C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology

Book I

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

ISBN 978-1-4899-5861-7
ISBN 978-1-4899-5859-4 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-5859-4


Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969

Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 69-18297

Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.


I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.

R. M.




1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .


2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .


3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.


5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits


6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.


7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .


8. Oscillators


9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units


Works for Further Reading





1. a capacitor. D. characteristics. thermionic valves. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent non-linearity. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I -V (a) (b) -I Figure 1. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors. transistors. for example. The characteristics of a resistor .c. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device. transducers such as photocells and many other devices. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. These include the various types of rectifier. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the so-called d.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various non-linear and active devices.C.

2.3b). as shown in Figure 1.z=::. For the transistor collector characteristics. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1.+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature.____ 650°C 6QQ°C -V -Vv=.QOC -I (a) (b) -I Figure !. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage. A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics. Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters. With multi-electrode devices such as pentode valves.3a).1. t1= -[ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C . while the anode current (h). the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. Diode characteristics. For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage). (b) p-n junction With three-electrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents. lf there are more than two variables. is measured for different values of anode--cathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK).:=~---:.2a and b. The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. (a) Thermionic.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it. the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant. A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1.

2 V.D. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V. VcE 3 V etc.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Active device characteristics. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . or h 3 mA.3. VaK. h 3 mA.4b).4.C. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. (a) Triode valve. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics. Permissihle range of d.4a). (b) Common emitter transistor D. Since these three variables are not independent.c.C. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA.2 V (see Figure 1. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA. or as VAK 150 V. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics. VaK. (Figure 1. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics. In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown.

5a. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected. Under these conditions. VGK. VAK = VHT. therefore. 4 .hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1.5. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1. For example.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1. First. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values.C.C.c. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits. These. circuit and Ioad for valve. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. D. In the circuit of Figure 1. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. if one of the three variables.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope -1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. (a) D.

10 .::..C.5a with VHT 300 V. and RL 20k0. and thus VaK. the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic. Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1. (() <i J E -IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line. lt must also lie on the load line.D. CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V. volts Figure 1. to say -2 V.= 15mA Rr. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = .::. Reading from the graph we find the 5 ..6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1.6. and the load line is plotted as shown. '0 J .

156 . and in general ßVout ßVAK -30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = . Since a valve is a nonlinear device. h 7·2 mA. or the voltage gain. Now suppose Vax is changed from -2 V to -1 V.126) = -30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of -(156.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V. but with alternating voltages. Thus Av = +289. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · . the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = -2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency.C. h 8·7 mA.(-2) = -133 6 = -22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. The value of VAK changes to 289 V. It is assumed that the value of wt. of the circuit is -30.7.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) -1 0 > -4 (b) (a) Figure 1. a change of + 1 V.8 . AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification. To investigate this we shall now change Vax from -2 V to -8 V. we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax.30 Non-linearity So.

The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1.A. supply. For most amplifiers. This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage.hRL . AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected. In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1. source es. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1.7a. This is the result of the non-linearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as non-linear distortion.7b. Biasing In the circuit discussed above.8 is used.8.c. the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . This bias is essential since if it were not present. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the making VB= -4 V and Es= 4 sin wt. The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa. The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case. and are shown in Figure 1. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. The reader can investigate this for himself. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. Initially neglecting the a. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform.hRK VHT . The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal.1) .6.c.

c. and once again the operating point VAK. The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = -0·25 V. h must lie on this line.2) Equation 1. Consider the circuit in Figure 1.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V.6. if h = 0.1. VaK = -0·25 V. Taking equation 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode. The point at which this d.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300. RL 19·75 kO. But we have a characteristic for VaK = -1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 -VaK RK lA=--=-=4mA 0·25 Similarly for -2 V. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h. for -3 V h = 12 mA. The second equation is therefore (1. Example 1.2.c. From equation 1.2.8 with values VHT 300 V.20h V. h = 8 mA.c. earth potential. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage -hRK cannot be found directly. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias. This gives the same load line as before. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points. bias line has been drawn. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d. VaK = 0.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before. operating point and voltage amplification. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK).c. If h = 1 mA. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1. source e8 is connected between 8 . VAK = 300 . RK 250 n.c. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a. VaK = VEK = -VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth.1 and 1. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d. h 7·4 mA.1. Determine the d. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero. A numerical example will illustrate this method.

3 and 1.4) -hRK. The explanation in this case.0·25(9·6 = 4.= . These are shown in Figure 1.c.2 Equations 1. h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA .RK. VAK = 194 V.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28).C. however. VAK es = -2. ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = .5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia. The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1.Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es.A.e/es. bias line by +2 V and -2 V respectively. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and -2 V. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V -20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va. 9 .3) Vgk = -hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1. is simple.Es -4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = -Ia.6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point..1·075 = . D.4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter.= -21·25. This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2. 109V. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 .8). AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1..

Considering Example 1. If Xe was.iaRK = es . so using a figure of 1 000 Hz. or very 10 . 6 V working at 100 . This is true for d. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK. then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V.uF 20 = .C. while the a.0·1075 = 3·8925. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. but a simple example will illustrate the operation.c. but in this case we have neglected the effect of non-linearity of characteristics.uF or more. A. load line.VaK would be 4. voltage iaRK. voltage can be eliminated without change in the d. hRK. Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit.6.0 = es. Vgk becomes es .c.=:::= 6 .h battery bias (113·5). and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es.c.c. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C=-- 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 .c.iaZk. Rk was 250 Q.c. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required. the bias point VaK will be unchanged. The cause of the reduction was the a. The resultant . If the a. Vgk will be es . Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK.1 above.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain. say 25 il.uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors. Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d. Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es.

c.6) -hRK In the absence of CK. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d.c.9) VHT.c. H. variations in VAK together with the d. Ioad was 19·75 kil.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero. Circuits having different a..7 must become Vak = (1.8.c.c. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk.c.c.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. equation 1. The a. For the circuits shown in Figure 1.c. load lines.c. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + .c. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible.iaRL since to a.c.. operating point must then move along an a.9.C. relationships are VAK = VHT . operating point.5) (1.8 becomes Vgk =es.T. load line of slope -1/RL (compared with slope -1/(RL + RK) for the d. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1. the d._ (b) (a) Figure 1.c.c. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . ia and Vak.A. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL. battery : 200 V _.9 gives the a.c. load lines are very different to the d. RK has been short circuited by CK.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a. and d. value. (a) Decoupled cathode bias. and equation 1.c.c. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a. In the last example the d.c. Equation 1.7) (1. load line). relationships may also be written Vak = VHT. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d. The slope of the a. quantities.c.9 the a. a. Ioads.

c.c..c. RL Figure 1.C.c. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a. To simplify this problem. and d. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 . Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a. Assuming any convenient value for VHT.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1.c. The operating point moves up and down the a.c. and a. operating point will move up and down the a.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to. These are in parallel to a. A. Ioad line for the a.10. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1.!..C.c.c. and thus to a. operating point is unchanged.c.c. load line Slope-. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'. Ioad line. perhaps. D. but the a.c. Ioad line is -RLRL' RL RL' + = -20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph. Ioad value of 4 kO. proceeding as follows.RL•RK A.c. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk. a second valve. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point.. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a.c.c. In the circuit of Figure 1.c. load lines are now very different. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive. Once again the a. since the a. resistance of the 1 Slope.10. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth. The calculation of d. draw a d.9 HT battery is negligible.c.C.. in this case 40 V. Construct the a.c.

Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown.c. In this circuit the d. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.lla and b. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d.c. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 .c. Points could be calculated for intermediate values.c.A. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph.c.c. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J. component of ia passes through zero. The a.ll. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction. Thus for these values of ia. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4). operating point is found by the battery bias Vn.C. The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l. We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia.c. When however the a. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum. The a. In Figure l. the a. (a) Triode valve with reactive load.

The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to non-linearity.c.12.C. (a) D. Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods. TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits. The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . bias circ11it and load. These methods also enable the d. or the circuit for a required operating point. operating point for a particular circuit.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful. The common emitter transistor amplifier.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A -VcE' V (b) Figure 1. The circuit is shown in Figure 1. tobe found.

12b and c respectively.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers.VnE ± E.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. and input and output currents.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1.V cc and V cc/RL. the base current waveform is distorted by the non-linear input characteristic.e. These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit. The circuit in Figure 1.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = . The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = . An a. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter. The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter.Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1. i.c. As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . the operating point.12a. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = .Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. on both input and output characteristics. The waveform is then further modified by the non-linearity of the output characteristic. in the conventional direction for p-n-p transistors. With a transistor. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics. input and output voltages. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE. 15 . If JB were known the operating point would now be defined. four variables must be investigated. It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage.

70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I . 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1.13.. ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA .. " Cl I t' ' ..0 10 20 30 40 50 1-1- HH~ 1k Q. 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr..I~ -V8 E . The characteristics for Example 1.. ... Load line 8±-~ H-tH ++l lii · l± m= +t-+++ ~ ~ - 0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 -Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n...' ... "' ' .-rr. ' f±... 3oV....mV -· ' rTT. ..2 <1: - · ~ ~ c .. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c . 30V.

The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1.c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1. supply of 30 V.c.c. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1.13a VBE = -560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1.c. operating point.20 V and -30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way.2. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = -Vcc Vcc RL -30V 30 = 9.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1. Similarlywhen VcEis -10 V. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d. source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance. If IBis 70 mA. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n.c.c.13b. Comment on the effect of the characteristic non-linearity in each case. Therefore at VBE 1 volt. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l -Vcc = 30 mA = -30V The second point cannot be plotted. and (b) the a. so the slope of the line must be used. and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1. output voltage if (a) the a. IB = 30 mA .13b VcE = -14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A . VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. If dVBE is 1 volt.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = -10 V. Two further points for VcE.13a and b. operating point.13a. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA.d/B = 29 mA.13a. From Figure 1. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows. Find also the a. determine the d.

For comparison purposes. Thus the peak a. Vbe- Vce = 520 mV -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 18·5 V -14·5 V -0·5 V -14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 . The a.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a.c. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.c. Rtn· At the operating point.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. VBE varies between -520 mV and -600 mV in a sinusoidal manner.20 = 10 mA and 70 .c. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results .13b. :.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 . D1 d"Jstortwn c h. base current is given by 18 .c.c.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic non-linearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic. source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected. and the a. the d. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance. In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n. The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe- 520 mV 30mA 20mA -560 mV -600 mV -560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 .

14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts.Vcc = -6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d.14b determine (a) the d. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger.c. For small signa1 amplification.3..VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = . The a. therefore lB === Vcc/RB.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5.c. MB 5 pA. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point.c.s.m. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r. could result in the input and output non-linear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output. (c) the current gain. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty.c. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc . First the d. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak. (and a.c. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions. the a. Firstly.3 V -14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion.3·3 = 11·2 V. Example 1. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA -29·3 V -14·5 V 60mA 30mA -3. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß. supply voltage Vcc. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1.c.VBE 10 mV. operating point. Secondly. 19 = 40 fl A . say 20 Q. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. VBE is very much less than the d.c.

input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r. a. Ic 3 mA.20 j. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 t-tA = 62·5. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h .JÄ ÜJ. 20 .s.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -6V <! E 1· 5 tl----c~-~.1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA.c.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V. .14.c. The r. mput reststance = 5 t-tA = 2 u An r.s. the a .m.m.m. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30.c. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a. The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics.s. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1. output voltage = (4·2. lOmV kr. ic of (2 . The corresponding values of Vce are -2 V and -4·2 V respectively. Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = -30. operating point moves between ib = 60 t-tA and ib = 20 t-tA.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE -2·9 V. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 t-tA = 20t-tA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 t-tA.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 -VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1.m.s.

· Figure 1.12) h = (1 . A peak a.Ico 21 . Vce of 2·9 . VcE cannot fall below -0·2 V from the characteristics.c.IE flowing out at the collector. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr.16.)IE flowing out of the base. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1-a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector.3 \ .a. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off.16. In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages. Figure 1. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1. Waveforms for Example 1. transistor action results in a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed -6 or the transistorwill cut off. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector. In addition the reverse Figure 1.s.IE + lco (1.11) lc = a.15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA. . and (I . By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1.10) IE = Ic +In (1.m.)IE . This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero. base and emitter currents in a transistor.15._.a.

(I .rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=--h+-1-rx 22 (1. Equate to 1.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1. Thus .13) 1 . From equation 1. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 . Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico - 1 _ rx 1-oc rxlco Ico =1-a: This current.11. From equation 1.11.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits. Ico' is very much larger than /co. Ico Ico = . is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).rx Now applying equation 1. Ic.1 0. The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 f-lA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor.Ico IE=--(:1.14) 1-rx (1.10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic - + rxh = /c - Ic(l .rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995.16) . Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 f-lA respectively. we are not concerned with JE. To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1.12.(1. Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero. the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero.

17.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1. lco 1 t-tA and VBE 0·2 V. Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90.13 and 1.17.16 becomes lc oc =1 . Simplebias circuit for Example 1.oc (1.I+ oc' 1 = --t-tA = 91 t-tA 1-90 91 23 t-tA .20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.4 IB = (10. Example 1.17. A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points. -10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1.4. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1.18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1.0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc t-tA = lco = 10·1 t-tA 1 oc 1 .

18.QOC _ _ lO~C- _ leb 2ooc -Vcc -VcE Figure 1... Summarizing.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a. Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71.' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V.QOC .uA 1·444mA -2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second..uA 0·778 mA -6·1 V 130 131 . Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained. r~.' unless the signal level is severely restricted.' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~.'@ 30°C /.uA Now VcE = -10 + (5 X 1) = -5 V and since VcE may vary between -10 (cut off) and -0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a. 1 000 .'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.' is from 70 to 130..c. The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 . the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~. operating point without distortion.' 130.

In Example 1. and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 t-tA moves up with Ico'. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. compared with the exponential term.21) where K is a constant. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one. The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material.Ico IB = (1 . Now IB = IE(l . if temperature rises by 10°C.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature. In the simple circuit discussed above. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant.1] . Again the operating point would move towards bottoming. In was maintained at a constant value.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K. lc = oc'h + Ico'. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles. 2 25 .1] (1.19.oc) . lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . at 20°C the permissible peak a. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature.Ico (1.18.4. Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero. When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1. In this case. lEo and thus In doubles. As can be seen from Figure 1. Thus for any particular value of VBE.c.19.18.

lcoRC20°C) Figure 1.20. The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage. The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1 - VBE but VBE = (1. Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. The V"---.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature..24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics. Figure 1.21.21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C.IERE oc)/E .IE[RE + (1 - oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures. .20.23) hR' . Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 .h. . . an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1. d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR..lco V' .

Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced.22. ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I.23. -Vcc R.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = -.22.25 and 1. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1.18 V' .26 and substituting in equation 1. V' much greater than VEB and R' small.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked. RE large. thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited. 01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R . The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'. 01: + RE) . as shown in Figure 1. Potential divider. Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are.26) + R2 The operating point VcE. emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply.25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R . -. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1. This may then be rewritten V' .

will also rise. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' .27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1.29) K = dleo' die dleo S=- Krx' die = diX' (1.VBE = constant.32) ~RE. Suppose /e tends to rise.28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1. Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant.31) K may be found directly from equation 1. IERE. the voltage across RE. . Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes. For R' to be small. These are die (1. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values.30) (1.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B. also cause a change in JE.22).27) VeE may then be found from VeE = - Vee ~.Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1. 28 (1.

On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1. If R' ~ RE. RE can only be I kQ.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.34 IX'(V'. For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower. S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo . Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V. Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1. and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo.IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' .33 and 1.VBE R' +RE J + leo .28). Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1. Je 1 mA.33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier.27 and substitute from equations 1.IX) In this case if RE~ R'.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' -+ VBE J RE + lco + MIX') . If the Ioad is 2 kQ. This will be discussed in later chapters.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ. S tends to one and d/e = dleo.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1.

35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones. Ka.32.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.36 whichever is most convenient. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.37 should only be used for small changes in a. 1.38) In this circuit.') a.'(V'.33. values should be inserted in equations 1.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1.'.' 1 = 1 + Ma.·=-. 1. This reduces the voltage across RB. IX (1.33 and 1. Collector feedback.' (R' a. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc.23.36 Klc Ka. and differentiating we find (1.'lco + 1 + Ma. This is shown in Figure 1. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector.' 1 [ X a. Figure 1.27 or 1. The formulae (equations 1. For large changes. reducing h and thus /c.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma.' J From equations 1.23. 30 .37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.

and hence the maximum permissible r.c. Figure 1.c. currents could be fed back through RB.23) the stabilization is performed by d. The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1. circuits will be discussed in later chapters.c. voltage across RE. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.22 and 1. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions. output current. 31 .c. such a. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.s.c. (a) (b) Figure 1. In Figure 1.24b the same applies. but in addition a.C. A.c. The exact mechanism of these a. Determine the range of possible d. currents can flow to earth. First we must find the range of d.24 shows how this is done.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 50-95. Example 1. operating points.m. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'.24. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. As with the triode valve amplifier. So if XcB ~ RB12. decoupling circuits In Figure 1.c. Assurne VBE is 200mV. negative feedback.5.

5 For T1. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C. 32 .'(V' ..')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next..' 50.25. Ico' = = (1 + CJ.') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1. Circuit and graph for Example 1.27 lc = _50 lc - Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic.. to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS -10V 2kfi 1kfi -Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Cl.

