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INTERMEDIATE
ELECTRONICS
R. J. MADDOCK
C. Eng., M.I.E.R.E.
Lecturer in E/ectronics,
Department in Electrical Engineering,
Southampton College of Technology
Book I
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
ISBN 9781489958617
ISBN 9781489958594 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/9781489958594
©
Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969
Originally published by Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. in 1969.
Softcoverreprint of the hardcover Ist edition 1969
Suggested U.D.C. number: 621·37/·38
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurober 6918297
PREFACE
Many textbooks adequately cover the development of small signal
equivalent circuits for electronic devices. Students frequently
experience difficulty in applying such circuits to the solution of the
various configurations found in practice. In this volume I have
demonstrated step by step procedures by which the required solutions
may be obtained by the use of such equivalent circuits.
The first chapter shows clearly the necessity for equivalent circuit
methods and also discusses the d.c. biasing requirements and circuits
for valve and transistor amplifiers. A chapter follows covering the
fundamentals of network analysis required for the remainder of the
book. Valve and transistor equivalent circuits are then introduced.
and detailed methods of application are given with many fully
worked examples. Later chapters extend these methods to a discussion on the effects of feedback, the solution of practical feedback
amplifiers and to the analysis and design of a range of sinusoidal
oscillators. A final chapter introduces the modifications required
when considering high frequency operation. The required high
frequency equivalent circuits are given together with sample
calculations.
I have included worked solutions and problems with answers in
all chapters. The parameters chosen for the various equivalent
circuits are those most commonly available from manufacturers'
published data. British Standard symbols and units are used throughout except where very recent changes may be unfamiliar to the
majority of students.
Both valve and transistor circuits are discussed as I feel that for
many students the valve provides a useful teaching medium, but
in the later chapters, the stress is, in general, on transistor circuits.
The physical operation of the devices has not been covered, as
adequate Iiterature is available elsewhere. A list of works for further
reading is provided at the end of the book.
I have written this book as a result ofthe experience gained through
teaching students at Higher National Diploma and Certificate level
but I feel that it should also be useful for students at the early stages
of degree courses and the final year of technician courses.
V
PREFACE
I would like to offer my thanks to those members of the staff and
students of Southampton College of Technology who have helped
in the preparation of this book and to Miss L. Lavender and Mrs. R.
Huntingford for their assistance in typing the manuscript.
R. M.
vi
CONTENTS
Preface
v
1. Graphical Analysis of Electronic Circuits .
1
2. Fundamentals of Network Analysis .
42
3. Low Frequency, Small Signal Equivalent Circuits for Valves
and Transistors .
94
4. Use of the Valve Equivalent Circuit.
112
5. Use of Transistor Equivalent Circuits
140
6. The Theory of Feedback Amplifiers.
181
7. Practical Feedback Amplifiers .
220
8. Oscillators
255
9. Modifications to Equivalent Circuits for High Frequency
Operation .
291
Appendix 1. Use of Logarithmic Units
312
Works for Further Reading
315
Index
317
vii
1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Electronic engineering is principally concerned with the behaviour of electrical circuits or networks containing various nonlinear and active devices. The physical explanation of their behaviour will not in general be discussed in this book since this aspect is more than adequately covered by other authors. Also large changes in temperature or humidity may well affect this model. may be shown as a pure capacitance shunted by a resistance representing the dielectric loss. a capacitor. This representation holds only if the peak voltage does not exceed the breakdown value for the capacitor. This concept is not peculiar to these electronic devices. characteristics. CHARACTERISTICS The first description ofvalves and transistors that will be considered are the socalled d. The difficulty in designing or analysing such circuits lies in their inherent nonlinearity. transistors. The characteristics of a resistor .C. Any chosen description will be suitable only for a limited set of conditions. D. We must first consider suitable methods of describing the behaviour of a particular device.c. thermionic valves. for example.1. These characteristics are graphs showing how the various direct voltages applied to the device +I V (a) (b) I Figure 1. These include the various types of rectifier. transducers such as photocells and many other devices.
(b) pn junction With threeelectrode devices such as triode valves and transistors the cathode or ambient temperatures are assumed to be constant and the parameters of the characteristics are taken as one of the applied voltages or currents.2.QOC I (a) (b) I Figure !.1. (a) Thermionic. With multielectrode devices such as pentode valves. as shown in Figure 1. A 'family' of characteristics is thus obtained for different fixed values of VGK (Figure 1. The anode characteristics of a pentode are quoted for constant filament voltage (VF) constant screen voltage (VG2K) and constant suppressor cathode voltage (VGaK).+ V +V ta= 20°C fa=f. A simple example of this would be the variation of current ftowing in a resistor with variation of applied voltage.3a). the ambient temperature is constant thus collector current (/c) is plotted against the collector emitter voltage (VcE) using the base current (/B) as the parameter (Figure 1. Diode characteristics. t1= [ 7oooc fa=40°C ta=20°C .z=::. For the transistor collector characteristics. lf there are more than two variables.2a and b. The resulting family of characteristics are shown in Figure 1. The parameter again is VGlK· 2 . For example the anode characteristics of a triode valve are shown with constant cathode temperature (filament voltage). is measured for different values of anodecathode voltage (VAK) taking the gridcathode voltage (VGK) as the parameter.3b).____ 650°C 6QQ°C V Vv=. A variable that is fixed is known as a parameter of the characteristics. Similarly with thermionic and semiconductor diodes the cathode and ambient temperature respectively could be taken as the parameters.:=~:. while the anode current (h). the values of one are plotted as a second is changed with all others held constant.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS change the direct currents ftowing in it. other potentials or currents will have to be kept constant for a particular set of characteristics. In this case the parameter could be the ambient temperature.
In practice it should not lie outside the shaded area shown. Thus we can say the characteristics provide one restriction 3 . Permissihle range of d. or as VAK 150 V. (b) Common emitter transistor D. Since these three variables are not independent. VcE 3 V etc. VaK. (Figure 1. Operating Point The operating point is given by the values of the two variables and the parameter corresponding to a particular point on the characteristics.4.C. since no information is given in the particular set of characteristics.2 V. Foratransistor it might be VcE• volts (a) (b) Figure 1.C.D. For example a particular operating point for a triode valve could be given as VAK 150 V. or h 3 mA. The operating point can lie anywhere within the range given by the characteristics.c.2 V (see Figure 1. (a) Triode valve. operating point for (a) triode valve and (b) transistor given by Ic 2 mA.4b). h 3 mA.4a). VaK.A 5 10 15 VcE· volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Active device characteristics.3. CHARACTERISTICS <l: 10 E ~5 OIJ. the operating point is completely defined by any two of the three. h 50 flA or Ic 2 mA.
C. (h) Load line resulting from the circuit shown in (a) VHT· The grid will be maintained at a potential negative with respect to cathode by a second battery of VB volts as shown in Figure 1. Further restrictions will be provided by the electrical circuit into which the device is connected.hRL This is a straight line law as shown in Figure 1.5b having intercepts if h = 0 VAK = VHT if Thus in this circuit the operating point may lie only at any point on the straight line. if one of the three variables.5. VAK or h is fixed then the other two can have only one possible pair of values. This Ioad line is a function of the circuit only and if the valve were replaced by another device such as a lamp or transistor it would be unchanged. supply valtage JA VHT RL rVHT ~ 0 (a) VAK VHT (b) Figure 1.5a.c.C. For example.5a we can say that the operating point is restricted by (a) the valve characteristics and (b) the Ioad line. 4 . therefore. In the circuit of Figure 1. An equation can now be written relating VAK and h. First. D. This line is known as a Ioad line since the slope 1/RL is governed by the Ioad resistor RL. will be considered in detail before proceeding to basic transistor circuits. These. VAK = VHT. consider the case of the triode valve connected in series with a resistive Ioad RL and a d. VGK.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS on the possible range of values of the operating point. Load Lines The basic problems concerned with graphical solutions may be most easily understood by a consideration of triode valve circuits. Under these conditions. circuit and Ioad for valve. (a) D.
'0 J . CHARACTERISTJCS if VaK is fixed at 0 V.5a with VHT 300 V. Voltage Amplification The operating point will now be fixed by setting the VB supply.::.6. 10 . the operating point must lie on the zero volt characteristic. and the load line is plotted as shown. volts Figure 1.::.C. Triode characteristics with Ioad and bias lines The intercepts of the load lines are found: VAK = VHT = 300 V h =0 If If VHT J A = .. to say 2 V. and thus VaK.6 connected in the circuit of Figure 1.= 15mA Rr. and the only possible operating point now lies at the intersection between the zero volt characteristic and the load line. lt must also lie on the load line.. and RL 20k0. Consider the valve having the characteristics shown in Figure 1. (() <i J E IARK + 2 ~ 5 200 100 VAK.D. Reading from the graph we find the 5 .
the operating point moves to VAK 126 V. Thus Av = +289.8 . we cannot expect the voltage gain to be the same for all changes of Vax. Thus a change of + 1 V in Vax results in a change of (156. Since a valve is a nonlinear device.126) = 30 Von VAK· This effect is known as voltage amplification Av. The value of VAK changes to 289 V. of the circuit is 30. Input and output waveforms for simple triode amplifier 6 · .30 Nonlinearity So.(2) = 133 6 = 22·17 This result is of the same order as the previous one and is only reduced as the spacing between the characteristics becomes less for higher values of VAK· A. and in general ßVout ßVAK 30 Av = ßVtn = ßVax = +1 = .C. but with alternating voltages.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS operating point is VAK 156 V.rads 0 31fJ2 211V 2rr 1/) 1 0 > 4 (b) (a) Figure 1. Now suppose Vax is changed from 2 V to 1 V. the instantaneous value of Vgk will be given by Vgk = 2 + Es sin wt where Es is the peak value of the alternating voltage and w the angular frequency. a change of + 1 V.7. If an alternating voltage generator of es volts is now connected in series with the VB battery. h 8·7 mA. AMPLIFICATION For many electronic applications we are not concerned with changes of direct voltage. h 7·2 mA.156 . To investigate this we shall now change Vax from 2 V to 8 V. or the voltage gain. It is assumed that the value of wt. for this particular case we can say that the voltage amplification.
