C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology

Book I

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

ISBN 978-1-4899-5861-7
ISBN 978-1-4899-5859-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-5859-4


Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969

Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 69-18297

Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.


I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.

R. M.




1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .


2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .


3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.


5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits


6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.


7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .


8. Oscillators


9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units


Works for Further Reading





1. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent non-linearity. These include the various types of rectifier. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss. thermionic valves. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I -V (a) (b) -I Figure 1. transistors. The characteristics of a resistor . D.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various non-linear and active devices. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors. a capacitor. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device. for example.c. characteristics. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the so-called d.C. transducers such as photocells and many other devices.

3b). The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant. other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage).GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it. For the transistor collector characteristics. With multi-electrode devices such as pentode valves. is measured for different values of anode--cathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter.2a and b.+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f.QOC -I (a) (b) -I Figure !. the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters.1.____ 650°C 6QQ°C -V -Vv=. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1.2.3a). A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics.z=::. In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature. lf there are more than two variables. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK). A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1. while the anode current (h). (b) p-n junction With three-electrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents. as shown in Figure 1. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage. Diode characteristics. t1= -[ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C . (a) Thermionic.:=~---:.

3. or as VAK 150 V.2 V. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. VaK. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA.D. h 3 mA.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics. (b) Common emitter transistor D.C. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown.c.4b). or h 3 mA. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V. (Figure 1.2 V (see Figure 1.4a). VaK. Active device characteristics. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics.C. Since these three variables are not independent.4. (a) Triode valve. VcE 3 V etc. Permissihle range of d.

D. 4 .5a.5. if one of the three variables. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. For example. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line.C. VAK = VHT. In the circuit of Figure 1. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected.c. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope -1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line. First. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1. (a) D. Under these conditions.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. VGK.C. therefore. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits. circuit and Ioad for valve.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1. These.

the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line.::.6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1..C. '0 J . 10 . and the load line is plotted as shown. CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = .::. Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply. volts Figure 1. Reading from the graph we find the 5 .5a with VHT 300 V..D. and thus VaK. and RL 20k0. (() <i J E -IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK.= 15mA Rr. to say -2 V.6. lt must also lie on the load line.

Thus Av = +289. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. of the circuit is -30.126) = -30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av.C. but with alternating voltages.7. a change of + 1 V. AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. Since a valve is a nonlinear device. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of -(156. the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = -2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency. h 8·7 mA. The value of VAK changes to 289 V.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) -1 0 > -4 (b) (a) Figure 1. To investigate this we shall now change Vax from -2 V to -8 V. for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification.(-2) = -133 6 = -22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. and in general ßVout ßVAK -30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = . we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax. Now suppose Vax is changed from -2 V to -1 V.8 . the operating point moves to VAK 126 V.30 Non-linearity So. or the voltage gain.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. h 7·2 mA. It is assumed that the value of wt.156 . Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · .

This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage. The reader can investigate this for himself.7b. AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected. supply.6. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided. This bias is essential since if it were not present. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1.7a.8 is used. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d.hRL . the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case. source es. In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted. and are shown in Figure 1.A.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. For most amplifiers.C. The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal. The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1.hRK VHT . Biasing In the circuit discussed above. Initially neglecting the a.8. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure making VB= -4 V and Es= 4 sin wt.1) . This is the result of the non-linearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as non-linear distortion. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1.

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a. Example 1. VAK = 300 . VaK = VEK = -VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth.2. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK).1.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V.1. h must lie on this line.8 with values VHT 300 V. Consider the circuit in Figure 1.20h V. If h = 1 mA.c. if h = 0.c. But we have a characteristic for VaK = -1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 -VaK RK lA=--=-=4mA 0·25 Similarly for -2 V. The second equation is therefore (1. RL 19·75 kO. for -3 V h = 12 mA. bias line has been drawn.c. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero. VaK = -0·25 V. source e8 is connected between 8 . and once again the operating point VAK. From equation 1. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = -0·25 V. This gives the same load line as before. Determine the d. VaK = 0. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h.1 and 1. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d. Taking equation 1. h = 8 mA. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points.2) Equation 1.c.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias.6. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage -hRK cannot be found directly. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1. operating point and voltage amplification. h 7·4 mA.c.2. earth potential. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d. A numerical example will illustrate this method. The point at which this d.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. RK 250 n.

is simple.Es -4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth.8).6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point. h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA . 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and -2 V. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2. D.1·075 = . however.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es. bias line by +2 V and -2 V respectively.= . The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1.C.RK. AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1..3) Vgk = -hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1.= -21·25. ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = . This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V -20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va.4) -hRK.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. The explanation in this case. VAK es = -2.A. 9 .k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28). These are shown in Figure 1. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 . This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter.e/es. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia. VAK = 194 V.2 Equations 1.c. 109V..4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = -Ia.3 and 1.0·25(9·6 = 4.

while the a. so using a figure of 1 000 Hz.uF 20 = . Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit.0·1075 = 3·8925. voltage iaRK. If Xe was. Vgk becomes es . or very 10 .c. Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es. If the a. This is true for d.c. Vgk will be es . and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es. Considering Example 1. A. but a simple example will illustrate the operation. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK.c. hRK. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d.=:::= 6 .uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors.6. 6 V working at 100 .iaZk. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C=-- 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 .uF or more.c. The cause of the reduction was the a.C.0 = es. The resultant . Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain. voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.VaK would be 4. say 25 il.1 above.iaRK = es . but in this case we have neglected the effect of non-linearity of characteristics.h battery bias (113·5).c.c. Rk was 250 Q. then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V. load line. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required. the bias point VaK will be unchanged.

8 becomes Vgk =es.c.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero. In the last example the d.5) (1. H. a._ (b) (a) Figure 1. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1.9.c. operating point. operating point must then move along an a.A.c. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk.7 must become Vak = (1.c. and d.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1. and equation 1.c.8. (a) Decoupled cathode bias. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a.c. RK has been short circuited by CK.c. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT. load line of slope -1/RL (compared with slope -1/(RL + RK) for the d.c. battery : 200 V _. ia and Vak.c.. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d.iaRL since to a. relationships are VAK = VHT . The slope of the a.c.T. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d. load lines. equation 1. load line). It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible. Ioads. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL.6) -hRK In the absence of CK. Equation 1. The a. value. For the circuits shown in Figure 1.c.c.c.c.c.C. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . the d..c.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. Circuits having different a. Ioad was 19·75 kil.9) VHT.7) (1. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + . quantities. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a.9 gives the a. load lines are very different to the d.c.9 the a.c. variations in VAK together with the d.

and a. draw a d. operating point is unchanged. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a.10.c. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive. Ioad value of 4 kO.c.!.c. Once again the a.c. D.c. Ioad line is -RLRL' RL RL' + = -20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. Ioad line for the a. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph.. In the circuit of Figure 1.c. To simplify this problem. but the a. proceeding as follows. and thus to a.c.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to.RL•RK A. perhaps.c..c. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 . resistance of the 1 Slope.c. in this case 40 V. load lines are now very different. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a. The operating point moves up and down the a. and d.c. since the a.C. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk. Ioad line.c. A.C. Construct the a. The calculation of d. Assuming any convenient value for VHT. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1.9 HT battery is negligible. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a.c.c.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a.c.c.. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth. operating point will move up and down the a. These are in parallel to a.10.. RL Figure 1. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'.c.C.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1. a second valve. load line Slope-.

We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia. Points could be calculated for intermediate values. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°. In Figure l. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . The a.C. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown. Thus for these values of ia. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4). (a) Triode valve with reactive load.c.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated.c. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d.c.c. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.A.ll. component of ia passes through zero. The a. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction.lla and b.c. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency. the a. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown. In this circuit the d. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. When however the a. The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l.c. operating point is found by the battery bias Vn.c. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a.

tobe found. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above.C.12. bias circ11it and load. The common emitter transistor amplifier.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . operating point for a particular circuit. The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to non-linearity. or the circuit for a required operating point. (a) D.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A -VcE' V (b) Figure 1. The circuit is shown in Figure 1. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits. These methods also enable the d. Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods.c.

It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage.V cc and V cc/RL. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers. in the conventional direction for p-n-p transistors. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. the operating point.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter. the base current waveform is distorted by the non-linear input characteristic. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = .Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter.12b and c respectively. four variables must be investigated.12a.VnE ± E. The circuit in Figure 1. The waveform is then further modified by the non-linearity of the output characteristic. An a. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined.e. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = .Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE.c. input and output voltages. A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1. With a transistor. As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = .VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line. 15 . These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1. i. on both input and output characteristics. and input and output currents. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics.

0 10 20 30 40 50 1-1- HH~ 1k Q.. 30V. 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I ... 3oV.mV -· ' rTT..2 <1: - · ~ ~ c .. 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1.. ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA .-rr.I~ -V8 E .' .. Load line 8±-~ H-tH ++l lii · l± m= +t-+++ ~ ~ - 0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 -Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n....... 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr... " Cl I t' ' .. . The characteristics for Example 1. ..13.. "' ' . ' f±. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c .

2. If dVBE is 1 volt. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d.c. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l.c. Find also the a. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. output voltage if (a) the a. supply of 30 V. and (b) the a. Similarlywhen VcEis -10 V.13a VBE = -560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known.13b VcE = -14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A . operating point.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = -Vcc Vcc RL -30V 30 = 9. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l -Vcc = 30 mA = -30V The second point cannot be plotted.13a.13a and b. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1.13b.c. From Figure 1.c. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1.c. so the slope of the line must be used. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. IB = 30 mA .20 V and -30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = -10 V. determine the d. If IBis 70 mA.13a. source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance. Comment on the effect of the characteristic non-linearity in each case. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows. Two further points for VcE. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1.d/B = 29 mA. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d. operating point. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5. Therefore at VBE 1 volt.c.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1.

The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe- 520 mV 30mA 20mA -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . Vbe- Vce = 520 mV -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 18·5 V -14·5 V -0·5 V -14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 .c. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1. D1 d"Jstortwn c h. base current is given by 18 . VBE varies between -520 mV and -600 mV in a sinusoidal manner. Rtn· At the operating point. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results .13b. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. and the a.20 = 10 mA and 70 . source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 . In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n. The a. :. the d. Thus the peak a. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak.c. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic non-linearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic.c. For comparison purposes.c.c.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a.

c. Firstly. Secondly. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1.3·3 = 11·2 V. For small signa1 amplification. the a. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc .14b determine (a) the d. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. supply voltage Vcc. First the d. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point. VBE is very much less than the d. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA -29·3 V -14·5 V 60mA 30mA -3.c.VBE 10 mV. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance. operating point.3. MB 5 pA. say 20 Q.VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p. (c) the current gain.c.s..3 V -14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3.m.c. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5. 19 = 40 fl A .Vcc = -6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d. could result in the input and output non-linear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output.c. (and a. The a. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty.14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33. therefore lB === Vcc/RB.c. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = .c. Example 1.

2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V. ic of (2 . mput reststance = 5 t-tA = 2 u An r.s. input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r.s.c.JÄ ÜJ.14. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 t-tA = 62·5. operating point moves between ib = 60 t-tA and ib = 20 t-tA.c.m.c. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1.1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA. Ic 3 mA. 20 . the a . The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics. lOmV kr. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30. The r. The corresponding values of Vce are -2 V and -4·2 V respectively. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 t-tA = 20t-tA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 t-tA.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 -VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1.m.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -6V <! E 1· 5 tl----c~-~.20 j.s. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative.m. . a.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE -2·9 V. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h . Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = -30.s. output voltage = (4·2. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r.m.

Vce of 2·9 . In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages.12) h = (1 . VcE cannot fall below -0·2 V from the characteristics. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector.a.3 \ ._. By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1.Ico 21 .IE + lco (1.16.IE flowing out at the collector.c.m. In addition the reverse Figure 1. transistor action results in a.10) IE = Ic +In (1. A peak a. and (I .s.11) lc = a.a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed -6 or the transistorwill cut off.15. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1-a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead. base and emitter currents in a transistor. Waveforms for Example 1.15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA. This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1.)IE . .)IE flowing out of the base.· Figure 1.16. Figure 1.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off.

Thus .rx Now applying equation 1.10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic - + rxh = /c - Ic(l . The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 f-lA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor. Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico - 1 _ rx 1-oc rxlco Ico =1-a: This current.11. Ic.12. (I . From equation 1. the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero. Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 .16) . we are not concerned with JE.rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=--h+-1-rx 22 (1.Ico IE=--(:1.1 0. Equate to 1. Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 f-lA respectively. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB.11. From equation 1.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1.13) 1 . is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits. To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1.(1. Ico Ico = .14) 1-rx (1. Ico' is very much larger than /co.

17.I+ oc' 1 = --t-tA = 91 t-tA 1-90 91 23 t-tA . now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1. Simplebias circuit for Example 1. A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points.18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1. Example 1. lco 1 t-tA and VBE 0·2 V.4 IB = (10. -10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.4.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1.13 and 1.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1.17.oc (1.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90.16 becomes lc oc =1 .0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc t-tA = lco = 10·1 t-tA 1 oc 1 .17.

The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V.uA Now VcE = -10 + (5 X 1) = -5 V and since VcE may vary between -10 (cut off) and -0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a.' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive.' unless the signal level is severely restricted.' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~.' 130.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a. Summarizing. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 . the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second.'@ 30°C /.18.QOC _ _ lO~C- _ leb 2ooc -Vcc -VcE Figure 1.' is from 70 to 130.uA 1·444mA -2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~.. Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71... r~. 1 000 .. the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained.c.'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA. operating point without distortion.uA 0·778 mA -6·1 V 130 131 .QOC .

Ico (1.18.18. if temperature rises by 10°C. In the simple circuit discussed above. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature. Again the operating point would move towards bottoming.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin. compared with the exponential term. As can be seen from Figure 1.Ico IB = (1 . The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1.oc) .c. at 20°C the permissible peak a.19. lc = oc'h + Ico'. When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1. 2 25 . Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero. lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . In this case.4. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 t-tA moves up with Ico'. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one.19. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles. Now IB = IE(l . Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature. lEo and thus In doubles.21) where K is a constant. In Example 1.1] (1. In was maintained at a constant value.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1.1] . Thus for any particular value of VBE.

Figure 1.IE[RE + (1 - oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.IERE oc)/E .GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature. Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1.24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics.23) hR' . The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1 - VBE but VBE = (1.21.h.lco V' .20. The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures. d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR. Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 .21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C. . lcoRC20°C) Figure 1. The V"---.20. .... .

22. 01: + RE) . -Vcc R.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked.25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1.23. as shown in Figure 1. thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are. -.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R .25 and 1.26) + R2 The operating point VcE. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R . This may then be rewritten V' . V' much greater than VEB and R' small.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = -. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1. The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1.26 and substituting in equation 1. Potential divider.18 V' .22. emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply. RE large.

R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B. Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes. .31) K may be found directly from equation 1. These are die (1. Suppose /e tends to rise.29) K = dleo' die dleo S=- Krx' die = diX' (1.30) (1. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1. also cause a change in JE.VBE = constant. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered.27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'.22). IERE. For R' to be small. will also rise.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' .Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1. the voltage across RE.32) ~RE. 28 (1. Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant.27) VeE may then be found from VeE = - Vee ~.28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1.

Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1.34 IX'(V'.IX) In this case if RE~ R'. RE can only be I kQ.33 and 1.VBE R' +RE J + leo .IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' .27 and substitute from equations 1. If the Ioad is 2 kQ.28). Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ. This will be discussed in later chapters. Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' -+ VBE J RE + lco + MIX') . If R' ~ RE. Je 1 mA. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples. S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo .24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier. S tends to one and d/e = dleo. On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.

values should be inserted in equations 1.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL. IX (1.·=-. The formulae (equations 1.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.'(V'. 1.32.33. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc.23.' J From equations 1.'lco + 1 + Ma. 1.'.36 Klc Ka. reducing h and thus /c. For large changes.' 1 [ X a.37 should only be used for small changes in a.36 whichever is most convenient.38) In this circuit. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector.33 and 1.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma. and differentiating we find (1. Figure 1. This is shown in Figure 1.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.27 or 1.23. Collector feedback. Ka. 30 .' (R' a.' 1 = 1 + Ma.') a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka. This reduces the voltage across RB.

The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C. currents could be fed back through RB. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'.s.c. So if XcB ~ RB12. The exact mechanism of these a.c. Assurne VBE is 200mV. The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1.c. output current. (a) (b) Figure 1.C. and hence the maximum permissible r. Determine the range of possible d. negative feedback. As with the triode valve amplifier. but in addition a.5.c. such a.22 and 1. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.24 shows how this is done.23) the stabilization is performed by d. decoupling circuits In Figure 1. operating points.24b the same applies. First we must find the range of d. currents can flow to earth.c. voltage across RE. circuits will be discussed in later chapters. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions. A. In Figure 1. Figure 1.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 50-95. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier.c.c. Example 1.m.24. 31 .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1.