We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor. + 2) V Minimum VcE = -10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = -3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. To avoid bottoming with Tz. Maximum VcE = -10 + 1·825(1 = -5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l.32 K = 6. Vce exceeds 10. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V. Vce must not exceed 3·811 .c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C. the a.c. 1oad is only 2 kil. We can 33 . With T1. peak a./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l.29 and 1. the peak a.c.c. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies.28. Thus to allow for all possibilities. cut off will occur if peak a.0·2 = 3·6 V./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1. 1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C.5·525 = 4·475V.

S.c. and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz. Circuit and graph for Example 1.M. Ic 2 mA.c. A. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cut-off distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a.3 V. The peak a.25b.. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98.. Cutoff on the a.s.u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 -Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE .m.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1. Ioad line (lk!l. supply is 6 V. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a. output voltage of 1·414 V.c.s. the maximum r.26. RL 4 '.C.. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cut-off distortion.6 34 6 . output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr.c. The available d.6.m. design a suitable bias circuit.) \ \ <! E . Finally.c.

TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.1-IX . we must find ß/c. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO. Rz and CE.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic .98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d. signal voltage. To determine K.33 and 1.34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' . Vce + Vbottoming.26b. RE may now be found since VcE is given.\ u/co K = I 30 =-= 1-IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1.Ico = 30 f1A .load line.c. Now VcE must not fall below -0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d. the a.c. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co .26a.5 mA (Note this is a d.c.. so the minimum instantaneous Vce is -3 + 2 = -1 V. ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.Ico 1·998 IX = 0 . VcE + peak a. The problern is to determine the values of RL. Rt. The a.c. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown. the operating VcE is -3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V.c. RE. -3 + 2 + 0·3 = -0·7 V.c. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature.

' = 0·98 1 .O·I 49 + + Ic. we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I..' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~- R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2. I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = -:. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz. = 39 t-tA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1.0·98 1 (1 K- M = a.hR' .IERE ' 2.7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .1 Finally.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a..Ico' (. t-tF 36 .23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .

and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor.c. and we have seen how the d.T. or (b) an H. (b) 24 or 45·5. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to -0·5 V? Ans. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 4-1 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 3-3 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. 37 . (b) 208 V. EXAMPLES Example 1. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible.7. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil.T.c.8. Using the circuits described in Example 1. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H.c. 4·7 mA. operating conditions may be found.c. if with (a) VGK is -0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA. (a) 25·5. We have found the limitations of these methods. -5 V.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods. Find the d. conditions. Summarizing. (a) 63 V.7. but as with valves. operating point in each case. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. Assurne an a. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. determine the voltage gain. Example 1.

Circuit for Example 1. Ans. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. 21·5.12. 19·2. 30·5. + H. RK 250 Q and an H. Determine the voltage gain.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H.27. results in an operating 38 . (a) 61.27. 32. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU. The d. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt.T + 175V I· Figure 1. Circuit for Example 1.10. Example 1. (b) 64·5. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance. (a) 43.T. 21·5. (b) 10 ill. (b) VAK 150 V.T. of 250 V. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. h 6 mA. 250V H. 166 Q.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1.12 Example 1.c.11. Ans.28. The circuit described in Example 1. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1. h 9·75 mA.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. Ans. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. Ans. supply of300 V. 0·65. 154 Q. (a) 24·8 kU.11 Figure 1. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H.T. 790 Q. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1. Example employs RL 17·15 kU. Example 1.T. (b) 96.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1.

The anode Ioad. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H. A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. 60 V. (a) 45 V positive VaK. Example 1. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as -6 V. VcE -2·7 V. 30 L 315°.T. Ans.12a. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled. T.c. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. (a) 15 mA. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d.14. Ans. Example 1. Ans.c. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1. (b) 11 V low h. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO.7 is operated with a bias voltage of -1· 5 V and an H. calculate (a) the maximum peak a.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA. Example 1. supply of 150 V.16. a coil of 0·2 H. (b) the maximum peak a. I0 I -VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 -1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 -3·0 -4·5 -6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . (b) 60 V. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad.15.c. If the frequency is 5kHz. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. is assumed tobe purely inductive.

.20. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. Example 1. 30 t-tA.19. 488 Q. 36. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. andRE 1 kil. 28·8 kil. Jco'.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 2-8 2-9 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 7-4 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans.16. 413 Q. 0·97 and Jco 4 t-tA. RE 500 n. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1.23. 0·99 and Jco 3 t-tA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1. Ans. RB 140 kil. Example 1.22. Jco. If the transistor has a. calculate a. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil. Example 1.22. a 4 kil load. Example 1. 56 t-tA. 1·24 t-tA. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE -0·2 V. Example 1. 5·1 mA. RL 1·8 kil. and the current gain. A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. 4·5 V. and Jco' 0·2 mA.' 160.18. -3·43 V. 123 t-tA. 133 t-tA. 3·93 mA. 1·944 mA. Calculate the input impedance. RL is 3·3 kil. 32·3. the voltage gain. Ans. and JB. Je. Ans. and the supp1y battery 10 V. 35. If JE is 2 mA. Calculate a. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. and a 40 .GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . A certain transistor is found to have a. 1 V.'. lB and JE. 0·125. A transistor having a. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K.' 45. 0·994. Ans.21.17. Example 1. Ans. 1·45 mA. -204 mV. R2 22 kil. 5·03 mA. The d. 0·46.c.

29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. Ic 2 A. RE 1 kQ. Ans. and (b) if rx' is 150. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. 195 Q. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico.24. 10 f-tF. 1 V r.23.c. Example 1. and at 20°C.29.24 Ico of 500 f-lA. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. 1! Q. the maximum output power. that it will bottarn at VcE -0·4 V. Example 1. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. 1·11 V. 41 . (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. Ans. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE -8 V. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. 3·6 W. 2 kQ. At the signal frequency. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is -6 V. 45·6 kQ. Ans. The components are RL 1 kQ.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. and further. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of -0·2 V. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling.m.s. The power transistor shown in Figure 1. The available d. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored. rx' 150. 1 V. Circuit for Example 1. 70 Q. R140 kQ. an Vcc -12V Figure 1. Assuming the transistor to have VBE -0·2 V. 13-9 kQ.

mesh analysis and nodal analysis. the four terminal or two port network. Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 .c.e. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. t.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. having dimension mhos. In addition. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. admittances and generators. we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader. In Chapter 1. I= VY (2. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a. we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. together with impedances or admittances. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws.

If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2.1.1.i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX. Note. having dimension ohms. In this case. B = 1 R -jX R2 + X2 1 Z= - B -X = R2 + X2 (2. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. circuit shown in Figure 2.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively. Consider first the simple d.e.3) Y=-v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships.c. (2.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 . I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS. i. in general I 1 B ::. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. zero.4) Y= G + jB (2.

2.I amps and we could say that I= -(E/R). Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. given that current Figure 2. Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I). This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way.Vxy and Vyx =IR= -(E/R) X R = -E as would be expected from the circuit. lf however. If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = . The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference. This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow.2. Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. the meter would read .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = -iZa = +jwLi = -i v2 = = -iR ji = wC 44 (:J) . The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V). the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps.

From Figure 2. 45 .3. Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current.8) ratio of the impedance values. . z2 Iv. Impedance in series may be simply added. vz = zZ2 (2.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2.3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz. e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt .

(2.10) The "reader should now compare 2.9) X Y1 iYz = -=---=yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values. 46 .8. . The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality." d . = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances. y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc.9 and 2. .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2.10 with 2.7 and 2.3c e = v1 + vz = .11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1.i + -i = i .3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added. Consider Figure 2.+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =. (2. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples.

Figures 2.14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %.1 47 .1. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i .12) inverse ratio of the admittance values.n. 1 + . Now from Figure 2.3d = ii + iz = . .4. 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit.. Circuit for Example 2. Potential division between series admittance is in the (2. Finally. Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2.13) of the individual impedances. Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :. and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2.

.7 and 2.9 and 2. io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v. Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. First consider circuit (a). the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel). Now. io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches.11. and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given. Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t..10). Applying rules 2.= v amp 6 3+1 ia = - i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 .13 since all branches are quoted as impedances. to find io from circuit (a). the value of io in terms of i. YT - 4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1) -- 4 + ~6 -- 1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2. the same result as that found when working in admittances. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X .


To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia



=1+1 txlx!+1





2 X 3





= 4v + - = 5v amp
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v





+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts

and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,




= - - = -volts



Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most


important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.




Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node

This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.

Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by


+ ia + i4 =


+ is

An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents - i2 and - is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,


+ ia + i4 -

i2 - is


which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.


2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.



Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh

Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1 - Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X


we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.

+ V1 -

IR1 - V2 - IR2 - !Ra+ Va - IR4


or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1 - V2

+ Va =


+ R2 + Ra + R4)

from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written

+ R1(h- i2) -


+ jwL2)i2-

(w-d2) (i2- ia)- e2 = 0

Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the



required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h- lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h - lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six





Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2

possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y

+ 5(h + h - lx)
5(h + h - lx) - 4(/2 -


6 = 3h


0 = -




+ 2/x

-2/x- /2

Collecting terms

6 = 8h



+ 5h -

-5h - 9/2

2 = 2/x



+ 11/x




One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
From 2.17


substitute in 2.16




+ 18/x + 1llx








substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15



= - 5 +5


+ 10 -

10lx - 5lx


Collecting terms, 6

+ 5144 -


= lx (232
5 -

15 )

24·8 = 31·4/x


lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A


Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.



Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents

Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h - i2) fiowing down or (i2 - h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2 - ia) fiowing
down or (ia - i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find

6 = 3h + 5(it- i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,


+ 4i2 + 2(iz -

S(i2 - h)

= 2(i3- i2) + i3

Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h- 5i2





+ 11 i2 - 2i3
-2i2 + 3i3




times the common branch sharing that current.f. For any loop. sum the e. Further application of this rule will appear in the next example. This is replaced by the constants. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5). Equation becomes 6 = 8h . A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. h. For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook.f.5i2 which is the same as equation 2.20 above.m.m. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 -2 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 -5 0 6 0 -2 0 -2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 ßa tl 6 0 -2 . Following this for the first loop: The e. In this case ß = 0 -2 3 -5 11 -2 8 -5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents. Here.. minus any adjacent loop current. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V.

4) . 2.0) -2 = -66 58 i2 = 157 A.20. %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba.ia = 58 124 = . we may expand on the first column. Alternatively. This process is known as expanding the determinants.0) + 5(10.0) + 0 0 -2 3 =58 ßa= 8 -5 -5 11 0 -2 6 0 = 8(-22.21 and 2.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 . The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2 - bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca - 02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row. Now applying this to equations 2.0) + 6(10. ß= 8 -5 0 -5 11 -2 0 -2 3 =8(33-4)+5(-15-0)+0 = 232. Unknown -66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants.6( -15 ._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient.22 for Example 2. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms.2.75 = 157 0 8 6 -5 0 -2 = 8(0 .

j) {-3-j4) (7-j4) = -.9.-(7_+_j_)---(-4---j-)-. for equation 2.f.j4) 57 (2.j) . Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2.s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h.j4 V Now solving by determinants .j) (7 .3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations. but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations.23) -5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -(4 .24. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form.3.m. Circuit for Example 2. -S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = -5(0·6 + j0·8) V = -3.j)i2 (2. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex.9.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer. Figure 2. Example 2.j) = -5/53° -h(4.j)h + (7 .j + 1 + 2.(4.24) .1 A -(4 . as is the case in the next example. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) -(4 .f.i2(4 . 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 .j) + i2(4.j4)i2 Evaluating the e.m.

j4) .j) A . 11 = (6 + j0)(7 .j37 A .49 42. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters.10.j4).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants .10.j)(4. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law. VB. NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law. Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances. Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2.jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .{4.12.4.(3 + j4)(4 .j24. Vc. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .j) {7 + j)(7 . This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA.jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: .{-19o)A 1484 0·686/-36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°.16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4 - _ 26. We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2. l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan-1 H y/{382 + 132) /-tan-1 HA = J2048 = /-550.38.

11. we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node. V c = 0.NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero.4.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc .2 For node B.VA)Yz Collecting up terms. For node A. Thus at node A.VB)Yz and at node B -[z =(VB. i. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches. In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB.11.O)Y1 +(VA. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance. D Figure 2.4 This circuit has four nodes. h + [z =(VA. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. Circuit for Example 2.e. 3.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this.VBYz -lz = . Foreach node. Example 2. 0 = = VA(l -1 VA + 2 + 4) - 1 VB . We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner. This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55. Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz).

use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns. In some instances. 60 .4Vc 0 = -VA+ 7VB. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof. 1= 1VA. I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters.4(-3. nodal analysis will be quicker.1) + 1( -8 .4) .4).0) VB = 7(56 . the other in terms of an admittance network. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa.4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. one in terms of an impedance network. Examples using each will also be given.12. 2 + 1 = -4VA.1(-8. 7 1 -4 -1 0 -1 -4 3 8 V VB= 7 -1 -4 -1 7 -1 -4 -1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3). In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches.VB.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting. Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. and hence the nurober of equations.Vc 3 = -4VA.VB+ 8Vc By determinants. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best.

) = 42 Evaluating.12.7. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis. Circuit for Example 2. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone. for the whole circuit. 2. Now applying the same rules.12.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone.0.12 and 2. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem.(l 12V 6V Figure 2. Example 2. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. 6. 2.5. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1-155 A .13 on pages 45 and 47.

FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.13. Circuit for Example 2. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances. Example 2.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis.20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 .6.iz = H A as was found by superposition. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone -3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = .12. h + ?iz 84.30 = 77 - iz = 25 54 = 52 A -66 + 60 52 -6 =52 A But the required current I = h . 12 = 11h.13.5iz -6 = -5h By determinants.

Thevenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.. the network is shownasabox with two terminals. 63 . at node 2. In Figure 2. Figure 2. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected.THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V.= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem.14. Now v = v1 + v2 =- 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I. 3 = -2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 24-4 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2=---=20 20 Now v = v1 - 9-26 -17 v2 = . Thevenin's theorem The two-terminal equivalent is shown on the right.14.

FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances.15.15b. Example 2. Now.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the left-hand half of the circuit. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example. Circuit for Example 2.7. 3V Figure 2. Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2.15. 1-l! 1 I= 3 = 1l.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45 - 7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = -:-:10~+--:2::-::R::--L-+---::5:-=R:-L 64 .

Figure 2.(4 Ztn- + j2)(1 .v'2/45° 2.5 .jt·54) n j12 r\ u . .j20) + J.c.j l=--.8. and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0. 7RL Now consider a more difficult a.j)(5 = (2·31 . Circuit for Example 2.J j5 + j) n To find Votc.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4- j2 . example.j and Now = i(5 - j) = i(5.j) . 1. 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j -J + (-2 . 5.J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 . write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 .j3)(1 .0.j3)i .j) V . 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1 - = ~~ (1 .16. . i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem. (1 .J j3) . Example 2.16.4 - + 6 + j2.THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before. j 2. Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2.1 .

17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2. Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed. .7 using Norton's theorem. the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance. no current will flow in the 5 n resistor.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. i A Ytn = i + i. To determine fstc. Repeat example 2. the load current may be found.9.15.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 .17. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 .j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a short-circuit connected across the terminals. Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. In Figure 2.

j) 4(3.75.j).j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3. 1 1 3.NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l-0 !YL + :l-ö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL=-=-=5!2 and 7 YL Example 2.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 .j2) .30 .j6 - + 1 + j _ 2(1 .20 .j) A When the load is connected.4 2 .j)(3 . h = 4(3.j30 . Repeat Example 2. current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. For the circuit shown in Figure 2.j) 3 -J·2 X lJ 5 -J.j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j 12 + j2 mhos 5.10.j2 10(1.j2) A .8 using Norton's theorem.j63 67 + 65 - j13 A .j2) 10(1 .j2) + 13(5 .j20 _ 4(3.16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1 - 1 j3 = (I .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .j3 10(1 .j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j) +4 - 2 + j4 10(1 .+ 10(1 - A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 . ----o.

or other networks may be connected.18. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables. V2 and ]z associated with the network. A four-terminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. There are four variables V1. For any particular set ofparameters.18. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently. In general we may write two equations (2. but not always. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. is known as a four-terminal network.26) . common. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output. occurring frequently in electronic circuits. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. Since any two may be taken as independent. h. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2.e. This approach is similar to the description of two-terminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i. One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters. Ioads.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2. there are six possible sets of parameters.

The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2. i. Since equations 2.26 above. Zu relates V1 to h.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter.27 and 2.28 with equations 2. This can only occur if terminals 2.25 and 2.30 must be true for all values of the independent variables. By comparing equations 2. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2. Z12 relates V1 to h etc.e.29 and 2.27) (2. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2. 69 .30 above. Q. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection.29) (2. Solution of a four-terminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P. Suppose 12 is zero. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2. they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. lz Figure 2. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows.28) which have the form of equations 2. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage.19. I.19.29 and 2.2' are open circuit.

if we let terminals 1.30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = -v11 h be defined. .11 Let /2 = 0.11. Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2.20. h Figure 2.29 and 2. Circuit for Exarnple 2.20. and 12=0 Z21 = -v21 h 12=0 Similarly. we obtain Z12 = -v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = -v21 h I!=O Example 2.1' be open circuit making h zero. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.

so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. A loaded four-terminal network 71 . From equation 2.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. As h flows into this part of the circuit.21.22. I. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components. 1~ Figure 2.21. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit.22. lz Figure 2. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts.