8.7a. This is the result of the nonlinearity of the valve characteristics and is therefore known as nonlinear distortion. 180° out of phase with Vgk and amplified by a factor of about 28. For most amplifiers. The corresponding values of Vak can be obtained from the graph in Figure 1. the equation for the circuit is VAK = = VHT . The peaks and zeros of the waveform should be sufficient to indicate the degree of distortion obtained in this case. This would cause grid current to flow with possible valve damage.6. AMPLIFICATION w is such that the effect of any stray capacitance or inductance may be neglected.hRK VHT . The !arger the signal amplitude the greater the distortion and vice versa. supply. In addition the given characteristics show no information for the positive grid region and the variation of operating point could not be predicted.C. and are shown in Figure 1.hRL .1) . Biasing In the circuit discussed above.h(RL 7 + RJ{) (1. This output waveform is not quite identical in form to the input waveform. the cathode bias circuit shown in Figure 1. The reader can investigate this for himself.A. positive half cycles of the signal h Figure 1.8 is used.by making VB= 4 V and Es= 4 sin wt.7b. Initially neglecting the a. If Es is 2 V the waveform of Vgk is shown in Figure 1. This bias is essential since if it were not present. the mean value of VGK or the grid bias was obtained by the use of a separate d.c. In practice the use of batteries is inconvenient and alternative methods are provided.c. The resultant Vak is nearly sinusoidal. Triode amplifier with cathode bias would cause the grid to become positive with respect to the cathode. source es.
The second point cannot be plotted since we have no characteristic for VaK = 0·25 V.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Also the voltage at the grid with respect to cathode. RL 19·75 kO. Since the operating point is not known the grid bias voltage hRK cannot be found directly.c. Example 1.8 with values VHT 300 V.c. Thus Ra maintains the grid at d. The second equation is therefore (1. Determine the d.6. bias line has been drawn.1. RK 250 n. This gives the same load line as before. The intercepts are now VHT and VHT/(RL + RK). earth potential. To evaluate the amplification of this circuit we must find how the operating point moves when the a. operating point and voltage amplification. These four points are shown plotted with the characteristics and the resultant d. Consider the circuit in Figure 1. From equation 1. source e8 is connected between 8 . If h = 1 mA.h(19·75 + 0·25) V = 300.20h V.2) Equation 1. VaK = 0·25 V. But we have a characteristic for VaK = 1 V and the corresponding h may be found +1 VaK RK lA===4mA 0·25 Similarly for 2 V.1. Any given value of h would result in a known grid bias. Such values of grid bias can be plotted against h on the anode characteristics for any given value of h. VaK = 0. A numerical example will illustrate this method.2.c. h must lie on this line. and once again the operating point VAK. for 3 V h = 12 mA. Taking equation 1. VAK = 300 . VaK = VEK = VKE where VKE is the voltage at the cathode with respect to earth. if h = 0.c. h 7·4 mA. bias line and the load line intersect is the only operating point satisfying both equations 1.2.c. The point at which this d.1 and 1. Ra has no effect on VaK since grid current is assumed to be zero.1 relates VAK to h and can be plotted on the anode characteristics to give a load line as before.) The operating point of the valve in this circuit may now be read off the graph VAK152 V. The valve has characteristics shown in Figure 1. h = 8 mA. (Note the bias line is not quite straight and must in generat be plotted from more than two points.
c. 2 V is used as in the previous example then es moves between + 2 V and 2 V.5·3) 2·925 V Valve amplification = Va. however.3) Vgk = hRK + 2 to Vgk = (1. From the graph these are found to be = es= +2. AMPLIFICATION grid and earth (Figure 1.k/Vgk = 85/2·925 = 29 which compares very closely with the result previously obtained (28). ßVAK 85 Voltage gam Av = .RK. This is given by VAE = VAK + VKE = VAK + hRK + 0·25 X 9·6 = 111·4 V. D..Rk +Es sin wt If the same value of Es. is simple.4 represent two further bias lines which may be obtained by shifting the original d. VAK = 194 V..0·25(9·6 = 4. 9 . h = 9·6mA h = 5·3 mA .3 and 1. These are shown in Figure 1.4) hRK. The input signal to the valve is Vgk and Vgk is the difference between es and ia. 109V.= .1·075 = .Es 4 Strictly the output voltage should be given by the voltage at the anode with respect to earth.8). The resulting grid cathode voltage must vary from (1. The voltage between grid and cathode is now given by Vgk = Ia.2 Equations 1. The explanation in this case.C. and The extremes of VAE are 109 194 + 0·25 and Av X 5·3 83·9 = _4 = = 195·3 V 20·975 Thus the addition of RK to the circuit can provide the required grid bias but it also results in reduction of the overall amplification Va.e/es. Taking peak to peak values Vgk = 4 .= 21·25. VAK es = 2. This is due to an effect known as negative feedback which will be discussed in a later chapter.A. bias line by +2 V and 2 V respectively.6 and the intersections with the load line give the limits of the variation of the operating point.
Load Lines Up to this point we have found that the operating point can move only up and down the d. so using a figure of 1 000 Hz. but a simple example will illustrate the operation.uF 20 = .6. This is true for d. 6 V working at 100 . The resultant . Considering Example 1. say 25 il.uF or more.iaRK = es .uF 7T The operating voltage of the capacitor is only 2 V and miniature capacitors.c.=:::= 6 . but in this case we have neglected the effect of nonlinearity of characteristics. Finally the value of a suitable capacitor depends on the frequency of es. If Xe was.VaK would be 4.c. are readily available should lower frequency operation be required. The cause of the reduction was the a. Rk was 250 Q.c. The exact analysis will be left for a later chapter. Provided the signal frequency is not too low a capacitor may be selected having reactance very much less than RK. and iaZk can be made negligibly small compared with es. If this decoupling capacitor CKis connected in parallel with RK.1 above. A. voltage iaRK.c.C.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling At this stage we shall assume that a reduction in amplification is a disadvantage and we shall see how the circuit gain can be made equal to the valve gain. the bias point VaK will be unchanged.c.c. If the a.0·1075 = 3·8925. 1 Xe= 27TfC' 1 C= 27TfXe 106 = 27710325 .iaZk.0 = es. then the iaZk voltage would be only a tenth of its previous value 1·075 V. hRK. Vak now becomes 3·8925 X va1ve amplification = 3·8925 = 115V X 29 This is in fact greater than the value obtained wit.h battery bias (113·5). load line. or very 10 . Vgk will be es . while the a. Vgk becomes es . voltage can be eliminated without change in the d.
the d. (a) Decoupled cathode bias.9 gives the a. Circuits having different a.c. load lines. relationships are VAK = VHT . For the circuits shown in Figure 1.c.c.7) (1. relationships may also be written Vak = VHT.c. Equation 1.c. In the last example the d. The slope of the a. (b) RC coupling for next stage 11 . and d.c.7 must become Vak = (1. H. load lines are very different to the d.iaRL since to a. battery : 200 V _. The form of the graphical solution + 300 V + .c. are related only by the Ioad resistance RL.T. For the cathode bias circuit of Figure 1. equation 1. Ievel with respect to VHT· The instantaneous amplitude of the a..c.9. quantities. AMPLIFICATION low frequency changes of Vgk. It would be difficult to differentiate between these two load lines on the graph so this effect is negligible._ (b) (a) Figure 1. Ioad was 20 kQ and the a.c.c.ia(RL Vgk = laRK + es + RK) (1. load line of slope 1/RL (compared with slope 1/(RL + RK) for the d. and equation 1.c. load line).c.5) (1.A. lf however the signal amplitude is reduced to zero the operating point must return to its d. operating point. The a. operating point must then move along an a.8. variations in VAK together with the d. ia and Vak.8) If CK is included and the frequency suchthat XcK is approximately zero. Ioad was 19·75 kil.c. RK has been short circuited by CK.9 the a. a.c.c..8 becomes Vgk =es.c.9) VHT.C.h(RL VGK = + RK) (1. load line is not changed by the signal amplitude so it must pass through the d.c. Ioads.6) hRK In the absence of CK.c. value.