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -10V 2kfi 1kfi -Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1.')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl. Circuit and graph for Example 1.. Cl.25..'(V' . 32 .') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.' 50.27 lc = _50 lc - Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C. Ico' = = (1 + CJ.5 For T1.. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.

lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l. To avoid bottoming with Tz. Vce must not exceed 3·811 . cut off will occur if peak a. + 2) V Minimum VcE = -10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = -3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc.28. 1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C. With T1. Thus to allow for all possibilities. We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l.c. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies. Maximum VcE = -10 + 1·825(1 = -5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. peak a.c. the peak a.c. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V.c. We can 33 .29 and 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C.32 K = 6. 1oad is only 2 kil.5·525 = 4·475V.0·2 = 3·6 V. Vce exceeds 10.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1. the a./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1.

u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 -Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV.S.6. The peak a..26. Ic 2 mA. and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C.c. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cut-off distortion. Ioad line (lk!l. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz.M. output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr. RL 4 '. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98. Circuit and graph for Example 1.c.c. Finally.3 V. supply is 6 V. output voltage of 1·414 V. The available d.m.C. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cut-off distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a. Cutoff on the a.s.m..GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1.. the maximum r. A.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1.c.25b.) \ \ <! E .6 34 6 .s. design a suitable bias circuit. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE .c.

The problern is to determine the values of RL. RE.98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d.load line. To determine K.c. so the minimum instantaneous Vce is -3 + 2 = -1 V.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic .34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.c.c.5 mA (Note this is a d. VcE + peak a. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . the operating VcE is -3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V. -3 + 2 + 0·3 = -0·7 V.c. The a.26a.26b.\ u/co K = I 30 =-= 1-IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1.c. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co . Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature. Vce + Vbottoming. signal voltage. Rt. Rz and CE.1-IX . RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO. the a. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.c. RE may now be found since VcE is given. and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown.. we must find ß/c. Now VcE must not fall below -0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d.Ico = 30 f1A .Ico 1·998 IX = 0 .33 and 1.

= 39 t-tA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1. t-tF 36 . I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = -:.' = 0·98 1 .' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~- R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2.Ico' (.0·98 1 (1 K- M = a. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz..GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a. we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I.IERE ' 2.hR' .1 Finally..23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .O·I 49 + + Ic.7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .

F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. 37 .c. if with (a) VGK is -0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. We have found the limitations of these methods. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods. conditions. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 4-1 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 3-3 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans.7. EXAMPLES Example 1. and we have seen how the d.8. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. (a) 63 V. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to -0·5 V? Ans. (a) 25·5. (b) 208 V. determine the voltage gain.c.c. Summarizing. Find the d. operating point in each case. but as with valves. Assurne an a.T. (b) 24 or 45·5. operating conditions may be found.7. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor. -5 V. or (b) an H. Using the circuits described in Example 1. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. Example 1.T. 4·7 mA.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. signal 0·5 V peak in each case.c.

27. h 6 mA. 21·5. 21·5.12. of 250 V. 250V H.T + 175V I· Figure 1. Ans. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1. h 9·75 mA. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0. Determine the voltage gain. Ans. The d.T. (b) VAK 150 V.9 employs RL 17·15 kU. 19·2.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1. supply of300 V. (b) 10 ill. 0·65.T.11 Figure 1.27. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H.10. (b) 64·5.28.28. Example 1.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. (a) 61. 166 Q. Ans. Circuit for Example 1. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1.T. 154 Q.9.T. Ans. (a) 43. Circuit for Example 1. The circuit described in Example 1. results in an operating 38 .13.11. 30·5. Example 1. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. 32. RK 250 Q and an H.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. (a) 24·8 kU.12 Example 1. (b) 96. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt.c. + H. 790 Q. Example 1.

Example 1. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as -6 V.T. Example 1. a coil of 0·2 H. calculate (a) the maximum peak a. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. The anode Ioad. A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. is assumed tobe purely inductive. Example 1.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO.c. (b) 60 V. (b) 11 V low h. I0 I -VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 -1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 -3·0 -4·5 -6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . supply of 150 V.15. (b) the maximum peak a.12a. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H. Ans. 30 L 315°. (a) 15 mA. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad. Ans. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled. Ievel will result in excessive distortion.c.14. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. If the frequency is 5kHz.7 is operated with a bias voltage of -1· 5 V and an H. (a) 45 V positive VaK. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA. VcE -2·7 V. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1.c. Ans.16. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. 60 V. T.

lB and JE. 123 t-tA. Calculate a. Example 1. 133 t-tA.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . Ans. the voltage gain. andRE 1 kil.17. 3·93 mA. 1·45 mA. Ans.21. Example 1. 1 V. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE -0·2 V. Je. and a 40 . 36. 5·1 mA. Ans. 4·5 V. 413 Q. If JE is 2 mA. 32·3.'.. 28·8 kil. 56 t-tA.19. Calculate the input impedance. 488 Q.20. 1·944 mA. 35. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. 5·03 mA.' 160. Example 1. and Jco' 0·2 mA. 0·994. The d. 30 t-tA. Ans. Jco. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. RL is 3·3 kil.18. Example 1. 1·24 t-tA.16. A transistor having a.22. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1.' 45. Example 1. A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. RL 1·8 kil. -204 mV.c. and JB. and the current gain. RB 140 kil. -3·43 V.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 2-8 2-9 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 7-4 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. 0·46.22. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. a 4 kil load. R2 22 kil. A certain transistor is found to have a. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. 0·99 and Jco 3 t-tA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1. 0·125. If the transistor has a. Ans. and the supp1y battery 10 V. calculate a. 0·97 and Jco 4 t-tA. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. RE 500 n. Example 1. Jco'.23.

(c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. 10 f-tF. Example 1.c. Ans.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of -0·2 V. Assuming the transistor to have VBE -0·2 V. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. 45·6 kQ. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50. 41 . R140 kQ. Circuit for Example 1.m. 1! Q. 70 Q. RE 1 kQ. 2 kQ. 3·6 W. 1 V r. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is -6 V.24 Ico of 500 f-lA. 13-9 kQ. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE -8 V. The available d. 195 Q.s. and (b) if rx' is 150. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz.23. Ic 2 A. The components are RL 1 kQ. Ans. that it will bottarn at VcE -0·4 V. 1 V.24. an Vcc -12V Figure 1. rx' 150. 1·11 V. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored.29. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. and further. Ans.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. the maximum output power. At the signal frequency. and at 20°C. Example 1.

e. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 . any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. In addition.c. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit. I= VY (2. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits. In Chapter 1. having dimension mhos. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. admittances and generators. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. together with impedances or admittances. the four terminal or two port network. t. mesh analysis and nodal analysis.

i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2.c.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships. In this case. B = 1 R -jX R2 + X2 1 Z= - B -X = R2 + X2 (2. i. Consider first the simple d. (2. in general I 1 B ::. having dimension ohms.1.e. zero. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages. Note. I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. circuit shown in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2.3) Y=-v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2.4) Y= G + jB (2.1.

FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed. The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference. Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I).Vxy and Vyx =IR= -(E/R) X R = -E as would be expected from the circuit. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = -iZa = +jwLi = -i v2 = = -iR ji = wC 44 (:J) .2.I amps and we could say that I= -(E/R). Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2.2. given that current Figure 2. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps. This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way. lf however. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. the meter would read . If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = . The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V).

Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits.8) ratio of the impedance values. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . From Figure 2. . vz = zZ2 (2. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2.3. z2 Iv. f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. Impedance in series may be simply added.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz. rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current. 45 .3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity.

.7 and 2. = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc.10) The "reader should now compare 2.+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =. 46 . Consider Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2." d .3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added. .11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1.9 and 2. (2. (2.8.3c e = v1 + vz = .10 with 2. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples. The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances.i + -i = i .9) X Y1 iYz = -=---=yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values.

Circuit for Example 2.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit. 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc.1 47 . Figures 2. Now from Figure 2. . Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2.4.. Finally. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2. and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i . Example 2.14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules.1. Potential division between series admittance is in the (2.n.13) of the individual impedances. 1 + .3d = ii + iz = .12) inverse ratio of the admittance values. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :.

YT - 4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1) -- 4 + ~6 -- 1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. . First consider circuit (a).13 since all branches are quoted as impedances.7 and 2. io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v.. Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv.11. Applying rules 2. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X . and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.9 and 2.10).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given. io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches. the value of io in terms of i. the same result as that found when working in admittances. the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel).= v amp 6 3+1 ia = - i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 . to find io from circuit (a). Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2. Now.


To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia



=1+1 txlx!+1





2 X 3





= 4v + - = 5v amp
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v





+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts

and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,




= - - = -volts



Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most


important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.




Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node

This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.

Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by


+ ia + i4 =


+ is

An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents - i2 and - is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,


+ ia + i4 -

i2 - is


which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.


2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.



Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh

Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1 - Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X


we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.

+ V1 -

IR1 - V2 - IR2 - !Ra+ Va - IR4


or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1 - V2

+ Va =


+ R2 + Ra + R4)

from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written

+ R1(h- i2) -


+ jwL2)i2-

(w-d2) (i2- ia)- e2 = 0

Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the



required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h- lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h - lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six





Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2

possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y

+ 5(h + h - lx)
5(h + h - lx) - 4(/2 -


6 = 3h


0 = -




+ 2/x

-2/x- /2

Collecting terms

6 = 8h



+ 5h -

-5h - 9/2

2 = 2/x



+ 11/x




One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
From 2.17


substitute in 2.16




+ 18/x + 1llx








substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15



= - 5 +5


+ 10 -

10lx - 5lx


Collecting terms, 6

+ 5144 -


= lx (232
5 -

15 )

24·8 = 31·4/x


lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A


Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.



Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents

Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h - i2) fiowing down or (i2 - h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2 - ia) fiowing
down or (ia - i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find

6 = 3h + 5(it- i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,


+ 4i2 + 2(iz -

S(i2 - h)

= 2(i3- i2) + i3

Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h- 5i2





+ 11 i2 - 2i3
-2i2 + 3i3




in the direction of the loop current is +6 V.. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook. This is replaced by the constants. Following this for the first loop: The e. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. times the common branch sharing that current. For any loop. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 -2 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 -5 0 6 0 -2 0 -2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 ßa tl 6 0 -2 .m. minus any adjacent loop current. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. In this case ß = 0 -2 3 -5 11 -2 8 -5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents. Here. h. sum the e. Further application of this rule will appear in the next example.m. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5).KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule.f.20 above. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems.5i2 which is the same as equation 2. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns.f.

The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2 - bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca - 02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row. 2.2.6( -15 ._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient. Now applying this to equations 2.0) -2 = -66 58 i2 = 157 A.4) . This process is known as expanding the determinants.ia = 58 124 = .20. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms.21 and 2. Alternatively.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 . Unknown -66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 . we may expand on the first column.0) + 5(10.0) + 0 0 -2 3 =58 ßa= 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 6 0 = 8(-22.75 = 157 0 8 6 -5 0 -2 = 8(0 .22 for Example 2. %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba.0) + 6(10. ß= 8 -5 0 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 =8(33-4)+5(-15-0)+0 = 232.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants.

-S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -5(0·6 + j0·8) V = -3.j + 1 + 2.9. but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.23) -5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -(4 .KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) -(4 .24) . 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 .j)i2 (2.j4) 57 (2. Circuit for Example 2.j) .j) = -5/53° -h(4.m.9.f.j) (7 .j4 V Now solving by determinants . for equation 2.24. Example 2.3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations.(4. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e.i2(4 .3. as is the case in the next example. Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form.j4)i2 Evaluating the e.-(7_+_j_)---(-4---j-)-.s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h.j) + i2(4.j)h + (7 .f.j) {-3-j4) (7-j4) = -.m. Figure 2.1 A -(4 .

11 = (6 + j0)(7 . Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2.j) A . VB.jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: . In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .{-19o)A 1484 0·686/-36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°. Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances.j24.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants .j4) .16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4 - _ 26.(3 + j4)(4 . NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law.j)(4. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law.4.38. l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan-1 H y/{382 + 132) /-tan-1 HA = J2048 = /-550.j4). We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances.{4. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2. Vc.10.jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .j) {7 + j)(7 .12.10. This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA.49 42. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters.j37 A .

e. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz). In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55. 3. D Figure 2. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. Example 2.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node. Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2.11. h + [z =(VA.11.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc .VA)Yz Collecting up terms.VB)Yz and at node B -[z =(VB. Foreach node.4. V c = 0.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner. Thus at node A. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches. i. For node A. Circuit for Example 2.2 For node B.4 This circuit has four nodes.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB.O)Y1 +(VA. 0 = = VA(l -1 VA + 2 + 4) - 1 VB .VBYz -lz = .

1) + 1( -8 .1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best. Examples using each will also be given. and hence the nurober of equations.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. nodal analysis will be quicker. use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns.4Vc 0 = -VA+ 7VB. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa.4) . one in terms of an impedance network.4).0) VB = 7(56 .4(-3. 60 . In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof. Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. In some instances.VB. 2 + 1 = -4VA. 7 1 -4 -1 0 -1 -4 3 8 V VB= 7 -1 -4 -1 7 -1 -4 -1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3). I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms.VB+ 8Vc By determinants.12. the other in terms of an admittance network.1(-8. 1= 1VA.4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392.Vc 3 = -4VA.

(l 12V 6V Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.0. Example 2. 2.7. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone.13 on pages 45 and 47. 6.12.5. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone.) = 42 Evaluating.12. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances.12 and 2. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1-155 A . 2. for the whole circuit. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q. Now applying the same rules.

5iz -6 = -5h By determinants.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2.13.20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 .6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone -3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = .13.iz = H A as was found by superposition.30 = 77 - iz = 25 54 = 52 A -66 + 60 52 -6 =52 A But the required current I = h . h + ?iz 84. Figure 2. 12 = 11h. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2. Example 2.12. Circuit for Example 2.6. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances.

The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected. the network is shownasabox with two terminals. Now v = v1 + v2 =- 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I. at node 2. 63 . In Figure 2.14.14.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem. 3 = -2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 24-4 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2=---=20 20 Now v = v1 - 9-26 -17 v2 = . Figure 2.. Thevenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V. Thevenin's theorem The two-terminal equivalent is shown on the right.

Example 2. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2.15b.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45 - 7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = -:-:10~+--:2::-::R::--L-+---::5:-=R:-L 64 .7. Circuit for Example 2.15.15.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances. 1-l! 1 I= 3 = 1l. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the left-hand half of the circuit. Now. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example. 3V Figure 2.

j) . Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2. 1.j l=--.j3)i .j3)(1 .4 - + 6 + j2. write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 .1 . . 5. 7RL Now consider a more difficult a. Figure 2. 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1 - = ~~ (1 .(4 Ztn- + j2)(1 .J j5 + j) n To find Votc.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4- j2 . Example 2. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem.16.j20) + J.J j3) .j) V .j and Now = i(5 - j) = i(5.c. . example. Circuit for Example 2.8. j 2.j)(5 = (2·31 .0.THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before. (1 . and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0. 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j -J + (-2 .jt·54) n j12 r\ u .5 .J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .16.v'2/45° 2.

5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance.9. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. . In Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0.17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2. Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 . i A Ytn = i + i.j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A .7 using Norton's theorem. no current will flow in the 5 n resistor.17. Repeat example 2. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a short-circuit connected across the terminals. Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . the load current may be found. To determine fstc.15. the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance.

j2) A .8 using Norton's theorem.j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3.j). For the circuit shown in Figure 2. current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances.j6 - + 1 + j _ 2(1 .j30 . h = 4(3. ----o.16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1 - 1 j3 = (I .j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 .+ 10(1 - A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 .j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j2) + 13(5 .NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l-0 !YL + :l-ö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL=-=-=5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j) +4 - 2 + j4 10(1 .30 .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .75.j 12 + j2 mhos 5.10.j20 _ 4(3.j63 67 + 65 - j13 A .j) 4(3.j2) .j) A When the load is connected.4 2 .j2 10(1.j)(3 . Repeat Example 2.j3 10(1 . 1 1 3.20 .j) 3 -J·2 X lJ 5 -J.j2) 10(1 .

two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output. Since any two may be taken as independent. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently. common.18. This approach is similar to the description of two-terminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. In general we may write two equations (2. occurring frequently in electronic circuits.e. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network.18. One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters. Ioads. is known as a four-terminal network. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2.26) . V2 and ]z associated with the network.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. A four-terminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. h. but not always. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2. There are four variables V1. there are six possible sets of parameters. or other networks may be connected. For any particular set ofparameters.

Z12 relates V1 to h etc.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible. lz Figure 2.2' are open circuit. Solution of a four-terminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P.28 with equations 2. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.30 above. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection.e. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage.25 and 2. The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2.29 and 2.29 and 2.28) which have the form of equations 2. I.26 above.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. i.27) (2.19. Zu relates V1 to h. By comparing equations 2.19. Since equations 2.29) (2. 69 .30 must be true for all values of the independent variables. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows.27 and 2. This can only occur if terminals 2. Suppose 12 is zero. Q. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2.

FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.1' be open circuit making h zero. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .11 Let /2 = 0. .30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = -v11 h be defined.29 and 2. h Figure 2.20. we obtain Z12 = -v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = -v21 h I!=O Example 2. if we let terminals 1.20. Circuit for Exarnple 2.11. and 12=0 Z21 = -v21 h 12=0 Similarly.

21. I.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages. lz Figure 2. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. As h flows into this part of the circuit. A loaded four-terminal network 71 . A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier.22.21. From equation 2. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit. 1~ Figure 2. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components.22.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.

