of the node voltage. where Y is the combination of hte ". 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5. across hte'.10) .. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters.:. h12.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2.
11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately...I h .I5) (5.14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5. I ... • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem. By inspection.. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part..8d.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition. In this case.I6) . The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. V' + hoe'hte 11 (5. the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I . The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit.. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate.I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____..12) Once again..= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'. oe + h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5. h in terms of h.. (5. we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output.II. 11  + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5. For h21. le h _ h ..
3 = x 106 OoOI8 + """13 mho = Oo8 + 138 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. h _ h ib'  _ hre'. 5o14. hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018.(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METIIODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6. the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n  3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu .hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case. and 5017. 1121 = 120. this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 106 X !50 X 106 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 106 I 50 X 106 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.83 kQ 165 . smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb . or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value.0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns.
Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded. At this point then.9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. Figure 5. huc = 188 k. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value. hoe 100 .6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. An even higher input impedance can be achieved. hre 110.3. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . and hre negligible. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4. Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 . have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. except in phase. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF. as the large h21 permits a very low d. and that due to transistor properties. determine. where shown. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. have neglected the effect of reactances. Stray capacitance due to wiring.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. without loss of current gain. the coupling capacitor. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain.6. By means of a general analysis. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. Av2 .Q h12c = 1 h21c = 11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged.c. have not been shown. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components.umho. base current for the first transistor. Example 5. Capacitors.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input. independent of frequency.
the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5. By definition.6 For simpJicity. Jet 1 Re = :=c=(5.20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5.22) .21) 1 Ztn2=y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5.9.19) Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5. Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero.
Avh hre = hRe le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. At low frequencies. . The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm.jXce) Ztn2 v = . will be referred to as medium frequencies. Ve shown in Figure 5. X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V . .23) At high frequencies.24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. those at which Cs only may be neglected. frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected. as low frequencies.telb X .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. X es is in parallel with Re. . and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies.J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by jXcs. Av1 and Avh respectively.9b is the same as v'. h . RL'(Ztn2 . First.   VcZ!n2 Ztn2 jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies.>Re v' = hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' hre Avm ==Re VI hte (5. ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2  J Ce .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 C '. considering Figure 5. jXcsRe v = hrelb x R ·x e .
23. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8. 5.20. But (Equations 5. In this numerical example.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed.21. and 5. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5.20. Avm A vl = ':'::: (5.24 and 5.26) 169 .23. from equation 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies. 5. 5.23.) Thus from equation 5. This results in Avh = 59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5. Avm = 110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5. let Re/Xcs = 1. Forageneral investigation. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5.22.24. At any particular frequency.19.
F = 0"63 p.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. 170 . 2wh.I9 and 5. y'5. 3. tan.2I. Inspection of equation 5.. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz. y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan1 0·25. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5.24. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1). 2. In practice.4 on page 171.. At these frequencies.. etc. At low frequencies.F capacitor would be suitable. These results are shown in Table 5.1 2.. I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5.. 5. . the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. tan1 3 and tan1 5 respectively. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1. the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p. 3wh.F Thus in practice a 1 p. and 5wh respectively.
5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll6 tan.' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan11 45° o5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 .0 tan1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .8 tan.1 tan.4.96 tan120 87° 10' IAvml = 11 9 tan1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where 0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42. 8 tan.6 tan1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.10·5 26° 30' T tan10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh= Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 . Xcc Avt 7i.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.96 tan.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.1 2 63° 30' = 18.
The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also. 2. 3..4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. Considering the single stage first. at each frequency.10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies. Figure 5. 2. etc. the gain of the first stage.10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz.wCcR' . for the single 172 . since we are puttmg R ' .2 . of the two stage amplifier. 3. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined.hrehre + ::::. These results arealso shown in Table 5. i.e. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. values of !.=::::: hle(hoe 110 = 1 000(100 + 500)106 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from 90° (at the top) to +90°. Av2 = hre YL) . we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. the gain of the second stage. . etc. This is shown. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. This is shown in Figure 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. must be multiplied by Av2. the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~.4.
The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift. 30 180° e 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5. (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. plotted in the complex plane. If the ends of all these vectors are joined. we obtain the locus of the gain vector.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 .MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5.6. 4 6 f. This locus is shown in Figure 5. in Figure 5. the locus is a circle. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. with the origin on the circumference.40 > 3. In this case. 173 .Jla.10.llb.
7. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.11.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit. Circuits for Example 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5.12a. If the transistor employed 4k. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5. but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9.12.O. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 . In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 . Example 5.
ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1. inserting values and working in kil and mA.0·7ib (5.ie + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations.29) Rearranging and collecting terms. Figure 5. In terms of these three. .28) (5.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. ie. rc +. substituting for i 0 and i'. V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = 0·03ie + 10(81ib  = ie) + 4(ir + ib .ie).. V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 14 +814 +4 +10 810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)0·7(14x 154x 10)+0 15 450vl . = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = 14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie .463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 . = ib(1 + rx') . rb 800 kil and rx' 80. The unknown currents have been se1ected as ib.10(8lib.ie) 15ir. and ir.lo R L 0 = lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib  ie = ib .27) (5. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain. + l.ie = ibrb + iere .810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie.
814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v.0·03Vt 0. circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are available. These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters.203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. The methods used. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. ib = Vi. Vo Vo Av = . .n Vt Vt = :lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor. mA = ioRL = (ir.= 90 Vi Z. In fact. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point.ie)4 V = 22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers. the input current is ib + ir. 176 . the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 .28. In the majority of the examples. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter.27. however. feedback methods should be used. In the design of a practical amplifier.ib. ir = 14ie . However.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5.
8.11 Example 5. 25·7 Q.10. 1·97. 960 Q.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n. Example 5. Circuit for Example 5. hre I03 ..8 using RLO.9.13. 10 kQ. 130. 560. Ans. hoe 90 .14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5. 8·83 mV. and oo. 65·6. 645 n. 960 Q.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. Assurne Xe = 0. 258 n. Example 5. hre 75. 65·6. 6·83 kQ. 177 . Figure 5. Ans. 3 130.11. 36·2. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. and At against RL.umho.8. Av. v. Repeat Example 5. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. Circuit for Example 5. Ans. 0.14. 100 n. 6·72. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. 0. Ans. 56·5. Figure 5.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. 0·68. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5.8 taking Xe as being infinite. 862 Q.
umho.15. 2·22 kQ. Figure 5. Example 5. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage. Example 5.15. Ans.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances. Circuit for Example 5. 656 Q.umho. Example 5. hre 0. Ans.14.umho. Ans. hoe 80 . 11·35. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ. 1 528 Q. 8·83 mV. 1.15 has h1e 1 300 0. 1100 Q. 147. hre 90. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. hoe 80 .12. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. 264 Q. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. 496 X 1()3. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. hre 150.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 . A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5. Repeat Example 5.16. Example 5.13. 90 . hoe 120 . 76. 25·7 Q. Ans.7a. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. 3·3 kQ. Collector Ioads. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. 650 X 1()3. hre 5 X 104. hre 110.
119 ftmho.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. and hoe 130 ftmho. Ans. Ye Example 5. hre 5 X 104. hre 80. hre 125. Ans. effective interstage shunt capacitance 500 pF. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. 179 . The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. and IX 0·992. 1 122 n. 89. 5 260. Ans. 2·10 kil. Circuit for Example 5.16. hre 103 . 1 130 L 3° 30'. The amplifier shown in Figure 5.18. 1 123 Q. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. Example 5. 7 370. Figure 5. 6 600. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ.17. hoe 130 ftmho. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies.19. Ans. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance. per stage. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF. 105 Hz. Yb 350 Q. hre 90. and hre 0. Example 5. 20·4 x tos.EXAMPLES effective. 162 L 168°. 63 kn. Yc 750 kQ. 63·3. 5. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit. 444 kHz.
14·6 k. 180 .90 k.umho. the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 . hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 .Q.8a.Q. 1 270. (a) 41·0.Q. hoe 500 . hoe 110 . hre 103 . 218.Q.Q. In each case. Ans.umho.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2. 4·0 .Q.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5.20. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal). h1e 1· 5 k.Q.Q. hte 70. 88 . hre 4 X 104. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5. Calculate the voltage gain. Assurne Zs to be 10 k. (b) 0·973.