in this case 40 V.9b an RC coupling network is used to apply the amplified output to.10.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS is shown in Figure 1. load line Slope. Once again the a.C. Ioad line. Thus the reciprocal of the slope of the a. a second valve. and d. Load Lines with Reactive Loads A further complication of the a.c.JOb shows a convenient method of constructing the a. we shall imagine a Ioad 12 . operating point is unchanged. but the a. In the circuit of Figure 1.c.c. and the peak to peak value of the alternating output voltage can be read off the graph. Ioad line is RLRL' RL RL' + = 20 X 5 20 X 5 = _ 4 kQ The dotted line in Figure l. proceeding as follows..c.10. and thus to a.c. The first circuit shows the same situation as in the last example but the component values are such that the slopes of the a.c. both RL and RL' are connected between anode and earth.c..c. These are in parallel to a..c.c.!. draw a d. Construct the a. Ioad line for the a.c. operating point will move up and down the a.c. load lines are now very different. Ioad line occurs when the Ioad is reactive. load lines for the circuits shown in Figure 1. Ioad line according to the applied instantaneous value of Vgk.c.9 HT battery is negligible.c.RL•RK A. RL Figure 1.c. Ioad line parallel to this and passing through the operating point. The operating point moves up and down the a. perhaps.C. resistance of the 1 Slope. D. load is now the parallel combination of RL and RL'.c. A. load line according to the instantaneous value of the applied Vgk. Assuming any convenient value for VHT.c. To simplify this problem. since the a. and a. Ioad value of 4 kO.C. The calculation of d..
A. AMPLIFICATION consisting of a coil having inductance but negligible resistance. (A capacitive Ioad would result in rotation in the opposite direction. Ioad line is vertical (RL = 0) and the d.ll. We shall further assume that an alternating Vgk will cause an alternating ia. component of Vak must be maximum or minimum. Thus for these values of ia. component of ia passes through zero. Points could be calculated for intermediate values. but it can be seen that the only single continuous line joining the four points is an ellipse or circle depending on w.C.c. operating point is found by the battery bias Vn. the a. Remernhering that in an inductor the current lags the voltage by 90°.lla and b. In practice the Ioad would not be purely inductive and the procedure 13 . (a) Triode valve with reactive load. The circuit and characteristics are shown in Figure l.c. the corresponding Vak is VnT giving points (1) and (2) on the graph.c.) The peak values of Vgk required to produce this Ioad Iine may now be read from the graph and the voltage gain calculated. Vgk will cause ia to vary with time as shown. This gives us the two further points (3) and (4).c.c.c. anode voltage must be zero when the instantaneous ia is a maximum or minimum.Jlb the narrow ellipse represents a lower frequency. the instantaneous value of the (a) (b) wt Figure J. In Figure l. The values of Vak at these points is given by VnT ± ia peak X wL where wL is the coil reactance at the signal frequency.c. operating point thus moves around the circle in the direction shown. The a. (b) Construction of the resulting ellipticalload Iine a. In this circuit the d. The a. When however the a.
TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Weshall now see how far these methods can be applied to simple transistor circuits.c. or the circuit for a required operating point. The common emitter transistor amplifier. (b) The output and (c) the input characteristics 14 . The commonest form of transistor amplifier is very similar to the valve amplifiers discussed above. bias circ11it and load. Summarizing: we have found that simple valve circuits not involving reactive components may readily be analysed using graphical methods. The circuit is shown in Figure 1.C. (a) D. operating point for a particular circuit. tobe found. These methods also enable the d.12a and the forms of the output and input (a) A VcE' V (b) Figure 1. The results obtained are as accurate as these methods permit and demonstrate clearly such effects as distortion due to nonlinearity.GRAPIDCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS for constructing the load line is so complex as to make it rarely useful.12.
the base current waveform is distorted by the nonlinear input characteristic.Vcc and lB = V cc/ RB. the operating point. If JB were known the operating point would now be defined. input and output voltages. It is interesting to note that for a sinusoidal input voltage. These pairs of values may then be plotted on the input characteristics. The intersection of the line and this dynamic input characteristic then gives the values of VBE and lB which determine the operating point. The waveform is then further modified by the nonlinearity of the output characteristic. As before we may write an equation for the circuit VcE = . The input characteristics show variations of lB with applied VBE using VcE as the parameter. four variables must be investigated. i.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS characteristics shown in Figure 1.V cc and V cc/RL. The output characteristics show variations of Ic with changes of VcE and with lB as the parameter. With a transistor. The input and output currents 1B and I c flow out of the base and collector respectively.Vcc + IcRL giving a Ioad line with intercepts at . in the conventional direction for pnp transistors. The corresponding range of IB can be determined from the input characteristics using the dynamic curve for the circuit. and input and output currents. signal e8 now applied to the base as shown will result in an input voltage Vbe = . A numerical example of this type of calculation will now be given for the circuit in Figure 1.e. But the parameter of the input characteristics depends upon V cE. 15 .VnE ± E. A dynamic input characteristic may be plotted for a particular circuit by reading the V cE values corresponding to lB values along the Ioad line.12b and c respectively.Vcc + IBRB This leads to a further straight line with intercepts at VBE = . The circuit in Figure 1.VBE + E sin wt with maximum and minimum values of. on both input and output characteristics. Now looking at the input circuit we obtain VBE = .c. This procedure is somewhat involved and is only necessary when calculating maximum power output and distortion for power amplifiers. These in turn lead to the variation of V cE from the output characteristics.12a. An a.12a is said to be in the common emitter configuration since the input and output voltages VBE and V cE are measured with respect to the emitter.
2 <1:  · ~ ~ c .... The characteristics for Example 1.' .13... 30V.. 11111111111111111111111 1111111 ffrH70 rnÄ Figure 1. ~~ oa 9·5mA BmA 6mA 4mA 2mA OmA . "' ' .mV · ' rTT....... ' f±. rn 601 111 1111 I IIIIJJ 111 111 11 111 EI Dyn a m 1c m p~t charactenst1c . . " Cl I t' ' .. 111 "'"' ~~THHffiB crr.. .I~ V8 E . Load line 8±~ HtH ++l lii · l± m= +t+++ ~ ~  0 1 2 3 r8 :::BO mA i i Load line 60mA 40mA 50 m 10 Vce• V Estimated characteristics 20 30 0 mA 20 mA 1111 1 11 111 111111 i 111 11 II tHW 1111111 I 111111111 1111 30 mA 9:5n... 3oV... 70 R 1m FITiffi+ffi11Ti ilTITTITT"I .rr.0 10 20 30 40 50 11 HH~ 1k Q.
and the base bias resistor RB is 1 k!l. The intercepts for the input 'Ioad' line are =0 IB = 0 VBE IB = VBE Vcc RB = = 30V 1 k!l Vcc = 30 mA = 30V The second point cannot be plotted. If IBis 70 mA. and (b) the a. Thus the input 'Ioad' line may be plottedas shown in Figure 1.20 V and 30 V are IB 17 mA and IB 0 mA respectively and these may be inserted in the same way. The intersection between this line and the dynamic input characteristic gives the d. Comment on the effect of the characteristic nonlinearity in each case.13a. Therefore at VBE 1 volt. If dVBE is 1 volt. the operating values of VcE and Ic may be found from Figure 1.c. The Ioad resistor RL is 9·5 n. IB = 30 mA .13b. Similarlywhen VcEis 10 V. Using this we can now plot th!! dynamic input characteristic as follows. source is 3 V peak with 100 n internal resistance.c. Following the procedure outlined above we must first insert the Ioad line on the output characteristic. The two intercepts are given by: lf If /c =0 VcE VcE = 0 Ic = = = Vcc Vcc RL 30V 30 = 9.2. so the slope of the line must be used.13b VcE = 14·5 V 17 /c = 1·65 A . VcE ~ 0·5 and this point may be placed on the inputcurvefor VcE = 0·5.13a. determine the d. output voltage if (a) the a.13a VBE = 560 mV IB = 29·5 mA ~ 30 mA Now since /Bis known.[ß ~ 41 mA which can be plotted on the input curve for VcE = 10 V. operating point. d/B = 1\~ = 1 mA. Find also the a. source is 40 mV peak with zero internal resistance. The resulting dynamic curve is shown in Figure 1. A simple transistor amplifier is operated from a d. operating point. From Figure 1.13a and b. Two further points for VcE.d/B = 29 mA. If the transistor characteristics are those shown in Figure 1.c. supply of 30 V.c.c.c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Example 1.5 = 3·15 A This Ioad line is shownon Figure 1.