1 '.Z21V1 + ZL) . the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 -= Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) . The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 . which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.29 and rearranging equation 2.32) o.31.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) . = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL). V2 = -hZL Equation 2. There are two further general solutions.30 now becomes -hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2.Z21Z12 Also /2=~-=------~------ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h -Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL) - Z21Z12 (2.34) Equations 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say.33) -hZL.Z21Z12 lt=~~~--~~~~=­ The input impedance given by Vt -= Zu(Z22 + ZL) .32 and 2.31) Rewriting equation 2.Z21Z12 (2.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu - (2.

n v2 = -5ovl + 5h 73 .23. Since the output terminals are open circuit. The results that should be obtained are (2.0. -50 VI. Figure 2.35) and (2.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2. and the load is disconnected. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.12. 400. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0). when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. Let h = 0. h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only.36) Example 2. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters.23.

z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400- (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL) - Z21Z12 -400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400- This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245.5ov1 = 105/2 .34 and 2. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn.32. 2. In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2.50 X 5h v2l =-1450 h h=O Z22=- Summarizing Zu = 25 il. thus v2 -= VI -400 251 ~4~55 +5 = -39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters. 25h V2 =-50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 = - 12=0 + 5h = -1 245 n Now Iet h = 0. Z21 = -1 245 Q and Z22 = -145 n. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 . Z12 = 5 il..FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But .. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 . and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor.35.

We shall investigate one of these in detail.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a four-terminal network. In this case . h and Vz. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables.37) (2. Sinillarly R. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. relating [z to · V2. VI and Vz. The other possible choices. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. a current ratio. VI and h. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance.38) V:~ be zero. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. is an admittance. The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. is a number and S. . VI and [z. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I = - Ve=O 75 (2. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion.

Thus /z = -h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit.24. In this case. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h. Circuit for Example 2. hzz h I 2 X-6 = 8! mho = -Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0). Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). Example 2. first Iet Vz equal zero.24.24). Now hz1 = ~~ =-!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must open-circuit the input to make h = 0.4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations.13. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. this is simple current division between parallel conductances.13. Figure 2.

The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.25. we have potential division across series conductances so. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. Figure 2. Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = -hz1 As with Z parameters.25. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. In this case the second equation 77 . The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz.

. -hl2 I. 2. .36.39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true. by taking h.32.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = -hZs. V2 as our independent + Zs (2. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re- = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2. We have now derived two sets of parameters.h21h12 From which (2. h and h. 2. Z and h.40) Solving by determinants for h. we can find. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results.41) Solving for V2 From which (2. 2.41.33.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form.43) and h .44 with equations 2. 2.42 and 2. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) . The reader should now compare equations 2.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits.44) Equations 2. 2.35 and 2.42.43 and 2.41. 78 . = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .

47) From which . h h Cu. Equations: V2.45) (2.50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2. h Input admtttance = Vt y = u - yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2. The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.= .Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 .rrent gatn = .FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1.51) 79 .26. Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =-V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.46) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or output. +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . (2.Yu + Ys .

) r2 gzz gu s . VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +-g12 y. Output tmpedance =-.= g12g21 +ZL g22 .g21 gu(g22 ~ .56) (2.g21g12 (2. Input admtttance . This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .53) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or open circuit output.27.57) Before applying these results to some examples. one further rule should be discussed. Definitions: · v21 . h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2.gugn~2 + y. It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: .54) (2 55) · (2.s .52) (2. h = -V1 = gu - /z h Current gatn = .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. g21 = -V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.L2 + ZL) - g12g21 = gz2.

To determine the y parameters.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters.14. For the network shown in Figure 2.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 -r 0·5) = 0·25 -r 1 -r 1 -r 0.5 = -(0·25 2] 2:1A X -r 0·2) mmho y21 = -0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0.Ia. so -h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1- I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods. Circuit for Example 2. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 -r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 -r 0·5 -r 1 -r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is . we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals.5 mmho y22 81 . Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu. Using 4kn I. First Iet Vz = 0. Example 2.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters.28. Figure 2.

ow in the admittance yzz.29. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl.29. let V1 = 0.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals. J. ft = 0·65 and hl - Vt 12=0 X 1Q-3Vl. Thus Vz = -(-0·45 X I0-3Vl 0·85 X I0-3 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1.0·258) X 10-3 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz. Solution for Example 2. This eliminates the y21 generator.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also -lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = -0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. Let [z = 0. and write an equation for ft. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2.0·45 X 10-3 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65. Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 10-3 = 1·178 kQ .

parallel output. Series input. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available.55.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi.0·412 X I0-3(1 g21g12 + -0·53 1-178) X 103 + 10·53 --~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === -0·45 Thus properties of four-terminal networks such as voltage and current gain. We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters. These configurations are Series input and output. series output. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) . 83 . Parallel input and output. Interconnection of Four-terminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more four-termina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions.85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = -0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters.0·45 X 0·45 === -0·45 Now using equation 2.y21y12 + -0·45 X 1 + 0·85). First using y parameters Current gain. and Parallel input.55 -g21 + ZL) - At=--~--~~~----­ gu(g22 .49 and 2. g12 = hh I (-0·45 X 10-3) X 0. At= Working in mmho.

Z22 3 Q.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. I . and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters.3lb. 1 I1 V{~ v. and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V. 84 . Two four-terminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. First we must find the Z parameters of the sub-network shown in Figure 2.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2.30. I.15. Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters.3la. series output.

by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl - h h-0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0. Circuit for Example 2. Network A has y' parameters. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 .Zn + Zs = 7 . apply equation 2.15 Since these are open circuit parameters.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2.32 shows two networks connected parallel input. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 .35. and network B has y" parameters. + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance. parallel output.31.

J Figure 2. parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters. Two four-terminal networks connected series input.32.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. Series Parallel Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 . Two four-terminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network.33.

These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. io Ht. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters.16. YT Y. EXAMPLES Example 2. v' i v. Ans. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case. are equally essential. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. 87 . The theorems in Section 3. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases. Repeat Exarnple 2. mho.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters.

Circuit for Example 2.19.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2.18. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2.34.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2.35 is 2mho Figure 2.36. Figure 2.17. 0·756 V. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i.ß. determine v' 1. Calculate (a) the input valtage v. Example 2. Ans. Ans. (c) 31·2 mA. Circuit for Example 2. (b) 0·445i. Circuit for Example 2. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2.35. (a) 1·63 Q. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. Ans.17 (a) the input impedance v/1. Figure 2. (a) 39·6 mV.19 88 . (c) 0·727v.36. and (c) the current i ' . Example 2. (b) 0·526. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v.34.

!1.37. 4 89 .9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 . Example 2. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure!1. Repeat Example 2.24. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis.22 Example 2.20 Example 2. Repeat Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. 0·25. 37 -j2k. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator.21. Example 2. and using nodal analysis. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. voltage sources to current sources. I. 1 L 7o 18' A. Ans. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator. -8 + j26 Ans. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2.j2) n.38. Ans. Using mesh analysis.20 using nodal analysis.19 by converting impedances to admittances.21 using nodal ana1ysis. mA.EXAMPLES Example 2. 2·2 V. For the circuit shown in Figure 2.37.38. Repeat Examp1e 2.25. V Figure 2.

90 .39 to the Figure 2.21 using Thevenin's theorem.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem..21 using the Superposition theorem. T . 0·737 L 121 ° 26'. Ans..28 Hence calculate the value of R 1. Repeat Example 2.. Repeat Example 2.40. T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2.----.27.-----.26 admittance-current generator form. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.26.5~]R. Repeat Example 2. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis.29. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2.28. 1·35 Q.30.39. Figure 2. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T.40.3 using Thevenin's theorem. Example 2. Ans. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .

91 .33 of 106 rad/sec. hu ~l n. 0·44 L 2° 30'i.36 Example 2.33.43. Z22 3t n. Ans. Circuit for Example 2.42.41. 4.34. -1·29.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches.31.35. Example 2. Figure 2. Ans.umho. The circuit shown in Figure 2. 14·3 Q.28 using Norton's theorem.0.EXAMPLES Example 2. If the circuit shown in Figure 2.36. Example 2. Example 2. Using Norton's theorem. Z21 = Zl2 t n. 1·9 X I0-2. Circuit for Example 2.42. Figure 2.32. Ans. Zln lJ!l n. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2. zu i n. Repeat Example 2. Example 2. h22 H mho.26 using Thevenin's theorem. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. Circuit for Example 2. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. Ans.43. determine the new z parameters. Repeat Example 2.35 Figure 2. 73 . hl2 = -h21 = u.

(c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. Example 2. (b) from the results of (a). A 1 54. h21 75. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. 50 X 10-6. 23 . -5 000 n.40. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V.38. 125. h22 200 . Z22 500 n. 40 mV. 200 . 600.37. Ans. .44. A four-terminal network having Zn 100 n. 1 944 Q. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. 2·39 kQ. The T network shown in Figure 2. Example 2. Ans. -0·04. h12 10-3 . -2 X 10-6. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. Z1n 1·25 kQ. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. Repeat Example 2. Ans. -3 000.31.38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 .38 using g parameters. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. 37 n. Z21 92 . 8 X 10-3. 393 Q.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. 2 X }04. h21 50. -5·7. z. the g parameters. 0·15.umho. Determine (a) the y parameters.39. h12 10-3 . Example 2. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. 45 X 10 3. Z12 10 n.44 represents an active device. -375 X 103.umho.2· 3.umho. 5 000. 5. Ans.41. 2 X 10-3. y. g. Circuit for Example 2. h22 Example 2. A network having hu 1 000 !2. Z1n.

Circuit for Example 2.EXAMPLES Example 2. hzz 300 p.4 . Figure 2. 1 -2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I ----- I il 50fi ~---------------~ 10on I I I I L---------------~ Figure 2.43.43 networks.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2. The network shown in Figure 2.mho.42 hu 2 000 0. 157. 9·8 mV. (Networks in parallel.46 shows two interconnected four-terminal ·---------------. 93 . h21 250. 38. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo. h12 I0.42. Ans.45. Example 2. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.46.) Ans. Circuit for Example 2.

operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods. and an alternative approach is desirable. i.1. the first 94 .C.4 R 200 300 .3 LOW FREQUENCY.2 . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a. +J(mA) -V (vol t s) 20 10 5 - +V (mV) .e. If the switch is in position B.$"·~:-~ 6 I 200mV -1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3.. (c) A. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. the diode is forward First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3. (a) Junction diode characteristics. (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.1a. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2.

Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d.c. (a) D. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown.2. on the other hand. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively.2a. is approximately zero. this current. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line.c. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case. as in Figure 3. say 300 n. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics.c.C. 7·5 mA. giving an operating point of 110 mV. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 -=-=20MQ R I0-6 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current. Diode equivalent circuits. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. the Variation in total series resistance due to the non-linearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 10-3 I = 20 X I0-3 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. 0·3 f-tA. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA. generator has a peak value of 20 m V. the switch is moved to A. lf. Thus the a. An alternative situation is shown in Figure open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~-- 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 J-LH (c) Figure 3.c.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. (b) Small signal a. resistance which is 95 . If the a.

c.c.1IRL is shown passing through the d .c. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. A Ioad line of slope . and provided the a. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear.c.3. bias current is 7 mA. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d.2c.c. At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. The term small signal implies that the a. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree. These are known as ra. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 .c.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor. operating point Q. series inductance. the anode slope resistance. and p the amplification factor. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 10-3 15 x 10-3 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a. provided the d. Figure 3. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance. operating point.LOW FREQUENCY.

equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm. X -~Vgk ~Vak I = f1.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.AB . =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak -Ta. i.1) .. is not constant.2) r _ a - g and ra.3. From the graph. llVak~o m. .Load line 0 0 Figure 3. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra.V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _. But (3. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !-' the amplification factor..4..e. = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.~Vgk 6.4) ~Ia = QB.~Ia I (3.-. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3. a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. X gm ~Ia.c.3.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3. when Ia.

r-.:--~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = -fl./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ. fa + RL t-tRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal.Vgk Ö.. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö../a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ. r----------./aRL = Ö. (a) Constant valtage equivalent. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6.Vgk = f1.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk .Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö.5) + RL or (3.Vak Ö. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 .--_____. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve.6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must.4.RL ra (3.1: ra gmraRLÖ.LOW FREQUENCY.Ö. when loaded with a resistor RL.Vak gmÖ.Vgk = "'-----7-1 + RL fal But = Ö.VgkRL R 1 + .

c.RL ra. As before Vgk = v8.c.4a.5 are those of a valve having the d.c. changes at a d. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) -fWs ra + RL . so Av Vo = -Vs = -gmva = and and Vo = Vo --':---=- (~ + ~J -gmvara. By Figure 3.:.c. The alternative circuit in Figure 3. operating condition indicated by point 0.. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve. -fWsRL = laRL = ---'_.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.=--- A _ . + RL -"-. Vgk.gmraRL v.-=ra + RL -(-lRL ra. operating point we can obtain an a. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra .5. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them.ra.. 99 .4b can be solved by nodal analysis.----. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve.5. The characteristics shown in Figure 3.

= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3. so if the alternating current ia is zero. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0. Triode small signal equivalent circuits.LOW FREQUENCY. Thus to a. i. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. Vgk must be zero. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a -gm Vgk .e. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem. Applying Norton's theorem in the same way. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance.c. See equation 3. This means that the a. Now from equation 3.c.6a and by comparison with Figure 3. g Y= . If a circuit is open then the current is zero. The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = ../-lVgk. voltage must be zero. condition. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed. Vak g vgkl a .c. 100 .6.. the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics.4a.1 Vgk -. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3. In this case we are concerned with a.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3..!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3.3..

4b we can see that Figure 3.c.2. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3.fva. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. i. Again. since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia. by comparison with Figure 3. gmVgk.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve.e. for each configuration we can obtain z. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections. input Vgk is (See equation 3. resulting from an a.6b. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured. 101 . Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. h. when Vgk is zero. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. it may be treated as a four-terminal network. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a three-terminal device. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. There are in fact many more possibilities. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full. g. it is 1/ra.

'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3.c. operating point. reverse.c. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3.7. r.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a four-terminal network.c. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc. value.c. quantities measured about a particular d.LOW FREQUENCY. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d. 102 . forward and output respectively.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d.7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3. fand o for input. Ievel.

. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la .TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3. it is the short circuit input resistance. Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q. 103 hre .c. i.8a. hre ic = -:- I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3. the output characteristic. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a.8a.8b. and as we shall see in later chapters. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters. This parameter is very small.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic -Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3. may frequently be neglected.8.8. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3. typically I0-3.e. If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel.

10.9. so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the four-terminal convention.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. hre. The ratio of the two.9. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10-500 depending upon type and application. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required. i. But it is usually more convenient to convert. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor.9 but with appropriate notation. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T. A typical value for hoe is 100 . The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 . both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). Using conventional currents.umhos. These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. 104 . Looking at Figure 3. is therefore positive. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance. an output resistance of 10 kQ. b e Figure 3.e. It is shown in Figure 3.LOW FREQUENCY. To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3.

(c) From fundamentals. rc I MQ.10). The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1.. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components. Figure 3. 105 .11.11. Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3.10.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e . Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common. (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB. ib b - otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3. and oc0·99. Tb I 000 Q.

12. The required circuit is shown in Figure 3. the conversion is completed -oc oc (equation 1. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( -re1 + -rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel. (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5.oc). Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're.oc) ~ !. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e. the direction of the current generator. Tc !'•• /rx' r. (f) Since ib is the input current. (a) Short circuit output. the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of -ocrc n. 106 .LOW FREQUENCY. it is convenient to reverse its direction. and with it.. and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 . First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero.17).m.f. Also putting -1 oc = oc' and (1 .12a.

12. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals.' in parallel. The opposite conversions can be found using these results.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx.'re Tc (3.' hrehoe hoe (3.'. rx. But Tc/rx. rx.12b. 3.')ib fiows in Te.12) Equations 3.=== Te(1 lb + rx. 3.. From equation 3.13) From equation 3. (3.9) + The current (1 rx.11 and 3.16) From equation 3. the short circuit ic must be the remainder. hre Tc=-=hoe hoe (3. = rx.11) (3.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V -.14) hreTc hrehre hre Te=--=--=rx. h re and ic =-:- I lb Vce=O . This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent.') (3.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters.' = hre (3.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O - Tc Te+--. - rx. hoe===oc' = -Tc Te+ rx. rx.10.9. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re- Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 .' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input. 107 .11.10.-.

If they are fundamentally four-terminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics.LOW FREQUENCY. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them.1. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. For each case. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. 108 . Vg -2 V or (b) RL 60 kO. and hoe 125 . the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. Vgk -12 V.4 .125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936-n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. In all such cases.4 re = 125 X I0-6 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 10-4 1 300.umhos. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I0-6 = 720 kQ I0. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively. y or g parameters will be more convenient.. EXAMPLES Example 3. hre 90. the OC75.T. hre 5 x I0. 1t is to be operated with an H. A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. Using the equations above: (/. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO.

(b) 361 V.15·8. (a) 153 V. Example 3. operating point is given by (a) VcE -4·5 V. or (b) VBE -130 mV.29·5. Av.) 109 . In each case.c. 9·8 mA. (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. 36. Av. 110). the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. determine the small signal h parameters. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. The d. Ic 8·8 mA.2. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 -2 -4 -6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 -8 -10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 -12 -14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 -16 1-1 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans.EXAMPLES determine the operating point. ra 6·6 kf!. 1·5 mA. 24. /B 40 A. ra 31 kQ.