Z21Z12 Also /2=~-=------~------ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h -Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL) - Z21Z12 (2.Z21V1 + ZL) .Z21Z12 (2.33) -hZL.32 and 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say. = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL). There are two further general solutions. V2 = -hZL Equation 2. the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 -= Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .Z21Z12 lt=~~~--~~~~=­ The input impedance given by Vt -= Zu(Z22 + ZL) . The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .31) Rewriting equation 2.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu - (2.1 '.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.34) Equations 2.31.32) o. which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.29 and rearranging equation 2.30 now becomes -hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2.0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) .

12.0. h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only. Since the output terminals are open circuit. Let h = 0. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters.35) and (2.23. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. 400. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2.36) Example 2. Figure 2.23. so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. The results that should be obtained are (2. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. n v2 = -5ovl + 5h 73 . first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q. and the load is disconnected. VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0). -50 VI.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2. Circuit for Example 2. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl).

Z12 = 5 il.32. Z21 = -1 245 Q and Z22 = -145 n. thus v2 -= VI -400 251 ~4~55 +5 = -39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters. (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn. In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2. and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor.. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 .50 X 5h v2l =-1450 h h=O Z22=- Summarizing Zu = 25 il.. 25h V2 =-50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 = - 12=0 + 5h = -1 245 n Now Iet h = 0.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400- (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL) - Z21Z12 -400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400- This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245.35. 2.5ov1 = 105/2 .34 and 2. but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But .

37) (2. The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. h and Vz. is an admittance. We shall investigate one of these in detail. relating [z to · V2.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load. VI and Vz. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters. The other possible choices. is a number and S. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. VI and [z.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a four-terminal network. While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance.38) V:~ be zero. VI and h. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. . Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. a current ratio. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I = - Ve=O 75 (2. Sinillarly R. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. In this case .

Thus /z = -h X 2 2 1 + 6 = . In this case. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations.24.13.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0). Example 2. Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals.24.13.24). Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). Figure 2. this is simple current division between parallel conductances. first Iet Vz equal zero. Now hz1 = ~~ =-!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must open-circuit the input to make h = 0. For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h.4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. hzz h I 2 X-6 = 8! mho = -Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 .

The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. we have potential division across series conductances so.25.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz.25. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = -hz1 As with Z parameters. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it. Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q. Figure 2. In this case the second equation 77 .

44) Equations 2. 2.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = -hZs. by taking h. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2. Z and h. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations. The reader should now compare equations 2.43) and h .41.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits.41.. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re- = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2. h and h.35 and 2. V2 as our independent variables. 2. 2. 78 .36. we can find.32. We have now derived two sets of parameters.44 with equations 2. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true. .43 and 2.33. -hl2 I. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results.41) Solving for V2 From which (2.42. 2.42 and 2. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form. = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2. + Zs (2.40) Solving by determinants for h.h21h12 From which (2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) .

47) From which .Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 . h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.45) (2.46) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or output.50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2. Equations: V2.51) 79 . h Input admtttance = Vt y = u - yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2. +Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) . h h Cu.26. Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =-V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2. The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: .Yu + Ys .rrent gatn = .FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1. (2.= .

It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another.) r2 gzz gu s .54) (2 55) · (2.g21g12 (2. The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: .52) (2. h = -V1 = gu - /z h Current gatn = .56) (2.57) Before applying these results to some examples.g21 gu(g22 ~ .s .= g12g21 +ZL g22 . Output tmpedance =-. Definitions: · v21 .gugn~2 + y. h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +-g12 y.53) Conditions for defining parameters-short circuit input or open circuit output.L2 + ZL) - g12g21 = gz2. This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. one further rule should be discussed. g21 = -V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2. Input admtttance .27.

Using 4kn I.28. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu. so -h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1- I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2. Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals.5 = -(0·25 2] 2:1A X -r 0·2) mmho y21 = -0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 -r 0·5) = 0·25 -r 1 -r 1 -r 0. To determine the y parameters. For the network shown in Figure 2.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 -r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 -r 0·5 -r 1 -r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is .28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods. Example 2.5 mmho y22 81 .14. First Iet Vz = 0.Ia.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters.

ft = 0·65 and hl - Vt 12=0 X 1Q-3Vl. Solution for Example 2. Thus Vz = -(-0·45 X I0-3Vl 0·85 X I0-3 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. let V1 = 0.29.29. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2.ow in the admittance yzz. Let [z = 0. and write an equation for ft.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also -lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = -0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals. Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 10-3 = 1·178 kQ .0·45 X 10-3 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65. This eliminates the y21 generator.0·258) X 10-3 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz. J. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl.

These configurations are Series input and output.y21y12 + -0·45 X 1 + 0·85). series output.49 and 2.55 -g21 + ZL) - At=--~--~~~----­ gu(g22 . 83 .FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi. g12 = hh I (-0·45 X 10-3) X 0. parallel output.85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = -0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. Parallel input and output. At= Working in mmho.55. Interconnection of Four-terminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more four-termina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) . input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available. Series input. First using y parameters Current gain. and Parallel input.0·412 X I0-3(1 g21g12 + -0·53 1-178) X 103 + 10·53 --~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === -0·45 Thus properties of four-terminal networks such as voltage and current gain. We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters.0·45 X 0·45 === -0·45 Now using equation 2.

series output.3lb. I. 1 I1 V{~ v. I .15. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters. 84 .3la. Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters. Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. Z22 3 Q.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. Two four-terminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n. and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2. First we must find the Z parameters of the sub-network shown in Figure 2.30. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V.

+ 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance. parallel output. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 .31. and network B has y" parameters. apply equation 2. Circuit for Example 2.32 shows two networks connected parallel input.FOUR-TERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl - h h-0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 .15 Since these are open circuit parameters. Network A has y' parameters.Zn + Zs = 7 .9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2.35.

In this case fi =h' =hw 86 . parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output. Series Parallel Figure 2. Two four-terminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network.32. Two four-terminal networks connected series input.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. J Figure 2.33.

16. Ans. The theorems in Section 3. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case. YT Y. v' i v.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. Repeat Exarnple 2. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. mho. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters. io Ht. 87 . and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. EXAMPLES Example 2.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. are equally essential.

34. (b) 0·526. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. (c) 0·727v. determine v' 1. Circuit for Example 2. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v.19 88 . The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2.34. Ans. (c) 31·2 mA.18. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2.17 (a) the input impedance v/1. (a) 1·63 Q.35 is 2mho Figure 2. Figure 2.19. Example 2. Figure 2.35. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i. Ans. Circuit for Example 2. (b) 0·445i.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A. Example 2. Ans.36. (a) 39·6 mV. Calculate (a) the input valtage v.17.ß. Circuit for Example 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. and (c) the current i ' .36. 0·756 V.

9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 . Using mesh analysis.20 using nodal analysis.j2) n. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2. V Figure 2. mA. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator. Repeat Example 2.!1.22.EXAMPLES Example 2. Repeat Examp1e 2. 4 89 .20 Example 2. -8 + j26 Ans. 37 -j2k. and using nodal analysis. 0·25. I. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. Example 2.24.37. voltage sources to current sources.!1. For the circuit shown in Figure 2.21 using nodal ana1ysis. Ans.22 Example 2.20. Ans.21. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2. 2·2 V. Repeat Example 2.19 by converting impedances to admittances. 1 L 7o 18' A.37.

----. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2. Example 2.29. Repeat Example 2. Ans. Figure 2.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1. 0·737 L 121 ° 26'.-----. Example 2.21 using the Superposition theorem. Circuit for Example 2.. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem. 90 .5~]R. Example 2. Repeat Example 2.30. 1·35 Q. T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2.26 admittance-current generator form.40..26.. T .40. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A . Circuit for Example 2. Ans. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T.39.21 using Thevenin's theorem.39 to the Figure 2. Example 2.28. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis.27.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2.3 using Thevenin's theorem. Repeat Example 2.

Ans. Z22 3t n. Example 2. 14·3 Q.35 Figure 2. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n.42. Circuit for Example 2. 4. Z21 = Zl2 t n.36.28 using Norton's theorem.33. h22 H mho. determine the new z parameters. Circuit for Example 2. The circuit shown in Figure 2. hu ~l n.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl.31. Repeat Example 2.26 using Thevenin's theorem.0.32.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches. 1·9 X I0-2. 0·44 L 2° 30'i. 91 .34. 73 . Ans. Circuit for Example 2.36 Example 2. Repeat Example 2. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. If the circuit shown in Figure 2.umho.43.41. -1·29. Ans. Ans. Example 2. hl2 = -h21 = u.35. Using Norton's theorem.EXAMPLES Example 2. Figure 2. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. Figure 2. Zln lJ!l n.43. zu i n. Example 2. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2.42. Example 2.33 of 106 rad/sec.

Ans.2· 3.44. y. . -5 000 n. 8 X 10-3.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. 50 X 10-6. -0·04. Example 2. 37 n. (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. h21 75.38 using g parameters. 393 Q. -5·7. A network having hu 1 000 !2. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad.44 represents an active device. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. A 1 54. 5. 600. The T network shown in Figure 2. z. Ans. 40 mV. Z21 92 . g. Z1n 1·25 kQ.41. A four-terminal network having Zn 100 n. 5 000.40. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 . Repeat Example 2. Determine (a) the y parameters.umho. 45 X 10 3. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1.37. Example 2. 125. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. Ans. Example 2. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. the g parameters. Z22 500 n. 2 X 10-3. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V. (b) from the results of (a). h12 10-3 . -3 000. Ans. 23 . A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. 0·15.31. -375 X 103.39. h22 200 . 1 944 Q. h22 Example 2. 2·39 kQ. -2 X 10-6. Z12 10 n. Z1n. h21 50. h12 10-3 . 200 .umho. 2 X }04.38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil.38.umho. Circuit for Example 2.

38. h21 250. h12 I0.46 shows two interconnected four-terminal ·---------------. 1 -2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I ----- I il 50fi ~---------------~ 10on I I I I L---------------~ Figure 2.42. The network shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2.mho. Example 2.45.42 hu 2 000 0. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo. hzz 300 p. 157.EXAMPLES Example 2. Figure 2.46.) Ans. Ans. (Networks in parallel. Circuit for Example 2.43. 93 .4 . 9·8 mV.43 networks. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.

(c) A.. (a) Junction diode (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias. i.2 . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a. the diode is forward biased.C. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.3 LOW FREQUENCY. the first 94 .$"·~:-~ 6 I 200mV -1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit.1a. and an alternative approach is desirable.1. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3. First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.e. If the switch is in position B. +J(mA) -V (vol t s) 20 10 5 - +V (mV) .c.4 R 200 300 .

Diode equivalent circuits.C. 0·3 f-tA. 7·5 mA. (b) Small signal a. this current.c. the switch is moved to A.c. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite resistance which is 95 . the Variation in total series resistance due to the non-linearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 10-3 I = 20 X I0-3 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics. Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. on the other hand. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. generator has a peak value of 20 m V. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 -=-=20MQ R I0-6 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current. If the a. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line.c. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~-- 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 J-LH (c) Figure 3. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. lf. is approximately zero.2a. Thus the a. giving an operating point of 110 mV. as in Figure 3. (a) D. say 300 n.c. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA.2. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch.

VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 10-3 15 x 10-3 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a. the anode slope resistance. A Ioad line of slope . The term small signal implies that the a. and provided the a.c. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree.c. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance.1IRL is shown passing through the d . We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. Figure 3. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3. At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. operating point Q. operating point.2c. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. These are known as ra. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 . and p the amplification factor. series inductance.3. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. bias current is 7 mA.c. The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra.c.c.c. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70. provided the d.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor.LOW FREQUENCY.

From the graph. when Ia.~Ia I (3. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3.c.2) r _ a - g and ra.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3.Load line 0 0 Figure 3. is not constant. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra. llVak~o m. a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3. X gm ~Ia. i..-..V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia.AB . = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.3.~Vgk 6. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm. X -~Vgk ~Vak I = f1.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _.4. . 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak -Ta.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad.4) ~Ia = QB.1) .3.e. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !-' the amplification factor. But (3.

fa + RL t-tRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal./aRL = Ö. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 .4. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ.Vak gmÖ. when loaded with a resistor RL.Vak Ö./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö.Vgk = "'-----7-1 + RL fal But = Ö.:--~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3.5) + RL or (3.LOW FREQUENCY. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve.Ö. (a) Constant valtage equivalent.Vgk Ö.VgkRL R 1 + .1: ra gmraRLÖ.RL ra (3. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = -fl..6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must.--_____. r----------.r-.Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered..Vgk = f1.

99 . The characteristics shown in Figure 3. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve. + RL -"-. so Av Vo = -Vs = -gmva = and and Vo = Vo --':---=- (~ + ~J -gmvara. The alternative circuit in Figure 3..:. -fWsRL = laRL = ---'_.gmraRL v.-=ra + RL -(-lRL ra.----.4a.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.c. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them. operating point we can obtain an a.ra. Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) -fWs ra + RL .5 are those of a valve having the d.c.5.c. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same.4b can be solved by nodal analysis. Vgk. By Figure 3. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . changes at a d.. operating condition indicated by point 0.=--- A _ .c. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve.5. As before Vgk = v8.RL ra. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3.

(a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a -gm Vgk .. Applying Norton's theorem in the same way.3.LOW FREQUENCY. Thus to a. Now from equation 3. The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = .6a and by comparison with Figure 3. voltage must be zero. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem.c. Vak g vgkl a .c. 100 .6. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage. the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics. See equation 3.. condition.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3.. g Y= . any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance. In this case we are concerned with a. Triode small signal equivalent circuits. If a circuit is open then the current is zero.1 Vgk -. i. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed.4a. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit. This means that the a.e..= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0. Vgk must be zero.!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3./-lVgk.c. so if the alternating current ia is zero.

2.fva.6b. h. 101 . when Vgk is zero. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured.4b we can see that Figure 3. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a three-terminal device. by comparison with Figure 3. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents.c. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. gmVgk. g.e. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. i. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full. input Vgk is (See equation 3.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. it is 1/ra. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. There are in fact many more possibilities. for each configuration we can obtain z. Again. since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections. it may be treated as a four-terminal network.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. resulting from an a.

forward and output respectively. 102 .c.c. r. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. reverse.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i.7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. Ievel.LOW FREQUENCY.7. quantities measured about a particular d.c. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3. fand o for input. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d.c. operating point. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3. value. Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a four-terminal network. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a.

and as we shall see in later chapters.8a.c.8. typically I0-3. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a.8a. the output characteristic. hre ic = -:- I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3.. If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3. may frequently be neglected. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la .e. This parameter is very small.8b.8. it is the short circuit input resistance. 103 hre . Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter. i. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic -Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3.

hre. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 . an output resistance of 10 kQ. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance.9. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor. A typical value for hoe is 100 .e. The ratio of the two. These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5. Using conventional currents. 104 .LOW FREQUENCY. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the four-terminal convention. The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10-500 depending upon type and application.8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic.9. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required.umhos. b e Figure 3. i. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). But it is usually more convenient to convert. It is shown in Figure 3.9 but with appropriate notation.10. To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. Looking at Figure 3. is therefore positive. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T.

Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common. 105 . and oc0·99. The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB.11. Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3. (c) From fundamentals.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e . Figure 3.. ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1. Tb I 000 Q. ib b - otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3.10. rc I MQ.11. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components.10).

Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit.f.m. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5. (a) Short circuit output. (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB. the direction of the current generator. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB.12a. The required circuit is shown in Figure 3.oc). and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 .oc) ~ !. Tc !'•• /rx' r. Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters. (f) Since ib is the input current. 106 . The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e. Also putting -1 oc = oc' and (1 .LOW FREQUENCY..) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3.17).12. (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( -re1 + -rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero. and with it. it is convenient to reverse its direction. the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of -ocrc n. the conversion is completed -oc oc (equation 1.

14) hreTc hrehre hre Te=--=--=rx.' = hre (3. 3.' hrehoe hoe (3. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3. 107 .12) Equations 3.10. The opposite conversions can be found using these results. rx.9) + The current (1 rx. (3.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input.9. rx.12.=== Te(1 lb + rx. the short circuit ic must be the remainder. 3.. From equation 3. = rx. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent. But Tc/rx. - rx.11.11) (3. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re- Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 . h re and ic =-:- I lb Vce=O .13) From equation 3.'.-.11 and 3. hoe===oc' = -Tc Te+ rx.12b.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O - Tc Te+--.')ib fiows in Te.'re Tc (3.')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx.16) From equation 3.') (3.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters.' in parallel.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V -.10. rx. hre Tc=-=hoe hoe (3. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals.

Using the equations above: (/. Vg -2 V or (b) RL 60 kO. 108 . of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. Vgk -12 V. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I0-6 = 720 kQ I0. Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO. hre 90. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them.LOW FREQUENCY.4 .1. but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. y or g parameters will be more convenient.4 re = 125 X I0-6 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 10-4 1 300. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. the OC75. EXAMPLES Example 3. In all such cases.T. If they are fundamentally four-terminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics.. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively.umhos. hre 5 x I0. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. and hoe 125 . 1t is to be operated with an H.125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936-n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. For each case.

(With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. or (b) VBE -130 mV. Av. 110). The d. Ic 8·8 mA. ra 6·6 kf!. Av. 24. In each case. 9·8 mA. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 -2 -4 -6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 -8 -10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 -12 -14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 -16 1-1 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans. ra 31 kQ.c. (a) 153 V.15·8.29·5. 36.EXAMPLES determine the operating point. /B 40 A.) 109 .2. (b) 361 V. Example 3. operating point is given by (a) VcE -4·5 V. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. determine the small signal h parameters. A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. 1·5 mA.