The resulting /b values obtained from the dynamic input characteristic are Vbe 520 mV 30mA 20mA 560 mV 600 mV 560 mV 70mA 30mA The peak values of the /b waveform are 30 . The a. base current will be determined by this and the transistor input resistance.c.13b.20 = 10 mA and 70 .GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS When the a.14·5 = 4 V and 14·5 . For comparison purposes. base current is given by 18 .c. a measure of the distortion is given by the ratio of these two results .c. :.c. source of 40 mV peak and zero internal resistance is connected. 10r = 40 10 = 4 The corresponding limits of the variation of Vce can now be found from Figure 1.30 = 40 mA This represents a considerable degree of distortion resulting from the curvature of the input characteristic. the d. and the a. Rtn is given by Rtn = VBE IB = 560mV 30 mA = 18 n This is very much less than the source resistance and may therefore be neg1ected.c. Thus the peak a. Rtn· At the operating point.0·5 = 14 V The corresponding distortion factor D2 14 = 4 = 3·5 This is less than that obtained for the /b waveform since the output characteristic nonlinearity acts in the opposite sense to that of the input characteristic. D1 d"Jstortwn c h. VBE varies between 520 mV and 600 mV in a sinusoidal manner. output voltage required is 18 V peak to peak. Vbe Vce = 520 mV 560 mV 600 mV 560 mV 18·5 V 14·5 V 0·5 V 14·5 V The peak values of the Vce waveform are 18·5 . In the second case the source has an internal resistance of 100 n.
c.c. (and a. calculations are usually simplified by making certain practically valid assumptions. Firstly.) Ioad Iine can be constructed with intercepts at Vcc 6 VcE = .c. A transistor having the output characteristics shown in Figure 1. The a.VBE 145 kQ = 5·8 x 103 A 145 p.Vcc = 6 V and Ic = RL = 1 = 6 mA (a) The d. Secondly. Example 1.c. and the slope of the input characteristic at this point is ß.m. operating point is now determined by lB which may be found from Vcc .s. the a. and (d) the maximum output signal for negligible distortion. 19 = 40 fl A .3·3 = 11·2 V. the phase of the distortion has therefore been reversed. output voltage in case (b) is 26 V peak to peak.c. therefore lB === Vcc/RB. (c) the current gain.3.14a operates with VBE at 0·2 volts.. The resulting variation in lb values and the corresponding Vce values are Ib Vce OmA 30mA 29·3 V 14·5 V 60mA 30mA 3. input resistance of the transistor Rtn is taken as the slope of the input characteristic at the operating point.c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS es/100 = 30 mA. VBE is very much less than the d.c. MB 5 pA.VBE 10 mV. supply voltage Vcc. (b) the output voltage and voltage gain for an input signal of 28·28 mV r. The corresponding distortion factor Da= 14·8/11·2 = 1·33. First the d. For small signa1 amplification. If it is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. This result is less than before and in this case the negative half cycle is the larger. could result in the input and output nonlinear effects cancelling each other and leaving a sinusoidal output. operating point. say 20 Q.14b determine (a) the d. From this result it seems likely that a suitable value of source resistance.14·5 = 14·8 V and 14·5.3 V 14·5 V The peak values ofthe Vce waveform are now 29·3. Vbe = ibRtn These approximations enable the selection of a suitable operating point and an estimate of the required input voltage to be made without difficulty.
m. a.20 j.1·5)/2y2 = 0·885 mA. .s. (c) The value of ic varies from 1·5 to 4 mA giving an r.m. mput reststance = 5 ttA = 2 u An r.s.s.c. As VBE goes positive lB is reduced and VcE goes negative. The peak value of ib Thus from the characteristics.c. The current gain A1 is therefore 0·885 mA/14·14 ttA = 62·5. base current ib = 28·28 mV 2kQ = 14·14 uA r = y2 X 14·14 ttA = 20ttA and the peak to peak value = 20 x 2 = 40 ttA.3 From the characteristics the operating point is now VcE 2·9 V. the voltage gain Av = 850 mV/28·28 mV = 30.2·0)/2y2 = 0·85 V. operating point moves between ib = 60 ttA and ib = 20 ttA. (b) The slope of the input characteristic is the a.m.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS 6V <! E 1· 5 tlc~~.s. 20 .14. output voltage = (4·2.!Ä 2 3 4 5 6 VcE• V (a) (b) Figure 1. Thus as with simple valve amplification we get phase reversal and Av = 30. the a . ic of (2 . input voltage of 28·28 mV will result in an r. The r. lOmV kr.c. The characteristics and circuit for Example 1. input resistance and is given by ~VBE ~h . The corresponding values of Vce are 2 V and 4·2 V respectively. Ic 3 mA.JÄ ÜJ.m.
In practice the simple biasing arrangement used in the last two examples has a number of disadvantages.11) lc = a.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (d) The peak output voltage must not cause VcE to exceed 6 or the transistorwill cut off. These relationships can be simply shown and remernbered by the diagram shown in Figure 1.10) IE = Ic +In (1.16.)IE .15 shows the distortion that would arise with this circuit if the peak ib was increased to 60 pA.c. Figure 1.s.IE + lco (1.12) h = (1 . By inspection of this diagram the three basic relationships may be found: (1. transistor action results in a.a. Vce of 2·9 .IE flowing out at the collector. Before we can discuss these we must examine the relationships between the collector.· Figure 1. Waveforms for Example 1. base and emitter currents in a transistor. A peak a._. In addition the reverse Figure 1. The maximum output signal is therefore 2·7/v2 = 1·9 Vr.15.0·2 will not cause distortion due to bottoming or cut off.3 \ .a. This current is known as /co or lcBo since it is the value of Ic when JE is zero.16.m. . and (I . VcE cannot fall below 0·2 V from the characteristics. Fundamental current relationships for the transistor (1a)0 biased collector base junction will have a reverse leakage current flowing conventionally from base to collector.Ico 21 .)IE flowing out of the base. If a current IE flows into the emitter lead.
Typically the corresponding value of Ico' would range from 0·1 A to 1 flA respectively. Firstlet us find the value of Ic when lB is zero. is known as Ico' (or sometimes lcEo as opposed to lcBo for the common base circuit).rx) = rxh and rx Ico Ico + Ico rx Ico lc=h+1rx 22 (1.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS In common emitter circuits. Ic. (I . Ic = = rxlco + Ico rxlco + Ico  1 _ rx 1oc rxlco Ico =1a: This current.(1.rx Now applying equation 1.1 0.12.rx)IE = Ico IE = Ico 1 .13) 1 .10 /c rx/c + IB = Ic  + rxh = /c  Ic(l .11.11 to obtain /E and equate to equation 1. From equation 1. Ico' is very much larger than /co.11. but we do wish to know how Ic varies with IB. To find the value of /c when IB is not zero we must rearrange equation 1.Ico IE=(:1. The values of Ico vary from 1 mA for a high power germanium transistor to 1 flA for a small signal germanium transistor or to 10 nA for small signal silicon transistor.rx Now since rx is nearly equal to unity having typical values from 0·96 to 0·995. From equation 1. Thus . Equate to 1. Ico Ico = . we are not concerned with JE. the va1ue of Ic when IB is zero.16) .14) 1rx (1.
Typical values for an OC 75 transistor are a' 90.20) We are now in a position to discuss the disadvantages of our simple transistor biasing arrangement.16 becomes lc oc =1 .17. These lead to: oc' IX= 1 lco + oc' (1. now suppose such an OC 75 was connected into the circuit shown in Figure 1.13 and 1. Simplebias circuit for Example 1. 10V 5kfi 970k!l Figure 1.4.0·2)V 970 Kil ' = 1 1 _ oc ttA = lco = 10·1 ttA 1 oc 1 .4 IB = (10.17.17) = oc'/B + lco' (1.19) lco' = 1 + oc' (1. lco 1 ttA and VBE 0·2 V.17. Example 1.oc (1.18) oc' Other useful relationships can be obtained by rearranging equations 1.I+ oc' 1 = ttA = 91 ttA 190 91 23 ttA . A numerical example will adequately illustrate these points.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS The second term in the result is lco' and for convenience we shall put and equation 1.
' 70 or 2·08 V peak with r~. r~.QOC _ _ lO~C _ leb 2ooc Vcc VcE Figure 1.. The effect of temperature on the output characteristics 24 . Summarizing. 1 000 . The reverse biased leakage currents Ico (collector base) and lEo (emitter base) are the result of the intrinsic properties of the semi'@ /.uA 0·778 mA 6·1 V 130 131 .' unless the signal level is severely restricted. Taking these extreme values we get Ico' Ic VcE 70 71..18.' 130.uA Now VcE = 10 + (5 X 1) = 5 V and since VcE may vary between 10 (cut off) and 0·2 (bottoming) this allows maximum variation of a. the simple bias circuit cannot be designed to suit all transistors with the normal commercial range of r~...'@ 30°C /. the output VcE would have been severely distorted by cut off in the first case and bottoming in the second.c. with a peak output voltage of 4·8 V. Alternatively if the input signallevel had been maintained.QOC .'h + Ico' = 90 X 10·1 + 91 = = 1mA.' Temperature Effects A second disadvantage isthat transistors are temperature sensitive.GRAPillCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Ic = a. operating point without distortion.' is from 70 to 130. Unfortunately all OC 75 transistorsarenot typical and the specified range of r~.uA 1·444mA 2·78V Thus to prevent distortion the output signal must be reduced to 3·9 V peak with r~.