The passive components may vary with temperature and time. In this 181 . manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. and in the event of a replacement. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. operating conditions. and of the device parameters.c. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. Similarly. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. and a change of d. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. current gain or both. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value.c.
These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive.1. and their configuration. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier. where in general A = lAI L 0.c. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically nonlinear. 182 . This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. particularly at high frequencies. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components. The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage.
but not essentially. and So is the output signal.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. Usually. lßl is less than one. S' is the terminal input signal. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6.2) .1.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1. S is the input signal applied from an outside source.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6. where cp. the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6.ßA AS So= 1.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.
e. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. the feedback is negative. d.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6.1. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. supply changes. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'. and in particular negative feedback. i.e. 184 . \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\. or temperature changes. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600. i. Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced. Thus equation 6. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used. discussed above. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1.c. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 . so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain. With reference to equation 6.) Example 6. Feedback positive \A\.
SERIES AND PARALLEL FEEDBACK
If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine
the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000
=
K(l25)2
where K is a constant.
K
=
3 000
= 0·191
1252
the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
30001220
3 000
X
Percentage change
100 per cent
= 59· 3 per cent
Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier
Au
and
=
A 2r =
3 000
3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402
1 + 600
. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500  402
Percentage change m
500
X
100 per cent
= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
SERIESAND PARALLEL CONNECTED FEEDBACK
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series
7
185
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.
Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback
Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multistage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be
186
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.
Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:
=
Rt
ß=
Rt
ßVo
R2
+ R 2 Vo
R2
+ R2
(6 .4)
Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by
(6.5)
where
(6.5a)
>
since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'
V'=
but
Vo
=
(6.6)
es
1 Avoß
,
Avoes
AvoV = 1Avo ß
Gain with feedback
=
Vo
es
=
1  Ap~ vo
(6.7)
Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l  ßAvo)
187
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
If this equation is divided by i the input current,
es
V'
:l = .
(1
l
 ßAvo)
But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:
Ztnf
= Ztn{l
 ßAvo)
(6.8)
Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.
Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback
We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say
V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining
R2
1
R2(Zs
+ Ztn)
(6.9)
ß'. Where
= ==='R2 + Zs + Ztn
188
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
V'= ß'E
and
Zs
Ztn
Ztn
+
Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E  Av' V' = I'Zo'
From equation 6.9
E(l  ßAv') = I'Zo'
E
Zo'
Zor = ji = l  ßAv'
(6.10)
The overall output impedance can thus be found from
1
1
Z = Zor
1
1
+ RL + R1 + Rz
Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback
We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.
I
.;!, 1
I··
RL
l
Vo
I
I
c0 t
E
I
I
I
v,r.,       J
Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback
In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor
RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as
ßVo.
189
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
Thus if RF ~ Zs
+ Ztn (as is usual)
ßVo
Vo
ioRF
ioRL
=
ß=
RF
RL
(6.11)
In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,
Av'RL
Avo
= RL + RF + Zo'
(6.12)
With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.
Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,
V'
=
IRF (if Ztn
+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)
and writing the mesh equation
E Av'( IRF)
= l(Zo' + RF)
arranging and collecting terms,
E
or
Zor
= IZo' + /RF(l
 Av')
= ~ = Zo' + RF(l Av')
(6.13)
With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect
unimportant.
Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.
190
and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e.f.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since . 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 .86 = 623 from equation 6. 100 ß= . Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6. The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a). the voltage derived feedback. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative.5 and 6.4.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine. and internal impedance 1 kO. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8).A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. the overall terminal voltage gain. from equations 6.5a. For the amplifier without feedback.m.8. the modified input and output impedance.Applying equation 6.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits. so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6. for both methods.7 and 6. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.
10.24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.14.11.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1. the current gain is unchanged. To return to the problem. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14.A With reference to equation 6.7 and 6. and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ.14).A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 ftA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ. and using equations 6. 6. Zor =I lOkQ + 6.23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ. 1 795 = 192 . we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6.A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ.8 we find.12. 6. If the original input current 0·5 flA was applied.
f. we refer to equation 6. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9. This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. the current gain has not been reduced.1. as has the input current.13.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback.1. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 . lo  As before. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 . Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback.8 mV . as a result of the increase in input impedance. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback. Ztn 1 000 0.
CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6.n=:=h le in parallel with the bias components.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box. /li0 io YL Y.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance. A. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '. and a short circuit current gain A.n  v' G2 Figure 6.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor.5. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. 194 .5.'. these would be given by: I Y. the two quantities to be added must be currents. With voltage derived feedback. the output impedance is reduced. Fora multistage transistor amplifier. I' is l•.
Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 . is I' .15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.21) 195 . lo = (6.v1)G2 = v'G2 (6.20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6.= .ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But .ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.19 by the terminal input valtage Vt. I = 1.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6.= Ytn and .= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .19) Atois 1.ßAto . the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .ßAto) is . and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network.5. This is given by: At'YL' (6. The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL.16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback.(1 .ßAto) (6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6. YL is the finalload.
n G2 Figure 6. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6. the current gain is reduced.6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. The effect of YL. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback. the input impedance is reduced). Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V. and the input admittance is increased (i. with simple negative feedback. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6.2. I' Y. that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6.e. Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V.24. The reader may have noticed by this stage.20 and 6.6. G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required.
7.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 . . Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers. I i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6.'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I".23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result. 197 ß and . is I' I ~Ys io y.24) With typical values. we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo. Y.n . Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback. YL will be the predominent term and equation 6. Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6.7. is shown in Figure 6. resulting in voltage derived feedback.CUR.24 will approximate to YL.ß"At' (6.
Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn.25) Also.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. I + GF'(l. Example 6.20 and 6. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6. (6. the overall current gain. and calculating the resulting V. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. 198 . the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6.3. The amplifier described in Example 6.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and . suppressing the source generator. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal. input admittance.At") (6.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods.26) Using these values of ß and A10.21 respectively. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case. and output admittance.
= 250 . 6. and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback.umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q).100 .21.umho .umho 1 251 = 238 .umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6. Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 .= .18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 .= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s. 199 1 786 .17 and 6.umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn :. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative.umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL . .20 and 6. Also 1 YL = . 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 .umho ln Yo At . 1 = Zo' = . . 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) .15.umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.16. 6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.
Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 . This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 . ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6.24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 .uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q). = Yor = At" = = 9·9 .27.25 and 6. applying equations 6.' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).22 and 6.umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).umho = 56 . GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance. The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.26.umho.umho 101\ 0 A. 200 .umho + 280) = 3 130 .21.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 .20 and 6.
SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers. and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6.umho. Yo 305 .8. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance. With a current amplifier. Y1n 8 780 . Now moving to the output terminals. A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance. and the input impedance is increased.umho. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit. We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained.umho. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance.umho. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'.21.EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. Yo 3 130 . Y0 350 . the current gain and input impedance are reduced. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 . + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. the voltage gain is reduced. when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived). In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel.umho. the output impedance is reduced. Y1n 1 000 . Ytn 1 786 .umho.
the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector. and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector.4.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'. By means of sketched vector diagrams. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. and that is that ßA must be less than one. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°.27. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. 90°. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. These effects are shown in equations 6.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. since the gain is 5 L 0.10 and 6. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. (b) 90°. naturally increases the output impedance. and that the calculation of Af(l . The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback. First we must be clear about the information supplied. (c) +45°. This may be illustrated by an example. 135°. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. oo. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. Example 6. v0 = A L 0 V'. At three different frequencies. and in Chapter 8. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. 202 .
if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6. (b) negative. Forasinglestage amplifier. and by measurement of vectors or by calculation. the gain and phase shift with feedback determined.8.6.11 for Example 5.4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies. Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multistage RC coupled amplifier. and (c) positive.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. 203 . ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°. IJvo ~ ~vo t's (b) f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5.
we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( ßA). the vector (I . Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. 02P.9b iscorrect.ßA).9a. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.9b. Since this is the locus of (. Next the locus of ßA is required.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency.(l. and we require (1 .9b. fm . and /h respectively. 02Q. For this. and 02R are the (1 . then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. we must find. Thus Figure 6.9.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1. Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference.ßA). From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages.ßA)is3 L 0°.ßA) vector would remain at 01.ßA) vector. the scale of Figure 6. origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . The origin of the (1 . Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ßio L ()0. for each frequency.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 . The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing.9a. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle.9a ft (a) Figure 6. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown.atfm. having its origin on the circumference. This is shown in Figure 6. The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6. To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback. each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6. In Figure 6. and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left.