35. 5 X I0-3. 97 . (b) 1 200 0. iB (pA) for .VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 -VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 2-4 3·6 4·8 6·0 7-6 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 5-6 6·9 8-4 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 3-9 2-9 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 . 450 . 45. 6·7 X I0-3 .1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans.umho. (a) 470 0.umho.

hrb -0·97. Example 3. The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0. Ans. rc 1 MO. rb 500 0. 1·5 MO. hrb 5 X 10-4 . hob 1 .umho. 120. (b) htc 550 0. hoc 33 . 0·993. hrc -33·3. (a) 6·25 0. htz 5 x 10-4 . and oc0·97. 244 0. 12·5 kO.umho. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. hzt 120. 244 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits. (b) 6·25 0. hrc + 1. h22 80 . 111 .3.4. (a) htb 30 0.EXAMPLES Example 3. Ans. hu 1 000 0.

In this chapter.0. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . This procedure is not only time consuming. using this method. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. and p. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. operating point.c. g g ~ f-l Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits. . The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. equivalent circuits. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. gm.0b 112 . 1 r. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. at the particular d.c. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means. Then. These circuits represent the valve only.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1.

i2)Z1. the frequency or phase response. the equivalent circuit is again used. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations.m.f. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen. potential at the grid. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction. the output voltage or power. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. The d. source of e.s and proceeding from cathode to grid. The re<1. If a numerical solution only is required. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used. since the a.T. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. add such p.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution.m. but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a.c.m. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid. This 113 . indicate the sense of the unknown currents.Vb. In general. measured with respect to cathode. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter.f. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit.f. and the input impedance. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e.c.s algebraically.d. line is taken as earth. (2) Taking each electrode in turn. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary. positive H.s and e. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method. or current source shown in the complete circuit.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result. connect it to earth through any component.c. If the amplifier output impedance is required.

Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. The full circuit is given in Figure 4. Example 4.. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL.6) Vo = -f-tRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4.1. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es...3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and -f-les = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + f-t)] (4. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4. ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4.5) lf the output valtage is required. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized. c. The valve has amplification factor f-l and anode resistance ra. and Vo -f-lesRI. 114 . cathode and anode respectively to earth.7) = and the valtage gain. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction.1) (Note..4) (4.-----. d. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram. --=----'---'=-. and e. and iaRL due to a positive ia. c. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b.. d and e show the connection of grid.) Continuing with step 5: -f-lVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.C. Vo = iaRL.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution.:.2) Substituting for Vgk -f-t(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.. this would have led to Vgk = -iaRk +es and Vo = -iaRL. iaRk.

(d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4. (a) Triode amplifier with un-decoupled cathode resistor.1. (b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 .__----.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a.

2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4. ra re-arrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator. Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution.2b the required equivalent circuit. If the constant current form is used.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit. Figure 4. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = .m.2. 116 . (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r. THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + -gmesYk (4. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier. The simple cathode follower.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = -.1 g.2. Two other series forms will be given as examples. (b) (a) Figure 4. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO.s.

c. flVgk - Vgk + es (4.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4. but since result 4. Writing the circuit equation (4. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av.iara 1 + fl (4.11) Both forms are correct.13) Inserting values and working in mA. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety. this is the best to use. In addition there will be d. Vo = -iaRL since +ia. 117 . the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( .9 is simpler. power due to the direct anode current.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l = - + fl) = es - giving iara.c. volts. and kQ -20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now.12) (4.2b (4.10) iara = es.RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth. power in the load.135 X I0-3 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.

17) .3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure 4.14) +iaRs. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia.f-l( +iaRs. Considering Figure 4.3a.15) ß)] (4.3. The grounded grid amplifier.3b Vgk = ( writing mesh equation rearranging ia(RL es(l + f-l) . Derive expressions for the valtage gain. and internal resistance Rs. the terminal input impedance.16) (4.3. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + f-l) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + f-l) + ra) (4. The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance off-land ra respectively. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es. but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced.

.21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator..18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p.)RL -=--------~~--~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p.iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s - ra Ztn = . Consider a simple Figure 4. Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL).20) (4.4).:...) _ R s + RL + p.22) ra + Rs(1 + p.) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =-:- (4.) + RL 119 . Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.:.)RL ra + RL (4..4. and putting Vo Avt = .)RL Vo = -----::'--:~. es(l + p.( 1 + p.. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p.CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.--:--::::(4.) (4.) + p...19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln - ia v' =es.20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn.

(See Figure 4.e. replaced by their internal impedances). Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation.. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted.5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4.f./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4. sources suppressed (i.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D.5. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result.m.25) (4.26) . Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = -IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(. (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals. The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e.24) (4.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4.

+ Rs(l + . Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4. Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth. These are a form of cathode follower.6b.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4. The circuit shown in Figure 4.6a isthat of a cathode follower. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4. designed to give a high resistive input impedance. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk.u) (4. Taking all resistors in kQ.4.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters. R5 (1 . all 121 . and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair.u 50 and ra 10 kQ.s.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.m.c. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d.u)] RL + ra. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. The valve has .23) as was obtained using the logical approach.6.

ls = . Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical. 5 000 .= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4. 122 . we have: Vgk = 500is [or -5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500t-tis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4. from equation 4. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts.31) -25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 .31 .7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier.1-5 . VI = 505is + 5ia (4. and all potential differences and e. 25 000 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA. = .28) (4.m.3 .29) Rearranging and collecting terms.32) substituting in equation 4.5.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is.s in volts.30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = Ia (4.30) 0 = (4. +5is has been neglected.f. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.31. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4.) Using substitution methods.

40) These two expressions have the same denominator. we find (4.Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 .11e2 . Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4.37) (4. h and = -11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 .f1Rk(h .f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4. and if the first term of this is expanded.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4.Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = -11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 . the equivalent circuit. very unwieldy expressions would appear. By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL - i2RL = RL(h - i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2.7b.11e1 . Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.36) rearranging: -11e1 -11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4. On 123 .34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4. If substitution methods were used.33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.35) (4.5 The mesh equations may then be written: .7.3 9) (4.

u(e1. Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges.u) 11 . .ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h - + (4. A triode valve having . The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 . Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a short-circuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling. high or medium.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms. this.6. Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn. The question of whether a frequency is low.u)] -. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically. [ra + RL + Rk(l + . CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequency-conscious.u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + .uRk(e2. at low frequencies. and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored.u)](e2. Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. . then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity inter-stage coupling.u(e2 . and a Ioad RL. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored.u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants.e2) volts.12 = . it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 . The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor. Therefore .41) From this result. those for minimizing negative feedback.ei)(l + . and stray reactances due to wiring etc.u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .e1) + . Similarly.12 = . 11 . series inductors may be neglected.e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra . Two examples involving reactive components will be given. depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component.

42 -39 X 20 -39 X 2 -78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 . The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz. working in kil: zk = -j x 1 = -j(1 + j) = 1. equation 4.8a shows the complete circuit.7. Rg is necessary to provide a d.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tan-lfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 . Circuits for Example 4.CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor. Figure 4.j) = 5 . -flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.e. connection between grid and earth. where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz.j2 = 25 + 4 = -2·69(5 + j2) = -13·45 .6 Figure 4. i. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz.j 1.1. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4. This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4.8.c.j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4. Av = ra At 159 Hz.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk.

---:. Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 .9. the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4.8 In this problem. low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz. Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R).j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases. In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R). the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. 30 --.) ~ ra + RL. To sketch the required frequency response curves. 9·25 + 0·16 = -8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = -25·2 . and -39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit.78(3·04 + j0·4) .------ --~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4..USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore -j0·1 -j0·1(1 +j0·1) . THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4.7.9a and b. the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action.:. Zk=1-j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01-JO·l -39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) -78 3·04 .j0·4 .

Rg =50 kO. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. 127 .10a.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage.10. certain components may be neglected as either open-circuit or short-circuit. given that: !-' = 20. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component. is applied. and Cs = 100 pF. Ce= 0·1 fkF. RL = 20 kO. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4. This is provided by Rg across which H. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies.c. connection to earth. = - 10 10 then -wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated.10b could be solved by mesh analysis. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. The first step then. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the inter-electrode capacitance of the second valve. (b) (a) Figure 4.c. If Rk X. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. (1) The cathode bias circuit.T. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4. output voltage will be developed. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. ra = 10 kO. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose.5.

(2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a short-circuit. 128 . If these results are examined. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. If the reactance is greater than lORg.c. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w=--= RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered.5. amplification. If 1 -CB = lORg W 1012 1 w=--= lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. low frequencies. both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected. and high frequencies. it may be regarded as open circuit. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg.c.

Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.gmVgkRe = .43 and 4.12. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 . The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re.43) -=-+-+Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es. 1 1 I 1 (4.45) Re= 5·89 kQ f-t 20 gm = . the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.gmesRe Rg Figure 4.11.= .44) -gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.12. If the parallel combination Figure 4.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = -2 X 5·89 = -11·78 In Figure 4. and Vo = .11.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.

4) But 5·89 was arnve 5. 2. (4. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4. 4. (See Appendix 1. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I.46) -gmZe _ -gm(-jXcsRe) Re. thus Re I = Xcs = -wCs and I w=--= ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton . The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. d at f rom 17 . From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift. then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale.) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. and 5.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXc8 . For example. 0·5.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze. 0·2. Iet Re/Xcs = I. Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J0-3 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 .47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies.

To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a.13. tan-1 0·5. and y'(12 + 52). The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan-1 0·2. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included.48) . leading to the result shown in Table 4. where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4. Table 4.13. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. and tan-1 5 from 180°. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken. anode voltage Va.c.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). k Figure 4.1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points. y'(12 + 22). Vo = 1 RgVa Rg - . The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5. but if more accuracy is required. tan-1 2. y'(12 + 0·52).1. This is shown in Figure 4.

it is Re. and Vo Avl=-= es TaRL ) -gmRg ( Ta+ RL --~--~~~----~---- ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg -jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4. and Rg. RL.49) The term (Rg.Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ -gmRe jXcc(Ta.RL Ta.e.jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. T he expresswn Ta (4.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta. h 11 1 b' .jXcc .51) . Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined. Therefore TaRL ) .50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + .44 Avl = Avm -----:-~ I _ jXcc R' (4. i. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x. from equation 4. and Rg. + RL) (4. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta..jXcc(Ta. RL.Rg + RLRg. is given by the product of the current . J cc (4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va.50) R L + RL) -gmRgTaRL Ta. .gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta.52) = Avm. + RL) TaRL Ta. + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .RL + Ta. 132 .gmRe Rg + Ta.jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4.

1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan-1 0·2.1 0·5 etc. For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2. first consider the point where Xcc R' -=1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant. To calculate the frequencies.2RgCc 133 . tan. and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. the frequency must be divided by the same constant.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°. The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. now . The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same.

Hz Figure 4. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale.14. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4. 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits.8. EXAMPLES Example 4.s. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4. -20. An alternating voltage of 50 mV r. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations. -13·3.m.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ.9. -33·3. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. A triode valve has 11-40 and ra 20 kQ. Example 4. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. Ans. By definition. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier. Once the technique has been mastered.

Ans.15. 0·75 V. 1·25 V.14. Take J-l and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively.10. Example 4. 34·3 kQ. Ans. 97 0. h 2 mA. Example 4. 6·72 V. 51·0. 0·49 V. 135 . If the anode load is 27 kQ.m.f. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters J-l and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. Ans. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. Ans.11.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ. 80 0. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth. If J-l and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. 323 0. 17·5 kO.12. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ. ra. Example 4. Ans. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier. 455 kQ. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4. 0·808. Ans.13.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. -10·5. 0·95. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. capacity coupled to the load. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4.3a) is driven by a source of e. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. Calculate the anode-cathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. Example 4. Example 4. determine the constants J-l and ra of a suitable valve. and VaK -3 V. 10 kQ. Ans. 17·1 kO. Example 4.

calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4.16.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. 1·01 sin wt.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. Circuit for Example 4. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ. 28·3. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively. The circuit shown in Figure 4. Example 4. Ans. or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4).15. Circuit for Example 4. 136 . The d. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48').16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier. for each valve.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.16. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4.c. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4.17.

18. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans. The valve has t-t 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode. Circuit for Example 4.18.19. 137 . calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.20. Circuit for Example 4. H:T. 500.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4. 4·88 kQ. 50 Hz to 10kHz. -9·62.Cl Figure 4. If f1.IlXAMPLES Example 4. -30·4.Cl 50k.19 Example 4. 35·6.17.18 Example 4. Ans. Ans.17 employs identical valves with t-t 36 and ra 12 kQ. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 t-tF for this purpose. -13. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively.18. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.

0·37 mA/V.lF. Ans. -39·15.+ Figure 4. The valve parameters are f. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Cs 330 pF.23. H. Example 4. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies.. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL.lF. 37kHz. Ans. Circuit for Example 4.21. 138 . 0·01 f.. -31·9. 12·1 L 241° 42'. Ans. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz. 9·6 kQ. Ce 0·25 f. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively.T. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. Ans. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL..24. Take f. RL 30 kQ. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4.19.21 Example 4. 5·5 Hz. Example 4.10a has the following components. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain. Rg 100 kQ.22.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.. 27 kQ.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.

F. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ.EXAMPLES Example 4. Ce 0·1 p. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO. Ans. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ.25. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100. 139 . 128Hz to 7·5 kHz.

140 . Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. If however. will. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration. This will usually depend upon the available information. hrb. hrb. or even. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. When the correct h parameters are available.c.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. draw the chosen equivalent. there is no need to convert to the required form. rc. applied or generated. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. base and collector connections. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used.e. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. if correctly applied. produce the correct solution in all cases. i. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. Show all details. for example.

Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided.3 must be used. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 .c.c. (hre ib.c. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit variable.c. Components R1. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. is shown as a short circuit. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. Example 5.1. and of the input impedance. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. hre 5 X 10-4. having zero reactance. power supplies are short circuit to a. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. Remernher that batteries or other d. using substitution methods or determinants. but with T equivalents. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho. to earth. Figures 5. and the coupling capacitor. The circuit shown in Figure 5. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. Figure 5.GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn. the two mesh currents are usually more shows a single stage amplifier. In any case. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. hre shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. etc. d and e show the connections of the emitter. Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 . (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method. When the h parameters are given. collector and base respectively.Q.

(a) Circuit for Example 5.1.Vcc c RL 4 k! 142 . 1'" RE 1k.1. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5..USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS .O. e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5.

For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J0-6 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method.c. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base. take the product as negaitive.m. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a. This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem.) and the signal source. and by adding any iZ products and generated e. lf proceeding against the current arrow. These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. not with respect to earth.f. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. Before continuing the solution. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages.90ib). we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic .lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification.s. 143 .GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter.

90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5. indicating 180° phase shift.2) Rearranging these equations.9 X 104 lc . collecting terms and inserting the value of R'.e' .ic = 1 040 A .71·9 X 104ib e' and . or (b) Vce = [ -1 OOO(ic + ib) . _ .4 OOOic] V.owing towards earth.90ib) V. but the shortest path is usually the most convenient.4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I0-5e' 1. The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic . In this case.1 81 From 5.3) (5. lb .3) 1 OOOib (5. Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution. = 4ic .4 OOOic] V. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !-LA ic = = -0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA -856fLA (Note the minus.) 144 .71 . Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.04 = 1·74 X 10-5e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl.3.4 Substituting in 5.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic . or (c) Vce = [5 X I0-4vce + 900ib + R'ib .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow.1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic . e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5. _ 13 X 103 .72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic.90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.5 X 10-4 X 8 OOO(ic. -e' io = . take the product as positive.

:-:::--=-: At = 1·74 X 10-5e' ib 105 At=. correctly applied.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib.1040 X 1·74 = ..55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth. since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =-:lb lQ-3 = 1·74 X lQ-5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected.0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo. will always Iead to the correct solution. On the other hand this technique. Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib).ibR' = 0·89 . Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 . This analysis may seem very long. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor.1·74 X 10-5 X 445 = 0·89 ..1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines. and substituting for terminal current gain -e' 1 040 -ic = -:---=:-:---------. Vo = -icRL = -856 X lQ-5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5.

current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5..4.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters. hte 1·3 kO. itn and io. Example 5. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n. and hoe 105 .2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. Determine the overall voltage gain. as have the Ioad resistors. hre 2 X I0.2. Figure 5. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency.umho.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a. hre 110. This also eliminates the emitter resistors.2a. these components have been shown as short circuits. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn. The following points should be noted. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances. the h parameter general solutions may be used. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5.c. 146 . Vo. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. (a) 1(b) Figure 5.2. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach.

I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . Before applying these steps to the problern in hand.5) (5.umhos. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis. lb2 + 2 X 10-4( -110ib2) 408 X lQ-b 220 v' = 1 300 . Applying this rule. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'.= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 . = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain. The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of .-4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n. To obtain the adrnittance of a component in .umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 -21. a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2.+ -4·7. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1.6) . (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl.umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'.umhos. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 -110ib X 10-4 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)10-6 Substituting for v0 in 5·5. (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n. divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms.

YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 . and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 .umho Now from the general solution. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.6 u 2 Ytn -llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 -100 1 300(1 471)10-6 .285 2 X 10-4 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 .0·022 -58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .100 X 2 X I0-4 -110 .7) (5. using the general solution found in Chapter 2.(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2.7 _ I 300(1471)10. = -llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 10-4 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)10-6 1 300ibl (5.8) Substituting for ibl in 5. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.1·3 = X 1·471.umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I0-4 = I 300. Ztn2 hrehte = hte. for step 3.umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl.

.6 .3:-::0-=-3-+--:-1-=-05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X -Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X -1Ix30·3 4·08 . -hre Av = -------.GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution. 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + -110ib2 X 303 -110 X 3·03 = ----.110 X 2 X 10-4 = .58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 -110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10.hrehre -110 = 1 300(1 471)10-6 . when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 .I 10 -IIO X 2 X 10-4 = -2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = -2I6·5 X -58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain.--~-chte(hoe + YL) . IR 2 io -IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03. lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn . io Vo YL2 At=-:--=--= AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 10-6 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure. refer to step 6.

USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.42 .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 . hrehre Yo = hoe .umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 = - - 110 X 2 X I0-4 I 300 + I 530 .umho Including YL2. 3 .umho 220 I05 .I 7 .28 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 10-4 I 300 + 442 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) .umho X 10 = 92·4 .4 = + 260) . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .umho = 97·2 .umho ~400 .hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors. 97·2 + 303 .umho I 000 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2.umho = = 1 000 655 . the overall output admittance and impedance.umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 .

so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. In each case however.2 is accurate but not really practical. further components are added in parallel. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. . and hoe is neglected. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. the bias components. having an impedance much greater than h1e. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5. .GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5.2 voltage. Finally. may be neglected or at least rounded off. E. A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances. In any case.. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. . First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero.. To show the effect of these approximations. we shall reconsider Example 5.3 where es is the source Figure 5.3.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. The first thing to notice. Av= -hre -hreZL .__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 .

1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho -63·5 -63·5 x -208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. Table 5. 152 . Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 5000-2 kfl 5 kfl-20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem. 600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. hrb.1. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations. Avz Z1n2 = -llO 1·300(105 + 303)10-6 =- 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 -90 X .2. Having considered the common emitter amplifier.

Take hte 800 n. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. and secondly. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit.4a.2. Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.4. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5. hoe 250 . these alternative methods will be compared.umho and hre 65. In the next example. Example 5. Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = -Vo = -2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) .GENERAL METHODS Table 5. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5-300 0·5-2Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications. hre 10-3 . by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5.3.3 emitter parameters. firstly.

and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . 258. -:ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'.umho .4a. YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel.umho = 60 . . 154 Y1n = 71·25 .= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 . 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib .umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components. = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib . so substituting for ic in the first equation. VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = --. From Figure 5. = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = -258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I0-3 terms) From the second equation.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ.umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 .I0-3(ib 0 = 4(ic - 65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms.

5. as shown in Figure 5. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I0-6 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :---Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain.3 155 .GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth.5a. (a) I Figure 5. suppressing any external generators.

VY' = 0·384 X I0-6V. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'.) Now writing the nodal equation.1 and 5. First Vce = .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5. 0·384 X 10-6.3. Table 5. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5.2.65 X 384 X I0-6V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10.V. I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)10-6 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 5-20 (limited by bias components) Low 0·8-0·99 High Bias components Low 20--100 il 156 . so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I0-3 V. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.6 Neglecting the first term.384 X I0-6V =:::= .384 X I0-6 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre. IO-av Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l0-6V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.5b.

the hre generator becomes -hreVec. ib and ie as shown hlc I = -.hre . This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = -Vce. Vec.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions. together with ib flow into the short circuit. Vbc. hre Vce Figure 5.6. The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. Thus and + hreib) hrc = -(hre + 1) and h1c ie = -(ib = h1e Now for ib zero. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec - hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 . Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears. All the current from the hre generator.6. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters.. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears.

The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one.c.10-3 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I0-6 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 .umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . we require the effective Zs. This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected. 158 . amplifier. but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 . ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given.6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. a phase splitter or a d.umho For overall Y0 .umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. including Ioad.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.umho 1 . Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 . or super <X pair. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier.3: htc = 8000 htc = -66 hrc = hoc = 250 .

Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. supply. Circuits for Example 5. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d.c.7a could be treated in a number of ways.c. In this example only the he parameters are available.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO). 7a. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5.umho and hre 90. 159 .4. hte 1 300 0. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier. hoe 125 . so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d. operating points determined by the circuit.7.c. hre 5 X 10-4. The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5.

0·83vz 0 = 0= -75·5vl + 153vz . The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI - vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p. circuit admittances and external generators. therefore if VI. which changes the units to volts. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages. The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1. The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 . we may write and ibl = (v1 - ibz = vz)830 pA -vz 830 p. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59.0·125va -75vz + 0·625va 160 .7b.vz)830 + 90( -830vz) = -vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830) - 125va and for node 3: -90( -830vz) = -125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000. and va. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators.A. For node 2: 90(vl . vz. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances.A Now for node I. For ib1. vz and va in terms of is. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1.mho.

For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 is 0 0 is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(-75·5 X X75.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants. This is to be expected.X ls X is(153 X 0·625. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = -.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(-75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~-==-~~~~~--~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal.= ls 1 -:ls is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =-:. but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low.0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625. since each stage of a 161 .

conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2. Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration.. 162 . hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ". A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d. Example 5. common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v.w 'h. hre 120.8a.. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance.~· it.8b. hoe" and hre ". Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base.c.5.' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h . Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000. (d) (c) Figure 5. (b) (a) !2 ho.. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair.8. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. hoe'.

. ib" in terms of the node voltage.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2._h_"_ 1 ~ h---.d. but first we must find h22. where Y is the combination of hte ". and short circuit output. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5. Under these conditions h and ib are zero.. the parameters for the overall circuit.:. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h---. for h12 and h22..1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5. + oe Now. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + -h oe _ fz _ 22 - = V2 - h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " -h + le oe 1 h ") + . hz1. this can also be deleted.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters.9) we can write a nodal equation. Figure 5.. where hn. oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ".10) . across hte'. Here Vz ib"=---11 1 hte h----. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h----. oe II le (5. h12. and since there is no p.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated.:. are open circuit input. for h21 and hn.

the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I .12) Once again. (5..14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =-" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5.8d. In this case. The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition... 11 - + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5. le h _ h . oe + -h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5..11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5. we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output. V' + hoe'hte 11 (5.I h ... I .I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem. The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit.. By inspection.II..= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'. h in terms of h. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted.. For h21. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate..I5) (5.I6) . • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h--.

0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns. practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 10-6 X !50 X 10-6 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 10-6 I 50 X 10-6 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.83 kQ 165 .(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013. and 5017. 1121 = 120. this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2. hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . h _ h ib' - _ hre'. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb .ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METI-IODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6.3 = x 10-6 OoOI8 + """1-3 mho = Oo8 + 13-8 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as. the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n - 3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu .hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case. 5o14. or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value.

Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . the coupling capacitor.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. without loss of current gain. (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. base current for the first transistor. and hre negligible. Stray capacitance due to wiring. except in phase. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. Example 5. huc = 188 k. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4.3. An even higher input impedance can be achieved.6. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. as the large h21 permits a very low d. Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded.9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. hoe 100 .6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. have neglected the effect of reactances. independent of frequency. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components. have not been shown. Figure 5.umho. and that due to transistor properties.Q h12c = 1- h21c = -11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value.c. At this point then. By means of a general analysis. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. hre 110. Capacitors. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 . determine. Av2 . where shown. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards.

22) . The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5.19) -Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V.9.6 For simpJicity.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis. the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5. Jet 1 Re = -:----=c---=--(5. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5.21) 1 Ztn2=-y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5. By definition.20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5. Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero.

.24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. h . frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected.9b is the same as v'. . First. - - VcZ!n2 Ztn2- jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies. and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies.jXce) Ztn2 v = . The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm. . At low frequencies. Avh -hre = -h-Re le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. Ve shown in Figure 5.>Re v' = -hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' -hre Avm =-=--Re VI hte (5.23) At high frequencies.J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXcs. as low frequencies. X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V . ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2 - J Ce . those at which Cs only may be neglected. -jXcsRe v = -hrelb x R ·x e .telb X . RL'(Ztn2 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. will be referred to as medium frequencies. X es is in parallel with Re. Av1 and Avh respectively. considering Figure 5.9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = -C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 -C '.

26) 169 . let Re/Xcs = 1. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5. Forageneral investigation.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed. and l _ jXcc R' Equations 5.23. 5. But (Equations 5.) Thus from equation 5. Avm = -110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5. from equation 5.19. 5. In this numerical example. This results in Avh = -59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5.23.24 and 5.20.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies.23.20. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies. Avm A vl = ---':'-::-:- (5. 5. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.21. At any particular frequency.

At low frequencies. tan-1 3 and tan-1 5 respectively.4 on page 171..24. These results are shown in Table 5. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz.F Thus in practice a 1 p. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1).26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. y'5. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5. etc.. 2. 5.1 2. the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz.. and 5wh respectively. 3wh.F = 0"63 p. y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan-1 0·25. Inspection of equation 5. At these frequencies.F capacitor would be suitable. . I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5. 170 . In practice. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p..USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !. 3. tan.2I..I9 and 5. 2wh.

8 tan.96 tan.8 tan.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.0 tan-1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .1 tan.1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 .5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .6 tan-1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan-11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan-11 45° o-5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.96 tan-120 87° 10' IAvml = 1-1 9 tan-1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where -0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42. Xcc Avt 7i.10·5 26° 30' T tan-10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan-12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh=-- Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan-10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll-6 tan.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.1 2 63° 30' = 18.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan-110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.4.

Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also. The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case. Considering the single stage first. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters.10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. values of !.4. Av2 = -hre YL) . 3. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. must be multiplied by Av2. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. etc. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. These results arealso shown in Table 5. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from -90° (at the top) to +90°. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1.=-:-----::-----::-- hle(hoe -110 = 1 000(100 + 500)10-6 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed.hrehre + -:----:-::------. . at each frequency.wCcR' .4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. 3. 2. This is shown in Figure 5. This is shown. etc. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~. of the two stage amplifier. the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive.. Figure 5. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined. the gain of the second stage. i.2 .10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. since we are puttmg R ' . for the single 172 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range.e. the gain of the first stage. 2.

the locus is a circle. 173 .6. This locus is shown in Figure 5. we obtain the locus of the gain vector.llb.Jla.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 . in Figure 5. (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. 30 180° -e- 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5. plotted in the complex plane.MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. In this case. with the origin on the circumference. 4 6 f. The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift.40 > 3. If the ends of all these vectors are joined.10.

O.12a.11. If the transistor employed 4k. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.7.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5. Circuits for Example 5.12. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 . but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 . Example 5.

lo R L 0 = -lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil.. rb 800 kil and rx' 80. and ir. ie. + l. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations.10( Rearranging and collecting terms. = ib(1 + rx') .28) (5. V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = -0·03ie + 10(81ib - = ie) + 4(ir + ib . = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = -14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie . substituting for i 0 and i'. rc +. inserting values and working in kil and mA.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1. -. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib - ie = ib . Figure 5. In terms of these three.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 -810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 -14 +814 +4 +10 -810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)-0·7(-14x 15-4x 10)+0 15 450vl . The unknown currents have been se1ected as = ibrb + iere .27) (5.463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 .810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for 15ir.0·7ib (5.

203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v.27. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available. In fact.n Vt Vt = -:lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor.= -90 Vi Z. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error.814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v. . However.0·03Vt 0. however. the input current is ib + ir. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 . These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters.28. In the design of a practical amplifier. ib = Vi. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required. The methods used.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. In the majority of the examples. Vo Vo Av = . are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit. feedback methods should be used. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers. circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are V = -22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance. ir = 14ie . 176 .ib. mA = ioRL = (ir.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter.

8. Ans.11 Example 5. -3 130. 6·83 kQ.13.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n. Example 5. Repeat Example 5. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. 645 n. and oo.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5. -1·97. hre 75. 100 n.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. Figure 5. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance.11. v. 10 kQ. Figure 5. 862 Q.8 using RLO. Circuit for Example 5. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. Ans. 960 Q. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. Assurne Xe = 0. Ans. and At against RL.10. Ans. 177 . 8·83 mV. 0.. -56·5. Example 5. -6·72. hoe 90 . hre I0-3 . -130.8 taking Xe as being infinite.14. -65·6. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5.8. -65·6. 960 Q. -0·68.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. -560. 0. Av.umho. 258 n. -36·2. 25·7 Q. Circuit for Example 5.9.

3·3 kQ. 1100 Q.15. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components. Example 5. 264 Q. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. hoe 80 . 1 528 Q. 656 Q. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage. Repeat Example 5. Example 5. Example 5. 8·83 mV.14.umho. hoe 120 . Example 5. 90 . Collector Ioads.12. Ans.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. 650 X 1()3. -11·35.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5. hoe 80 .13. hre 90. 25·7 Q. hre 150.15 has h1e 1 300 0. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ.umho. Ans.umho. hre 110. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5. hre 5 X 10-4. -76. Circuit for Example 5. Ans.16. 496 X 1()3. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 . Ans. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0. Figure 5.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. 1.15. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. hre 0. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. 147. The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. 2·22 kQ.7a.

EXAMPLES effective. -6 600. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. 5 260. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. Ans. Yb 350 Q. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit.18. -89. and IX 0·992. 1 122 n. Ans. 119 ftmho. 162 L 168°. hre 10-3 . A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ. effective inter-stage shunt capacitance 500 pF. hre 5 X 10-4. 1 130 L 3° 30'. hre 125.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. hoe 130 ftmho. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. hre 90. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. Ans. Ye Example 5. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance. Example 5. 179 . and hoe 130 ftmho. Figure 5. 63 kn. Ans. and hre 0.16. 5. Circuit for Example 5. per stage. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. -63·3.17. 7 370. 444 kHz.19. 105 Hz. 2·10 kil. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies. 20·4 x to-s. hre 80.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. Yc 750 kQ. Example 5. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. 1 123 Q.

14·6 k.8a. hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 . (b) 0·973. the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 .Q. 88 .Q. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal). 218. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2. hoe 500 .20.90 k.umho. hoe 110 . hre 4 X 10-4.umho.Q. Ans. hre 10-3 .Q.Q.Q. -1 270. 180 . Calculate the voltage gain. 4·0 .Q. Assurne Zs to be 10 k. h1e 1· 5 k. (a) -41·0. hte 70.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5. In each case.Q. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k.

or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. Similarly. and of the device parameters. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. In this 181 . In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. current gain or both. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain.c. and a change of d. operating conditions.c.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. and in the event of a replacement. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance. The passive components may vary with temperature and time.

c. where in general A = lAI L 0. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies.1. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. 182 . particularly at high frequencies. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically non-linear. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. and their configuration.

The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.ßA AS So= 1. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6. lßl is less than one.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. where cp. and So is the output signal.2) . the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1-lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6. S is the input signal applied from an outside source.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0.1. S' is the terminal input signal. Usually. but not essentially.

Thus equation 6. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges. With reference to equation 6.e. and in particular negative feedback.c. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. i. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above. the feedback is negative. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\. i. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1. or temperature changes. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°. discussed above. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6. Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement. 184 . the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. Feedback positive \A\.) Example 6. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 .e. supply changes. d.1.


If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine

the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000



where K is a constant.


3 000

= 0·191


the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
3 000


Percentage change

100 per cent

= 59· 3 per cent

Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier



A 2r =

3 000

3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402

1 + 600

. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500 - 402
Percentage change m


100 per cent

= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series



or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback

Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multi-stage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe-1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be


referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.

Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:







+ R 2 Vo


+ R2

(6 .4)

Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by



since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'





1- Avoß
AvoV = 1Avo ß

Gain with feedback




1 - Ap~ vo


Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l - ßAvo)


If this equation is divided by i the input current,



-:-l = -.

- ßAvo)

But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:

= Ztn{l

- ßAvo)


Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback

We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say

V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining



+ Ztn)


ß'. Where

= -=-----=----=-----'R2 + Zs + Ztn


V'= ß'E





Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E - Av' V' = I'Zo'

From equation 6.9
E(l - ßAv') = I'Zo'
Zor = ji = l - ßAv'


The overall output impedance can thus be found from


Z = Zor



+ RL + R1 + Rz

Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback

We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.

.------;!--------,--- --1






c0 t




v---,r-.,- - - - - - - J

Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback

In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor

RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as


Thus if RF ~ Zs

+ Ztn (as is usual)






In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,



= RL + RF + Zo'


With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.

Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,


-IRF (if Ztn

+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)

and writing the mesh equation

E- Av'( -IRF)

= l(Zo' + RF)

arranging and collecting terms,



= IZo' + /RF(l

- Av')

= ~ = Zo' + RF(l- Av')


With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect

Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.

and internal impedance 1 kO.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a). the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since .m.A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. from equations 6. The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8). so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6. the overall terminal voltage gain. for both methods.Applying equation 6. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.5 and 6.86 = 623 from equation 6. the voltage derived feedback.8.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine. For the amplifier without feedback.f.5a. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2. Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits.7 and 6. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 . the modified input and output impedance. 100 ß= .4. and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e.