18. Both currents approximately double for each 10°C increase in temperature. As can be seen from Figure 1. The operating point must lie on the load line and it therefore moves towards the bottomed or saturated condition with increase in temperature.19.oc) . at 20°C the permissible peak a. and T is the absolute temperature in °Kelvin. The effect on the output characteristics would be very similar tothat shown in Figure 1. Again the operating point would move towards bottoming. In the simple circuit discussed above.c. The effect on the input characteristics is shown in Figure 1. In this case. the characteristic corresponding to IB = 40 ttA moves up with Ico'. Thus for any particular value of VBE. Vce is approximately Vcc/3 while at 40°C it has been reduced to zero. The effect of temperature on the input characteristics we can one. 2 25 . if temperature rises by 10°C. lEo and thus In doubles.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS conductor material. IB is constant and Ico' doubles as /co doubles.21) where K is a constant.22) In this expression a change of 10°C will have 1ittle effect on Twhich will be of the order of 300°K.4. compared with the exponential term. lt can be shown that the emitter current can be expressed in terms of the emitter base voltage by IE = /Eo[exp (KVBE/T) .Ico IB = (1 .Ico (1.18.oc)/Eo[exp (KVBE/T) . When VBE is very small Ico will have a significant effect but when VBE is larger we can neglect Ico as Figure 1.19.1] (1. An alternative approach might be to maintain VBE constant.1] . In was maintained at a constant value. In Example 1. lc = oc'h + Ico'. Now IB = IE(l .
Stabilization of operating point The simp1est form of this is shown in Figure 1. The equation for this 1oop is given by = V' IB = (1  VBE but VBE = (1. .21 shows the VEB/IE characteristics for 20°C and 30°C.. .h. d V+ lcoR' w1t mtercepts at V + IcoR. an at RE+ R'(l _ rxf Figure 1.23) hR' .21.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS The commonest form of bias circuit emp1oys a compromise aimed at stabi1izing the emitter current and therefore the collector current regard1ess of changes of transistor (hence oc' and required VBE) or temperature. .24) This equation represents a '1oad 1ine' on the VEB/IE characteristics. Figure 1. The V". Graphical analysis of stabilization 26 .20. The base is supplied from a source of medium resistance instead of one having high resistance (tending to constant current) or zero resistance giving constant voltage. lcoRC20°C) Figure 1..IE[RE + (1  oc)R'] + lcoR' (1.20. The 1oad lines are drawn on this for the same temperatures.lco V' ..IERE oc)/E .
01: 27 + RE) lco' ( R .22.25 and 1. RE large. This may then be rewritten V' . ( I'+18 ) Ja I' R2 Figure I. Vcc R. V' much greater than VEB and R' small.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS resulting change of /E is shown by the intersections marked.VBE = IBR' + (In + Ic)RE then collecting terms and substituting for IB from equation 1. + RE( 1 + 01: ')] = . thus if R' is made small this movement will be limited. . Thus the conditions for a stable emitter current are.VBE = IcRE +~ (Ic 01: Ico')(R' lc [R . emitter resistor stabilization In practice V' is obtained from a potential divider circuit across the main Vcc supply. Ic can be found by calculating V' and R' from equations 1.18 V' .23. as shown in Figure 1. The movement of the Ioad line is due entirely to IcoR'.22.26) + R2 The operating point VcE. Potential divider.26 and substituting in equation 1. 01: + RE) .25) V'= VccR2 and that R1 (1. By Thevenin's theorem (see Chapter 2) it can be shown that R' = R1R2 R1 + R2 (1. Also if the line could be made nearly horizontal the change in IE could be reduced.
These are die (1. For R' to be small. Any change in /e due to temperature or IX' changes. reducing VBE· This in turn reduces /B tending to maintain Ie and IE at their original values.31) K may be found directly from equation 1.29) K = dleo' die dleo S= Krx' die = diX' (1. also cause a change in JE.VBE = constant. R1 and R2 must be small making I' much greater than /B.GRAPHJCAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONJC CIRCUITS From which Ie = IX'(V' .28) An alternative approach to the stabilizing action of the circuit can be seen by consideration of the circuit (Figure 1. 28 (1. For good stability K is small and in the limit when R' K = I 1 + IX 1 F or the warst case R' ?> RE and K = 1.VBE) Ieo'(R' +RE) R' + RE(l +IX')+ R' + RE(1 +IX') (1.27 giving R' +RE K = R' + RE(1 +IX') by assuming VBE ~V' and that V'. Thus the valtage between base and earth is approximately V' and nearly constant. Suppose /e tends to rise. IERE.22). .32) ~RE.Vee + IeRL + lERE + Ie(RL +RE) (1.30) (1. the voltage across RE. Stability Factors Three measures of circuit stability are often encountered.27) VeE may then be found from VeE =  Vee ~. will also rise.
For higher current transistors the values will of course be much lower.27 and substitute from equations 1.VBE) IX'leo lc = (R' + RE)(1 + MIX') + 1 + MIX' (1.VBE R' +RE J + leo . S tend to 1 ~ die = IX dleo 1 _ IX = dleo . Design Considerations The limitations on RE being large is that the volt drop IERE must be supplied by the supply battery Vee (equation 1. S tends to one and d/e = dleo. Thus for a 6 V battery and operating point VeE 3 V. If R' ~ RE.34 IX'(V'. RE can only be I kQ.24 and substituting for IE in terms of Ie and Ieo. On rearranging and differentiating S can be found R' +RE (1·35) s = RE+ R '(1.IX) In this case if RE~ R'.28).IX'M (1 + M1X') 2 29 [V' .TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS K is also sometimes written (1. The minimum size of R' is determined by the minimum permissible input impedance to the amplifier. Je 1 mA. and typical values of R1 and R2 will be used in the following examples.33 and 1.3 6) Note Ieo' ~ tX'/co le Krx' die = 1 + MtX' = diX' = IX' (1 [V'R' + VBE J RE + lco + MIX') .33) l +MtX' RE M= RE+R' where (1. Finally to find Krx· we must take equation 1. This will be discussed in later chapters. If the Ioad is 2 kQ.34) S may be found in a similar way from equation 1. RL +RE is given by 13mVA = 3 kQ.
This reduces the voltage across RB.23.' (R' a. 30 . For large changes.33 and 1. and differentiating we find (1. Ka.' 1 [ X a. The formulae (equations 1.VBE) + RE)(1 + Ma. Figure 1. reducing h and thus /c.37 should only be used for small changes in a. Collector feedback.' 1 = 1 + Ma.'.·=. any increase in Ic increases the voltage across RL.36 Klc Ka.32. Another stabilizing circuit is occasionally encountered where the base resistor is connected to the collector. 1.VBE = = (/c + IB)RL + IBRB + IERE Ic(RL + RE) + h(RL + RE + RB) Now by making the same Substitutions as before.37) K and S are the slopes of approximately straight line relationships.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS This may be rewritten Ka.'lco + 1 + Ma.'(V'. values should be inserted in equations 1.36 whichever is most convenient. emitter resistor stabilization The equation may be written in the same way Vcc.' J From equations 1.38) In this circuit.23.35) may be used therefore for large changes in /c as weil as small ones.') a.27 or 1.· however is the slope of a curved relationship and equation 1. 1.33. IX (1. This is shown in Figure 1.
Example 1. 31 . The single stage amplifier shown in Figure 1. First we must find the range of d.24b the same applies.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS Bias Decoupling In both stabilizing circuits (Figures 1. feedback will reduce the gain of the stage.C.25 employs a transistor having rx' in the range 5095.c.s. The reverse collector leakage current Ico is quoted as 2 pA at 20°C and the amplifier may be used in the temperature range 20oC to 50°C. operating points. but in addition a. operating point at 20°C due to the spread of rx'. currents can flow to earth.23) the stabilization is performed by d. Figure 1. The exact mechanism of these a. circuits will be discussed in later chapters.24 shows how this is done.c.22 and 1. Weshall now consider some numerical examples on the operating conditions for a given circuit and on the design of a suitable circuit to meet required operating conditions. A. negative feedback. voltage across RE. As with the triode valve amplifier. So if XcB ~ RB12. Decoupling must be used to overcome this effect.24.c.c. such a.c. and hence the maximum permissible r.5.c.m. (a) (b) Figure 1.c. output current. Assurne VBE is 200mV. currents could be fed back through RB. decoupling circuits In Figure 1. In Figure 1. Determine the range of possible d.24a if XcE ~RE there can be no a. This behaves in the same way as the RK in the valve amplifier.
5 For T1. so maximum I c will occur if T2 is used at 50°C.VBE) + Ico'(R' R ' + RE(l + Cl.. 32 .' 50.') + RE) 10 + 10 = 2·323 V I X 7·67 kO Using equation 1. V I = 10 33 X 33 10 R = lO + 33 = CJ.'(V' .')Ico 0·102 mA = 0·002(51) mA Ico' = 0·002(96) = 0·192 mA Next. Circuit and graph for Example 1... to find Je we need V' and R' for this circuit.27 lc = _50 lc  Ic = X 2·125 + 0·102 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 51 1·825 mA _ 95 X 2·125 + 0·192 X 8·67 A m 7·67 + 96 Ic Ic = 1·95 mA Increase in ambient temperature can only increase Ic.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS 10V 2kfi 1kfi Vcc• volts (a) (b) Figure 1. Cl. Ico' = = (1 + CJ.25.