1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans. 97 .umho. (a) 470 0. iB (pA) for .VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 -VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 2-4 3·6 4·8 6·0 7-6 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 5-6 6·9 8-4 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 3-9 2-9 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 .umho. 45. 450 . (b) 1 200 0. 5 X I0-3. 35. 6·7 X I0-3 .

hzt 120. hrc + 1. 0·993. and oc0·97. hrc -33·3. Ans. The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. htz 5 x 10-4 . hoc 33 .3. 12·5 kO. rb 500 0. Ans.umho. Example 3. rc 1 MO. 244 0. 111 . hrb -0·97. 1·5 MO. hob 1 . 244 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits. 120.umho. (b) htc 550 0. (a) htb 30 0. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0. hu 1 000 0. h22 80 . (a) 6·25 0. hrb 5 X 10-4 . (b) 6·25 0.4.EXAMPLES Example 3.

Then. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. using this method. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means. 1 r.c. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. g g ~ f-l Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4.0b 112 . The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. This procedure is not only time consuming. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . In this chapter. we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits. operating point. gm. and p. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits.0.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. Either the constant voltage form Figure 4. .c. equivalent circuits. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. These circuits represent the valve only. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. at the particular d.

These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. (2) Taking each electrode in turn. source of e. measured with respect to cathode. or current source shown in the complete circuit.s and e. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen.c. and the input impedance.m. indicate the sense of the unknown currents.Vb.m. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow. The d. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid.f.f.c. potential at the grid.m.f. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter. In general. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. add such p. the output voltage or power. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used.c. This 113 . (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary.T. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification.s algebraically. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. line is taken as earth. the equivalent circuit is again used. the frequency or phase response. Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters. since the a.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method. In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . connect it to earth through any component. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . If the amplifier output impedance is required. The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e.d. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution. The re<1.s and proceeding from cathode to grid. positive H. If a numerical solution only is required.i2)Z1. but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a.

d and e show the connection of grid. iaRk. and iaRL due to a positive ia.. Vo = iaRL. and e.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution.) Continuing with step 5: -f-lVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4.6) Vo = -f-tRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL. and Vo -f-lesRI.4) (4.. Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. cathode and anode respectively to earth. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram. Example 4..-----.:. this would have led to Vgk = -iaRk +es and Vo = -iaRL. ra + RL + Rk(1 + f-l) (4. The full circuit is given in Figure 4. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es.5) lf the output valtage is required. f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara.2) Substituting for Vgk -f-t(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.1. --=----'---' and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b. The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized. 114 .C.7) = and the valtage gain.1) (Note. The valve has amplification factor f-l and anode resistance ra.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and -f-les = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + f-t)] (4... c. c. d..

(b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (a) Triode amplifier with un-decoupled cathode resistor. (d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4.__----.1. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a.

(a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + -gmesYk (4. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = .2. The simple cathode follower.m. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = -.2b the required equivalent circuit. 116 . If the constant current form is used. (b) (a) Figure 4. ra re-arrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier. THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. Figure 4.s.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit. Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution.1 g. the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4.2. Two other series forms will be given as examples.

10) iara = es. and kQ -20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now. In addition there will be d.9 is simpler.c.THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( . power due to the direct anode current. Vo = -iaRL since +ia. this is the best to use. power in the load.c. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety. volts. but since result 4.12) (4. flVgk - Vgk + es (4. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av.RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth.iara 1 + fl (4.135 X I0-3 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l = - + fl) = es - giving iara. 117 .13) Inserting values and working in mA.11) Both forms are correct.2b (4. Writing the circuit equation (4.

16) ( writing mesh equation rearranging es. Considering Figure 4. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example ia(RL es(l + f-l) .3. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results.3b Vgk = (4.14) +iaRs.3a.15) ß)] (4. The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance off-land ra respectively.3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure 4. but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4.f-l( +iaRs. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + f-l) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + f-l) + ra) (4. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es. Derive expressions for the valtage gain. and internal resistance Rs. The grounded grid amplifier.17) . the terminal input impedance.

4).--:--::::(4. Consider a simple Figure 4...) + RL 119 . Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.)RL Vo = -----::'--:~.20) (4.) (4.)RL ra + RL (4.) + p..) _ R s + RL + p.19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln - ia v' =es. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4.20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn.) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =-:- (4.iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s - ra Ztn = .)RL -=--------~~--~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL)...21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator. and putting Vo Avt = ..CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4.. Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z.22) ra + Rs(1 + p.( 1 + p. es(l + p..:.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p.4.:. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p.

.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4.5. sources suppressed (i.24) (4. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation. replaced by their internal impedances). The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e.26) .25) (4. (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals.e./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted.m.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4. (See Figure 4.f.5. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = -IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D.

c.6. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4.u)] RL + ra.4. The circuit shown in Figure 4.u) (4. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d. + Rs(l + . R5 (1 . designed to give a high resistive input impedance.6a isthat of a cathode follower. The valve has . Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth.u 50 and ra 10 kQ.6b. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.s. THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. Taking all resistors in kQ. These are a form of cathode follower.23) as was obtained using the logical approach.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters. all 121 . The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4.m. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4.THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r.

8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is. and all potential differences and e.31.) Using substitution methods.29) Rearranging and collecting terms. Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical.30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = -:.5.= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4.30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 .ls Ia (4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA. +5is has been neglected.32) substituting in equation 4.f. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4.31) -25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4.s in volts.3 .ls = . 25 000 .30) 0 = (4. 5 000 .7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier. VI = 505is + 5ia (4.m. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts.31 . 122 .1-5 . we have: Vgk = 500is [or -5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500t-tis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4.28) (4. from equation 4. = . The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.

Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 . By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL - i2RL = RL(h - i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2. the equivalent circuit.36) rearranging: -11e1 -11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4.11e2 .3 9) (4.11e1 . Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4. If substitution methods were used.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes. we find (4.f1Rk(h .35) (4.37) (4.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4.7b. very unwieldy expressions would appear. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear. Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants. h and = -11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 .34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4. and if the first term of this is expanded.40) These two expressions have the same denominator.f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.7.5 The mesh equations may then be written: . On 123 .33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = -11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 .

e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra .12 = .u(e2 . at low frequencies. Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn. and a Ioad RL. [ra + RL + Rk(l + .u)](e2. series inductors may be neglected. . 11 . and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored. this. those for minimizing negative feedback.41) From this result. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling. Two examples involving reactive components will be given. The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor. A triode valve having .e1) + . depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component.e2) volts.u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + .ei)(l + . The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 . .U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .u) 11 .uRk(e2. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants.u)] -. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity inter-stage coupling. Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4.u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 . and stray reactances due to wiring etc. Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges.12 = . Therefore .u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored. high or medium.6.ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h - + (4. and the second term in the denominator will cancel. but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified. Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a short-circuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel. CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequency-conscious.u(e1. The question of whether a frequency is low. Similarly. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically. then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored.

j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4. i.8a shows the complete circuit.j 1. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz. This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tan-lfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 .8b shows the bias circuit as Zk.j2 = 25 + 4 = -2·69(5 + j2) = -13·45 .8. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4. Av = ra At 159 Hz. where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil.j) = 5 .1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk. working in kil: zk = -j x 1 = -j(1 + j) = 1.6 Figure 4.42 -39 X 20 -39 X 2 -78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 . Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz. equation 4.1. -flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4.CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.e. Circuits for Example 4.7. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz. connection between grid and earth. Figure 4. Rg is necessary to provide a d.c.

the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action.:.78(3·04 + j0·4) . THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4.j0·4 .9a and b.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore -j0·1 -j0·1(1 +j0·1) .j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases.7. the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p.------ --~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4.8 In this problem. 30 --. Zk=1-j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01-JO·l -39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) -78 3·04 . low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz.9. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4.---:. In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R).. the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4. 9·25 + 0·16 = -8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = -25·2 . Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 . To sketch the required frequency response curves. and -39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit. and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R).) ~ ra + RL.

c. output voltage will be developed. If Rk X.T. and Cs = 100 pF.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage. is applied.5. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated. ra = 10 kO. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. The first step then. connection to earth. 127 . Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the inter-electrode capacitance of the second valve. (b) (a) Figure 4. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use. given that: !-' = 20. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component. This is provided by Rg across which H.10b could be solved by mesh analysis.10a. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. certain components may be neglected as either open-circuit or short-circuit. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4. RL = 20 kO.10. (1) The cathode bias circuit. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose. = - 10 10 then -wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz.c. Ce= 0·1 fkF. Rg =50 kO.

(2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz.c. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w=--= RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0. If these results are examined. C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz. it may be regarded as open circuit. low frequencies. If 1 -CB = lORg W 1012 1 w=--= lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range. amplification.c. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency. and high frequencies. If the reactance is greater than lORg.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. 128 . both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected.5. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a short-circuit.

12.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 .11. If the parallel combination Figure 4. 1 1 I 1 (4. The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re.11.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = -2 X 5·89 = -11·78 In Figure 4. and Vo = .45) Re= 5·89 kQ f-t 20 gm = .gmesRe Rg Figure 4. the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.= .gmVgkRe = .44) -gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.43 and 4.43) -=-+-+Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4. Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.12.

The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted.46) -gmZe _ -gm(-jXcsRe) Re. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5. For example. then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze. the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4. Iet Re/Xcs = I.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXc8 . (See Appendix 1. From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift. and 5. This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. 0·2. (4. 4. d at f rom 17 . Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J0-3 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 . 2.) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I. thus Re I = Xcs = -wCs and I w=--= ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton . 0·5.

c. Vo = 1 RgVa Rg - . This is shown in Figure 4.13. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). Table 4.1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points. Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a. tan-1 2. leading to the result shown in Table 4. and y'(12 + 52). anode voltage Va. but if more accuracy is required. further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5.13. y'(12 + 22). k Figure 4.48) . where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit.1. tan-1 0·5. and tan-1 5 from 180°. y'(12 + 0·52). The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan-1 0·2.

.e. + RL) (4.52) = Avm. + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta. + RL) TaRL Ta.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va.Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ -gmRe jXcc(Ta.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta. 132 .Rg + RLRg.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg. and Vo Avl=-= es TaRL ) -gmRg ( Ta+ RL --~--~~~----~---- ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg -jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4.51) . X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x. from equation 4. h 11 1 b' .RL + Ta.50) R L + RL) -gmRgTaRL Ta.44 Avl = Avm -----:-~ I _ jXcc R' (4. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta.50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + . T he expresswn Ta (4. Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined.RL Ta. it is Re. and Rg. is given by the product of the current . i.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4.49) The term (Rg. RL.jXcc .gmRe Rg + Ta.53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. and Rg. J cc (4.jXcc(Ta. RL..jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es.jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg. Therefore TaRL ) .

the frequency must be divided by the same constant.1 0·5 etc. For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2. and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. To calculate the frequencies.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . now .2RgCc 133 . The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative. tan. first consider the point where Xcc R' -=1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant. This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan-1 0·2. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°.

the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4. -20.9.Hz Figure 4.8. Ans. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4. -13·3. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. A triode valve has 11-40 and ra 20 kQ.14. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . Once the technique has been mastered. 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits.14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale. By definition. An alternating voltage of 50 mV r.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier. Example 4. EXAMPLES Example 4.s. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ. -33·3.m. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ.

and VaK -3 V. 0·49 V. 34·3 kQ. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. Example 4. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. Example 4. h 2 mA. 51·0. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. If the anode load is 27 kQ.f. Take J-l and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. Ans.12. Example 4. 323 0. If J-l and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. 6·72 V.13.11. Ans. 0·75 V. 0·808. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit. ra. determine the constants J-l and ra of a suitable valve. 80 0. 1·25 V. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4. Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. Ans.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. 17·5 kO. 455 kQ. 135 . Calculate the anode-cathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4.14. 17·1 kO. Example 4. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters J-l and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. -10·5.10. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4. Ans. capacity coupled to the load. Example 4.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth.3a) is driven by a source of e.m. Example 4. Ans. 0·95. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier.15.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. Ans. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. Ans. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. 97 0. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. 10 kQ.

c. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively.15. Example 4. Circuit for Example 4.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. 136 .16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. Circuit for Example 4. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ. The d. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48'). Ans.16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade.15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier. for each valve. 28·3. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4. calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4.16. The circuit shown in Figure 4. 1·01 sin wt. or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4).17.16.

Circuit for Example 4. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4. 137 . 50 Hz to 10kHz.18. The valve has t-t 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode.18. If f1. -9·62.18 Example 4.Cl Figure 4.IlXAMPLES Example 4.18.19 Example 4. Circuit for Example 4.17. -30·4. Ans.Cl 50k. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 t-tF for this purpose. Ans.17 employs identical valves with t-t 36 and ra 12 kQ. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range.19. H:T.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4. 4·88 kQ. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. 500.20. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively. 35·6. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans. -13.

The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL. -39·15.23. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies. Ans.lF. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz.21. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz. Example 4. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4. Example 4. Ce 0·25 f.10a has the following components.19. -31·9. Circuit for Example 4.+ Figure 4. Ans.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.24. H.l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies. 5·5 Hz.. 138 . 0·01 f. 0·37 mA/V. 37kHz.22. The valve parameters are f. Ans. Rg 100 kQ. Take f.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.lF.. 9·6 kQ.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively.21 Example 4. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain.. Ans. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4.. 12·1 L 241° 42'. RL 30 kQ. Cs 330 pF. 27 kQ.T.

F. 128Hz to 7·5 kHz. 139 . Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO. Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100.EXAMPLES Example 4. Ans. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ. Ce 0·1 p.25. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ.

base and collector connections. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. rc. will. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. hrb. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. applied or generated. if correctly applied. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. for example. the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. If however. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving. hrb. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. 140 . if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration. i. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. or even. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply.c. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor.e. there is no need to convert to the required form. produce the correct solution in all cases. When the correct h parameters are available. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. This will usually depend upon the available information. Show all details. draw the chosen equivalent.

Figure 5. Remernher that batteries or other d.1. collector and base respectively. The circuit shown in Figure 5.GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn. Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 . (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages.c. and of the input impedance. Figures 5. connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit. but with T equivalents.c.Q. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method. Components R1. using substitution methods or determinants. d and e show the connections of the emitter. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. and the coupling capacitor. etc. hre Vce. having zero reactance.c. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current.c.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. Example 5. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4.3 must be used. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 . if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit shows a single stage amplifier. In any case. is shown as a short circuit. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. (hre ib. When the h parameters are given. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a. hre 5 X 10-4. to shows the h parameter equivalent circuit. the two mesh currents are usually more convenient. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. power supplies are short circuit to a.

1.1. e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5..Vcc c RL 4 k!l. 1'" RE 1k.O. (a) Circuit for Example 5. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS .la 142 .

lf proceeding against the current arrow. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic. These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic .lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification.GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter. 143 . not with respect to earth.c. and by adding any iZ products and generated e.90ib).f.m. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. Before continuing the solution.) and the signal source. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J0-6 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways. This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem. take the product as negaitive.s. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a.

take the product as positive.5 X 10-4 X 8 OOO(ic.3) (5.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic .ic = 1 040 A .e' .9 X 104 lc .90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5.90ib) V.3. In this case. Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.4 Substituting in 5. or (b) Vce = [ -1 OOO(ic + ib) .2) Rearranging these equations.72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !-LA ic = = -0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA -856fLA (Note the minus. Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.71 . or (c) Vce = [5 X I0-4vce + 900ib + R'ib . indicating 180° phase shift.4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I0-5e' 1. The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic .71·9 X 104ib e' and .1 81 From 5.04 = 1·74 X 10-5e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl. collecting terms and inserting the value of R'. _ . lb .1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic .owing towards earth.) 144 .4 OOOic] V.4 OOOic] V.3) 1 OOOib (5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow. = 4ic . but the shortest path is usually the most convenient. -e' io = . _ 13 X 103 .90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5. e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5.

Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib).0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo. This analysis may seem very long. and substituting for terminal current gain -e' 1 040 -ic = -:---=:-:---------.1·74 X 10-5 X 445 = 0·89 .GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor.:-:::--=-: At = 1·74 X 10-5e' ib 105 At=. Vo = -icRL = -856 X lQ-5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5.1040 X 1·74 = .. correctly applied. On the other hand this technique. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =-:lb lQ-3 = 1·74 X lQ-5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected.55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth.1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'.ibR' = 0·89 . since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 . Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way.. will always Iead to the correct solution.

146 .2. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn.c.2. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach. and hoe 105 . as have the Ioad resistors. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a. these components have been shown as short circuits. Vo. hte 1·3 kO. the h parameter general solutions may be used. (a) 1(b) Figure 5. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5.umho. The following points should be noted. current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5. itn and io. Determine the overall voltage gain. hre 110. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency. Figure 5.2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. This also eliminates the emitter resistors.. hre 2 X I0. Example 5.2a. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n.4.

umhos. a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2. = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 . (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl. lb2 + 2 X 10-4( -110ib2) 408 X lQ-b 220 v' = 1 300 .umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 -21. I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of . To obtain the adrnittance of a component in . Before applying these steps to the problern in hand.5) (5.GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'.= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 .umhos.+ -4·7.-4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows.6) . (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n.umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'. divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n. and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 -110ib X 10-4 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)10-6 Substituting for v0 in 5·5. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. Applying this rule.

umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl.8) Substituting for ibl in 5.7) (5. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 . YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 .1·3 = X 1·471. using the general solution found in Chapter 2. Ztn2 hrehte = hte. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2.6 u 2 Ytn -llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 -100 1 300(1 471)10-6 .7 _ I 300(1471)10. for step 3. = -llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 10-4 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)10-6 1 300ibl (5.285 2 X 10-4 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 . and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 .( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1.0·022 -58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .100 X 2 X I0-4 -110 .umho Now from the general solution.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I0-4 = I 300.