1 795 = 192 . and using equations we find.14). 6. 6.A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 f-tA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14. Zor =I lOkQ + 6. If the original input current 0·5 f-lA was applied.A With reference to equation 6.23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6.23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'. To return to the problem. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ.24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback. the current gain is unchanged.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ.7 and 6. and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1.10. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so.

the current gain has not been reduced. f. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9. Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback. we refer to equation 6. Ztn 1 000 0. From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 . This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. as a result of the increase in input impedance.13. lo - As before.1.8 mV . ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 . 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback. as has the input current.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback.1.

Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6. and a short circuit current gain A. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. A. /li0 io YL Y. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6. these would be given by: I Y. With voltage derived feedback. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box. the output impedance is reduced.n - v' G2 Figure 6.5. the two quantities to be added must be currents.n=:=h- le in parallel with the bias components. Fora multi-stage transistor amplifier.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. 194 . CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n.'.5. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '. I' is l•.

YL is the finalload.15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.ßAto .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6.ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But .21) 195 . the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback. The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.= Ytn and .= . Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 . lo = (6.v1)G2 = v'G2 (6.ßAto) (6.5.= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6. This is given by: At'YL' (6. is I' .ßAto) is .18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL.19) Atois 1.ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.(1 .19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6. I = 1. and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network.

Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V. The reader may have noticed by this stage. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6. The effect of YL.e.20 and 6.n G2 Figure 6. I' Y. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6. the input impedance is reduced). the current gain is reduced. with simple negative feedback.2. and the input admittance is increased (i. G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6.24.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback. that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals.6.6. Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V.

resulting in voltage derived feedback.23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result.n . YL will be the predominent term and equation 6. we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo.24) With typical values. Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback.7. I ---i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6.'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I". 197 ß and .ß"At' (6. is shown in Figure 6. Y. .24 will approximate to YL. is I' I ~Ys io y.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 . Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6.CUR.7. Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.

(6.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and . I + GF'(l. the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6. and calculating the resulting V.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6. Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn.3. suppressing the source generator. the overall current gain.26) Using these values of ß and A10. input admittance. 198 . In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied.21 respectively. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. Example 6.20 and 6.At") (6. and output admittance.25) Also.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case. The amplifier described in Example 6.

6.= 250 .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.= --. Also 1 YL = . .umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6.umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL .15.21.16.= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s.100 .umho 1 -25-1 = 238 . and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback.umho ln Yo At . 199 1 786 .umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn -:.17 and 6. Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 .umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q). 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) .20 and 6. 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 . 1 = Zo' = . remembering that ßA 10 will be negative.umho . 6.18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 . .

= Yor = At" = = 9·9 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance. ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6.umho = 56 .umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).22 and 6. This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 . The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6.24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 .25 and 6. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).27.21. applying equations 6.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.26.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 . GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 .umho 101\ 0 A.' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q). 200 .umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q).umho.umho + 280) = 3 130 . Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 .20 and 6.

SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1. + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. Ytn 1 786 . Y0 350 . when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived). Now moving to the output terminals. Y1n 8 780 . A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance.umho.umho. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained.umho.8. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit. Yo 3 130 . the change in feedback current is amplified 201 . With a current amplifier. A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'.umho. Y1n 1 000 .umho.EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200.umho. and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. Yo 305 . and the input impedance is increased. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. the current gain and input impedance are reduced. the output impedance is reduced. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'.21. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance. In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n. the voltage gain is reduced.

This may be illustrated by an example. naturally increases the output impedance. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. (b) -90°. and in Chapter 8. -90°. First we must be clear about the information supplied.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. These effects are shown in equations 6. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. oo.4. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. since the gain is 5 L 0. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector.10 and 6. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. By means of sketched vector diagrams. At three different frequencies. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. Example 6. the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. and that the calculation of Af(l . v0 = A L 0 V'. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback.27. -135°.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. (c) +45°. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector. and that is that ßA must be less than one. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. 202 . The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'.

Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6. 203 . ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°.11 for Example 5. Forasinglestage amplifier. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5.4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies.6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multi-stage RC coupled amplifier. and (c) positive. IJvo ~ -~vo t's (b) -f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6.8. (b) negative.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. and by measurement of vectors or by calculation. the gain and phase shift with feedback determined. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6.

9b.9. the scale of Figure 6. Since this is the locus of (.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. and we require (1 . we must find.9a. and /h respectively. fm . Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift. then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. for each frequency. From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages. Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ß-io L ()0.ßA). we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( -ßA). the vector (I . and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left. origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . and 02R are the (1 . each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown.9b iscorrect.ßA) vector would remain at 01. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle.9a.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency.ßA) vector.atfm. Next the locus of -ßA is required. For this. The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6.9b.ßA)is3 L 0°. having its origin on the circumference. In Figure 6. Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X. To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback.ßA). 02Q.9a ft (a) Figure 6.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 . Thus Figure 6. The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing.(l. 02P.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference. This is shown in Figure 6. The origin of the (1 .

the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20.ßA I can never be less than one.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted. This will now be illustrated by an example. Since at each frequency. A table may now be drawn up.5. draw the overall gain and phase response. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier. With reference to Table 6. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = . This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L -26·5° respectively.= 880. 205 . Example 6.9b shows that 11 . A two stage amplifier. having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5.ßA) and (1 . showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals.10b is to apply to the problern in hand. the gain must be squared. Before we can apply the methods outlined above. If the ß factor is -8·5 x I0-4 .ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L -26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. This is shown in Figure 6. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies. If Figure 6. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. it is applied over two or more stages. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point -ßA = -(3 520 X -8·5 X I0-4) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm. the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520.4.ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin.10a and b. Examination of Figure 6 . the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined.6. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response.

THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined.1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 -129° -87° 0·01 972 -32° 0·02 870 -15° 0·03 879 -70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° .ßA). Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1-.ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 .6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6. Table 6. cp' = 38°. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11.1.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.10.24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.

I:.:c . Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency... it is convenient to plot graphs of gain.11. ~co (/) co·- fU~ <llOl o. From these curves the following results may be obtained. Graphs of gain..FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback. relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback. Figure 6.. phase shift.r:. relative gain and phase <ll <ll > ..lfl ~ +250° 1-0 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° -00 -50° 0·4 -1500 -250° Figure 6. :. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency. To obtain the relative gain in each case. and relative gain against log frequency..11 shows graphs of gain. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback.. 207 .

Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l . and if this distance is smaller. This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. 03.ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. but it cannot rise to infinity. In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01. 04 etc. was cut by the locus.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus. the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage.11. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. The origin 01 isthat applicable to the -ßA locus. If the origin for (1 . Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency.10b shows that this will occur when 11 . Figure 6. and since it is not symmetrical. -ßA and hence ß must be 208 . then 11 .ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 . In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity. 02. Oz. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6. the origin for -ßA.ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite. For the locus shown in Figure 6.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks.ßAol is also reduced. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l . allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback.12b the amplifier must have four stages. and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation. Examination of Figure 6. Consideration of Figure 6.12 shows the form of the locus of -ßA and (1 . This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. are possible origins for the (1 .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback.ßA) scale.10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao.ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied.ßA). Figure 6. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive.

Locus of (1 .ßAI cannot equal zero.e.ßAI is at 03.ßA) with more feedback than 02. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased. since the gain is infinite.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger. i.ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75.e. i. no input is required for an output to be present. In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously. 03 is the origin for (1 . If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li . (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6.ßA I is about . Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased.12. giving positive feedback.= -0 = 1-ßA . With the origin at 02 li . 209 . oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case. but it can be less than one.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =. The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies..

care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. or second harmonic.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. but also voltages at twice. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 . the amplifier will be unstable. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency. In general the non-Iinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . bandwidth increased.12b is given below. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. Origin Position 02-03 Oa-04 04-0s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency. U nstable. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO. Unstable. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier. we might expect a stable condition again. that is troublesome. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. oscillation at /1 only. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. but if it is applied over three or more stages. positive FB at high and low frequencies.

28 So = AS' 1 . So must contain a component AS'. The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion. + ßD + ßD (6. 0·5 V at 2kHz. So = AS' +D (6. and O·I V at 3 kHz.ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6.29) S'(l . and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6.30) 1.13.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on non-linear distortion Since we have an amplifier. Consider the system shown in Figure 6.ßA) and (6.30 into equation 6. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D .13. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback.

31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6. This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively. Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I . using the methods described in Chapter 1.6 212 . Figure 6.ßA D (6.32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6. But from equation 6. A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6. 2 I• Feedback . Example 6.ßA AßD + +D .14.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel.6.AßD I .. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically.31) + 1..14.ßA ASt = I .

No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. Severe distortion :. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal. In Figure 6.T. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero. and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 .15. + ß') x 100 per cent Further. Now toreturn to the problem.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ß-ß' 2(6. and es is 2·5 sin wtV.15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor. Figure 6. on Figure 6. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other.

as has the d. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = -hRK t es and -hRK- es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. The resulting d. operating point is VAK 139 V. has been drawn. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected. es must be increased. The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V. = 2 x 4 . But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 . 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained.c. load line for 40 kQ.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 0-47 S.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . current derived negative feedback is applied.c. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter. Peak Vo 191 . but ß may be obtained from equation 6. h 1·5 mA. the operating point moves between VBK -0·5 V to VaK -5·5 V. VaK -3 V. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. along a 38 kQ a. Peak v0 = 194. (b) Without feedback.D.c.c.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case. bias line for 2 kQ.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d. load line.H.11.

From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case.16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself.-1-9 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. Figure 6. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier.D. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . = 2 x 4 . v0 with feedback is slightly distorted. Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result.H. ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively. ßv0 is also slightly distorted. In the 215 . The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component. In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. In other words. In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% ------n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S.

16.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. Waveforms for Example 6.------v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6.7. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain. A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500. In a prototype. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) --es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo -5 200 (distorted) . Ans. 216 . and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined. 80. 0·012.

umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. Example 6. Ans.!l Figure 6. 38·7.8. For the circuit shown in Figure 6.9. 47·5 kO. and 400kfi -10' i ' 2k. Circuit for Example 6. Example 6. This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied.EXAMPLES Example 6. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively.11.17. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance. Ans.10. If the load and source are unchanged. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. 169 0. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load. Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . 1 013 . A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback.17. Example 6.11 8 217 .8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO. The amplifier described in Example 6. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs.umho. 24·5. 4·96 kO.umho. 48·8 0. Ans. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0. 91·2. 25·8 kO. determine the current ratio i0 /i8 .

Example 6. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°. 1 MHz. Ans.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance.3 . whether the feedback is positive or negative. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L -45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L-65° 2 100 L -90° 3 300 L -130° 4 400 L -155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L -45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. Check your answer by calculations.Q. The total loading per stage is 600 . ß L 200°. determine for each case. (b) positive. (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. I I 50. 450 kHz-oo. Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. 0-60 Hz. 1/1 760. (a) negative. ß = 0·059 L -245° By means of vector diagrams. phase shifting. 10. Example 6. 218 . calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. Ans. (c) neither. is applied. Example 6. Ans.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX.12. An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of -95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k.4 . 2·6 MHz.13. 161. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° -30°. Ans.14.

Checkthese results using feedback theory. 2·12 MO.B. Ans.16. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. 47 V peak to peak. Example 6. 32 per cent. 43 V peak to peak. and RK 1·2 kO. 219 .EXAMPLES Example 6.. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are -3 200 and 800 n respectively. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1.T. The source impedance is 600 n. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. N.F.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. 8·9 per cent. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion). Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. calculate the value required for RF. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. lf RK is adequately decoupled. Ans. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base.15. RL 13 kO.

if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. either A or ß must be negative. The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .I . with feedback derived from a later stage. In this chapter. INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions. l is = I . The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' . Figure shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier.ßA so for simple negative feedback. In this situation.7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. Figure 7. Figure 7..1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined. we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier.ßA 220 .

A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier. 221 . In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative. The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. (a) Current amplifier.1 c. In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter.1. Connections for feedback amplifiers.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback.

. Circuit for Example 7.umho and from equation 6. Since hre is zero.1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback. With a . The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier. -hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er.27 inclusive. First the equivalent amplifier components are required. The required circuit is shown in Figure 7.umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ. For negative feedback {J must be positive.- -SOkO = 12·5 .2. l . In the circuit shown in Figure 7.24 to 6.25 {J GF 12·5 = -h = -500 = 0·025 222 = -120 . Y1n Yo' 1 = -hle = 1 250 . t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO. hoe 90 .umho = hoe = 90 . Example 7. the transistor parameters are hle 800 n. Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier. Figure 7.1.umho and A1' = -hre The feedback admittance 1 GF h .. hre 120.2.

In each case the voltage gain was reduced. and with the equivalent circuit problems.n.12 and 6.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback.SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6. This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6.umho The resu1ting output impedance -i-or = 476 n.26. 6.') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6.21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance. 6.ßA1o Au= -28·6 Equation 6. .umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.umho + 99·6 X 0·025) .99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: -99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I . Figure 7. or by finding 1 ~pA.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z. the input and output impedances were increased.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l . 6.n(1 . part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.A.'YL YL + GF + -120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = .8.11.7. Y1nr = Y. Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods.o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .13).ßA.3 shows how the 223 . A!o = Yo' A.umho = 2100 .

224 . voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises. since V' is less than es. Current derived.3. The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +-.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. using the notation shown. =V'. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5.

for Z1n.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0. and the output impedance. the output voltage and current. 6. Using feedback methods.n Figure 7. find the terminal voltage 4k...90 -90 X 5 X 10-4 =- 1300 Note.Cl 1k .11 and 6.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)10-6. the circuit YL of 250 .12.umho 900 =-!. As with the last example.4 Z1n = 900. hre 5 X 10-4. Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10. A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7.2. hoe 125 .4.33 = 225 -283 . Yo' = 125 X 10-6 - Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ-4 = 75 . we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier.umho and hre 90. = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6. Circuit for Example 7.2 and current gain.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero.7 Avo -1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 .

uA To calculate the terminal current gain.56·2 m = 15·7 .8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6. 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 . Working in admittances. the base input current ib is required. _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 .7 =56 226 . To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ-6 A = 880 . . the overall input impedance should include the bias components. = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t -283 283 = -3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.uA . and Vo = 3·48 V.13.umho Now using potential divider methods. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V. RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly.

an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows.8 + 0. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback. but when the bias components are included. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3. Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib. which would slightly modify ß. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ . Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr -hreZL hte = -90 X 4 000 900 = -400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations. 1. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 .5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At -hreYL = -----=-YL + hoe -90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = .

the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). Yor. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 . the steps in the solution will be: A12.5. 228 . A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). Since we have current derived current feedback.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2.23. will be. since. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. making approximations where valid.5. the solutions may be found from equations 6. The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . Au and Ztnr. thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2).15 to 6. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. Here. as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7. An and Z1n1.signs. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (-ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. So.

so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent. The output current in the amplifier.m. If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X -hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + -hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X -I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X - 0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 .6.f. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e. Determine also by how much the e.s. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base. hre 140. of a driving source.3 required output current is to be maintained.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Circuit for Example 7. must be changed if the 400. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil.m. shown in Figure 7.6.m.f. hoe 150 . of internal impedance 600 n.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200.3.!1 Gz Figure 7. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r.umho.

-140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10. Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.6 =-51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + .ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 . = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2.m. and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.!i:l'-) kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e.32. D Dr = I .f. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho.




and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho

ß --

This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:



Ztnr =

450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150

But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000

5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000

112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV

Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate four-terminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can


find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r------------- -,





L -








- -- -




- - -

- - - - __ J


L------ - - - - - - - - - - - Figure 7.7. Interconnected four-terminal network circuit for
Example 7.4

the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two four-terminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.

These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.


Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:



vl = yu = 100 kil =

10 ,umho

Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,



= 100kil

= v1 =

-10 ,umho

But the network is symmetrical, so


y12 = -10 ,umho

10 ,umho,

Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero



= -hte =

1 000 ,umho

where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and

= hoe = 100 ,umho

where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:

h = -

X -





hoe + YLI + Ytn2


X hoe


+ Ytn3




Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.




= 729

1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
-90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho

x 2. 1 x 2 . 1



165·5 mho


Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.


The combined parameters may now be written,



1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho



-10 ,umho
110 ,umho

The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,

-10 X 165·5 X 106

= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10-a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho


From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:

~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
yu(y22 + YL) - y21Y12
I65·5 X 10-6 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000) - ( -IO X I65·5
= -1..,..0_10__x--II.,..,0---










+ 10


To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.


= y22- yu +

Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho

with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.


The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.

Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ


of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.




Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5

To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05




Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,




Vr = (1

+ ßA1A2)

+ ßA1A2)

Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only

This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible. in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. overall gain and input impedance with feedback.6 = .umho -100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)10-6 - 83 "4 1 kO 1 000 .6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 -0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback. it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7.8.umho = 1100 . (6) U sing ßof0·05. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q-6 -47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 . The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 . resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl. (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note. hz =(I 000 + 100) .umho -100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network. (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl.

2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7.3) 238 .1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7. i1 the base current for Tri.9 and solve by nodal analysis.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = -0·98 x -83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 t-tmho = 1 000 t-tmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.5 First. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7. Ii• Figure 7.9.05 = 16·1 (7. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7.