10b is to apply to the problern in hand.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted.6. Examination of Figure 6 .10a and b. A two stage amplifier. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies. say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. With reference to Table 6.ßA I can never be less than one. draw the overall gain and phase response. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . Before we can apply the methods outlined above.= 880.4. If the ß factor is 8·5 x I04 . This will now be illustrated by an example. having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20. This is shown in Figure 6. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.5. the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = . A table may now be drawn up.9b shows that 11 . 205 . the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520.ßA) and (1 . Example 6. it is applied over two or more stages.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L 26·5° respectively. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point ßA = (3 520 X 8·5 X I04) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm.ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. If Figure 6. the gain must be squared. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response.ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin. Since at each frequency. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram. This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier.
1.ßA). Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.10.ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11.ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 .1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 129° 87° 0·01 972 32° 0·02 870 15° 0·03 879 70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6. Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1. cp' = 38°. Table 6.
11. ~co (/) co· fU~ <llOl o. From these curves the following results may be obtained.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback. relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback... it is convenient to plot graphs of gain.I:. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency. Graphs of gain... and relative gain against log frequency... phase shift.lfl ~ +250° 10 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° 00 50° 0·4 1500 250° Figure 6. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency. To obtain the relative gain in each case. Figure 6.11 shows graphs of gain.:c . 207 . The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback. :.. relative gain and phase <ll <ll > .r:.
02.ßAol is also reduced.12 shows the form of the locus of ßA and (1 .10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. If the origin for (1 . and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l .12b the amplifier must have four stages. but it cannot rise to infinity. This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. Oz.11. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 .10b shows that this will occur when 11 .ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks. and since it is not symmetrical. then 11 .ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite. 04 etc.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. Figure 6. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01.ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. and if this distance is smaller. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l . For the locus shown in Figure 6. The origin 01 isthat applicable to the ßA locus. the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage. was cut by the locus. Figure 6.ßA) scale. we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback.ßA). ßA and hence ß must be 208 .ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity. are possible origins for the (1 . In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies. the origin for ßA. Examination of Figure 6. 03. Consideration of Figure 6. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive.
since the gain is infinite.= 0 = 1ßA .ßAI cannot equal zero.e.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger. oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4.ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75. If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li . In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously. Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased.e. (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =. Locus of (1 . 03 is the origin for (1 . The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies. With the origin at 02 li . i. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased. no input is required for an output to be present. giving positive feedback.ßAI is at 03.ßA I is about .. but it can be less than one. i.ßA) with more feedback than 02. 209 .12.
that is troublesome.12b is given below. but also voltages at twice. the amplifier will be unstable. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. U nstable. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. Origin Position 0203 Oa04 040s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier. In general the nonIinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. positive FB at high and low frequencies. but if it is applied over three or more stages. or second harmonic. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. bandwidth increased. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . Unstable. oscillation at /1 only. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO. we might expect a stable condition again. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 . This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency.
The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced. So = AS' +D (6. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on nonlinear distortion Since we have an amplifier. + ßD + ßD (6.29) S'(l . Consider the system shown in Figure 6. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage.28 So = AS' 1 . Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So. So must contain a component AS'.13. 0·5 V at 2kHz. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced.ßA) and (6.ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6.30) 1. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback.13.30 into equation 6.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D . and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel. and O·I V at 3 kHz.
.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I .ßA AßD + +D .AßD I .6.ßA D (6.. A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6.6 212 . 2 I• Feedback . Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback.14.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel. This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6.ßA ASt = I . Figure 6. using the methods described in Chapter 1. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively.31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically. But from equation 6. Example 6.31) + 1.14.
and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present.T.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 .15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'. and es is 2·5 sin wtV. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. Now toreturn to the problem.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. Severe distortion :. Figure 6. on Figure 6. In Figure 6. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor. + ß') x 100 per cent Further. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ßß' 2(6.15. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6.
load line for 40 kQ. operating point is VAK 139 V.c. but ß may be obtained from equation 6.c. has been drawn. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed. es must be increased.c. VaK 3 V.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case. as has the d.H. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. along a 38 kQ a.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 047 S. (b) Without feedback. bias line for 2 kQ.D. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph. Peak v0 = 194. Peak Vo 191 . But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 . ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = hRK t es and hRK es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained. the operating point moves between VBK 0·5 V to VaK 5·5 V.11. = 2 x 4 . The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected. load line. h 1·5 mA. current derived negative feedback is applied. The resulting d.c.
= 2 x 4 . In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers. ßv0 is also slightly distorted. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case.D. In the 215 . Figure 6. Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result. From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself. In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component. v0 with feedback is slightly distorted.H. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier.19 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. In other words.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively.16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 .
v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6.7. A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. 80. In a prototype.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain. 0·012. Waveforms for Example 6. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo 5 200 (distorted) . Ans. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain. 216 . and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined.16.
4·96 kO. Ans. Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . 1 013 .9.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO.!l Figure 6. 48·8 0.8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO. 47·5 kO. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance.17. (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback.11 8 217 .10. Example 6. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. Circuit for Example 6. 91·2.8. Example 6. This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . determine the current ratio i0 /i8 .umho. Example 6.11.EXAMPLES Example 6. 38·7. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs. The amplifier described in Example 6. and 400kfi 10' i ' 2k. For the circuit shown in Figure 6. Ans. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0.17. 169 0. 24·5. If the load and source are unchanged.umho. Ans. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load. 25·8 kO. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000.
An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of 95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k. whether the feedback is positive or negative. (b) positive.12. Example 6. 10. phase shifting. ß L 200°. 450 kHzoo. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L 45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L65° 2 100 L 90° 3 300 L 130° 4 400 L 155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L 45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. Example 6.14. determine for each case. ß = 0·059 L 245° By means of vector diagrams. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. 218 .3 .Q.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX.4 . Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. 060 Hz. 2·6 MHz. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. (a) negative. 1/1 760.13. Ans. Check your answer by calculations. I I 50. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° 30°. Ans. Ans. 1 MHz.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance. 161. Example 6. Ans. The total loading per stage is 600 . (c) neither. (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. is applied.
Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. 8·9 per cent.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion).16.. 47 V peak to peak. Example 6. RL 13 kO. and RK 1·2 kO. The source impedance is 600 n.B. lf RK is adequately decoupled.EXAMPLES Example 6. 219 .F. Checkthese results using feedback theory. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base. Ans.15. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are 3 200 and 800 n respectively. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. 43 V peak to peak. 32 per cent. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. N. 2·12 MO. calculate the value required for RF. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1.T. Ans.
7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' . In this situation. INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions.la shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. Figure 7. either A or ß must be negative. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal. In this chapter. with feedback derived from a later stage.I . Figure 7.1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal.ßA 220 . we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations.ßA so for simple negative feedback. l is = I . Figure 7.. The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' . Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier.lb shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier.
In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. (a) Current amplifier. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative.1 c. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered.1. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback. The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. 221 . In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare. Connections for feedback amplifiers.
umho and A1' = hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .24 to 6. l . hre 120.umho = hoe = 90 . Circuit for Example 7. The required circuit is shown in Figure 7. hoe 90 .fi h . First the equivalent amplifier components are required. . Since hre is zero.25 {J GF 12·5 = h = 500 = 0·025 222 = 120 .1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback.2.2. Figure 7. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO. In the circuit shown in Figure 7. With a .umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ. hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er.. SOkO = 12·5 .2. Example 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier. For negative feedback {J must be positive.27 inclusive. The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6.1. Y1n Yo' 1 = hle = 1 250 . t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative. Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier.umho and from equation 6. the transistor parameters are hle 800 n.