260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + -110ib2 X 303 -110 X 3·03 = ----.I 10 -IIO X 2 X 10-4 = -2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = -2I6·5 X -58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain. io Vo YL2 At=-:--=--= AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 10-6 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure.3:-::0-=-3-+--:-1-=-05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X -Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X -1Ix30·3 4·08 .58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 -110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10. .--~-chte(hoe + YL) . IR 2 io -IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03.GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution. lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn .6 . refer to step 6. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 .110 X 2 X 10-4 = . -hre Av = -------.hrehre -110 = 1 300(1 471)10-6 .

hrehre Yo = hoe .42 .I 7 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 10-4 I 300 + 442 .umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 . 97·2 + 303 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2. 3 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution.umho I 000 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) .umho = 97·2 . the overall output admittance and impedance.umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 = - - 110 X 2 X I0-4 I 300 + I 530 .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 .28 .umho = = 1 000 655 .umho X 10 = 92·4 .4 = + 260) .umho 220 I05 .umho Including YL2.hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors.umho ~400 . Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .

To show the effect of these approximations. so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value.2 is accurate but not really practical. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. Av= -hre -hreZL . In any case. . may be neglected or at least rounded off. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last. E. further components are added in parallel. the bias components.. . A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain.3. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. .3 where es is the source Figure 5.2 voltage.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . and hoe is neglected. having an impedance much greater than h1e..GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5. the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. In each case however. The first thing to notice. Finally. we shall reconsider Example 5. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5.

Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b. Table 5. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations. 600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. Having considered the common emitter amplifier.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem. Avz Z1n2 = -llO 1·300(105 + 303)10-6 =- 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 -90 X .2.1.1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho -63·5 -63·5 x -208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. 152 . hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 5000-2 kfl 5 kfl-20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies. hrb.

these alternative methods will be compared.3. Example 5. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters. hoe 250 . Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit. Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = -Vo = -2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) . by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5.4. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions.3 emitter parameters.umho and hre 65. Take hte 800 n. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5.GENERAL METHODS Table 5. Figure 5. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents. firstly.2. Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5. hre 10-3 . In the next example. and secondly.4a. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5-300 0·5-2Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications.

umho .umho = 60 .4a. = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = -258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I0-3 terms) From the second equation. = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib . + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib . 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. From Figure 5. 154 Y1n = 71·25 . -:ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'. 258. VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = --.= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 . YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel. .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ.umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components.umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 . so substituting for ic in the first equation. and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 .I0-3(ib 0 = 4(ic - 65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms.

5. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals. as shown in Figure 5. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :---Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain.GENERAL METHODS By current splitting.3 155 . suppressing any external generators. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. (a) I Figure 5.5a. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I0-6 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit.

V.384 X I0-6 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5.384 X I0-6V =:::= .1 and 5. so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I0-3 V. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 5-20 (limited by bias components) Low 0·8-0·99 High Bias components Low 20--100 il 156 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5.) Now writing the nodal equation.65 X 384 X I0-6V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10. 0·384 X 10-6.2.6 Neglecting the first term. I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)10-6 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5.VY' = 0·384 X I0-6V.5b.3. Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator. IO-av Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l0-6V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage. Table 5. First Vce = .5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.

6. Thus and + hreib) hrc = -(hre + 1) and h1c ie = -(ib = h1e Now for ib zero. the hre generator becomes -hreVec. Vbc.hre . hre Vce Figure 5. together with ib flow into the short circuit. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears. The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. All the current from the hre generator. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = -Vce.. ib and ie as shown hlc I = -. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents. Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals. Vec. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec - hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 .6.

USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5.umho For overall Y0 . The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example. With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. 158 .umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one. Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 .umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . including Ioad. a phase splitter or a d. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier.c. but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 .3: htc = 8000 htc = -66 hrc = hoc = 250 . amplifier.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 .6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance. ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given. This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected.10-3 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I0-6 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0. we require the effective Zs.umho 1 . or super <X pair.

The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a.c. hre 5 X 10-4. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier. supply. by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO). Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5.7. 7a. In this example only the he parameters are available. hoe 125 .c.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d. Circuits for Example 5.4. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d. operating points determined by the circuit. hte 1 300 0.c.umho and hre 90.7a could be treated in a number of ways. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. 159 .

circuit admittances and external generators.0·83vz 0 = 0= -75·5vl + 153vz . as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59. vz and va in terms of is. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1.mho. The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI - vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p.7b.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p.vz)830 + 90( -830vz) = -vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830) - 125va and for node 3: -90( -830vz) = -125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000. vz. and va.A Now for node I. which changes the units to volts.0·125va -75vz + 0·625va 160 . For node 2: 90(vl . The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances. For ib1. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 .A. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. therefore if VI. we may write and ibl = (v1 - ibz = vz)830 pA -vz 830 p. The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1.

but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low.0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal.X ls X is(153 X 0·625. since each stage of a 161 .0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants. This is to be expected.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(-75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~-==-~~~~~--~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage.= ls 1 -:ls is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =-:. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = -. For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 -75·5 0 -0·83 +153 -75 is 0 0 is 0 0 -0·83 +153 -75 0 -0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(-75·5 X X75.

Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. hoe" and hre ". conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2.5. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000..w 'h. Example 5. common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance. 162 .~· it. hoe'. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair.. hre 120. (d) (c) Figure 5. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5. (b) (a) !2 ho.' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h . A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base.8b.8.8a.. hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ".c.

for h12 and h22. Figure 5._h_"_ 1 ~ h---. the parameters for the overall circuit. hz1.9) we can write a nodal equation. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h----.1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5. Here Vz ib"=---11 1 hte h----.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations. ib" in terms of the node voltage.:.. where Y is the combination of hte ". this can also be deleted. h12. and short circuit output. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h---. are open circuit input.d.. and since there is no p. where hn.. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. across hte'. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5. for h21 and hn. oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". but first we must find h22.10) .:. oe II le (5. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + -h oe _ fz _ 22 - = V2 - h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " -h + le oe 1 h ") + . Under these conditions h and ib are zero. + oe Now.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2..

In this case. The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit.I5) (5.I h . numerical values will prove the last term to predominate. 11 - + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5.12) Once again. By inspection.... the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I . V' + hoe'hte 11 (5... oe + -h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5.I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____. • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h--. For h21.. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem. le h _ h . I ... we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part.. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately.. Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition.8d. The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.II.14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =-" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5.= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'.11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5..I6) . we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted. h in terms of h. (5.

1121 = 120. 5o14. and 5017. practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 10-6 X !50 X 10-6 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 10-6 I 50 X 10-6 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METI-IODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6. or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value.(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013. h _ h ib' - _ hre'.3 = x 10-6 OoOI8 + """1-3 mho = Oo8 + 13-8 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q .83 kQ 165 .0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns. smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb . the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n - 3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu . hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018.

The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . independent of frequency. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input. have neglected the effect of reactances.Q h12c = 1- h21c = -11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. and that due to transistor properties. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF.6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. and hre negligible. By means of a general analysis. At this point then. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value. hre 110. where shown. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. Av2 .9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. except in phase. the coupling capacitor. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 .9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components. as the large h21 permits a very low d. Stray capacitance due to wiring. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. determine. Example 5. have not been shown. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. Figure 5. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. huc = 188 k.c. without loss of current gain. Capacitors. base current for the first transistor. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5.3. hoe 100 . An even higher input impedance can be achieved.umho.6. Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4.

ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance.22) .21) 1 Ztn2=-y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5.6 For simpJicity. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5. Jet 1 Re = -:----=c---=--(5. Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5.19) -Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V.9.20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5. the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5. By definition. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis.

h . Ve shown in Figure 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also. First. . X es is in parallel with Re. The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm. At low frequencies. Av1 and Avh respectively.telb X .>Re v' = -hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' -hre Avm =-=--Re VI hte (5. . - - VcZ!n2 Ztn2- jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies.24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected.jXce) Ztn2 v = . ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2 - J Ce . as low frequencies. . RL'(Ztn2 . X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = -C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 -C '.23) At high frequencies. considering Figure 5. -jXcsRe v = -hrelb x R ·x e .9b is the same as v'. Avh -hre = -h-Re le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. those at which Cs only may be neglected. and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies. will be referred to as medium frequencies.J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by -jXcs.

) Thus from equation provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed. At any particular frequency.24. Avm = -110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5. In this numerical example. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5.23. and 5. But (Equations 5. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies. Forageneral investigation. let Re/Xcs = 1. 5.21. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.22. 5.20. This results in Avh = -59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5.26) 169 .23. Avm A vl = ---':'-::-:- (5.20.25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5. 5.24 and 5. from equation 5.

2I. 2wh. etc. At low frequencies. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. These results are shown in Table 5. 170 . the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz. At these frequencies. tan. this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1. Inspection of equation 5. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz. y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan-1 0·25.4 on page 171. I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. 5. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p. . this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1). tan-1 3 and tan-1 5 respectively..24. 2. In practice..I9 and 5..USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !.1 2.F = 0"63 p. 3. 3wh. and 5wh respectively. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5.F Thus in practice a 1 p. y'5.F capacitor would be suitable...

0 tan-1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .1 2 63° 30' = 18. 8 tan.1 tan.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan-110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll-6 tan.10·5 26° 30' T tan-10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan-12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh=-- Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .96 tan.5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.96 tan-120 87° 10' IAvml = 1-1 9 tan-1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where -0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42.' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan-11 45° o-5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.8 tan.1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 . Xcc Avt 7i.4.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan-10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.6 tan-1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan-11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.

Av2 = -hre YL) . the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. at each frequency. etc. The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case. values of !. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~. This is shown in Figure 5.2 . the gain of the first stage. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from -90° (at the top) to +90°.wCcR' .10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. etc. 3. i. Considering the single stage first. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed. since we are puttmg R ' . 2. of the two stage amplifier. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. must be multiplied by Av2.4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also.hrehre + -:----:-::------. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. 2. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies..4. Figure 5. .e. These results arealso shown in Table 5. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. for the single 172 . 3. This is shown. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies.=-:-----::-----::-- hle(hoe -110 = 1 000(100 + 500)10-6 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. the gain of the second stage.10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined.

(a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. with the origin on the circumference.MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. plotted in the complex plane. 4 6 f.llb.6.10. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift. we obtain the locus of the gain vector. 173 . This locus is shown in Figure 5. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5. If the ends of all these vectors are joined. the locus is a circle.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 . In this case.Jla.40 > 3. in Figure 5. 30 180° -e- 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5.

Example 5.O.11.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit. but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9.12a. An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 . If the transistor employed 4k. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit.12.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5. Circuits for Example 5. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned.7. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 .

29) Rearranging and collecting terms. V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = -0·03ie + 10(81ib - = ie) + 4(ir + ib . rc +. V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 -810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 -14 +814 +4 +10 -810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)-0·7(-14x 15-4x 10)+0 15 450vl .10(8lib. rb 800 kil and rx' 80.0·7ib (5. Figure 5.lo R L 0 = -lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 = ibrb + iere .28) (5.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1.. + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations. = ib(1 + rx') .27) (5.810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie. substituting for i 0 and i'. In terms of these three.463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 . + l. -.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib - ie = ib . inserting values and working in kil and 15ir. = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = -14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie . The unknown currents have been se1ected as and ir.

In the design of a practical amplifier. the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 . ib = Vi. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters. feedback methods should be used. In fact.814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5. Vo Vo Av = .203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v. 176 . circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are available.n Vt Vt = -:lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers. ir = 14ie .= -90 Vi Z.27. however. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. The methods used.ib.0·03Vt 0. In the majority of the examples. mA = ioRL = (ir.28.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point. the input current is ib + ir. However. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit. .ie)4 V = -22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance.

-0·68. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. 960 Q.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. Assurne Xe = 0. 8·83 mV. Ans. 960 Q. Repeat Example 5.8.14. v.11 Example 5. 0.9. Circuit for Example 5. -36·2. Example 5. -56·5. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. -3 130. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. Figure 5.8 using RLO. -1·97.11. -65·6.13.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n.. Ans. hoe 90 .10. -6·72. Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. Example 5. Ans. 0. and At against RL. 258 n.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. Av. -560. -65·6. Figure 5.umho. Circuit for Example 5. Ans. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5. -130.8. 862 Q. 10 kQ. 645 n. and oo. hre 75. 25·7 Q. 6·83 kQ. 177 . 100 n. hre I0-3 .8 taking Xe as being infinite.

shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 .15 has h1e 1 300 0. Ans. hre 90. Example 5. Ans. Repeat Example 5.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances.16. Example 5. 147. 264 Q.15. 1100 Q. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components.12.14. hoe 120 . The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5. 1 528 Q.13. Collector Ioads. A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5. 3·3 kQ. 2·22 kQ. -76. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. 25·7 Q. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0. hre 150. Ans. 496 X 1()3. hoe 80 .umho. 90 . Figure 5. 656 Q. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ. 650 X 1()3. Circuit for Example 5.15. hre 110. Ans. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. hre 0. 8·83 mV. -11·35. hre 5 X 10-4.7a. Example 5.umho. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. Example 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5.umho. hoe 80 . The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. 1.

calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance. and hre 0. 63 kn. -6 600. Ans. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. hoe 130 ftmho. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. 119 ftmho.17. 7 370. Ye Example 5. 1 123 Q. 2·10 kil. hre 5 X 10-4. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ. and IX 0·992. Example 5. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q.19 and hoe 125 ftmho. 5.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü.EXAMPLES effective. Ans. 105 Hz. 162 L 168°. 444 kHz.19. Yb 350 Q. per stage. -63·3. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit.16. 1 122 n. Yc 750 kQ. hre 90. and hoe 130 ftmho. 1 130 L 3° 30'. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF. hre 125. -89. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. Example 5. effective inter-stage shunt capacitance 500 pF. Circuit for Example 5. Figure 5.18. hre 80. Ans. hre 10-3 . Ans. 179 . 5 260. 20·4 x to-s. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil.

90 k.Q. hre 4 X 10-4. h1e 1· 5 k. hre 10-3 .Q. the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 . Assurne Zs to be 10 k. 180 . Ans. hoe 110 . (b) 0·973.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5.8a. 88 . Calculate the voltage gain. hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 .Q.Q.20. (a) -41·0.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2. In each case. hte 70.Q.umho.Q.umho.Q. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal). 4·0 . A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5. 14·6 k.Q. 218. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k. -1 270. hoe 500 .

and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. and of the device parameters. and in the event of a replacement.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters. The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals. Similarly. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. In this 181 . The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator.c. current gain or both. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. operating conditions. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance. The passive components may vary with temperature and time. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. and a change of d.c.

The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. and their configuration. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier. These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. some degree of distortion will always be introduced.1. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. particularly at high frequencies. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically non-linear. where in general A = lAI L 0. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. 182 . supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal.c. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency.

Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6.2) . lßl is less than one.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1. S is the input signal applied from an outside source.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0. and So is the output signal.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l. Usually.1. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex. the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1-lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6. where cp. S' is the terminal input signal. but not essentially. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp.ßA AS So= 1.

the feedback is negative.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6.e.e. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\. i.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'. We shall now consider the effects of feedback. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. Thus equation 6. With reference to equation 6. d. or temperature changes. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. 184 . on the properties of amplifiers discussed above.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600. Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain. i. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 . Feedback positive \A\.1. and in particular negative feedback. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. supply changes.) Example 6. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000.c. discussed above.


If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine

the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000



where K is a constant.


3 000

= 0·191


the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
3 000


Percentage change

100 per cent

= 59· 3 per cent

Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier



A 2r =

3 000

3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402

1 + 600

. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500 - 402
Percentage change m


100 per cent

= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series



or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback

Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multi-stage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe-1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be


referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.

Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:







+ R 2 Vo


+ R2

(6 .4)

Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by



since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'





1- Avoß
AvoV = 1Avo ß

Gain with feedback




1 - Ap~ vo


Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l - ßAvo)


If this equation is divided by i the input current,



-:-l = -.

- ßAvo)

But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:

= Ztn{l

- ßAvo)


Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback

We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say

V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining



+ Ztn)


ß'. Where

= -=-----=----=-----'R2 + Zs + Ztn


V'= ß'E





Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E - Av' V' = I'Zo'

From equation 6.9
E(l - ßAv') = I'Zo'
Zor = ji = l - ßAv'


The overall output impedance can thus be found from


Z = Zor



+ RL + R1 + Rz

Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback

We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.

.------;!--------,--- --1






c0 t




v---,r-.,- - - - - - - J

Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback

In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor

RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as


Thus if RF ~ Zs

+ Ztn (as is usual)






In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,



= RL + RF + Zo'


With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.

Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,


-IRF (if Ztn

+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)

and writing the mesh equation

E- Av'( -IRF)

= l(Zo' + RF)

arranging and collecting terms,



= IZo' + /RF(l

- Av')

= ~ = Zo' + RF(l- Av')


With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect

Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.