2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205. admittance must be expressed in mmho.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2.5. V2 = .4) i2 = -47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions.0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2.O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = -0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7. and l2 -hreV1 = -IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)10-6 V V2 -IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105).524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.3 and 7. Substituting from equation 7.0·105Vo -100(-47·5)Vl ~ -0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr.524 = 241 v1 (7.6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts.7) . Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 .6.

the overall h parameters would be obtained. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. and in parallel with the output of the amplifier.1 and 7.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters.2 respectively (16. suggesting the use of g parameters.~. The current amplifier for Example 7. since h for the amplifier is ib. and the circuit for Example 7. is ib + ic.8 with results 7. ll = 242 kO 1 (7 . h for the network. Other situations however do permit the four-terminal network approach. 240 .1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent.4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters.7 and 7. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback. and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods.. The circuits for Examples 7.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon four-terminal network theory was not used for this example. Unfortunately this is not valid. The remaining procedure then follows normal four-terminal network practice. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). d ance = -:Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · .8) Comparing results 7. while the current flowing out of the common terminal. Apart from this. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added. we shall consider a valve amplifier. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback.. Forthis situation.1 and 7.

3 :.ll. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad.9) . Overallmaximum voltage gain = (-30)3 Re~RL Avm = -27 X X 104 = -30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages.6 When no feedback is applied. Figure 7. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7.6. 10k. There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at -30. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ. ra 1 MQ. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = -gmRe = -3 X lQ. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7.10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above.10. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used.

w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 -27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ-8 +4 25 1Q-15w2 . and there is overall current derived feedback.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab -27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7. X lQ-30) w2=----------~~~~~~--------~ -5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ-15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ-15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies. Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.I0-12 X 1 .9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 .10) + j2wC Re .2 X 25 X 1Q-l6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q-30w4 +5 X X 10-32w4 X or (7.1 -5 X 10-15 ± y(25 X lQ-30 12·5 X 1Q-3o X 1Q-16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S.w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 . 242 .

. 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 10-4 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' f-lmho h 1 = YL2 = 10-4 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L -32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = . At this frequency.11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( -18·75)2 = -10 580 X -30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1... but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage..92 = X 10_4 -2060 At the upper 3 db frequency.-------.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback..02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 ....~-o-: 243 (7. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = -30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104 - (7.-. the overall ßis unchanged..12) .. -10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3.gmZL = 25·35/180° - But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L -32° 36' .

This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 .2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' .j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L -49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback.1 + I·2I.ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I . The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique.-=3-=-5-x--::0-:·2:-=_ _ _ _ _ __ I - L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 .6 - = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 .ßAm = = Ah I 1 . Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 . The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored.7 350 x 3·92 X I0-4 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ---::2-=-s. but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback. Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i. Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad.11.

x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=-:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored. negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio.11.6·4w2Cs2Re2 .1·6 X 1Q-14w2 . at high frequency.27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10-s. Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 . 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q-32w4 .w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27.COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2.ßAml But v'2 -4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe . ß for the local Figure 7.10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 .ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 10-4 X 10 580 = v'2ll . Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values. In the last example.27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q-28 + 1·69 12·5 X I0-30 =0 X 10-28) --------~~~------~--------~ 3·66 w2 = .

PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. say. hte 1 kO. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. is to prevent instability. If overall feedback is applied to. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel. -hreZL . The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately -hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO. Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7. let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(10-3 ::25 X 10-10) j10-2 + jw2·5 X 10-Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 t-tF then CE must be 0·0025 pF. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path.11. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. Taking account of the components shown.12).

(b) (a) Figure 7. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits.12. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors. This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. Figure 7.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback.12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier.

based on this circuit. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. second to find Av1 and An including local feedback . the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop.7. A final example. finally to account for the effect of current feedback. will now be considered. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. Example 7. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . In Figure 7. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present. Circuit for Example 7. The circuit shown in Figure 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed.13.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. The procedure would be to determine first.c. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7.

hoe I20 . All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency. Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q-6 = 0·1395 -77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = -6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q .6 = . The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.umho and hre negligible. hre I40.umho).COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q.352 and and A 13 = -140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 . -140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = .mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 .umho -140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)10-6 = -?? 12000 -140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = .

389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 10-3 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10-a x 212 .umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier. then Ytn = 105 . Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 .umho By current division -140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = .4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 .umho = 0·74 .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1. then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.uA 250 . 834 Overall At= l 389 = -4·9 X X -77·5 X -89 -20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0.umho = 1 389 .umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri.

wlt. Ans. Repeat Example 5. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations. -6·72. Example 7.11. RL1 4 kQ. 17·5 kQ. Repeat Example 4. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. -11·4. Ans. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. Ans. Ans. For more general analysis. 656 Q. 264 Q. Example 7. 251 .10. in any particular situation. Many other forms are used. 490 !2. Example 7. RL2 1 kQ.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam . Example 7. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. Repeat Example 5. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. 6·8 kQ. Ans.9.20x 300 3. 525. -10·5. EXAMPLES Example 7.13 using feedback methods.8.5 x 10_3 = -20 300 = -282 72 = -282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. 4·88 kQ. hoe 125 ftiDho.19 using feedback methods. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain.11 using feedback methods.10 using feedback methods. Repeat Example 4. -9·62. For convenience.12. -1·97. including those with common base or common collector stages. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base.

14.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory. hoe I25 .15.Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k.Q. Feedback is provided by a 400 .Q. and hre 0. RL2 4 k.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base. A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n. Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k. 200 k. Example 7.m. 3·98 k. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 . 0·224 . The transistor parameters are h1e 900 . combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. Example 7.Q and 100 .14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k.Q.f. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 .Q in parallel with 8 k. 0·004 . Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e.Q per stage. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance.14. RLl 2 k. 0·475 V. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k.Q feedback resistor. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7. Circuit for Example 7.Q. hre 75.13.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. 43·5.Q. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. hoe 100 .17 252 .umho. hre 60 and hre 0.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k.Q. Ans.Q resistor connected between them.Q per stage.16.Q. Ans. Example 7. Repeat Example 7.Q. Figure 7. Ans. -250. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance.umho.Q.

15. Ans. 95 n. Zout 2 2MO. 88·5 n.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. and neg1igible hre. Ans.umho. 287. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO.O. -1 310. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. 83 mV. and an open circuit valtage gain of -150.17. (c) -77·3.18. Calculate Av. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. Find also the resulting output voltage. (a) 46·1. hoe 80 . 253 .14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0. (c) Figure 7. (b) -18 4oo. calcu1ate the required value of Rp. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. -1 820.15. At. Example 7. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. kO. 10k. Circuits for Example 7. 17 kO. 6·23 kO. hre 140.EXAMPLES Example 7. 4·5 kO.

16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. 254 . hre 100. Ans.umho and hre 0. Circuit for Example 7. Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k. 212. 0·99 MHz. The amplifier shown in Figure 7.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF.19.16.O. hoe 125 . Figure 7.

1) If the gain. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. Then if A ?. (1/ß) at that frequency. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. the system will oscillate. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero.m. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1- lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. Ar. For oscillation at a particular frequency. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. We shall consider four cases. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. two conditions must be fulfilled.f. is to be infinite. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages.000 MHz. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. 255 .8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same. or an output when no inputwas present. This resulted in self oscillation.

1. This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°.jR2Xc1 . having no imaginary component. In equation 8. Using normal potential division methods.e.2.X - The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. ß will have the required angle. Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.J C2 . i..OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8.J X c1 .jXc2R2 ß= and if (8.jXc2).2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°.R .1.jR1Xc2 .X 2. Thus the whole expression must be real.3) (8. R1R2 - XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = .jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 . the angle of the numerator is -90°. V2 V1 - -jXc2R2 ~~--~~~--~~~--~~~--~~~ R1R2 .4) .. we can write -jXc2R2 V2 = R2 .Xc1Xc2 . X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8.

5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: -jXc2R2 -jR2Xc1. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. as before.6) If. cancelling the -j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =-+-+ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC). 1 (8.jR1Xcz. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive._J wC 257 . Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. Suitable values of R1. Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8. wC R. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R--. So.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß.

J) . The feedback network has equal capacitors.J) (8.2. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3. Figure 8.7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance. and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8.. Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil.. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3.OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8. Taking typical 1-l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively. the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 .j) 1 . and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. (1 .2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz. jR2 C C jCR R-C j] = -3 R (. 2 1 .5. The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance. jCR Z=R-C- =R [( .. Figure 8.2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles.

RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value. The circuit begins ta ascillate. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d. say 1 kO.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. Figure 8. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO. This process is shawn in Figure 8. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. supplies switched aff.c. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity. When the supplies are switched an.3. either because af change in parameters with large signals. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. Applying equatian 8. 259 .6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required.2a. and hre Av~h-ZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain.

the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8. supply voltage.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced. Limitation of amplitude by d. Since ß is one third. conditions Figure 8.c. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.3b.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 .b.c.3d). network -2 ~-'---t----r-----'--\----r---'----t---r----l-4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off -6 -8 Figure 8.c.3.c. In Figure 8. Figure 8. supply and that the d.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d. This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = -4 V.

. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage..t.c. R1 Figure 8.c.2·67- The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude.4 shows a circuit employing this technique. Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß.en_t_al_o-'-/~p __8__ 3 i/p .3g is nearly sinusoidal. Since negative feedback is employed. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d. Then as the signal amplitude increases. 261 . Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n.. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m. Figure 8. the input impedance for Trl will be large.. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8.4..

we may deduce that for zero phase shift w -j(G1G2) _ - C1C2 1 .2.). R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance. f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8.y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8. in this case negative (n. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. Following the same reasoning.5. When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt.. jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= . jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + . A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal. the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators. In this case. at the required frequency. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier. .8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8.10) . it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown.w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8.5. The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain..c. Figure 8.OSCILLATORS path.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C.t. Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division.

and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1. Yo may be neglected. Example 8. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8. Amplifier circuit for Example 8. for equal components = 3.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance. The amplifier shown in Figure 8.12). The input a.1.6.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. Since the Ioad is reactive (8. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived.11) which. This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift. and -12V Figure 8.= 1 + -Gz + -Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = -ß = h.1 263 .6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. If YL ~ Yo. current feedback. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex. and to reduce the output admittance as required.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. it must have zero phase shift.

series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. Thus for the calculation of Avo. hoe 90 . The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload.e. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo = - = 100 1 017 . Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO.umho -100 1 500(1 100)10-6 =- 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local -60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= -1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel.umho (47·6/3) . Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO.umho. 750 n. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network. removing any possibility of loading by the network.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 . Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß. hre 100 and hre 0. i. conditions and stability. But feedback must reduce this to 3. All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d.c. the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= -47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 10-6 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 .

and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone.Q. Figure 8.7. 265 .c. Now.Q . Solution for Example 8.I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency.U F = 0·006 p.F 5·2k.1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil. f 21r~R (equation 8.----'VI --t 0006J.7. 2·7k.313 .1F 0·006 f-LF n.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 . by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold.t . 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 . The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.

the voltage gain is required. the R will be the Ioad of Tr2. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho). taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 .OSCILLATORS Finally. -hre Avo=h-Y !e L and (1 . Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 .ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by.12) and putting G as 1 mmho. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied.j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier.umho . Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base. 1 kO. Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network. Forthis calculation. Neglecting hoe.j) = 7·8(1 . The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8.

Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 .0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I . The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 .33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.RC OSCILLATORS The current gain.umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO.ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T-1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor. 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory.ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .

8.c. 268 .uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. 1k.t.O. to give 180° phase shift. 0 03 f-!F n.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally.I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used.10. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 . The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks. Solution for Example 8. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate.uF = 0·03 . From equation 8.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.8. at a particular frequency. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1. 1k Q Figure 8. All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network.ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .

but forthat in Figure 8.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors.RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. ß.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively. With these circuits. Figure 8. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8.9. is I/29th. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 . With suitable ratios between the C and R values. phase shifting. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation. With the circuit in Figure 8.9b. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8.9. or current. such networks may be either voltage. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors.9a. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified.

GVa -GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 -GV1 Node 3: 270 (8. Example 8. Figure 8. 20 X 5 --g-x Ztn = 20 X 1 5 --g-+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) .2. Oscillator circuit for Example 8.10.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components. and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods.OSCILLATORS network component.umho respectively and hre can be neglected.14) . while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis. hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . From first principles. The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis. Only one example will be considered here.10. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) .

.jwCG2 (8 .17) (8.w2C 2) .. ß= Ga Ga .jwaca .14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined.= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8.RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants.15) + j3wCG2 - 4w2C2G ...G2] + G[ -G(2G + jwC).19) .... equation 8.18 ß= G2 -1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8. and or w = Gy'6 -c rad/sec v'6.....2G3 + j4wCG2 - w2C2G - jwCG2 (8. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero ..0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG .0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2.2Ga .18) At this frequency... -G G+jwC -G 2G 0 ltn + jwC -G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X ..-G G+jwC 0 -G 2G + jwC -G 0 -G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2. 16) If ß is to be real.5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8.

the current gain may be taken as At = -hre X y tn =- Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be -29. and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this.4w2C2G .jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C .jwaca .17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this. Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8.jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 .2G3 .15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG -= 3G2G' + j4wCGG' - w2C2) .14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and re-writing equation 8. · from equation 8.2Ga . first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC.OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.

if an a. the anode voltage ( -[IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal. y[(4 X 1·938 X 10-6) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ-6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 10-8 = 13-1kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G' - Ga . Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type. the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 -----34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. second.4w2 C2G . With these. Thus. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho. first. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance. the current iL 273 . . Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. Neglecting the effect of r.34·5 .2·5 . The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.c. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. - 1·25 10·7 .11.2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =---------------------w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G' - = 4·65 - G2 - ---c. At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit.

If this is such that Vgk is given by -jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. the system will oscillate. The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . A tuned anode oscillator methods.OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°.12. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large.+ Figure 8. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa . As a result of the mutual inductance M. This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. If two coils have mutual inductance between them.3. Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils.T. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form.11. The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 . Figure 8. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil. 274 .

therefore Va may be cancelled. and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8. 275 (8.22) . La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0. ±JwMgm Va . Figure 8.LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: . + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts. the required results can be obtained. L a = -ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . Real parts.21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation.12. Va Va + JW . dividing by w.20) (8. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra - w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now.

20. 276 . = 5 X I0-3 10_4 + 200 X 10-12 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !-' of only 40. from equation 8. we can see that if !-' is sufficiently large.23: fJ. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !-' are known. equation 8. 1 C=-47T2. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1. for each coil we can find r. Thus for each set of values. and putting 4rr2. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging.23) fJ.f2La Substituting values.22 can be rearranged to.21. Now from wL Q r=- and rl = 106 X 5 X 10-3 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 10-4 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz.=-+- M M First. so this arrangement would not oscillate. La Crra (8.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 10-4 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8.

(a) e (b) Figure 8. The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. the p. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . (a) Full circuit. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 10-3 10-4 + 5 000 X 10-12 X 104 X 10 X 2 to-4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit. A tuned collector oscillator. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit.13. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils.13.

zc = -(hle 1 + jwLb)ib .24 . C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.OSCILLATORS Figure 8. both jwMi terms will be positive. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8. M JW .13a shows the complete circuit.m.c. operating point. Re and Ce provide the correct d. Thus multiplying equation 8.24) and 1 ) .f.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled. M" . L c + :--c JW lb = J. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW -c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated.13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example. The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e. R1. 278 .27 by -jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C.j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. lb · M"lb + JW (8.: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated.13b. 1 ) + .25 from 8. By mesh analysis: 1 (8. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft -hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 .26) Substituting for ic in 8. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. R2.25) Rearranging equation 8.26. L c + jwC = lc. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb.28) Without expansion.

w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8.h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8.4. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 .32) Example 8.29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one..30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C -M .+--L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb. 1 Lc'C w2=::=-- (8. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8.

6 I0-3 I0-3 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'. 1·6mH 100fi 2k. Figure 8. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) .umho.14. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .OSCILLATORS of hre. Since 1 1012 w = 106.O.14. First the values of C and M are required.32.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 .4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8. C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I0-3 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I0-6 62·5 + 2·5 X X 10-12 4 X + 1·6 X 10.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I0-3 === 1012 106 =-Hz 27T Also from 8. Circuit for the solution of Example 8.umho = 625 . and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.

h _ 1 010 tmmum re - = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 10-6 H 625 X 10-12 2·74 10-1 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 10-6 10-4. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' .j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2- Now w - 0·753 X 10-3 X 625 X 10-12 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 . The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' .LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 10-3 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7. Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ. 10 281 .0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 .y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation. the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2. 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained.j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720.

Example 8. and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent. Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease. h1e 1 300 0.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods.15.15.umho and negligible hre. and h1e together as h1e'.16c is obtained by combining h0 e. YLl and YL2. and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. and RB2. 282 .16a employs a transistor having hre 40. and by combining Rm. hoe 125 . The simplified version in Figure 8. Figure 8. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation. One further example will be considered. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance.5.

1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8.5.1H (c) (a) L c. (b) Equivalent circuit. (b) Figure 8.33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) .16.umho (8. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.34) L 200f. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.34) .

..OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis. But (h I (8.38) ll=-1 hte and from equation 8.36) .40) Following the usual technique.-:--L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8. -hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel . 1 ) o = v1 ( -h + y.+ wC2 .h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8..41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (-:-C:::-1-+-C:::-2-:-)h:-t-:el 1 284 ) (8.38 into 8.w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.hre ii I = - vl jwL + V2 .39 and h from 8.oC1 + JW :--L h Node 1: ..w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8.37.42) . LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .36 (8.wL wLh 1 .37) (8. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled.. Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = -wL + wLh -.39) Substituting for V2 from 8.' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 . Node 2: v2 1 ..

-hre' = ( I . Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero.LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied.-::--::-::--::-::-::. jcoL ( JCOC2-· j ) --.42becomes 1·092 = 1·18.44) 285 ..CO2LCl)h.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1..35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent.umho = 793 .325 = 468 .43) But from equation 8.umho YL2 = 793.41 1 (8.200 X I0-6 X 91 1 100 X I0-12 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0. whichinequation8.074) 107 co = 1. hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2 - 1 (8.40. For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8. 101 2 ( 200 X I0-6 X 325 X I0-6) co 2 1 + --:-:--::-::--.. the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09. 200 X t0-6YL' 1100 X 10-12 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 . + -.umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO.

In the extreme case shown above. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 f-LF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f.c. The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 .6.D. Frequency stability with change of d. 21·25.F. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load. P. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances. and an accurate analysis should include these components. Ce and Cs may be neglected. 1 kQ. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator. Find also the frequency of oscillation. network 22·2 kQ.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. Ans. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits. this is no Ionger true.J.7. 3·5 kHz. Example 8. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. EXAMPLES Example 8. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. supplies. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9.

Ans. 65. Calculate the value of R' . Ans. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr.umho and hre 0. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz. 287 . 0·56 0.0.1F Figure 8.8.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 .17./p Tr2 collector 5k . 1·43 kHz. R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz.8 C2. 0·074 . Circuit for Example 8.uF. hte 1·3 kO. In the absence of a negative feedback network. Example 8. Circuit for Example 8.18. 1k l"25J.7 and the frequency of oscillation. hoe 125 . If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ.17 is connected between output and input.umho.18 employs transistors with hre 90.

The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors. 0·286 . calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. Figure 8.umho. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. Example 8. The oscillator shown in Figure 8.uF. output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans.uF.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d.11. hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. hoe 150 . If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz.T. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation. 1·3 kHz. 383 Q.m. 3·23 kQ. 35. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. 0·0066 . Ans. hre 120.OSCILLATORS Example 8. Circuit for Example 8.s. lower it. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz. bias voltage of -4 V.c.) Example 8.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 . 288 .19.9 frequency? Determine the r. Ans.umho.10.9. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator. 61·5 V. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk.

970 pF. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. Ans. Neglect the effect of hoe. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. ra 5 kQ. 0·785. 46.20. Circuit for Example 8.11 Example 8.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n.12. is tobe used as an oscillator. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor.21. Example 8. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. I 160 pF.EXAMPLES ________-----~ ~----~1-c Figure 8. 8·2 kHz. Circuit for Example 8. Ans. A current amplifier. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. -16. 0·02.13. 1 380 pF.14. I! 289 . (b) the minimum coupling between the coils.21.12 Example 8. If the valve in Example 8. hre and the bias components. Figure 8.

hre.16.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations. 1 080 pF. Ans.22. Circuit for Example 8. bias components and coil resistance. 840kHz. Example 8. 28 Q.OSCILLATORS Example 8. 290 . Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe.15. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 . Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load.umho. Figure 8.

Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9.___. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits... The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance. p. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag.1a.. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal.1._ca~.. a .. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device. In this chapter..5 k (a) Figure 9._____ --} ____. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced.9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons.

and with reference to Figure 9. 9.5.3. From equations 9.1) Yln=- Vgk (9. but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input.4 and 9. To analyse this situation.6) . Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown.2. Cak and any externalload present. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF.') 292 (9.4) (9. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc- Figure 9. i2 = jwCag(Vgk - Vo) (9. 9.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad. i (9. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI.2. including ra.2. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies. By inspection.

33° 42' 293 . X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors.3.10) If ZL' is approximately resistive. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak.1. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. Cgk 2·5 pF. Cak 1 pF.gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve. Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative.wCaggmX' (9. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF. If ZL' is inductive. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . = 5·~5 L YL -33° 42' = 4·6 . Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ. Cag 1·5 pF. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative.1. The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9. and the 20 kQ load. Equation 9.11) If ZL' is capacitive..3. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL'). Since the gain of a stage is given by . ra 10 kQ.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = --!.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' . YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ-12 X 106 . G=wCaggmX' Figure 9.

j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L -93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. If the anode 1oad is inductive.782 + 8. the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 . Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 10-12 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 . The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback. Rg. the remainder being provided by RL. ra. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L -66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 30·8)) X 106 .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9.j8•25 = Yu' = 4.252 kO = 0·0525 = -10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO -(0·525 . this becomes. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance. in the RC coupled common cathode configuration.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve.11.

. First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance. In practice.4... 295 . Rg . A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a non-decaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency.50= 50 pF.1. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR'). Valve input capacitance = 100. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9...4a.. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec. The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH. .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit.4a and the valve used in Example 9. 1 I I I . Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9.2. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF. 1 w2=:=- LC C 1012 I0-4 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9.1.4b. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9.. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9.J.

At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n. similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 13-3 . An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. the negative input conductance to the valve. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. must equal Go. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF.u and ra. Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book. two further effects must be considered. 20 X I0-10 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 10-12 X Inserting values.uH) and the electron transit time. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 . Pentodes also have the advantage of very high .L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 10-4 = X 50 I0-10 10_4 ll = 20 ~>-' mho For oscillation. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. and the collector base junctions. and there is the 296 .uH 107 10X' G~.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values.

In addition the current gain IX or IX'. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation. 297 .5.5 000 pF rce 20 . i. The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data. to approximately 0·7. depending on configuration.30 pF. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db. For any particular transistor type.5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. is approached. is reduced with increase in frequency. In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits. The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9.3 000 Q. 'b'C 2 . In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work.40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 .e.5 Mn.250 Q.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. Figure 9. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. cb'C 5 . but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only.40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 . but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa. rb·e 250 . 300 . In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency.

MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. gce = 8·2 11mho. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) .12) (9. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c.~.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. Working in f-lA. gb·c gL = 2011mho. rb·e 790 Q. Cb'e 15 pF.j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000 - j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L -9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = -22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = -22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . 1012 For Cb•e. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz.Vce(O· 39 + j94) -38 OOOVb•e = . Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb'- jXbefb•e . We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ. Cb·e 150 pF. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V. volts.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. rb•e 2·6 MQ. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho.JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 f-lA. Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined. fb•e.13) (38 000 .

where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L -85° 42' Q . In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO.14) If the overall voltage gain is required.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. Neglecting rb·c.13.e Vce = -38 X 2 X 0·06 L -85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9.gmZL'Vb. the effect of rw must be included. output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L -102 o = 9·4 L o -102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the -j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small.c. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I0-6 X 103 = 16·6 X I0-3 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L -85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = . the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation. This approach will be used for the second part of the question.

At these high frequencies.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = -~-· 10-3 x 4·5 L +94° = 10-6 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L -37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. In some cases. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' -=1+- = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42. 300 . graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point. arealso supplied. for transistors intended for high frequency applications. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple.14 and 9. conditions. In the published data.c. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters.15) Overall vo1tage gain. app1ying equations 9. the four parameters are all comp1ex.


and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.

Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
four-terminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier








Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration

with a resistive load, and secondly a multi-stage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:

+ jl3w

X 10-12) mho

Yre 500 X I0- 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 10-6

+ j2w

X 10-12)


If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 f-lA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,




= yu- yzz +


- yz1
= yu(y22 + YL)- y21Y12


We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.


At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 10-6 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 10-6 mho


10-12 mho




10-12 mho

Now working in millimhos:
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28


+ Jl6-

17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o

= 28 + j16- 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02- j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho

j6·5 sin 108°

Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
10(30 + j10)
ltn- (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) f-l
_ 10(3 + j)(4 - j1·5) A
16 + 2·25

= 0·548(12

+ 1·5 + j4 -

j4·5) f-lA

= 7·4 - j0·274 f-lA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 f-lA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.





34 L 292°

= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5)- 34 L 292°
-0·252 L 292°

x 0·5 L 250° V

20·2- 40 + j11·5 + j70- 17(cos 182°
-0·252 L 292°
- -19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV

= 2·8mV


+ j sin 182°)



If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from


I Ytnl


7·4 X I0-6
v(32 + 12) X 10-2 V

= 0·232 mV
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE- 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE- 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°

The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.

RF 2

Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5

The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.


In each case the required operating point is VcE- 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:

VcE = -6 = -10
Taking lE === Ic


+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +


+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ


The stability factor

+(X')+ RB= 0·05

K = RE(l

RB= Ra+ R 4 and
Insertmg values 0·05

Also V'


+ RFI) = 3 kQ


3 +RB

= 3( 1 + 150) +RB

+ RB =


RE= (RE2


60 + 20RB
-19 = 20·9 kQ





(using conventional polarities)

= -=V_c_,c_R_4_


Ra+ R4

f co'

- -rJ.IIB=



lB =

1 000

--.sü -

2 t-tA

= 4·7 t-tA
V' = -20·9 X 0·0047 - 3 - 0·3
= -3·4 V


Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
Ra+ R4


20' 9 =Ra+ R4


-3·4 =



From equation 9.23
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9



Ra= 61·5 kQ

Substitutingin equation 9.25
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ

In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.

= 68 kQ

= 33 kQ

and R4

Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.

Xe= 30 Q

= 2n450



From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.

A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should

be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18


RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ

From stability considerations:
1 +RB

0"05 = 151 +RB


+ RB =



+ 20RB

RB= 6·9kQ
RB= R1 + R2



Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= -0·0047


6·9- 1- 0·3

V'= -10R2
R1 + R2

= -1·33 V


From 9.27


+ R2 =


1.33 = 7·5R2



Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ

So, from 9.28,



= 8 kQ

In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 J-lF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.

= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho




X 1Q3





X 1Q3



37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho



From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,




0·004 L 270°

= 0·25 + j0·05- 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho

Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25

+ j0·05- 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05- 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho


To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
h(yoe + YL) - 0
v1 =

v2 =

0- hyre



which is unaffected by the local feedback. current splitting factors due to bias components.32. 37 L 180° L 38° 42' -37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9. To find the overall current gain.31 by 9.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9.32) YL) .JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1 - -37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 . · First we must find the effective load on Trl.29.3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9.-yre vl .32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 . Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included. may be obtained from equation 9.31.30 A v-Substituting values v2. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9. YLI err. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j .33) The current gain.Yoe + YL -37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 = - Av (9. YL1.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9.

0 . 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' . 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 .36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9.36.35 and 9. 9.5 L 1o 42 .' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9. .33. 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 . = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :.34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 --=--=------:-7---:-:--::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 .37) 308 .5 L 1o 42 .0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9.34. 9. -37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 -37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9.32 neg1ecting Yoe.35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions. At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L.

8 X 1()-2 = 0·79 X 10-2 (9. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9. and 100 = I+ ß will be real. 309 .38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Re-arranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß.7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle. ß= 2·21 2 .Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.13 ß= -540 ± -540 ± = 0 -yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 -540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104 - Taking the positive sign.38 is obviously correct. But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I0-2(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()-2 X 3 = l _ 0 .79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 10-2 mmho = 43 k.

Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known. Repeat Example 9. 0·01 uF 47 k. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9. 587 L 277° 42'.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec.8. Ans.5 made in the above calculations.O.8. In each case a 0·01 p.O. In general. signals or switching circuits.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively. 310 . the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits. Circuit for the solution to Example 9. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be -10 V ::-f'"~ 1k.c. Figure 9.. 6·86 L -27° kQ.6. They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory. EXAMPLES Example 9.

3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz. 4·5. Use the exact method at 100 kHz. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 10-12) mho. yre0·02 L 320° mho.9. 37·5 L 70° 48'. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. Z1n 102 L -8° n. Yoe(150 x 1()-6 + jco x 1()-12) mho.8. Av 34 L 100°. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals. Av 155 L 164° 30'. Example 9. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes. If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Yre 350 X 10-6 L 300° mho.7.f.uH and Q factor 25. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. Ans. Ans. Ans. having a coil of inductance 2 . 311 . Example 9. Z1n 390 L -49° n. An r. 2 pF. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. 420 pF.EXAMPLES Example 9.

then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations. and P2 the output power. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. Also. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor.4) In practice. Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. lf it is an attenuator. If P1 is the input power. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = -10 log10 ~: (A1. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 .2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded.

If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance. In practice. Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. expression Al. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al. 313 .5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate. even where the condition is not maintained. wh and WL.APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied.

1050. Ryder. McGrawHill Book Co. Englewood Cliffs. S. New York. Rossoff. Sevin. Hakim. J. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Transistor Electronics. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Transistors. London. J. D. J. Verner. Electronics.. L.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Burford and H... B. S. 1964. New Jersey. D. 1964. 1957. G. Field Effect Transistors. 1965. Feedback Circuit Analysis. 1966. D. 1966. Le Croissette. New York. Pitman Technical Books. W.. London. London.. P. New York. 1962. Dean. 315 . L. New York. 3rd edn. De Witt and A. Edward Arnold Technical Books. K. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices.. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry. Prentice-Hall. Inc. lliffe Books Ltd. Parker.

100 transistor. 124 Bias stabilization. 5. 221 single stage. 8 characteristics. 12 Amplification. 235 Anode characteristics.C. Ioad lines. 153. 18. 19. 220 frequency response. emitter resistor stabilization. 189 current derived. 152 common collector. 158 emitter coupled. 6. 10. 33 Cathode follower. shunt applied. 303 two stage.C. 55 Diode characteristics. 99. 134. 27. voltage feedback. 7 Bottoming. valve. 25. 14. 121 Collector feedback. 303 Biasing transistor. 247 current amplifiers. 21. 166 common emitter. 229 Amplifier. 25. application to network analysis. 151 cathode coupled. transistor approximate solutions. 194.INDEX A. 126. 14. 24. 5. 30 Complex feedback factors. 241 graphical analysis. 103 diode. 34 Darlington connection. current feedback. 170. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. 94 for high frequency. 159 feedback. 2. 122. 122. 166 single stage. 312 Determinants. 181 RC coupled. 17 Emitter follower. 101. 212 grounded grid. 212 Bias decoupling. 24. 141. 122 common base. 195. 158 multi-stage. 1 Ioad lines. 235 properties. bias line. 291 Feedback composite. 240 transistor multi-stage. non-linear. 21. series applied. 223 three stage. current feedback. 2. 11. 173. 127. 3. 291 small signal. 15. 245 Cut off. transistor. 146 two stage. current feedback. 32. 227. transistor. 19 operating point. 131. 11. 202. 31. 21. 10. 296 valve. 162 D. voltage feedback. 153. 14. 134. 114 single stage. 158. 4. 182 317 . 96. 19 Decibel. 34 reactive Ioads. 126. 231 three stage. 3. 152 difference. voltage feedback. 30 triode. 222 single stage. 94 Thevenin and Norton. 194 current derived. 306 definition. 210. 181. 116 modified. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. 15. current feedback. 140. 118 long tailed pair.

256 Output impedance. 303 Superposition theorem.INDEX Feedback-(Contd. 196. 80.163 238 284 Noise. 119. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 186. 241 effect on gain. 248 effect on output admittance. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 187. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 185. 295 phase shift. calculation. 303 Simple negative feedback. 86 common base. 195. transistor. 99. 74. 66. 42 applications.) effect on distortion. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 184 positive. 210 effect on frequency response. 241 voltage derived. 268 tuned anode. 198 effect on input impedance. 195. 198 effect on output impedance. 248 input connections. emitter resistor bias. 87 h parameters. 259 crystal. 45 Oscillators. 27. 261 Negative input conductance. 201 vector diagrams. 187 voltage derived. 255 amplitude stability. 58. 159 common collector. 157. shunt applied. 81. 43 Nodalanalysis. 159. 18 Inter-electrode capacitances. 152. 198 effect on input admittance. 101 equivalent circuits. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 255 single stage RC. 220 instability. transistor biasing. 187. 42 notation. 155 Potential divider. 185 negative. 297 Input resistance. 68 interconnections. 28. 188. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 240 Frequency compensation. 190. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 150. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 184 Stability factors. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 52 ' Miller feedback. 245 g parameters. 231. 101 general solutions. 141. 184. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 295 current Wien bridge. 202. 208 Four terminal networks. 184. 159 common emitter. 75. 273 tuned collector. 282 LC. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. series applied. 60 318 . 202. 203 voltage amplifiers. 143. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 273 Miller. 50. 190. 268 RC. 83. 190 gain stability.

140 fundamental current relationships. 232. 300 z parameters. 68. 71 319 .INDEX T equivalent circuits. 63. 303 temperature effects. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. 79. 27. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. 68 Voltage amplification. 81. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 3. 23 equivalent circuit. 99. generat solutions. 85. 15 output Ioad line. input admittance at high frequencies. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 104. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 15 Two port networks. 112 y parameters. 21 leakage currents. 29. 24 simple bias circuit. 36. 84 z parameters. 105 Transistor black box representation. 79. graphical analysis. 14. 14 input Ioad line. 21. general method. general method. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 5 Valve. 102 characteristics.

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