1·34 mA = 1·95 + 0·113 mA = 2·063 mA For T1 at 20°C.5·525 = 4·475V. Vce must not exceed 3·811 . Maximum VcE = 10 + 1·825(1 = 5·525 V For Tz at 50°C. Thus to allow for all possibilities. cut off will occur if peak a.c. + 2) V Minimum VcE = 10 + 2·063( 1 + 2) V = 3·811 V To avoid distortion due to bottoming VcE must not become less than VBE· To avoid distortion due to cut off VcE cannot be greater than Vcc. 1oad is only 2 kil./co = 96 X 0·014 mA = 1·34mA From equations 1.0·2 = 3·6 V. the a. If Xe~ RE at signa1 frequencies./c ßlco' R' +RE = R' + RE(1 + oc') 8·67 = 7·67 + 96 = 0·084 ß/ce = K!:l. To avoid bottoming with Tz.28. peak a.c. We can 33 .32 K = 6.29 and 1. Vce exceeds 10.Ico' = 0·084 x = 0·113mA K Maximum /c From equation 1.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS For Tz at 50°C. the peak a. With T1.c.c. Vce has a maximum value of 3·6 V. We must now consider the effect of the decoupling capacitor. lco = 0·002 X 2 X 2 X 2 mA and = 0·016mA ß/co = 0·014 mA ßlco' = (1 + oc')!:l.
6. supply is 6 V.s.. The available d.c. design a suitable bias circuit. If the minimum VcE to avoid bottoming distortion is 300 mV. RL 4 '.c..u \ \ \ ~ 2 0·3 1·0 3·0 Vcc• volts (a ) (b) Figure 1.6 34 6 . the maximum r. Cutoff on the a. A. has Ico 2 pA and oc0·98..GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS therefore draw an a.c.S. signal current of 2 mA is to produce an R. = RL\1'2 = 2 y'2 mA = 1·27 mA Example 1.C.) \ \ <! E . output current is given by Vpeak 3·6 lr.25b.M. Finally.load line of 2 kQ passing through the operating point as shown in Figure 1. and the transistor is subjected to a possible temperature rise of 40°C. Ioad line (lk!l. A transistor whose operating point at normal room temperature is tobe VcE . The peak a. Ioad line will occur at a lower value of VcE· To find the value that would cause cutoff distortion we can say ßVcE = 2 kQ ßlc and ßVcE = 2kQ = X 2·06 mA 4·12 V Our peak a. Ic 2 mA.c.m.s.c. Assurne that Ico doubles for each 10°C rise in temperature and that any emitter resistor will be suitably decoupled at the signal frequency of I kHz. Vce is only 3·6 V so there is still no risk of cutoff distortion.3 V.m. output voltage of 1·414 V. Circuit and graph for Example 1.26.
RE.load line.\ u/co K = I 30 == 1IX ß/c ßlco' = A 1500f1 466 1 500 = 0 "311 Using equations 1. = 3 + lcRL + IERE V IERE = 3 . RL is determined by the output conditions from Vac iac = RL 1·414 =2 = X 0·707 l kO. the a. the operating VcE is 3 V and the peak signal Vce is 2 V.c.c. and the 300 mV bottoming line are also shown.Ico = 30 f1A . The problern is to determine the values of RL.26a. change with temperature) = 466 11A ßlco = 2 4 /co . Now VcE must not fall below 0·3 V (bottoming) so permissible shift of VcE is given by ßVcE = d.5 mA (Note this is a d.c. Ioad line as shown in Figure 1. signal voltage. 3 + 2 + 0·3 = 0·7 V. VcE + peak a..c.c. we must find ß/c.TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS We shall use the common form of circuit shown in Figure 1.Ico 1·998 IX = 0 .34 K I = l + MIX' where M = RE 35 RE + R' IX and I X ' . so the minimum instantaneous Vce is 3 + 2 = 1 V. First we find the permissible ßVcE: at normal room temperature. Rz and CE. The a.c. Vce + Vbottoming. Rt.1IX .98 = 2 mA But IE = Therefore RE = 2 mA = 500 n IV Now since IE = Ic we can draw the d.26b. To determine K. RE may now be found since VcE is given.33 and 1.2 = 1 V 6 So Ic . ßVcE ßlc = RL +RE = 0·7 1.
.IERE ' 2.' = 0·98 1 . = 39 ttA V'= VBE 0·5 X 2 10·5 X 0·039 = 0· 3 + 1 + 0·41 = l· 71 V + R2 R1 1·7I So and 6R2 V'= But = R1 6R2 + R2 6 R1+R2= 1. I XcE Let Thus XcE = = 27Tl03C so IO Q C 1 C = 27Tl03XcE 50 IQ6 = 27T 104 F = :.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Wehave a. we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and equation I..7 IR2 R1R2 R1 10' 5 = 6R2/I·11 = 3·5 and R1 = 37 kQ and R2 = 6 R1 = 14·7 kQ 1·71 .hR' .' and ) 2·22 1 = 49 = 0·0453 =RE(~ R' = 49 I) = 2I·IRE = 10·5 kQ To find the values of R1 and R2. for adequate decoupling X cE ~RE at 1 kHz.23 VBE = Now IB = Taking iE = Ic V' .Ico' (. ttF 36 .1 Finally.0·98 1 (1 K M = a.O·I 49 + + Ic.
Assurne an a.c. (a) 63 V. Find the d. How is the gain for case (b) modified if the bias VGK is changed to 0·5 V? Ans. Wehave not considered the effect of coupling circuits or reactive Ioads on the graphical solution of transistor amplifiers. II I 7S 100 I 12S ISO 117S 200 122S 2SO 127S 300 0 2S SO 0 0 for Vax (volts) O·S 3·3 1·0 6·6 3·3 0·2S 0 1·3 0·5 3·3 1·7 6·1 3·S 9·S 13·S 6·S 9·7S 0 0·7 0·2 2·0 1·0 41 2·S 6·3 4·4 10·0 6·9 10·2 0 0·4 O·IS 1·4 0·6 2·8 1·5 4·85 7·4 2·9 5·0 0 0·2 0·1 0·75 0·4 1·6 0·9 3·2 2·0 5·3 3·S 8·0 S·75 8·S 0·15 O·S 0·2 1·2S 0·7 2·3 l·S 4 ·0 2·8 6·1 4·5 6·S 0 0·3 0·1 0·7S 1·7 0·4 1·0 3·0 2·0 4 ·6 33 0·1 1·2 2·3 VAK (volts) fA(mA) 1·0 J·S 2·0 2·S 3·0 3·5 4·0 4 ·S 10·3 14·0 6·1 9·S J3·S 17·S S·O 5·S 17·S J3·S 6·0 6·5 7·0 13·6 10·4 7·6 10·6 0·4 Ans.c. We have investigated suitable circuits to give the correct d. We have found the limitations of these methods. but as with valves. operating point in each case. these will make the solution exceedingly difficult if not impossible. operating conditions may be found. Summarizing.T.T.c. (a) 25·5. EXAMPLES Example 1.c. if with (a) VGK is 0·5 V and with (b) h is 1·5 mA.F capacitor would be used allowing the amplifier to be used at lower frequencies. supply of 100 V and a resistive load of 8 kil. Example 1. A triode valve having the characteristics given below is connected in series with (a) an H. signal 0·5 V peak in each case. and we have seen how the d.8. or (b) an H.7. conditions.7. 37 . 4·7 mA. (b) 208 V. supply of 300 V and Ioad of 60 kil. Using the circuits described in Example 1. and in the case oftransistors we have seen how this operating point may be stabilized against changes of temperature and transistor. in this chapter we have seen how simple valve and transistor circuits may be analysed by graphical methods. 5 V.EXAMPLES In practice a 100 p. determine the voltage gain. (b) 24 or 45·5.
250V H. Ans.11.7 is connected in series with an anode Ioad resistor RL and a cathode resistor RK and an H.7 is connected in the cathode follower circuit shown in Figure 1. 19·2.T. Find the output voltage and voltage gain if (a) es = 1 sin wt and (b) e8 = 1·5 sin wt. Example 1.27. Ans. Circuit for Example 1.27 is now connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. Circuit for Example 1. Find the values of RL and RK ifthe required operating point is (a) VAK 100 V. 790 Q.9 employs RL 17·15 kU.12 Example 1. 30·5. + H. Find the new value of vo and Av if a capacitor CK is connected in parallel with RK such that its reactance at the signal frequency is negligible. results in an operating 38 . 21·5. A triode valve having the characteristics given for Example 1.10. The circuit described in Example 1. A single stage valve amp1ifier employs a resistive load of 4 kU. 21·5. (a) 24·8 kU.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Example 1. (b) 10 ill. RK 250 Q and an H. Ans. Ans. The characteristics are suchthat the 200 V H.28. Example 1. h 6 mA.13. 32. (a) 61. 166 Q. 0·65.28. supply of300 V.c. calculate the voltage gain and the terminal input impedance. (b) VAK 150 V. (b) 96. Example 1.T. of 250 V.11 Figure 1.T.T + 175V I· Figure 1. Determine the voltage gain. The d. If the triode valve shown in Figure 1. (a) 43. grid bias is provided by an RK of 1k0. A triode valve using the characteristics given for Example 1. h 9·75 mA. 154 Q.T.27.9.12. (b) 64·5.