100 ß= .5a. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8). for both methods.f. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p. 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 .4.5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a).8.7 and 6. the overall terminal voltage gain.86 = 623 from equation 6.Applying equation 6.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative.5 and 6.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since . and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e. the voltage derived feedback. The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected. the modified input and output impedance.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits. so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6. For the amplifier without feedback. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine.m. from equations 6. and internal impedance 1 kO. Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6.

23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 . 6.A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 f-tA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ.7 and 6. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 1 795 = 192 . the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ.A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ.14). To return to the problem. If the original input current 0·5 f-lA was applied.11.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1. the current gain is unchanged. Zor =I lOkQ + 6. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6. and using equations 6. 6.A With reference to equation 6.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'.24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback. and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so.8 we find.

Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback. as has the input current. From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 .8 mV . 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f. the current gain has not been reduced. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9.13. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback.1. as a result of the increase in input impedance. This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800. lo - As before.1. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 . Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . Ztn 1 000 0. f. we refer to equation 6.

'. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '. I' is l•. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6.5. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased. 194 . /li0 io YL Y. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n.n=:=h- le in parallel with the bias components. A. these would be given by: I Y. CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. the two quantities to be added must be currents. the output impedance is reduced. With voltage derived feedback.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box.n - v' G2 Figure 6.5.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor. and a short circuit current gain A. Fora multi-stage transistor amplifier. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6.

= . lo = (6.19) Atois 1. is I' . and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network. I = 1.ßAto . Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 .v1)G2 = v'G2 (6. YL is the finalload. This is given by: At'YL' (6.19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.ßAto) is . The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6.ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.ßAto) (6.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL. the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .= Ytn and .20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6.16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback.(1 .= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6.15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'.ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But .21) 195 .5.

First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6. the current gain is reduced.24.20 and 6. and the input admittance is increased (i.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. The reader may have noticed by this stage. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback.e. with simple negative feedback.6. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6. Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V. the input impedance is reduced). that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . I' Y. Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V.n G2 Figure 6.6. G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals. The effect of YL.2.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6.

Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6. I ---i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6. resulting in voltage derived feedback.24) With typical values. we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo. Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 .7. is shown in Figure 6.24 will approximate to YL. . Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result. Y.7.'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I". YL will be the predominent term and equation 6.CUR. 197 ß and .n .ß"At' (6. is I' I ~Ys io y.

198 . and calculating the resulting V.21 respectively. the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6. Example 6. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied. and output admittance. The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal. I + GF'(l.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals. Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn. (6.26) Using these values of ß and A10.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and . The amplifier described in Example 6.At") (6. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. the overall current gain. suppressing the source generator.3.20 and 6.25) Also.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. input admittance. Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case.

6.100 .15. Also 1 YL = .umho 1 -25-1 = 238 .umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn -:.umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6.= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative.umho .17 and 6.21.umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q). 6.20 and 6.= 250 .CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.= --.18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 . and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback.16.umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL . .umho ln Yo At . Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 . 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) . 1 = Zo' = . 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 .umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6. . 199 1 786 .

umho 101\ 0 A.21.umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6. This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance. The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6.umho + 280) = 3 130 .umho.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q).27.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 .22 and 6. ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6. Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 . = Yor = At" = = 9·9 .umho = 56 . GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 . applying equations 6.' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).20 and 6.umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ).25 and 6.26. 200 . For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 .

the output impedance is reduced. and the input impedance is increased. Y1n 1 000 . when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived). since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'. With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av. the voltage gain is reduced. Y0 350 . Ytn 1 786 .umho. With a current amplifier.umho. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance. + (a) Current derived feedback At 110.8. A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance. SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1. Now moving to the output terminals. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6.21. the current gain and input impedance are reduced. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input.umho. and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. Yo 305 .umho.umho. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. Yo 3 130 . In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 . We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained. Y1n 8 780 .EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit.umho. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance.

determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. and in Chapter 8. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. -135°. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities. By means of sketched vector diagrams.10 and 6. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. (b) -90°. v0 = A L 0 V'. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. -90°. At three different frequencies. Example 6. and that is that ßA must be less than one.ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. oo.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. 202 . (c) +45°. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector. The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'. These effects are shown in equations 6. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. naturally increases the output impedance. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback.4. This may be illustrated by an example. Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. First we must be clear about the information supplied. since the gain is 5 L 0. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. and that the calculation of Af(l . the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'.27.

4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6.8. IJvo ~ -~vo t's (b) -f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6. the gain and phase shift with feedback determined. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multi-stage RC coupled amplifier.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. Forasinglestage amplifier.11 for Example 5. ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°. Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6. (b) negative. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5. 203 . and by measurement of vectors or by calculation.6. and (c) positive.

fm . origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . 02P.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 .(l.ßA)is3 L 0°.9a.9b. and /h respectively. The origin of the (1 . Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ß-io L ()0. From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages. To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback.atfm. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. we must find. having its origin on the circumference.ßA) vector.ßA).ßA) vectors corresponding to f1. 02Q. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed.ßA) vector would remain at 01. This is shown in Figure 6.ßA). The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing. the scale of Figure 6. For this. then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X. Since this is the locus of (. for each frequency. we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( -ßA). The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6. and 02R are the (1 .9a.9b. Thus Figure 6. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown. Next the locus of -ßA is required. and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left. each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6.9a ft (a) Figure 6. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle.9b iscorrect. Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift.9. the vector (I . Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference. In Figure 6. and we require (1 .

draw the overall gain and phase response. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L -26·5° respectively. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response. the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined.9b shows that 11 .ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin. say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. 205 .10b is to apply to the problern in hand.1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted. Examination of Figure 6 . A table may now be drawn up. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies.ßA) and (1 . Since at each frequency. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. Before we can apply the methods outlined above.4. This is shown in Figure 6. Example 6. If the ß factor is -8·5 x I0-4 .10a and b.= 880. having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5. the gain must be squared. This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter.6. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point -ßA = -(3 520 X -8·5 X I0-4) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm. A two stage amplifier. The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier. the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20. With reference to Table 6. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = .5.ßA I can never be less than one.ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L -26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. it is applied over two or more stages. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. This will now be illustrated by an example. If Figure 6.

ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 .6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .10.1. cp' = 38°.1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 -129° -87° 0·01 972 -32° 0·02 870 -15° 0·03 879 -70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° . Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1-. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11. Table 6. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.ßA).ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.

and relative gain against log frequency. relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback. 207 . :. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency. Graphs of gain.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback... relative gain and phase <ll <ll > .. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency. ~co (/) co·- fU~ <llOl o. it is convenient to plot graphs of gain.. Figure 6.I:.r:. phase shift.lfl ~ +250° 1-0 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° -00 -50° 0·4 -1500 -250° Figure 6..11.11 shows graphs of gain. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback.. From these curves the following results may be obtained.:c . To obtain the relative gain in each case..

we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l .12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks. and since it is not symmetrical.10b shows that this will occur when 11 . 02. In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01. Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l . and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation.11. are possible origins for the (1 . but it cannot rise to infinity. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity. and if this distance is smaller. Consideration of Figure 6. -ßA and hence ß must be 208 .ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus.ßAol is also reduced. 04 etc.ßA) scale. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. If the origin for (1 . In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive.ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied. This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. 03. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l . Figure 6.12 shows the form of the locus of -ßA and (1 . then 11 .10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. For the locus shown in Figure 6. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges.ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. Oz. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. Examination of Figure 6. the origin for -ßA. This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. Figure 6. the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage.ßA).ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite.12b the amplifier must have four stages. The origin 01 isthat applicable to the -ßA locus. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true. was cut by the locus. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6.

The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies.= -0 = 1-ßA .ßA I is about . no input is required for an output to be present.12. Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased. giving positive feedback.e. In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously. (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6. i.ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75.ßAI cannot equal zero. With the origin at 02 li . If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li .ßA) with more feedback than 02. Locus of (1 .. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case. 209 .FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger.e.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased. but it can be less than one. 03 is the origin for (1 .ßAI is at 03. oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4. since the gain is infinite. i.

the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier. but also voltages at twice. In general the non-Iinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier.12b is given below. U nstable. we might expect a stable condition again. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8. that is troublesome. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. but if it is applied over three or more stages. or second harmonic. positive FB at high and low frequencies. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO. oscillation at /1 only. Unstable. oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 .THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. Origin Position 02-03 Oa-04 04-0s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. the amplifier will be unstable. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. bandwidth increased.

ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6. The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced.30) 1.13. 0·5 V at 2kHz.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D . Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on non-linear distortion Since we have an amplifier. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback.28 So = AS' 1 .29) S'(l .28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S. Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced. This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion. Consider the system shown in Figure 6. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So.ßA) and (6.13. and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel. So = AS' +D (6. + ßD + ßD (6. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz. So must contain a component AS'.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage.30 into equation 6. and O·I V at 3 kHz.

31) + 1.14.6 212 . A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6. Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.ßA ASt = I . But from equation 6.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively..ßA AßD + +D .14.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6.AßD I .32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I . Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically. 2 I• Feedback . Figure 6..31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6. This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. Example 6.6. using the methods described in Chapter 1.ßA D (6.

In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 . supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ß-ß' 2(6.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6. Figure 6. and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage. on Figure 6.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H.15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6.15. Severe distortion :. + ß') x 100 per cent Further.T. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. and es is 2·5 sin wtV. In Figure 6. Now toreturn to the problem. and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory.

D. has been drawn. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V. Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = -hRK t es and -hRK- es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 0-47 S. as has the d. (b) Without feedback.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case. VaK -3 V.c. bias line for 2 kQ. Peak Vo 191 . operating point is VAK 139 V.c. load line for 40 kQ.c.11. Peak v0 = 194. the operating point moves between VBK -0·5 V to VaK -5·5 V. load line.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . but ß may be obtained from equation 6. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d.c. current derived negative feedback is applied.H. h 1·5 mA. es must be increased. along a 38 kQ a. = 2 x 4 . But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 . The resulting d. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected.

v0 with feedback is slightly distorted.D. In the 215 . negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case. In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% ------n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger.-1-9 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. = 2 x 4 . The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S.16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result. From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component. In other words. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case.H. Figure 6. ßv0 is also slightly distorted. ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier. In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself.

216 . and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined. Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain.------v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6. Waveforms for Example 6. Ans. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) --es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo -5 200 (distorted) . A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. In a prototype. 80.7. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits. 0·012.16.

48·8 0. Example 6. determine the current ratio i0 /i8 . Ans. Ans.umho. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. 24·5. This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied. 38·7. Example 6. (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback.8.11. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load.10. 4·96 kO. The amplifier described in Example 6. For the circuit shown in Figure 6.17.umho. Example 6. 1 013 . Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000.11 8 217 . Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . Circuit for Example 6. 91·2. A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 .EXAMPLES Example 6.9.!l Figure 6. The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. 47·5 kO. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0. 25·8 kO. If the load and source are unchanged. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO. and 400kfi -10' i ' 2k.17. An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. Ans.8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. 169 0.

4 . (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L -45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L-65° 2 100 L -90° 3 300 L -130° 4 400 L -155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L -45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. Ans. Example 6. Check your answer by calculations. ß = 0·059 L -245° By means of vector diagrams.Q. 450 kHz-oo. ß L 200°. Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. 1/1 760. An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of -95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k.14. 1 MHz.12. 161. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance. (b) positive. Example 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX. Ans. whether the feedback is positive or negative. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. (c) neither. determine for each case. phase shifting. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° -30°. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. The total loading per stage is 600 . is applied. Example 6. 0-60 Hz. Ans.13. (a) negative. Ans. 2·6 MHz. 218 . I I 50.3 . 10.

T. RL 13 kO. 32 per cent. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1. The source impedance is 600 n. Example 6. Ans. N.. 2·12 MO. calculate the value required for RF. and RK 1·2 kO. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. 219 . is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base.15. 43 V peak to peak. Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. lf RK is adequately decoupled.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. Ans.B.16. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are -3 200 and 800 n respectively.EXAMPLES Example 6. 8·9 per cent. Checkthese results using feedback theory. calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt.F. 47 V peak to peak. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion).

In this shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier. Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined.1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. In this chapter.I .ßA so for simple negative feedback.7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier.. with feedback derived from a later stage. either A or ß must be negative. l is = I . The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .la shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations. The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' . INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions.ßA 220 . if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal. Figure 7. Figure 7. Figure 7.

221 .INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative.1. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier. Connections for feedback amplifiers. The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. (a) Current amplifier. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare. In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter.1 c.

and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO. the transistor parameters are hle 800 n. hoe 90 .27 inclusive.2.25 {J GF 12·5 = -h = -500 = 0·025 222 = -120 . Example 7.umho = hoe = 90 . Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier. hre 120.24 to 6.umho and A1' = -hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .- -SOkO = 12·5 .1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback.2. Y1n Yo' 1 = -hle = 1 250 .fi h . Circuit for Example 7.2. In the circuit shown in Figure 7. First the equivalent amplifier components are required.umho and from equation 6.. Since hre is zero. -hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er. For negative feedback {J must be positive.umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ. .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier. The required circuit is shown in Figure 7. Figure 7.1. With a . t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative. The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6. l .

and with the equivalent circuit problems. A!o = Yo' A.11.7. Y1nr = Y. Figure 7.n. 6. 6.ßA.8. In each case the voltage gain was reduced.o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6. .3 shows how the 223 .') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) .12 and 6.99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: -99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I . or by finding 1 ~pA.A.26.o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6. 6. part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed.umho The resu1ting output impedance -i-or = 476 n.21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l .umho + 99·6 X 0·025) . Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods. This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z.ßA1o Au= -28·6 Equation 6.'YL YL + GF + -120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = .umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.13).umho = 2100 . the input and output impedances were increased.n(1 .

~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises. Current derived.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6.3. To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +-. The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7. =V'. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback. since V' is less than es. using the notation shown. 224 .

. the circuit YL of 250 .n Figure 7.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)10-6. find the terminal voltage 4k. the output voltage and current.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7.12.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero.umho 900 =-!. Circuit for Example 7.4 Z1n = 900. for Z1n. we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier. hre 5 X 10-4. 6.2 and current gain. and the output impedance.4..umho and hre 90. Yo' = 125 X 10-6 - Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ-4 = 75 . A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.Cl 1k .2. Using feedback methods.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0.33 = 225 -283 . = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6.11 and 6. hoe 125 . Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10.90 -90 X 5 X 10-4 =- 1300 Note.7 Avo -1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 . As with the last example.

umho Now using potential divider methods. _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V. the base input current ib is required. Working in admittances. the overall input impedance should include the bias components. . = 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance. = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 .uA To calculate the terminal current gain. and Vo = 3·48 V. 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t -283 283 = -3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6.13. RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly.7 =56 226 . To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ-6 A = 880 .uA .56·2 m = 15·7 .

but when the bias components are included. an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows. Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier. This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback. 1. Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr -hreZL hte = -90 X 4 000 900 = -400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ .5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At -hreYL = -----=-YL + hoe -90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = . The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations.8 + 0. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 . In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances. which would slightly modify ß.

An and Z1n1.23. Au and Ztnr. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL.5. The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz).15 to 6. the steps in the solution will be: A12. Yor. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7. A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2. Since we have current derived current feedback. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter.5. 228 . since. making approximations where valid. will be. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (-ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback. The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . the solutions may be found from equations 6. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'.signs. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. So. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. Here. The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 . thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2).

m.umho.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200. of internal impedance 600 n. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e. Determine also by how much the e. hre 140.m. hoe 150 .s.m. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r. If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base. The output current in the amplifier. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.f.3.f. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent. of a driving source.6. shown in Figure 7. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X -hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + -hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X -I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X - 0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 .!1 Gz Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil.6. must be changed if the 400.3 required output current is to be maintained.

f. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho.6 =-51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + .32. Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2. and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 .!i:l'-) kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6.m. = itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2. D Dr = I .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e. -140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10.




and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho

ß --

This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:



Ztnr =

450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150

But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000

5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000

112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV

Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate four-terminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can


find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r------------- -,





L -








- -- -




- - -

- - - - __ J


L------ - - - - - - - - - - - Figure 7.7. Interconnected four-terminal network circuit for
Example 7.4

the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two four-terminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.

These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.


Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:



vl = yu = 100 kil =

10 ,umho

Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,



= 100kil

= v1 =

-10 ,umho

But the network is symmetrical, so


y12 = -10 ,umho

10 ,umho,

Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero



= -hte =

1 000 ,umho

where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and

= hoe = 100 ,umho

where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:

h = -

X -





hoe + YLI + Ytn2


X hoe


+ Ytn3




Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.




= 729

1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
-90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho

x 2. 1 x 2 . 1



165·5 mho


Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.


The combined parameters may now be written,



1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho



-10 ,umho
110 ,umho

The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,

-10 X 165·5 X 106

= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10-a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho


From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:

~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
yu(y22 + YL) - y21Y12
I65·5 X 10-6 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000) - ( -IO X I65·5
= -1..,..0_10__x--II.,..,0---










+ 10


To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.


= y22- yu +

Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho

with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.


The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.

Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ


of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.




Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5

To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05




Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,




Vr = (1

+ ßA1A2)

+ ßA1A2)

Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only

resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one. (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl.umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 . We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q-6 -47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 .8.umho = 1100 .umho -100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10. (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback. hz =(I 000 + 100) .6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 -0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 . (6) U sing ßof0·05. overall gain and input impedance with feedback.6 = . This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible. in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits.umho -100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)10-6 - 83 "4 1 kO 1 000 . it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl.

i1 the base current for Tri. + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = -0·98 x -83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0.5 First. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 t-tmho = 1 000 t-tmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.3) 238 . Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7.9. Ii• Figure 7.1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7.9 and solve by nodal analysis.05 = 16·1 (7.