99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: 99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I .'YL YL + GF + 120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = . This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6. the input and output impedances were increased.n(1 .21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.26.ßA1o Au= 28·6 Equation 6.umho + 99·6 X 0·025) . part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .umho The resu1ting output impedance ior = 476 n.A. 6. A!o = Yo' A.') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .umho = 2100 .3 shows how the 223 . Figure 7. Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods. .13).12 and 6.8.n. In each case the voltage gain was reduced.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback. Y1nr = Y. 6.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z.ßA.SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6.o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6. and with the equivalent circuit problems.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l . or by finding 1 ~pA.umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.7. 6.11.
using the notation shown.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now. =V'. The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7. 224 . Current derived. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6.3. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5. since V' is less than es.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises.
for Z1n.n Figure 7.90 90 X 5 X 104 = 1300 Note.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0.. Using feedback methods.Cl 1k .umho and hre 90.4.11 and 6. Yo' = 125 X 106  Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ4 = 75 . hre 5 X 104.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero.2 and current gain. = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6.. Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10. find the terminal voltage 4k.4 Z1n = 900. and the output impedance.33 = 225 283 . the output voltage and current. we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier. 6.7 Avo 1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 .umho 900 =!.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)106. the circuit YL of 250 . A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.12.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7. As with the last example.2. hoe 125 . Circuit for Example 7.
the overall input impedance should include the bias components. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V. = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 . = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance. Working in admittances. 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 . _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly. To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ6 A = 880 . the base input current ib is required. and Vo = 3·48 V.7 =56 226 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t 283 283 = 3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6. .8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6.13.uA .umho Now using potential divider methods.uA To calculate the terminal current gain.56·2 m = 15·7 .
1. Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr hreZL hte = 90 X 4 000 900 = 400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances. but when the bias components are included.5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ . Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations. which would slightly modify ß. This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At hreYL = =YL + hoe 90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = .8 + 0. Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 .
the solutions may be found from equations 6.15 to 6.5.5. The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . since.signs. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL. the steps in the solution will be: A12. as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7. So. A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 . Since we have current derived current feedback. An and Z1n1. Au and Ztnr. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). will be. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. making approximations where valid. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. Yor.23. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2. 228 . The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2). Here.
!1 Tr2 10k!l 200. hre 140. Circuit for Example 7. If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed.3. must be changed if the 400.m. of internal impedance 600 n.m. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X  0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 .m. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r.f. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil.umho. hoe 150 .s. The output current in the amplifier. shown in Figure 7. of a driving source.f. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base.6. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e. Determine also by how much the e.!1 Gz Figure 7.6.3 required output current is to be maintained.
f.m. = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2.32. 140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10.!i:l') kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e. Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.6 =51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + . and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho.ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 . D Dr = I .
THREE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
But
and
G2
I
and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
5
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho
ß 
This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:
Au
=
Ztnr =
450
450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150
But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000
5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000
112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV
Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate fourterminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can
231
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r ,
I
100kil.
I
I
I
I
I
I
L 
I
I
I
!
'
I
I
  



  
    __ J
lk.O.
L            Figure 7.7. Interconnected fourterminal network circuit for
Example 7.4
the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two fourterminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.
These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.
232
TIIREE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIEM
Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:
h
1
vl = yu = 100 kil =
10 ,umho
Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,
h
Y21
V1
= 100kil
h
= v1 =
10 ,umho
But the network is symmetrical, so
y22
=
y12 = 10 ,umho
10 ,umho,
Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero
yu
1
= hte =
1 000 ,umho
where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and
y22
= hoe = 100 ,umho
where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:
V1
hte
h = 
X 
h
re
X
Ytn2
====::
hoe + YLI + Ytn2
X
hre
X hoe
+
Ytn3
+ Ytn3
YL2
X
+hre
Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.
Y21
=
h
V1
=
X
= 729
90
1000
1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
1000
90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho
1
x 2. 1 x 2 . 1
=
233
165·5 mho
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.
y12
=0
The combined parameters may now be written,
yu
y21
=
=
1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho
y12
y22
=
=
10 ,umho
110 ,umho
The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,
Ytn
10 X 165·5 X 106
= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho
,umho
From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:
~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
h
h
yu(y22 + YL)  y21Y12
I65·5 X 106 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000)  ( IO X I65·5
1000
= 1..,..0_10__xII.,..,0
106)
~~~~~~~~~
165
=
X
1000
10·007
I06
=
X
+ 10
IOO
To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.
Y.o
Y21y12
Ys
= y22 yu +
Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
infinity.
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho
1010
with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.
234
TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
range.
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure 7.lc. If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure 7.lb, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.
Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ
235
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.
V,
9·5k!l.
1
Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5
To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
0·5
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05
Vr
Where
=
Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,
Vs
or
=
V1(l
Vr = (1
+ ßA1A2)
Vs
+ ßA1A2)
Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only
236
This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible.6 = . (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. overall gain and input impedance with feedback. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl.umho 100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10. resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one.umho 100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)106  83 "4 1 kO 1 000 . (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q6 47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 . (6) U sing ßof0·05.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 . We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7. it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl.8.6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. hz =(I 000 + 100) .umho = 1100 .
3) 238 .5 First. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7. Ii• Figure 7. i1 the base current for Tri.1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7.9 and solve by nodal analysis.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 ttmho = 1 000 ttmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = 0·98 x 83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0.9.05 = 16·1 (7. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7.
3 and 7. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.6. Substituting from equation 7. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7.4) i2 = 47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions.0·105Vo 100(47·5)Vl ~ 0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr. admittance must be expressed in mmho. and l2 hreV1 = IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)106 V V2 IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7.7) . since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts. 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205.6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105).TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now.0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2.524 = 241 v1 (7.5.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 .O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = 0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants. V2 = . Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7.
the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added. Unfortunately this is not valid.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · . Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. h for the network.. the overall h parameters would be obtained. while the current flowing out of the common terminal. Forthis situation. ll = 242 kO 1 (7 .1 and 7. suggesting the use of g parameters. we shall consider a valve amplifier. The current amplifier for Example 7. an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback. Apart from this.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output.1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent. Other situations however do permit the fourterminal network approach..7 and 7. The circuits for Examples 7. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). is ib + ic.2 respectively (16.4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon fourterminal network theory was not used for this example. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit. and the circuit for Example 7. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. The remaining procedure then follows normal fourterminal network practice.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters. and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified.1 and 7. and in parallel with the output of the amplifier.~. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages.8) Comparing results 7. 240 .8 with results 7. since h for the amplifier is ib. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback. d ance = :Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :.
Figure 7. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ. ra 1 MQ.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = gmRe = 3 X lQ. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7.3 :. 10k.ll. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (30)3 Re~RL Avm = 27 X X 104 = 30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7.6 When no feedback is applied.10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at 30.9) .10.6. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad.
Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab 27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7.2 X 25 X 1Ql6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q30w4 +5 X X 1032w4 X or (7. 242 .w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ8 +4 25 1Q15w2 .1 5 X 1015 ± y(25 X lQ30 12·5 X 1Q3o X 1Q16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S. and there is overall current derived feedback.w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 .10) + j2wC Re .9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 . X lQ30) w2=~~~~~~~ 5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies.I012 X 1 .
.. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = 30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104  (7...92 = X 10_4 2060 At the upper 3 db frequency. 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 104 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' flmho h 1 = YL2 = 104 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L 32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = . the overall ßis unchanged. but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage.. At this frequency..02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 ..11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( 18·75)2 = 10 580 X 30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1...gmZL = 25·35/180°  But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L 32° 36' .12) .THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback... 10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3.~o: 243 (7..
=3=5x::0:·2:=_ _ _ _ _ __ I  L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 . Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i. This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6.6  = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 .ßAm = = Ah I 1 . The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique.j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L 49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback. Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad.11. lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 .1 + I·2I.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ::2=s._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 .ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I . The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored. but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' . Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 .7 350 x 3·92 X I04 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .
Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 .1·6 X 1Q14w2 .w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2.27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10s.ßAml But v'2 4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe . negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio. ß for the local Figure 7. 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q32w4 .27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q28 + 1·69 12·5 X I030 =0 X 1028) ~~~~~ 3·66 w2 = . at high frequency. In the last example. Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values.x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored.COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27.10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 .ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 104 X 10 580 = v'2ll .6·4w2Cs2Re2 .11.
say. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 ttF then CE must be 0·0025 pF.12). h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO. hte 1 kO. Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. hreZL . Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7.11. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. If overall feedback is applied to. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . Taking account of the components shown. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. is to prevent instability. and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(103 ::25 X 1010) j102 + jw2·5 X 10Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect.
12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback. This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. (b) (a) Figure 7. COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier.12. Figure 7. Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits.
The procedure would be to determine first. A final example. finally to account for the effect of current feedback.c.13.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. In Figure 7. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter. Example 7.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . second to find Av1 and An including local feedback .7.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. based on this circuit. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. Circuit for Example 7. will now be considered. The circuit shown in Figure 7. the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop.
mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 .COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q. 140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.352 and and A 13 = 140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 . The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = .89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q6 = 0·1395 77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = 6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q . Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .umho). hre I40.umho and hre negligible.6 = . All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency.umho 140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)106 = ?? 12000 140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = . hoe I20 .
389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 103 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10a x 212 .4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 .umho = 0·74 .umho = 1 389 .uA 250 .umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier. Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri. 834 Overall At= l 389 = 4·9 X X 77·5 X 89 20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0. then Ytn = 105 .umho By current division 140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = . then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1.
Repeat Example 5. 264 Q. EXAMPLES Example 7. including those with common base or common collector stages.5 x 10_3 = 20 300 = 282 72 = 282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. Example 7. Ans. 6·72. Repeat Example 4. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations. Ans. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. Example 7. Example 7. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base.20x 300 3. Ans. 656 Q. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. 251 . RL2 1 kQ.13 using feedback methods. Repeat Example 5. Repeat Example 4.12.11. Example 7. Ans. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. 490 !2. 17·5 kQ. 1·97. Many other forms are used. RL1 4 kQ. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. hoe 125 ftiDho. 11·4.10.19 using feedback methods. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit.9. 6·8 kQ.8. For convenience. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . wlt. 9·62.11 using feedback methods. 525. 10·5. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. Ans. For more general analysis. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. 4·88 kQ.10 using feedback methods. in any particular situation.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam .
Q. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7.Q resistor connected between them.Q.15. 0·475 V. RL2 4 k. 200 k. hoe I25 .Q. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base. 250. Ans.14. RLl 2 k.13. and hre 0.Q.16. hre 60 and hre 0. Ans.14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k. Circuit for Example 7. 3·98 k. hoe 100 . Ans. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 .Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k.Q. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance.Q per stage. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 . Feedback is provided by a 400 . Example 7.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory.umho. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k. Repeat Example 7.17 252 .Q in parallel with 8 k. 0·004 .Q.Q. Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance. 43·5.Q and 100 . Example 7. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 . A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components.Q per stage. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance.f.Q.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.m. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k. Example 7. Figure 7.Q feedback resistor.umho. hre 75.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k. Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e.14. 0·224 .Q.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter.
Find also the resulting output voltage. hre 140. 6·23 kO. Example 7. Ans. 1 820. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. Zout 2 2MO. hoe 80 . 1 310. At.EXAMPLES Example 7.15. (c) Figure 7. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0. 95 n.14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0. calcu1ate the required value of Rp. kO.18. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO. Calculate Av. 17 kO.15.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO. 4·5 kO. (b) 18 4oo. 88·5 n. (c) 77·3. (a) 46·1. Circuits for Example 7. 10k. 253 .17. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. 287.umho. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. and an open circuit valtage gain of 150.O. and neg1igible hre. Ans. 83 mV.
The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k. 212. Circuit for Example 7.umho and hre 0.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Figure 7.16. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. 0·99 MHz.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n. hoe 125 . Ans. Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. hre 100. 254 .19.O.
We shall consider four cases.f. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. the system will oscillate. This resulted in self oscillation. is to be infinite. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. (1/ß) at that frequency. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1 lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8.000 MHz. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. or an output when no inputwas present. 255 .1) If the gain. Ar.m. Then if A ?. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. two conditions must be fulfilled. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. For oscillation at a particular frequency. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero.
. having no imaginary component.X  The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8. Using normal potential division methods..1.jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 . X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8.Xc1Xc2 .3) (8.R .J C2 .jXc2). V2 V1  jXc2R2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ R1R2 .jR1Xc2 .1.4) . we can write jXc2R2 V2 = R2 . ß will have the required angle. the angle of the numerator is 90°. In equation 8.2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°.jR2Xc1 . R1R2  XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = . i.2.jXc2R2 ß= and if (8. This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°.e.X 2. Thus the whole expression must be real.J X c1 .
Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8. 1 (8. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier. So. Suitable values of R1. Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2._J wC 257 .6) If. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network.jR1Xcz.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. as before. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. cancelling the j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =++ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC). wC R. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: jXc2R2 jR2Xc1.5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency.
2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3. and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. Figure 8. and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8. The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance. (1 .j) 1 . Taking typical 1l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively.OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8.. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3.2. The feedback network has equal capacitors.J) ..7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance.. Figure 8.5.J) (8. 2 1 . jR2 C C jCR RC j] = 3 R (. the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 . Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil.2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz. jCR Z=RC =R [( .
and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50. Applying equatian 8.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one.2a.c. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. either because af change in parameters with large signals. and hre Av~hZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain. supplies switched aff. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. say 1 kO. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. The circuit begins ta ascillate. This process is shawn in Figure 8. When the supplies are switched an. Figure 8. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming. 259 . Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8.3. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value.
c. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8.c. In Figure 8. supply voltage.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d. network 2 ~'tr'\r'trl4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off 6 8 Figure 8.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced.3.b. Since ß is one third. Figure 8.c.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 . operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = 4 V.3d).3b. supply and that the d. conditions Figure 8. Limitation of amplitude by d.c. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d. This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f.
.t. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.. Figure 8.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8.2·67 The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it.en_t_al_o'/~p __8__ 3 i/p .3g is nearly sinusoidal.4 shows a circuit employing this technique. Then as the signal amplitude increases. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n.4.. R1 Figure 8. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage. Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß. 261 . Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d. Since negative feedback is employed. the input impedance for Trl will be large...c.c. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude.
y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8.t. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + . An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier. In this case.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C. The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals. the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators. f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8. we may deduce that for zero phase shift w j(G1G2) _  C1C2 1 . jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= .5. Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division.2. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown. Figure 8.8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8. at the required frequency.. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8..w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8.10) . in this case negative (n.). When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. .OSCILLATORS path. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.5. Following the same reasoning. A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal.c.
it must have zero phase shift. for equal components = 3. Example 8. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. The input a. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier.= 1 + Gz + Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8.11) which.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived. Amplifier circuit for Example 8. The amplifier shown in Figure 8. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance.6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. and to reduce the output admittance as required. This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift. and 12V Figure 8.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift. Yo may be neglected. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8.6.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation.1 263 .12). the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = ß = h. current feedback. Since the Ioad is reactive (8. If YL ~ Yo.1.
Thus for the calculation of Avo. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz. Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived.umho (47·6/3) . the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network. hre 100 and hre 0. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= 47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 106 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 . the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO.e.umho. 750 n. series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. hoe 90 . All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d. The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network. i. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. removing any possibility of loading by the network. But feedback must reduce this to 3.c. conditions and stability. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo =  = 100 1 017 .umho 100 1 500(1 100)106 = 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local 60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= 1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 .
1F 0·006 fLF n. 2·7k.'VI t 0006J.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 .313 . by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold. Figure 8. = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone.Q. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3.7.1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 . Now.U F = 0·006 p. Solution for Example 8.Q .t .c.F 5·2k. f 21r~R (equation 8. 265 . 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6.7.
the voltage gain is required. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8. Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho). Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 . hre Avo=hY !e L and (1 .OSCILLATORS Finally. 1 kO. to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied.12) and putting G as 1 mmho. Neglecting hoe.j) = 7·8(1 .j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier. Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network. Forthis calculation.ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. the R will be the Ioad of Tr2. taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 .umho .
ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .RC OSCILLATORS The current gain. 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 . Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I . In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory.0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 .ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor.33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO.
268 . at a particular frequency.O.c. 1k.uF = 0·03 . All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate. Solution for Example 8.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.8.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally.ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. to give 180° phase shift. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 . 1k Q Figure 8.I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used. The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks. From equation 8.t.10. 0 03 f!F n.8. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1.
ß. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation. such networks may be either voltage.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors.9. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. Figure 8.9a. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency. With these circuits.RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8.9. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors. With the circuit in Figure 8.9b. but forthat in Figure 8. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 . The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8. or current. phase shifting.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. is I/29th.
10.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components. Figure 8.OSCILLATORS network component. while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis.umho respectively and hre can be neglected. Example 8. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8. Only one example will be considered here.10. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods.14) . The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) .2.GVa GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 GV1 Node 3: 270 (8. Oscillator circuit for Example 8. hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . From first principles. and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. 20 X 5 gx Ztn = 20 X 1 5 g+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) .
..0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG .18 ß= G2 1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8.jwaca ..2G3 + j4wCG2  w2C2G  jwCG2 (8. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero ...19) .jwCG2 (8 .5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8... 16) If ß is to be real..15) + j3wCG2  4w2C2G .0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2.G2] + G[ G(2G + jwC).w2C 2) ..17) (8.. and or w = Gy'6 c rad/sec v'6. ß= Ga Ga .. equation 8.2Ga .G G+jwC 0 G 2G + jwC G 0 G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2.RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants. G G+jwC G 2G 0 ltn + jwC G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X .14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined.18) At this frequency.= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8.....
first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC.jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 .OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.2Ga .jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C .jwaca .15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG = 3G2G' + j4wCGG'  w2C2) .2G3 .14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and rewriting equation 8. and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this. the current gain may be taken as At = hre X y tn = Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be 29. Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8.17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this.4w2C2G . · from equation 8.
if an a. At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance.34·5 . first. Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type.2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G'  = 4·65  G2  c. y[(4 X 1·938 X 106) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 108 = 131kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G'  Ga . The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. .4w2 C2G .c. Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. second.  1·25 10·7 . and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.11. With these.2·5 . Neglecting the effect of r. the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. the anode voltage ( [IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal. the current iL 273 . Thus.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n.
If two coils have mutual inductance between them. the system will oscillate. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd .3. A tuned anode oscillator methods. Figure 8. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other.+ Figure 8. The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 . taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large. The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.12. If this is such that Vgk is given by jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa . Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C. 274 . At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols.OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°. A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil. This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. As a result of the mutual inductance M. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils.11.T.
the required results can be obtained. dividing by w.LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: .21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. ±JwMgm Va . but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0. Figure 8. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation.12. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra  w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now.20) (8. La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0.22) . L a = ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. Va Va + JW . + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8. Real parts. + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts. therefore Va may be cancelled. 275 (8.
1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging. Thus for each set of values.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 104 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. La Crra (8.22 can be rearranged to. and putting 4rr2. for each coil we can find r. so this arrangement would not oscillate. = 5 X I03 10_4 + 200 X 1012 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !' of only 40. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8. we can see that if !' is sufficiently large.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !' are known. equation 8. 1 C=47T2.=+ M M First.20. from equation 8. 276 .23) fJ.23: fJ.21.f2La Substituting values. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil. Now from wL Q r= and rl = 106 X 5 X 103 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 104 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8.
the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 103 104 + 5 000 X 1012 X 104 X 10 X 2 to4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit.13. (a) Full circuit. the p. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation. A tuned collector oscillator. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit.13. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. (a) e (b) Figure 8.
13b. R1.25) Rearranging equation 8.28) Without expansion. Thus multiplying equation 8. Re and Ce provide the correct d.f.OSCILLATORS Figure 8.m.24 .13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example. lb · M"lb + JW (8. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.24) and 1 ) . 1 ) + .j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e.: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated. both jwMi terms will be positive. 278 .13a shows the complete circuit. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. R2. L c + jwC = lc. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C.25 from 8. L c + :c JW lb = J.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled. (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8.26) Substituting for ic in 8. M" . zc = (hle 1 + jwLb)ib . ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 . By mesh analysis: 1 (8. the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.c.27 by jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C. M JW . operating point.26.
30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C M .+L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8.32) Example 8.w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor. 1 Lc'C w2=::= (8. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 .h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'..4.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol.29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one.
umho. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I06 62·5 + 2·5 X X 1012 4 X + 1·6 X 10. 1·6mH 100fi 2k. Figure 8.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I03 === 1012 106 =Hz 27T Also from 8.14. C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I03 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) . Circuit for the solution of Example 8.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 .32.O.14.4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series. Since 1 1012 w = 106. and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.OSCILLATORS of hre. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .umho = 625 . First the values of C and M are required.6 I03 I03 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.
0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 .y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation. The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' . h _ 1 010 tmmum re  = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 106 H 625 X 1012 2·74 101 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 106 104.j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' . 10 281 . the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2. Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ. 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained.j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2 Now w  0·753 X 103 X 625 X 1012 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 .LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 103 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7.
YLl and YL2. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods.umho and negligible hre.15. and by combining Rm. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance.16c is obtained by combining h0 e.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information.5. Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib.15. and RB2. h1e 1 300 0. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. One further example will be considered. and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters. Figure 8. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8. 282 . and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent. hoe 125 . Example 8.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. The simplified version in Figure 8. and h1e together as h1e'.
33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.1H (c) (a) L c. (b) Equivalent circuit.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) .34) L 200f. (b) Figure 8.umho (8.34) . 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.16.5.
40) Following the usual technique. 1 ) o = v1 ( h + y.+ wC2 .oC1 + JW :L h Node 1: . Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = wL + wLh ..36 (8. hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel ..37) (8..38) ll=1 hte and from equation 8.38 into 8.w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8.' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 ..:L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8.wL wLh 1 .w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.37.42) .39) Substituting for V2 from 8. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled. Node 2: v2 1 .h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8. LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .39 and h from 8.. But (h I (8.OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis.hre ii I =  vl jwL + V2 .36) .41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (:C:::1+C:::2:)h:t:el 1 284 ) (8..
Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero.41 1 (8.200 X I06 X 91 1 100 X I012 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0. hre' = ( I . hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2  1 (8.umho = 793 . the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09.umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO.44) 285 . For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8.40.umho YL2 = 793. 101 2 ( 200 X I06 X 325 X I06) co 2 1 + ::::::. whichinequation8..325 = 468 .LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied. jcoL ( JCOC2· j ) .074) 107 co = 1.43) But from equation 8.. + .35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent. 200 X t06YL' 1100 X 1012 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 .42becomes 1·092 = 1·18.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1.CO2LCl)h.::::::::::::..
The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. In the extreme case shown above.6. Ans. 1 kQ. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits.c.7.D. Ce and Cs may be neglected. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load. Example 8. and an accurate analysis should include these components. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator.J. network 22·2 kQ. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ. EXAMPLES Example 8. supplies. P. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. Frequency stability with change of d. 21·25. this is no Ionger true.F. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation. 3·5 kHz. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 fLF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. Find also the frequency of oscillation. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances.
Ans.uF.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 ./p Tr2 collector 5k . If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz.18. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr.8. Circuit for Example 8. Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz.umho.7 and the frequency of oscillation.17.1F Figure 8.0. In the absence of a negative feedback network. 287 . Ans.8 C2. hte 1·3 kO.umho and hre 0. R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ.18 employs transistors with hre 90. 1·43 kHz. 0·56 0. Calculate the value of R' . If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8. 0·074 . Circuit for Example 8. Example 8. 65. hoe 125 . 1k l"25J.17 is connected between output and input.