The anode Ioad. Example 1.15.c.12a. Ans. is assumed tobe purely inductive.EXAMPLES anode current of 20 mA. (a) 15 mA. T. Example 1. The anode characteristic for VaK 0 V is approximately linear having an ra of 15 kO.16. A transistor having the characteristics given be1ow is connected in the circuit shown in Figure 1. anode voltage when RK is adequately decoupled. If the frequency is 5kHz. Ans. A single stage amplifier is operated with battery bias and an H. Calcu1ate new values for RL and RB to change the operating point to Ic 8 mA. of 200 V resulting an anode current of 2·5 mA through the 40 kO Ioad.T. A triode having the characteristics given for Example 1. 60 V.14. calculate (a) the maximum peak a. draw the operating Ioad line for a peak alternating anode current of7·75 mA.c.c. (b) 60 V. VcE 2·7 V. (b) the maximum peak a. a coil of 0·2 H. Example 1. Find the maximum peak alternating anode voltage and state the limiting factor. (a) 45 V positive VaK. 30 L 315°. anode current and hence the peak anode voltage. supply of 150 V. Either positive VaK or h less than 0·4 mA results in excessive distortion. Ievel will result in excessive distortion. Hence estimate the voltage gain and phase shift. (a) with the circuit as described and (b) if an externalload of 5·7 kO is coupled to the anode through a capacitor of negligible reactance.7 is operated with a bias voltage of 1· 5 V and an H. Ans. I0 I VBE(mV) IB (ttA) for VcE (volts) 0 1·5 0 I 150 I 00 22 3 90 18 200 345 60 135 235 360 1 14 10 50 117 42 105 213 332 198 313 39 190 300 3·0 4·5 6·0 8 39 200 I 250 50 98 300 . Assuming that anode current excursions to less than 5 mA d. (b) 11 V low h. Determine the operating point on the input and output characteristics taking RL and RB as 500 n and 47 kO respective1y and Vcc as 6 V.
'.19. 413 Q. Ans. 4·5 V. Ans. The design requirement forasinglestage transistor amplifier include a collector current of 1 mA. 204 mV. 36. RB 140 kil. If VBE is taken as 0·3 V. 35. Ans. Example 1. Jco.VcE (Volts) Je (mA) for In (JtA) 1 o 1 0·2 0 0·4 11·0 6·0 0·2 1·2 0·2 1·4 0·2 1·5 0·2 1·9 80 120 2·4 3·6 28 29 4·3 3·9 5·7 160 200 4·8 6·0 5·6 6·9 5·8 7·3 7·6 9·5 240 74 8·4 8·8 11·5 0 40 4·1 Ans. Example 1. Calculate the input impedance. and JB. Ans. RE 500 n. If JE is 2 mA. Example 1. 123 ttA. RL 1·8 kil. the voltage gain. 3·93 mA. 28·8 kil.17. 32·3. Jco'.22. The d. If the transistor has a.20. 0·994. Je. andRE 1 kil.23. 3·43 V. supply is 12 V and the circuit components are R1 33 kil.GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS . Example 1. 5·1 mA. A transistor operating at 5 mA is known to have a. A transistor having a.21. 1·45 mA. 0·125. a 4 kil load. 1·24 ttA. lB and JE.c. and the supp1y battery 10 V.18. An alternating signal of 50 mV peak is applied to the base ofthe simple amplifier circuit in Example 1. 0·99 and Jco 3 ttA is connected in the potential divider emitter resistor bias circuit shown in Figure 1. Ans. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. 1·944 mA. 5·03 mA. Calculate a. 1 V. Example 1. RL is 3·3 kil. R2 22 kil. 133 ttA. Example 1. calculate a. and the current gain. calculate the operating point and the stability factor K. A certain transistor is found to have a.' 160. 56 ttA.' 45. 0·46. Jco' 0·1 mA and VBE 0·2 V.22. 30 ttA.. 0·97 and Jco 4 ttA.16. and Jco' 0·2 mA. and a 40 . A transistor has a stable bias condition fixed by the collector feedback emitter resistor circuit shown in Figure 1. 488 Q.
and further. The available d. an Vcc 12V Figure 1. The transformer has 2:1 turns ratio and 0·5 Q primary resistance. Ans. rx' 150. 1 V. 1 V r. It is required to amplify signals widely differing in amplitude in the frequency range100Hz to 10kHz. Example 1.EXAMPLES stability K of 0·05. 70 Q.24. calculate the values ofthe remaining components if a potential divider emitter resistor circuit is to be used. 41 . 1! Q. 10 ftF. Ans. Assuming the transistor to have VBE 0·2 V. Ic 2 A.29 has a maximum collector dissipation 16·4 W. 3·6 W. 195 Q. supply is 12 V and the selected operating point is VcE 8 V.23. RE 1 kQ. determine: (a) the remaining bias components if the maximum temperature is 50°C (b) Ifthe effect of distortion is ignored. the shunt primary reactance is very much greater than the reflected Ioad impedance. 2 kQ. Ifthe transistor has negligible Ico and VBE of 0·2 V. The components are RL 1 kQ. R140 kQ. Example 1.c. and at 20°C. 45·6 kQ. Rz12 kQ and Vcc is 6 V.s. Ans. the maximum output power. (c) the approximate input voltage to obtain this output. A transistor amplifier uses potential divider emitter resistor bias with adequate decoupling.24 Ico of 500 flA. 1·11 V.m. 139 kQ. At the signal frequency. Circuit for Example 1. that it will bottarn at VcE 0·4 V. and (b) if rx' is 150. Assuming VBE tobe 0·7 V. calculate the maximum peak alternating output voltage (a) if rx' is 50.29. The available power supplyis 12 Vand the silicon transistor has rx' 120 and negligible Ico. The power transistor shown in Figure 1.
Thus if we are to analyse these equivalent circuits. These are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws. mesh analysis and nodal analysis. The constant of proportionality is known as the circuit admittance Y.c. Kirchhoff's laws lead to the two most important tools for network solutions. t. The basic rules for such analysis are fortunately simple and will probab1y be familiar to the reader.e.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equivalent circuits for electronic devices will be shown to consist of simple current or voltage generators. Section 1 FUNDAMENTALS Ohm's law states that the current I flowing in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the electrical pressure or voltage V applied to the circuit. I= VY (2. current or voltage source together with its associated impedance or admittance. In Chapter 1. Section 3 will state some additional theorems which frequently simplify analysis and Section 4 will explain the analysis of a common form of network. having dimension mhos. we found that such devices could only operate correctly if they were connected to suitable 1oad and bias circuits consisting of impedances or admittances. any signa1 to be amplified was supplied from an a.1) An alternative way of expressing this is: the potential difference V across an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the current I 42 . we must be ab1e to analyse complex networks of impedances. together with impedances or admittances. the four terminal or two port network. admittances and generators. Correct application of Ohm's law demonstrates a nurober of important relationships which will be shown in the first section of this chapter. In addition. These methods and the solution of the resultant equations will be considered in Section 2 of this Chapter.
I Y= R + jX R G=R2+X2 and onIy ·r R lS. the constant of proportionality is known as the circuit impedance Z. Consider first the simple d.2) V=IZ By inspection we can see that V 1 Z=1= y or I 1 (2. Circuit notation for direct currents and voltages R y 43 .i: X and G =F R If a circuit has Z = R + jX.1.e.1. in general I 1 B ::. having dimension ohms.4) Y= G + jB (2.5) where X and B are known as the circuit reactance and susceptance respectively. For steady state alternating or sinusoidal currents and voltages.c. circuit shown in Figure 2.6) x·1 Notation Before we can proceed to further relationships.3) Y=v=z For direct currents and voltages the impedance of a circuit is the resistance R and the admittance is the conductance G. i. If the voltmeter and ammeter are centre zero and connected with the (I) X Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS flowing through the circuit. Note. In this case. we must consider the sense of measurement of voltage and current. B = 1 R jX R2 + X2 1 Z=  B X = R2 + X2 (2. the impedance and admittance are complex and become Z=R+jX (2. (2. zero.
2.I amps and we could say that I= (E/R). lf however. Consider the part of a circuit shown in Figure 2. the voltmeter will read +E volts and the ammeter +I amps where I= (E/R) amps. Circuit notation for alternating · currents and voltages is flowing. If the sense of voltage measurement was also reversed we should find Vyx = . This rule applies to alternating quantities in exactly the same way. The voltmeter measures the voltage at x with respect to y and will measure +V= +IR= +Evolts in the sense shown by the second arrow (V).2.Vxy and Vyx =IR= (E/R) X R = E as would be expected from the circuit. the meter would read . This example Ieads to the deduction of a useful rule: The potential difference that is produced by a current flowing in an impedance will be positive ( + IZ) if the sense of the potential difference is taken in the opposite direction to the chosen sense of current flow. In terms of this current i we can say that iZ2 va = iZa = +jwLi = i v2 = = iR ji = wC 44 (:J) . given that current Figure 2. The instantaueaus value of the current will be i = isin (wt ± 4>) where 4> gives the phase with respect to some unknown reference. Conventional current flow is from positive to negative so the sense of measurement of +I is as shown by the arrow (I).FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS positive and negative terminals as shown. the ammeter connections and thus the (I) arrow were reversed.