6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1.O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = -0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 .5.6.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7. Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7.524 = 241 v1 (7. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts. Substituting from equation 7.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2.0·105Vo -100(-47·5)Vl ~ -0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr.524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105).7) . Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7. V2 = .0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2. admittance must be expressed in mmho. and l2 -hreV1 = -IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)10-6 V V2 -IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7.4) i2 = -47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions.3 and 7. 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205.

8) Comparing results 7. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added. Forthis situation. Apart from this. and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback.. The current amplifier for Example 7. h for the network. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. Unfortunately this is not valid. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon four-terminal network theory was not used for this example. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages. suggesting the use of g parameters.~.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · . and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). ll = 242 kO 1 (7 .4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters.1 and 7. Other situations however do permit the four-terminal network approach. we shall consider a valve amplifier.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters.8 with results 7.1 and 7. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. and the circuit for Example 7. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified.. since h for the amplifier is ib. while the current flowing out of the common terminal. the overall h parameters would be obtained.2 respectively (16.7 and 7. d ance = -:Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :. an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback. The remaining procedure then follows normal four-terminal network practice. 240 .1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent. is ib + ic. and in parallel with the output of the amplifier. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero. The circuits for Examples 7.

A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. ra 1 MQ. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7.3 :.6 When no feedback is applied. 10k. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7.6. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7. Figure 7. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = -gmRe = -3 X lQ. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at -30.10.9) . and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad.10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (-30)3 Re~RL Avm = -27 X X 104 = -30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages.ll.

X lQ-30) w2=----------~~~~~~--------~ -5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ-15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ-15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies.9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 .2 X 25 X 1Q-l6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q-30w4 +5 X X 10-32w4 X or (7. and there is overall current derived feedback.1 -5 X 10-15 ± y(25 X lQ-30 12·5 X 1Q-3o X 1Q-16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S.w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 . 242 .w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 -27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ-8 +4 25 1Q-15w2 . Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab -27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7.I0-12 X 1 .10) + j2wC Re .

11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( -18·75)2 = -10 580 X -30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1. but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage..-------. 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 10-4 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' f-lmho h 1 = YL2 = 10-4 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L -32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = .12) .~-o-: 243 (7..-.. -10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3...92 = X 10_4 -2060 At the upper 3 db frequency. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = -30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104 - (7. the overall ßis unchanged.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback...gmZL = 25·35/180° - But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L -32° 36' ... At this frequency.02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 ..

ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I . The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored.6 - = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 . Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 . This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6. Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' . but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 .PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ---::2-=-s. Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad.ßAm = = Ah I 1 .-=3-=-5-x--::0-:·2:-=_ _ _ _ _ __ I - L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 .7 350 x 3·92 X I0-4 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .1 + I·2I.11. The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique.j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L -49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback.

at high frequency.ßAml But v'2 -4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe .27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q-28 + 1·69 12·5 X I0-30 =0 X 10-28) --------~~~------~--------~ 3·66 w2 = . Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values.6·4w2Cs2Re2 .COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 . ß for the local Figure 7.w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27. 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q-32w4 . negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio. In the last example.x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=-:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored.1·6 X 1Q-14w2 . Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 .11.ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 10-4 X 10 580 = v'2ll .27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10-s.w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2.

The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately -hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(10-3 ::25 X 10-10) j10-2 + jw2·5 X 10-Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7.11. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. say. RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO. Taking account of the components shown. -hreZL . Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. hte 1 kO. If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 t-tF then CE must be 0·0025 pF. is to prevent instability. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path.12). and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL. If overall feedback is applied to.

(b) (a) Figure 7. Figure 7. COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors.12.12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits.

A final example. the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter. second to find Av1 and An including local feedback .12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first. The amplifier shown in Figure 7.7. The procedure would be to determine first. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. Circuit for Example 7.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. Example 7. finally to account for the effect of current feedback.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. will now be considered. based on this circuit.c.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . The circuit shown in Figure 7. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7.13. In Figure 7.

hoe I20 . Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .umho). All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency.6 = . hre I40.umho -140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)10-6 = -?? 12000 -140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = .352 and and A 13 = -140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 .mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 . -140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = .umho and hre negligible.89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q-6 = 0·1395 -77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = -6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q . The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q.

834 Overall At= l 389 = -4·9 X X -77·5 X -89 -20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0. then Ytn = 105 .uA 250 .umho By current division -140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = . then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 10-3 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10-a x 212 .umho = 1 389 .4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 . Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 .umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri.umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1.umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier.umho = 0·74 .

19 using feedback methods. -6·72. 4·88 kQ. RL1 4 kQ. Ans. Ans. 656 Q.11. 490 !2. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base. -11·4.10 using feedback methods. For more general analysis. Example 7. 17·5 kQ.11 using feedback methods.12. For convenience. RL2 1 kQ. Ans. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. 6·8 kQ. 251 . A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components.5 x 10_3 = -20 300 = -282 72 = -282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison. including those with common base or common collector stages. Many other forms are used. Repeat Example 5. Example 7. Ans. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit. hoe 125 ftiDho.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam . h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . 525. -9·62. Ans.8. -10·5.13 using feedback methods. wlt. EXAMPLES Example 7. Repeat Example 4. 264 Q.10.20x 300 3. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations.9. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. -1·97. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. Example 7. Example 7. Repeat Example 5. Repeat Example 4. in any particular situation. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases.

Q.16.Q.Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter.Q per stage. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k. Circuit for Example 7.17 252 . 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k. -250.Q. 200 k.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k.umho. Example 7.Q. hre 75. Ans.Q.Q. hre 60 and hre 0.Q and 100 . Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base. Feedback is provided by a 400 .15. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance. hoe I25 .Q. The three stage amplifier described in Example 7.Q feedback resistor. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 . Repeat Example 7.umho. 43·5. Ans. Ans. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k. Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e.14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k.Q per stage.13. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 . RLl 2 k. hoe 100 .f. Example 7.Q. and hre 0.15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory.Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k. 0·475 V.14. A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Figure 7.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k.14.Q resistor connected between them. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance. RL2 4 k. 3·98 k.Q.Q in parallel with 8 k. 0·224 .m. 0·004 . A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance. Example 7. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 .

EXAMPLES Example 7. hoe 80 . hre 140. Find also the resulting output voltage. Calculate Av. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. calcu1ate the required value of Rp.15. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. At. (b) -18 4oo. Example 7. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0. Ans. 95 n. 88·5 n. Zout 2 2MO. kO. Ans. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO.14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO. (a) 46·1. 253 . -1 310.O. and an open circuit valtage gain of -150. 83 mV. (c) Figure 7.15.17. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO. 6·23 kO. 4·5 kO.umho. -1 820. (c) -77·3. 17 kO. Circuits for Example 7. 10k. and neg1igible hre. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. 287.18.

16. hoe 125 .O.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies.umho and hre 0.19. 0·99 MHz. 254 . hre 100.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. Ans. Circuit for Example 7. The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k. Figure 7. 212.

two conditions must be fulfilled. (1/ß) at that frequency. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. Then if A ?. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages. or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. is to be infinite. the system will oscillate. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1- lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. For oscillation at a particular frequency. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°.1) If the gain.f. or an output when no inputwas present. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6.m. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies. 255 . We shall consider four cases. Ar. cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only.000 MHz. This resulted in self oscillation. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same.

X 2.jR1Xc2 . we can write -jXc2R2 V2 = R2 . This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero.2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°. Using normal potential division methods.Xc1Xc2 . Thus the whole expression must be real.jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 . having no imaginary component. the angle of the numerator is -90°.jXc2). Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8.1.jR2Xc1 . ß will have the required angle.4) . In equation 8. i.3) (8.X - The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°.J X c1 . V2 V1 - -jXc2R2 ~~--~~~--~~~--~~~--~~~ R1R2 .2.R . X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8. R1R2 - XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = ..e.J C2 .jXc2R2 ß= and if (8.1..

C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß. as before. Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8._J wC 257 . This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier. The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: -jXc2R2 -jR2Xc1. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R--. Suitable values of R1. wC R. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C. Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage. 1 (8.6) If. So. cancelling the -j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =-+-+ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC).5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency.jR1Xcz.

jCR Z=R-C- =R [( .2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles..7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance.2. Taking typical 1-l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively. The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance. and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. Figure 8. jR2 C C jCR R-C j] = -3 R (.J) (8..OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8.. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3.j) 1 . 2 1 .J) . The feedback network has equal capacitors.2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz. and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8. the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 . and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3. Figure 8.5. Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil. (1 .

a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. This process is shawn in Figure 8. Applying equatian 8.c. Figure 8. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. say 1 kO. and hre Av~h-ZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate.2a. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. When the supplies are switched an. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required. First consider an amplifier circuit with the d. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO. either because af change in parameters with large signals. The circuit begins ta ascillate. 259 . supplies switched aff.3.

c. supply and that the d.3b.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 .c. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = -4 V. This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f.b. supply voltage. Since ß is one third. Limitation of amplitude by d. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced. Figure 8.3d). In Figure 8. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8. network -2 ~-'---t----r-----'--\----r---'----t---r----l-4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off -6 -8 Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.c.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d.c.3. conditions Figure 8.

R1 Figure 8.. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.4 shows a circuit employing this technique. the input impedance for Trl will be large.c. Since negative feedback is employed.3g is nearly sinusoidal.c. This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude. Figure 8.. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel.4. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. Then as the signal amplitude increases..2·67- The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage.t. 261 .en_t_al_o-'-/~p __8__ 3 i/p . change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n. Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs... Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß.

the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents. A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier. jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= .9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C. we may deduce that for zero phase shift w -j(G1G2) _ - C1C2 1 . Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division. Figure 8. . in this case negative (n. In this case. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + .t. at the required frequency.w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8. The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals.2. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.10) .y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8.. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8. f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8.5.. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain.). Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators. Following the same reasoning.c.OSCILLATORS path. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown.5.8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8.

Yo may be neglected. The input a. The amplifier shown in Figure 8. for equal components = 3.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8. it must have zero phase shift.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. and to reduce the output admittance as required. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = -ß = h.12). the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance. and -12V Figure 8.1 263 . and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1. current feedback.= 1 + -Gz + -Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8.6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. Since the Ioad is reactive (8. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex.13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift.11) which.6. If YL ~ Yo. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived. Amplifier circuit for Example 8.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered.1. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift. This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. Example 8.

i.umho. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= -47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 10-6 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 . conditions and stability. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel. series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network.e. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo = - = 100 1 017 . hoe 90 .umho -100 1 500(1 100)10-6 =- 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local -60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= -1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6.umho (47·6/3) . Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived. The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload.c.1 47·6 = 0·313 264 . the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO. hre 100 and hre 0. But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. Thus for the calculation of Avo. All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d. Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network. removing any possibility of loading by the network. But feedback must reduce this to 3. 750 n.

----'VI --t 0006J. = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone.Q .5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 . The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3. by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold. Now.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency.313 .Q.1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation. Figure 8. 265 .1F 0·006 f-LF n.7. 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 .F 5·2k.t . Solution for Example 8.c.7. 2·7k.U F = 0·006 p. f 21r~R (equation 8.

ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho). taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 . Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 .12) and putting G as 1 mmho. -hre Avo=h-Y !e L and (1 .umho . Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network.j) = 7·8(1 . to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied. Neglecting hoe. the voltage gain is required. Forthis calculation. 1 kO.j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8.OSCILLATORS Finally. the R will be the Ioad of Tr2.

Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I .0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 . In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory. The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 .33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T-1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor. 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I .umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO.RC OSCILLATORS The current gain.

c.uF = 0·03 .t. Solution for Example 8. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate. From equation 8. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1. 0 03 f-!F n.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally. 1k Q Figure 8. at a particular frequency.uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.8. All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network. 1k. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 . to give 180° phase shift.ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used. 268 . The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks.8.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.O.10.

With these circuits. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8.9. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. but forthat in Figure 8. With the circuit in Figure 8.9.RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits.9a. phase shifting.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation. or current. Figure 8. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency.9b. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 . the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. ß.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified. is I/29th. such networks may be either voltage.

From first principles.14) .10. The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis. and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. Figure 8.10. hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods. while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis. Oscillator circuit for Example 8.GVa -GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 -GV1 Node 3: 270 (8.umho respectively and hre can be neglected.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) .2. 20 X 5 --g-x Ztn = 20 X 1 5 --g-+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) . Only one example will be considered here.OSCILLATORS network component. Example 8. determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components.

G2] + G[ -G(2G + jwC)..0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG . ß= Ga Ga .18) At this frequency..-G G+jwC 0 -G 2G + jwC -G 0 -G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2.RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants.5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8.17) (8. equation 8.0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2. and or w = Gy'6 -c rad/sec v'6.2G3 + j4wCG2 - w2C2G - jwCG2 (8.15) + j3wCG2 - 4w2C2G . 16) If ß is to be real.w2C 2) . -G G+jwC -G 2G 0 ltn + jwC -G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X .........18 ß= G2 -1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8.= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8.2Ga ...19) .jwCG2 (8 .. the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero .jwaca .14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined...

2G3 .OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre.jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 . · from equation 8.14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and re-writing equation 8. Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8.4w2C2G .jwaca . first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC. and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this.jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C .17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this. the current gain may be taken as At = -hre X y tn =- Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be -29.2Ga .15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG -= 3G2G' + j4wCGG' - w2C2) .

y[(4 X 1·938 X 10-6) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ-6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 10-8 = 13-1kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G' - Ga . the current iL 273 . and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators.c. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. . - 1·25 10·7 . first. At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 -----34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance. if an a.4w2 C2G . the anode voltage ( -[IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal.11. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type.2·5 .2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =---------------------w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G' - = 4·65 - G2 - ---c. Thus. Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho. the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. second.34·5 . Neglecting the effect of r. With these. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.

This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils.+ Figure 8. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa . At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. As a result of the mutual inductance M. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large. The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. 274 . The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 . Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form.3. If this is such that Vgk is given by -jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. A tuned anode oscillator methods.12. the system will oscillate. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. Figure 8. A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil.OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°.11. If two coils have mutual inductance between them.T.

and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. ±JwMgm Va . but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0. dividing by w. by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation.LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: .12. + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8. 275 (8. Figure 8. therefore Va may be cancelled. La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0.22) .20) (8. Real parts. L a = -ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts.21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. the required results can be obtained. Va Va + JW . The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra - w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now.

23) fJ. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil. 1 C=-47T2. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz. 276 .20. Thus for each set of values. from equation 8.21. = 5 X I0-3 10_4 + 200 X 10-12 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !-' of only 40. for each coil we can find r.22 can be rearranged to. La Crra (8.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !-' are known. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8. we can see that if !-' is sufficiently large.23: fJ.=-+- M M First. Now from wL Q r=- and rl = 106 X 5 X 10-3 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 10-4 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8.f2La Substituting values. so this arrangement would not oscillate.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 10-4 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. equation 8. and putting 4rr2.

(b) h parameter equivalent circuit. The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8.13. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation.13. the p. (a) Full circuit. A tuned collector oscillator. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 .LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit. (a) e (b) Figure 8. The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 10-3 10-4 + 5 000 X 10-12 X 104 X 10 X 2 to-4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit.

The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e. L c + jwC = lc. 1 ) + . L c + :--c JW lb = J.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled.25 from 8. Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft -hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. Re and Ce provide the correct d.j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8.m.24) and 1 ) . The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. Thus multiplying equation 8. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb. M" . operating point.13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example.OSCILLATORS Figure 8.28) Without expansion.27 by -jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C.26. By mesh analysis: 1 (8. both jwMi terms will be positive. lb · M"lb + JW (8. M JW .: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated.24 .26) Substituting for ic in 8. the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 . R2. 278 . (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW -c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8.25) Rearranging equation 8.c.f. C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency. zc = -(hle 1 + jwLb)ib . (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8. R1.13a shows the complete circuit.13b.

29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one. 1 Lc'C w2=::=-- (8. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 . A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor..30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C -M .31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8.+--L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8.h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'.32) Example 8.w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8.4.

C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I0-3 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8. Circuit for the solution of Example I0-3 I0-3 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'.OSCILLATORS of hre.O.4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series. Since 1 1012 w = 106.umho = 625 . First the values of C and M are required.14. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8. and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I0-3 === 1012 106 =-Hz 27T Also from 8. 1·6mH 100fi 2k.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 . hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I0-6 62·5 + 2·5 X X 10-12 4 X + 1·6 X 10. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) . Figure 8.umho. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 .

y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation. Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ. the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2. h _ 1 010 tmmum re - = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 10-6 H 625 X 10-12 2·74 10-1 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 10-6 10-4.LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 10-3 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7.j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720. 10 281 .0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 . 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' .j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2- Now w - 0·753 X 10-3 X 625 X 10-12 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 . The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' .

and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters.5. h1e 1 300 0. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods.OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8. and by combining Rm. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. The simplified version in Figure 8. and h1e together as h1e'. 282 . Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease. One further example will be considered. Figure 8.15. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance. and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent.16c is obtained by combining h0 e.15. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation.umho and negligible hre. Example 8. and RB2. YLl and YL2. hoe 125 .

34) . 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) . (b) Equivalent circuit.umho (8.1H (c) (a) L c. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8.34) L 200f. (b) Figure 8.5.16.