0·0066 .umho.OSCILLATORS Example 8.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 . hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. bias voltage of 4 V. 3·23 kQ. 35. Circuit for Example 8. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk.umho.uF. 0·286 . Example 8. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H.11. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz. output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans. Ans. lower it. calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. hoe 150 .c. 288 .) Example 8. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ.T. Figure 8. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation. 383 Q. hre 120.10. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. 61·5 V.s. Ans.9 frequency? Determine the r.uF.m.19. The oscillator shown in Figure 8.9. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz. 1·3 kHz. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d.
A current amplifier. 8·2 kHz. Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. Example 8. Neglect the effect of hoe. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. I 160 pF.21.11 Example 8. 970 pF. ra 5 kQ.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n.EXAMPLES ________~ ~~1c Figure 8. Ans. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60.14. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation.12 Example 8.12.21. 0·02.20. I! 289 . (b) the minimum coupling between the coils. 1 380 pF. 46. hre and the bias components. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. Ans. 16.13. is tobe used as an oscillator. 0·785. Circuit for Example 8. If the valve in Example 8.
hre.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations.15. 1 080 pF. Example 8.OSCILLATORS Example 8. 840kHz. 290 . bias components and coil resistance.22.umho. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected. Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8.16.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 . Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe. Ans. Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. 28 Q.
___. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits.9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . In this chapter.. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium. The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device..1.. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve. These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors. a ..5 k (a) Figure 9.. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag.1a._____ } ____.._ca~. p.
we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output. From equations 9.2. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain. i (9.6) .4 and 9. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9.3.5.4) (9.1) Yln= Vgk (9.2.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc Figure 9.') 292 (9. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages. and with reference to Figure 9. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage. To analyse this situation. 9. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. Cak and any externalload present. By inspection. i2 = jwCag(Vgk  Vo) (9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF. 9. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown. but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. including ra.2.
Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL'). Cgk 2·5 pF.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ. Since the gain of a stage is given by .umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' . In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative. If ZL' is inductive. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9. = 5·~5 L YL 33° 42' = 4·6 . X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative. G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9. Cag 1·5 pF.1. gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors.11) If ZL' is capacitive.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 .3. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF. YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ12 X 106 . Cak 1 pF.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = !. and the 20 kQ load.33° 42' 293 . The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9. X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance.1. ra 10 kQ. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V.gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve.3.wCaggmX' (9.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). Equation 9..10) If ZL' is approximately resistive. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF.
If the anode 1oad is inductive.11.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. in the RC coupled common cathode configuration.782 + 8.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 1012) + (j108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve. Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 1012 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 .j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L 93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9. ra. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L 66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit. the remainder being provided by RL. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 1012) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 30·8)) X 106 . the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 . Rg. this becomes.j8•25 = Yu' = 4.252 kO = 0·0525 = 10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO (0·525 .
1 w2=:= LC C 1012 I04 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :.J. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9.4a.50= 50 pF.. 1 I I I . 295 . First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency.. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9. The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH.2. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec.1.. In practice. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9... Rg .4.. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance. .1. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF..4a and the valve used in Example 9. Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9. A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a nondecaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR').4b. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9. Valve input capacitance = 100.
An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex.uH 107 10X' G~. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF. and there is the 296 .L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 104 = X 50 I010 10_4 ll = 20 ~>' mho For oscillation. must equal Go. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured.u and ra. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits. 20 X I010 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 1012 X Inserting values. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 133 .uH) and the electron transit time. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values. and the collector base junctions. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 . Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book. two further effects must be considered. Pentodes also have the advantage of very high . the negative input conductance to the valve.
5.30 pF. to approximately 0·7. 'b'C 2 .5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation. In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. is reduced with increase in frequency. but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db.5 Mn. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. i.e.3 000 Q.250 Q. 300 .40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type. but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa. /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9. is approached. For any particular transistor type.40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 . cb'C 5 . rb·e 250 . In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits. Figure 9. depending on configuration. The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data. In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency.5 000 pF rce 20 . In addition the current gain IX or IX'. 297 .
volts.j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000  j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L 9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = 22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = 22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . fb•e.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho.13) (38 000 . If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. gce = 8·2 11mho. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q. rb·e 790 Q. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only.12) (9. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V. A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz. Working in flA.JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 flA.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9. 1012 For Cb•e. Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb' jXbefb•e .Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . gb·c gL = 2011mho.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) . rb•e 2·6 MQ.~.Vce(O· 39 + j94) 38 OOOVb•e = . Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . Cb'e 15 pF. Cb·e 150 pF.
the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad. This approach will be used for the second part of the question.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a.14) If the overall voltage gain is required. In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO.13.e Vce = 38 X 2 X 0·06 L 85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I06 X 103 = 16·6 X I03 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L 85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = . the effect of rw must be included.c. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L 85° 42' Q . Neglecting rb·c. output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L 102 o = 9·4 L o 102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9.gmZL'Vb.
arealso supplied.c. In the published data. At these high frequencies. for transistors intended for high frequency applications.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = ~· 103 x 4·5 L +94° = 106 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L 37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation.14 and 9. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit. 300 . the four parameters are all comp1ex. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9. app1ying equations 9. conditions. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' =1+ = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters.15) Overall vo1tage gain. In some cases. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple.
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.
Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
fourterminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier
b
c
I~
ib
(,~
Yoe
=_!;be+jwCoe
'"1
Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration
with a resistive load, and secondly a multistage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:
Yle(0·028
+ jl3w
X 1012) mho
Yre 500 X I0 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 106
+ j2w
X 1012)
mho
If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 flA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
voltage.
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,
Yln
and
v2
h
y1zy21
= yu yzz +
YL
 yz1
= yu(y22 + YL) y21Y12
(9.16)
(9.17)
We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.
301
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 106 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 106 mho
X
1012 mho
X
2
X
1012 mho
Now working in millimhos:
.
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28
.
+ Jl6
17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o
= 28 + j16 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02 j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho
j6·5 sin 108°
Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
_
10(30 + j10)
A
ltn (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) fl
_ 10(3 + j)(4  j1·5) A
16 + 2·25
fl
= 0·548(12
+ 1·5 + j4 
j4·5) flA
= 7·4  j0·274 flA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 flA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.
7·4
V2
X
103
X
34 L 292°
= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5) 34 L 292°
=
0·252 L 292°
x 0·5 L 250° V
20·2 40 + j11·5 + j70 17(cos 182°
0·252 L 292°
 19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
252
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV
= 2·8mV
302
+ j sin 182°)
V
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from
!Vtnl
=
jltnl
I Ytnl
=
7·4 X I06
v(32 + 12) X 102 V
= 0·232 mV
2·8
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°
The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.
RF 2
Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5
The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.
303
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
In each case the required operating point is VcE 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:
VcE = 6 = 10
Taking lE === Ic
RE2
+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +
Rpt)
+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ
(9.18)
The stability factor
+(X')+ RB= 0·05
K = RE(l
where
RaR4
RB= Ra+ R 4 and
.
Insertmg values 0·05
453
Also V'
where
But
and
=
+ RFI) = 3 kQ
(9.19)
3 +RB
= 3( 1 + 150) +RB
+ RB =
RB
and
RE= (RE2
=
60 + 20RB
397
19 = 20·9 kQ
IBRB IERE
+ VBE
V'
(9.20)
(using conventional polarities)
= =V_c_,c_R_4_
(9.21)
Ra+ R4
fc
f co'
 rJ.IIB=
(/.1
fco'
7
===Ico
lB =
1 000
.sü 
2 ttA
= 4·7 ttA
V' = 20·9 X 0·0047  3  0·3
= 3·4 V
(9.22)
Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
10R4
Ra+ R4
(9.23)
RaR4
20' 9 =Ra+ R4
(9.24)
3·4 =
and
304
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
From equation 9.23
(9.25)
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9
=
RaR4
2·94R4
Ra= 61·5 kQ
Substitutingin equation 9.25
Ra
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ
In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.
Ra
= 68 kQ
= 33 kQ
and R4
Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.
Let
Xe= 30 Q
= 2n450
1
X
1Q3C
From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.