37.h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8. Node 2: v2 1 . Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = -wL + wLh -..42) .' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 .38) ll=-1 hte and from equation 8.OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis.w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w..+ wC2 .36 (8..-:--L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8.40) Following the usual technique.hre ii I = - vl jwL + V2 . But (h I (8.wL wLh 1 .39 and h from 8..37) (8..41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (-:-C:::-1-+-C:::-2-:-)h:-t-:el 1 284 ) (8. LYL1 w2LC1C2 = ..w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8.oC1 + JW :--L h Node 1: . -hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel .39) Substituting for V2 from 8.38 into 8.36) . 1 ) o = v1 ( -h + y. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled.

41 1 (8.44) 285 .umho = 793 . For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8..325 = 468 .074) 107 co = 1..35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent. jcoL ( JCOC2-· j ) --.43) But from equation 8.40.-::--::-::--::-::-::.42becomes 1·092 = 1·18. + -. hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2 - 1 (8.LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1. the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09. 200 X t0-6YL' 1100 X 10-12 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 .umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO.umho YL2 = 793. 101 2 ( 200 X I0-6 X 325 X I0-6) co 2 1 + --:-:--::-::--. whichinequation8. -hre' = ( I . Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero.CO2LCl)h..200 X I0-6 X 91 1 100 X I0-12 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0.

This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits.D. and an accurate analysis should include these components. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 f-LF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation. Frequency stability with change of d.J. In the extreme case shown above. this is no Ionger true. Example 8. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor.F.7. P. 1 kQ. Find also the frequency of oscillation. 21·25. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load.c. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ.6. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. Ce and Cs may be neglected. EXAMPLES Example 8. network 22·2 kQ. 3·5 kHz. supplies. Ans. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances. A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator.

Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz. Ans. In the absence of a negative feedback network. If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8.18. 1k l"25J. Circuit for Example 8. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr. Calculate the value of R' ./p Tr2 collector 5k . 0·56 0.umho. hoe 125 .7 and the frequency of oscillation. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz.0. hte 1·3 kO. 1·43 kHz.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 . 65. 0·074 . R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ.17. 287 .uF.8 C2. Circuit for Example 8. Ans.1F Figure 8.umho and hre 0. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8.17 is connected between output and input.8. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. Example 8.18 employs transistors with hre 90.

19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d.umho. Circuit for Example 8.10.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 . calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. 0·286 . output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans.T. Figure 8. hoe 150 .m. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. Ans.c. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz. 3·23 kQ.) Example 8.uF. 288 . Example 8.umho. 0·0066 . hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. hre 120. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation. bias voltage of -4 V. 383 Q.uF. 1·3 kHz. The oscillator shown in Figure 8. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz.9 frequency? Determine the r. lower it. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors.11.s. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator.OSCILLATORS Example 8. 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk.19. 35. 61·5 V.9. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H. Ans.

A current amplifier. (b) the minimum coupling between the coils.11 Example 8. -16. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor. Circuit for Example 8. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. 8·2 kHz. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. If the valve in Example 8. is tobe used as an oscillator.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n. I! 289 . hre and the bias components.12 Example 8. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans.EXAMPLES ________-----~ ~----~1-c Figure 8. 1 380 pF. Ans. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60. 0·785. I 160 pF. 0·02.14. Neglect the effect of hoe.20.21. 970 pF. Figure 8. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. ra 5 kQ. Ans. Example 8.21.12. 46. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8.13. Circuit for Example 8.

Example 8.16. Circuit for Example 8. bias components and coil resistance.OSCILLATORS Example 8. Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe.umho. hre.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 . Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected. 28 Q. Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8. Ans. 1 080 pF.22. 290 .15. 840kHz. Figure 8.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations.

_ca~. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag. Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9. The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal.. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium. In this chapter. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits.. a ._____ --} ____. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device.. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL .1a.___.1... These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors. p.9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons.. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve.5 k (a) Figure 9.

but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input.1) Yln=- Vgk (9.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad. including ra. To analyse this situation.4 and 9. By inspection. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. Cak and any externalload present.4) (9.2. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc- Figure 9.3.2. i (9.') 292 (9. 9.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown.5. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies. and with reference to Figure 9. i2 = jwCag(Vgk - Vo) (9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF. 9. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages. From equations 9.2.6) .

j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . Cag 1·5 pF. Cak 1 pF.33° 42' 293 .11) If ZL' is capacitive.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR'). X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance. Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9. YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ-12 X 106 . Cgk 2·5 pF.gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve. = 5·~5 L YL -33° 42' = 4·6 .10) If ZL' is approximately resistive. and the 20 kQ load. A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V.3. The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9. Equation 9. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ.3. G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. If ZL' is inductive. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF.wCaggmX' (9. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak.1. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. ra 10 kQ. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL'). gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = --!. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' .. Since the gain of a stage is given by .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9.1.

If the anode 1oad is inductive.252 kO = 0·0525 = -10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO -(0·525 . this becomes.782 + 8. ra. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 30·8)) X 106 . Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L -66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9. the remainder being provided by RL.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 . in the RC coupled common cathode configuration.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 10-12) + (j108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 10-12 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance.j8•25 = Yu' = 4. Rg.11. Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 10-12 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 . and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback.j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L -93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9.

Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9.50= 50 pF. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9. Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9.. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR').4.4a and the valve used in Example 9. . Rg .1.J. In practice.2.. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9.4a.. A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a non-decaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency.1. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance. First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency.4b. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency.. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9.... Valve input capacitance = 100. 1 I I I . 1 w2=:=- LC C 1012 I0-4 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF. 295 . The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH.

u and ra.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values. Pentodes also have the advantage of very high . similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits. The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n.L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 10-4 = X 50 I0-10 10_4 ll = 20 ~>-' mho For oscillation.uH 107 10X' G~. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF. Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book. the negative input conductance to the valve. and there is the 296 .uH) and the electron transit time. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies. and the collector base junctions. 20 X I0-10 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 10-12 X Inserting values. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 13-3 . and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. must equal Go. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 . two further effects must be considered. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o.

is reduced with increase in frequency. 300 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. In addition the current gain IX or IX'.3 000 Q. to approximately 0·7. Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 . cb'C 5 . Figure 9. i.5 000 pF rce 20 . In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db.e. The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data. depending on configuration. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits. but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa.5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation. For any particular transistor type. /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. 'b'C 2 .5. In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency.5 Mn.40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 . Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. is approached. but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. rb·e 250 . The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9.40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type. 297 .250 Q.30 pF.

~. A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz. Working in f-lA. gce = 8·2 11mho. fb•e.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. Cb'e 15 pF.j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000 - j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L -9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = -22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = -22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined.13) (38 000 .Vce(O· 39 + j94) -38 OOOVb•e = . rb·e 790 Q. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q. If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage.12) (9. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only. rb•e 2·6 MQ. 1012 For Cb•e. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ.j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho. gb·c gL = 2011mho.JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 f-lA.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) . volts. Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb'- jXbefb•e . and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) . Cb·e 150 pF.

In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. Neglecting rb·c. This approach will be used for the second part of the question.c. the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad.14) If the overall voltage gain is required. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L -85° 42' Q . output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L -102 o = 9·4 L o -102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the -j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9.e Vce = -38 X 2 X 0·06 L -85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I0-6 X 103 = 16·6 X I0-3 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L -85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = .gmZL'Vb.13. the effect of rw must be included.

and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple. conditions. In some cases.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' -=1+- = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42. At these high frequencies. for transistors intended for high frequency applications.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = -~-· 10-3 x 4·5 L +94° = 10-6 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L -37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters. arealso supplied.c. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. 300 . =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9.14 and 9.15) Overall vo1tage gain. In the published data. the four parameters are all comp1ex. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. app1ying equations 9. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point.


and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.

Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
four-terminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier








Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration

with a resistive load, and secondly a multi-stage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:

+ jl3w

X 10-12) mho

Yre 500 X I0- 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 10-6

+ j2w

X 10-12)


If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 f-lA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,




= yu- yzz +


- yz1
= yu(y22 + YL)- y21Y12


We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.


At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 10-6 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 10-6 mho


10-12 mho




10-12 mho

Now working in millimhos:
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28


+ Jl6-

17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o

= 28 + j16- 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02- j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho

j6·5 sin 108°

Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
10(30 + j10)
ltn- (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) f-l
_ 10(3 + j)(4 - j1·5) A
16 + 2·25

= 0·548(12

+ 1·5 + j4 -

j4·5) f-lA

= 7·4 - j0·274 f-lA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 f-lA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.





34 L 292°

= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5)- 34 L 292°
-0·252 L 292°

x 0·5 L 250° V

20·2- 40 + j11·5 + j70- 17(cos 182°
-0·252 L 292°
- -19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV

= 2·8mV


+ j sin 182°)



If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from


I Ytnl


7·4 X I0-6
v(32 + 12) X 10-2 V

= 0·232 mV
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE- 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE- 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°

The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.

RF 2

Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5

The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.


In each case the required operating point is VcE- 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:

VcE = -6 = -10
Taking lE === Ic


+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +


+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ


The stability factor

+(X')+ RB= 0·05

K = RE(l

RB= Ra+ R 4 and
Insertmg values 0·05

Also V'


+ RFI) = 3 kQ


3 +RB

= 3( 1 + 150) +RB

+ RB =


RE= (RE2


60 + 20RB
-19 = 20·9 kQ





(using conventional polarities)

= -=V_c_,c_R_4_


Ra+ R4

f co'

- -rJ.IIB=



lB =

1 000

--.sü -

2 t-tA

= 4·7 t-tA
V' = -20·9 X 0·0047 - 3 - 0·3
= -3·4 V


Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
Ra+ R4


20' 9 =Ra+ R4


-3·4 =



From equation 9.23
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9



Ra= 61·5 kQ

Substitutingin equation 9.25
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ

In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.

= 68 kQ

= 33 kQ

and R4

Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.

Xe= 30 Q

= 2n450



From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.

A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should

be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18


RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ

From stability considerations:
1 +RB

0"05 = 151 +RB


+ RB =



+ 20RB

RB= 6·9kQ
RB= R1 + R2



Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= -0·0047


6·9- 1- 0·3

V'= -10R2
R1 + R2

= -1·33 V


From 9.27


+ R2 =


1.33 = 7·5R2



Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ

So, from 9.28,



= 8 kQ

In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 J-lF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.

= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho




X 1Q3





X 1Q3



37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho



From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,




0·004 L 270°

= 0·25 + j0·05- 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho

Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25

+ j0·05- 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05- 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho


To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
h(yoe + YL) - 0
v1 =

v2 =

0- hyre



32) YL) . Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included. · First we must find the effective load on Trl.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9.31 by 9. which is unaffected by the local feedback. To find the overall current gain. current splitting factors due to bias components.31. YLI err. + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 .33) The current gain. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j .29.YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9.-yre vl .32.Yoe + YL -37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 = - Av (9.JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1 - -37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9.3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9.30 A v-Substituting values v2. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9.32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 . 37 L 180° L 38° 42' -37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9. YL1. may be obtained from equation 9.

32 neg1ecting Yoe.35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions.37) 308 .36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9.34. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9. .36. 9. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 .0 . 9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9. 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9.33. Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' . -37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 -37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9.5 L 1o 42 .5 L 1o 42 .35 and 9.34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 --=--=------:-7---:-:--::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 . At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L. = 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :. 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9.0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .

38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100. ß= 2·21 2 . 309 .7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle. But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I0-2(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()-2 X 3 = l _ 0 . and 100 = I+ ß will be real. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9.13 ß= -540 ± -540 ± = 0 -yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 -540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104 - Taking the positive sign.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Re-arranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß.38 is obviously correct.8 X 1()-2 = 0·79 X 10-2 (9.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 10-2 mmho = 43 k.

0·01 uF 47 k. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known.8. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be -10 V ::-f'"~ 1k. Circuit for the solution to Example 9.8.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.O.5 made in the above calculations.6. EXAMPLES Example 9.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively. 6·86 L -27° kQ. Ans. Figure 9.O. They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. 587 L 277° 42'. 310 . In general. In each case a 0·01 p. Repeat Example 9. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits. signals or switching circuits..c.

311 . Ans.f. having a coil of inductance 2 . Example 9. 420 pF. Use the exact method at 100 kHz. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. Example 9. If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Av 155 L 164° 30'.3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 10-12) mho.EXAMPLES Example 9.8. Z1n 390 L -49° n. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals.7. yre0·02 L 320° mho. 4·5. Z1n 102 L -8° n. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. Ans.9. Yre 350 X 10-6 L 300° mho. 37·5 L 70° 48'. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9.uH and Q factor 25. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. Ans. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes. Av 34 L 100°. 2 pF. Yoe(150 x 1()-6 + jco x 1()-12) mho. An r.

The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient. Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. and P2 the output power. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units. lf it is an attenuator. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted.4) In practice. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 . Also.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1. If P1 is the input power.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded. then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = -10 log10 ~: (A1.

are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate. expression Al.APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. 313 . In practice. wh and WL. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies. even where the condition is not maintained.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1. Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~.

1965. 1962. New York. K. S. D.. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry.. Le Croissette. Parker. W. Verner. Inc. B. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New Jersey. Transistors. J. London. 1964. Field Effect Transistors.. 1964. 1050. New York. Feedback Circuit Analysis. P. D. Sevin. Englewood Cliffs. Dean. Edward Arnold Technical Books.. Transistor Electronics. S. 1966. De Witt and A. Electronics. McGrawHill Book Co. London. McGraw-Hill Book Co. L. Burford and H. 3rd edn. 1957. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices. New York. New York. D. Ryder. 315 . McGraw-Hill Book Co. G. Pitman Technical Books. J. lliffe Books Ltd.. 1966. Rossoff. London...WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. Hakim. L. Prentice-Hall. J.

transistor. emitter resistor stabilization. 134. 33 Cathode follower. 223 three stage. 140. 7 Bottoming. 312 Determinants. shunt applied. 182 317 . 126. 19 operating point. 118 long tailed pair. 21. 181 RC coupled. 3.C. series applied. 158 multi-stage. 4. 96. 212 Bias decoupling. 5. 30 Complex feedback factors. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. transistor approximate solutions. 24. 31. 99. 126. 114 single stage. 10. current feedback.INDEX A. 21. 291 small signal. current feedback. voltage feedback. 212 grounded grid. 1 Ioad lines. Ioad lines. 158. 124 Bias stabilization. 202. 151 cathode coupled. 101. 3. 131. 166 single stage. bias line. 2. 189 current derived. 19 Decibel. 152 difference. 24. 12 Amplification. transistor. 231 three stage. 195.C. 153. 210. 15. 235 properties. 6. 10. 18. 170. 153. 158 emitter coupled. 122. 34 Darlington connection. 166 common emitter. 21. 8 characteristics. 11. 220 frequency response. 194 current derived. 25. 306 definition. 134. 245 Cut off. 116 modified. 303 Biasing transistor. 11. 14. 181. 291 Feedback composite. 15. 121 Collector feedback. 222 single stage. 25. 159 feedback. 27. 235 Anode characteristics. 122. 221 single stage. voltage feedback. 94 Thevenin and Norton. 94 for high frequency. valve. 100 transistor. non-linear. 19. 162 D. voltage feedback. 14. 303 two stage. 34 reactive Ioads. 2. 17 Emitter follower. 194. 296 valve. 122 common base. 152 common collector. 55 Diode characteristics. 173. 241 graphical analysis. 227. 103 diode. current feedback. 247 current amplifiers. 141. 240 transistor multi-stage. 146 two stage. application to network analysis. current feedback. 14. 32. 5. 127. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. 229 Amplifier. 30 triode.

141. 77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 273 tuned collector. 101 equivalent circuits. 187. 255 amplitude stability. calculation. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 248 input connections. 52 ' Miller feedback. 303 Simple negative feedback. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 259 crystal. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 159 common emitter. 74. transistor biasing. 42 applications. 184 Stability factors. 202. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 50. 185 negative. 195. 119. 255 single stage RC.163 238 284 Noise. 28. 42 notation. 202. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 18 Inter-electrode capacitances. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 143.) effect on distortion. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 201 vector diagrams. shunt applied. 184.INDEX Feedback-(Contd. 157. 297 Input resistance. 268 tuned anode. 150. 159 common collector. 282 LC. series applied. 196. 241 voltage derived. 248 effect on output admittance. 261 Negative input conductance. 203 voltage amplifiers. 184 positive. 87 h parameters. 268 RC. 190. 231. 27. 159. 220 instability. 245 g parameters. 152. 198 effect on input impedance. 188. 81. 66. 187. 187 voltage derived. 60 318 . 241 effect on gain. 99. 303 Superposition theorem. 210 effect on frequency response. 186. 295 current Wien bridge. 277 voltage Wien bridge. emitter resistor bias. 68 interconnections. 45 Oscillators. 198 effect on input admittance. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. 195. 80. 75. 190 gain stability. 155 Potential divider. 184. 256 Output impedance. 208 Four terminal networks. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 43 Nodalanalysis. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 86 common base. 190. 185. 198 effect on output impedance. 240 Frequency compensation. 58. transistor. 83. 295 phase shift. 273 Miller. 101 general solutions.

85. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 24 simple bias circuit. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 140 fundamental current relationships. 21. graphical analysis. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. 71 319 . 21 leakage currents. 14. 36. 102 characteristics. 15 Two port networks. 63. input admittance at high frequencies. 300 z parameters. 105 Transistor black box representation. generat solutions. 14 input Ioad line. 99. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 79. 29. 3. 84 z parameters. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. 68. 15 output Ioad line.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 232. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 27. general method. 5 Valve. 79. 303 temperature effects. 81. general method. 104. 68 Voltage amplification. 112 y parameters. 23 equivalent circuit.

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