A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should
be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18
Let
RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ
From stability considerations:
1 +RB
0"05 = 151 +RB
151
+ RB =
and
20
+ 20RB
RB= 6·9kQ
R1R2
RB= R1 + R2
where
(9.26)
Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= 0·0047
where
X
6·9 1 0·3
V'= 10R2
R1 + R2
305
= 1·33 V
(9.27)
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
From 9.27
R1
+ R2 =
R2
10
1.33 = 7·5R2
X
(9.28)
Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
7·5R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ
and
So, from 9.28,
R2
=
51·7
6.5
= 8 kQ
In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 JlF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.
Yte
= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho
X
X
lQ12
X 1Q3
mmho
4
X
1012
X 1Q3
mmho
=
37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho
yre
Yre
70
X
From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,
Ytn2
.
37
X
0·004 L 270°
= 0·25 + j0·05 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho
Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25
+ j0·05 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho
(9.29)
To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
parameters.
h(yoe + YL)  0
(9.30)
v1 =
ß.
and
v2 =
0 hyre
ß.
306
(9.31)
To find the overall current gain.Yoe + YL 37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 =  Av (9.32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 . YLI err. Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included. YL1. 37 L 180° L 38° 42' 37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9.32.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9.33) The current gain.30 A vSubstituting values v2. current splitting factors due to bias components. which is unaffected by the local feedback. · First we must find the effective load on Trl. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j . but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents.yre vl .32) YL) .29.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9.31. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 .JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1  37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9.31 by 9.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9. may be obtained from equation 9.3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9.
= 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9. = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :. .33. 37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9. At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L.35 and 9. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' .37) 308 . 9.0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 . 9.0 .35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions.5 L 1o 42 . 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .34.36.5 L 1o 42 .34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 ==:7::::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 .32 neg1ecting Yoe.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9. 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9.' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9.
38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100. 309 .7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9. and 100 = I+ ß will be real. ß= 2·21 2 . But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I02(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()2 X 3 = l _ 0 .j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Rearranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß.79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 102 mmho = 43 k.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.8 X 1()2 = 0·79 X 102 (9.13 ß= 540 ± 540 ± = 0 yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104  Taking the positive sign.38 is obviously correct.
Figure 9. Ans.5 made in the above calculations. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits. 310 . Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book.O.6. Circuit for the solution to Example 9.8. 587 L 277° 42'. 0·01 uF 47 k. Repeat Example 9.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known. 6·86 L 27° kQ.. In each case a 0·01 p.O. They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be 10 V ::f'"~ 1k. signals or switching circuits. In general.c. EXAMPLES Example 9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.8.
311 . At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. Use the exact method at 100 kHz.f. Z1n 390 L 49° n. Example 9. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9. 420 pF. 37·5 L 70° 48'. Ans.EXAMPLES Example 9. If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz.9. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 1012) mho.7.8. Av 155 L 164° 30'.uH and Q factor 25. 4·5. An r. 2 pF. Example 9. Yre 350 X 106 L 300° mho. having a coil of inductance 2 .3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes. Ans. Yoe(150 x 1()6 + jco x 1()12) mho. Ans. Av 34 L 100°. Z1n 102 L 8° n. yre0·02 L 320° mho.
the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations. lf it is an attenuator. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober. The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1. Also. and P2 the output power.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 . then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al.4) In practice.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = 10 log10 ~: (A1. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios. If P1 is the input power. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units.
APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate. If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. 313 . In practice. even where the condition is not maintained. wh and WL. expression Al. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1.
G. 1964. D. 1050. Hakim. Verner. 1962. Dean. J. D. New Jersey. De Witt and A. Electronics. 3rd edn. S. New York. 1965. London. S. Pitman Technical Books. PrenticeHall. J. Edward Arnold Technical Books. Field Effect Transistors.. Englewood Cliffs. Ryder. New York.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications.. W. New York. Feedback Circuit Analysis. Inc. D. McGrawHill Book Co. London. Sevin.. P. Le Croissette. London. 1966. Burford and H. 1966. New York... Rossoff. L. 315 . B. Parker. McGrawHill Book Co. Transistor Electronics. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry. L. 1964. K. McGrawHill Book Co. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices. J. 1957. McGrawHill Book Co.. lliffe Books Ltd. Transistors..
118 long tailed pair. 114 single stage. 96. 33 Cathode follower. 231 three stage. 122 common base. 222 single stage. 122. 296 valve. 94 Dynamic input characteristics.C. 94 Thevenin and Norton. valve. 166 single stage. 312 Determinants. 55 Diode characteristics. 103 diode. 291 small signal. 126. emitter resistor stabilization. 99. 134. 182 317 . 21. 27. 194. 121 Collector feedback. 32. current feedback. 151 cathode coupled. 181. 4. 247 current amplifiers. 229 Amplifier.INDEX A. 189 current derived. 94 for high frequency. 141. 158 multistage. 19 Decibel. 25. 18. 2. 101. 10. 126. 303 two stage. 1 Ioad lines. 181 RC coupled. 11. 14.C. 19. 166 common emitter. 153. voltage feedback. 241 graphical analysis. 227. 194 current derived. 6. 162 D. 291 Feedback composite. 25. 30 Complex feedback factors. 21. current feedback. 240 transistor multistage. 212 Bias decoupling. 5. Ioad lines. 8 characteristics. 100 transistor. 152 common collector. 124 Bias stabilization. 15. 3. 195. series applied. 11. 5. 131. 15. 116 modified. 220 frequency response. 2. 212 grounded grid. 173. 14. transistor. 153. 24. 245 Cut off. 24. 306 definition. current feedback. 152 difference. current feedback. 170. 235 Anode characteristics. 202. voltage feedback. 10. 12 Amplification. 21. 30 triode. 235 properties. 221 single stage. 34 Darlington connection. 140. 223 three stage. 17 Emitter follower. bias line. 3. 127. 159 feedback. 7 Bottoming. 134. application to network analysis. 34 reactive Ioads. 122. 158. voltage feedback. 210. 14. 19 operating point. transistor approximate solutions. 31. 158 emitter coupled. 146 two stage. 303 Biasing transistor. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. shunt applied. transistor. nonlinear.
212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 220 instability. 80. 248 effect on output admittance. calculation. transistor. 86 common base.163 238 284 Noise. 187. 101 equivalent circuits. 241 effect on gain. 186. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 187 voltage derived. 159 common emitter. shunt applied. 75. 18 Interelectrode capacitances. 203 voltage amplifiers. 190 gain stability. 74. 195. 282 LC. 155 Potential divider. 295 phase shift. 159 common collector. 245 g parameters. 184 Stability factors. 295 current Wien bridge. 50. 185 negative. 141. 42 applications. 268 tuned anode. 273 Miller. 27. 83. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 52 ' Miller feedback. 196. 184. 143. 190.) effect on distortion. 198 effect on input impedance. emitter resistor bias. 184 positive. 198 effect on input admittance. 201 vector diagrams. 68 interconnections. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 261 Negative input conductance. 255 amplitude stability. 45 Oscillators. 231. 256 Output impedance. 188. 66. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 81. 42 notation. 101 general solutions. 185. 159. 187. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 28. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 297 Input resistance. 87 h parameters. 303 Superposition theorem. 268 RC. 202. 259 crystal. 202. 157. 198 effect on output impedance. 99. 195. 43 Nodalanalysis. 152. 60 318 . 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 208 Four terminal networks. 190. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 150. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 210 effect on frequency response. 58.INDEX Feedback(Contd. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 255 single stage RC. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 241 voltage derived. 303 Simple negative feedback. 248 input connections. transistor biasing. 240 Frequency compensation. 273 tuned collector. series applied. 184. 119.
303 temperature effects. 29. 5 Valve. 79. 68. 105 Transistor black box representation. general method. 21 leakage currents. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. 21. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 14 input Ioad line. 36. general method. 3. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 112 y parameters. 23 equivalent circuit. 14. 63. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. 27. 99. 68 Voltage amplification. generat solutions. 71 319 . 85. 102 characteristics. graphical analysis. 81. input admittance at high frequencies. 79. 84 z parameters. 300 z parameters. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 15 Two port networks. 15 output Ioad line. 24 simple bias circuit. 232.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 104. 140 fundamental current relationships.
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