3a e = v' + vz = iZt + iZz = i(Zt + Zz) et V' :Jz. r v2 'I~ (c) (d) J J!' Figure 2. . f V2 i! J Jl' (b) (a) ef ~ ~ :]'' y2 lv. From Figure 2. 45 . e Vt = 1Z1 = 21 + Zz X Zt . z2 Iv.7) eZz = Zt + 22 Potential division between series impedances is in the direct (2.FUNDAMENTALS So for greater clarity. a volt drop due to an impedancecurrent product will be positive only if taken in the opposite sense or direction to that of the current. rewording the rule: In terms of a specified current. Impedance in series may be simply added.8) ratio of the impedance values. vz = zZ2 (2. Series and parallel circuit arrangements Total impedance ZT Also and = ~l = Zt + Zz.3. Use of Ohm's Law Now applying Ohm's law to a nurober of simple seriesandparallel circuits.
i + i = i .10 with 2.11) This rule is frequently simplified to YT or YT = = yly2 1.8.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now referring to Figure 2. The duality of a VZI system with an IYV system will become more obvious with further examples.7 and 2. Consider Figure 2. = eY1 = Also h and iz = eYz i + Y1 Yz (2. 46 .+ Y1 Yz Y1 Yz (1 1) Total admittance YT i =.3b i = h + iz = eY1 + eYz + = e(Y1 Yz) Total admittance Admittances in parallel may be simply added.9) X Y1 iYz = ==yl + Yz Current division between parallel admittances is in the direct ratio of the admittance values. . (2. . y 1 + y 2 10r two a nuttances m senes Y1Y2Ya y 1 y 2 + y 2 Ya + Ya y 1 for three in series etc.10) The "reader should now compare 2. = 1 Y1 1 YT 1 =E + + 1 Yz 1 Yz Total admittance of a nurober of admittances in series is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual admittances.3c e = v1 + vz = ." d . The similarity between the results in a series impedance system and a parallel admittance system is known as duality.9 and 2. (2.
n.4. 1 + .14) inverse ratio of the impedance values An example will illustrate the use of the above rules..12) inverse ratio of the admittance values.4(a) and (b) show the same circuit. . 2 = e (~1 + ~z} i Total impedance e =i = ZT 1 Z1 1 1 or 1 zl + Zz ZT = 1 1 + Zz and ZT = Z1Z2 zl + Zz etc. Example 2. In (a) the branches are given in their admittance values while in (b) impedances %. 11 e = Z1 = iZT Z1 i . Figures 2.FUNDAMENTALS Also V! i = Y1 = e YT Y1 vz = Similarly Y1 Yz e Y1 X Y1 + Yz = i Yz = eYT Yz = = e Yz Y1 + Yz eY1 Y1 + Yz :.13) of the individual impedances.1. and Z1Z2 iZz = Z1 (Z1 + Z2) = Z1 + Zz 12 iZ1 = Z1 + Zz Current division between parallel impedances is in the (2. Circuit for Example 2.1 47 . Potential division between series admittance is in the (2. Finally. Total impedance of a number of impedances in parallel is given by the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals (2.3d = ii + iz = . Now from Figure 2. 4 mho ·1 ·1 io io (b) (a) Figure 2.
.. therefore i4 = 4v amps ia is found by calculating i2 and dividing i2 between the 3 mho and 1 mho branches (rule 2. the 4 mho branch is in parallel with (the 2 mho branch in series with the 3 mho and 1 mho branches in parallel).= v amp 6 3+1 ia =  i0 = v + 4v = Sv amp 48 .10). io is the sum of the currents flowing in the 3 mho and 4 mho branches.9 and 2. First consider circuit (a). Now. io = i4 + ia The 4 mho branch is connected directly across v. Using both (a) and (b) determine the input admittance ifv. 12 = v [2 X (3 + 1)] 8 2 + 3 + 1 = 6 v amp 8v 3 X .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS are given.13 since all branches are quoted as impedances. to find io from circuit (a). Applying rules 2. YT  4 + 2 2(3 + (3++1)1)  4 + ~6  1 53 mhos For circuit (b) we must use rules 2.11. Now multiplying numerator and denominator by t.7 and 2. the same result as that found when working in admittances. the value of io in terms of i. and the potential difference v' across the 1 Q branch in terms of V.
FUNDAMENTALS
To find io from the impedance circuit (b) we follow the same procedure using rules 2.7, 2.13 and 2.14.
As before,
io = i4 + ia
V
}
V
=1+1 txlx!+1
2+!+1
=
4v
+
V
1
4
2 X 3
+
1
a
6v
= 4v +  = 5v amp
4+2
Finally, to find v' from each circuit, we can ignore the 4 mho
branch and note that v' is the potential across the 3 mho and 1 mho
branches in parallel.
For circuit (a) using rules 2.9, 2.11 and 2.12
v' = v
X
2
2
V
+ 3 + 1 = 3 volts
and for circuit (b) using rules 2.7, 2.8 and 2.13,
V
X!
V
=   = volts
i+!
3
Section 2
From Example 2.1, it can be seen that simple circuit problems
may be solved by the rules based on Ohm's law. There are three
disadvantages to this approach. Firstly, with more involved circuits,
the resulting expressions become exceedingly unwieldly and the
possibility of a mistake increases. Secondly, if several different
unknowns are required, as in Example 2.1, a separate solution is
required for each. Finally, if the circuit involves more than one
generator, the combined effect cannot be determined. Two most
49
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
important methods of circuit analysis are based on Kirchhoff's law.
These are really only common sense and will be explained in these
terms.
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
1. The Current Law
In everyday language this would be defined as 'That which goes
in must come out'. Consider the part circuit shown in Figure 2.5a.
is
is
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.5. Summation of currents at a node
This shows a circuit node or junction between a number of branches.
It is not shown as a capacitor and can therefore store no charge.
Thus as a quantity of charge enters the node, an equal quantity
must leave it. But moving charge is current, so we can say: the sum
of the currents entering a node must be equal to the sum of the
currents leaving that node. In Figure 2.5a this relationship is given by
h
+ ia + i4 =
i2
+ is
An alternative definition is: the algebraic sum of the currents
entering a node is equal to zero.
Again referring to Figure 2.5a, currents i2 and is leaving the node
are equivalent to currents  i2 and  is entering the node as in
Figure 2.5b. From this alternative definition,
h
+ ia + i4 
i2  is
=0
which Ieads to the same result as that obtained by the first definition.
A useful analogy is traffic flow at a roundabout, where unless
there is an accident or breakdown, the total number of vehicles
entering the roundabout is equal to the total number of vehicles
leaving it.
50
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
2. The Voltage Law
For this law, in everyday language, we could say that however
far one falls in altitude, one must climb by the same amount to
reach the original starting point.
A particular point in an electrical circuit can possess only a
single value of potential or voltage. It might be at earth or zero
potential or it might be at say, 5 000 V but it cannot be bothat the
same time. lf we start at such a point (at say + 10 V) and move
araund the circuit, we might climb to a high positive valtage or fall
to negative voltage, but when we return to the starting point, it
must be at + 10 V.
Change in potential may either be due to currents .flowing in
impedances (/Z volt drops) or due to generators or sources of e.m.f.
Thus we can say that for any closed loop in an electrical circuit,
the sum of the rises in potential due to generators, must be equal to
the sum of the falls in potential due to IZ volt drops. Consider
Figure 2.6a.
(b}
(öl}
Figure 2.6. Summation of voltages around a loop or mesh
Starting from point X and travelling in a clockwise direction, we
shall first sum the changes in potential due to the generators. We
climb through V1, fall through Vz and climb again through Va.
Thus the sum of the rises in potential is V1  Vz + Va. To find
the sense of the /Z volt drops, we need to know the sense or direction
of I. This could only be found if values for V1, Vz and Va were given.
We therefore guess the direction and then if on inserting values, we
obtain a negative answer, we can change the direction for the solution.
In this case we guess that I flows in a clockwise direction as shown.
Now to obtain positive /Z products, the potential must be measured
in the opposite direction. The positive sense of these /Z products
have also been inserted in Figure 2.6a. Now starting from point X
51
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
we can add the changes in potential until we return to the starting
point where we must return to our starting potential, i.e. the total
change in potential is zero.
+ V1 
IR1  V2  IR2  !Ra+ Va  IR4
=0
or the algebraic sum of the potential difference taken around a closed
loop is zero.
Alternatively we can say that the sum of the potential rises due to
generators is equal to the /Z volt drops when taken around a closed
loop in the same direction.
For the circuit of Figure 2.6a, this would be given by
V1  V2
+ Va =
l(R1
+ R2 + Ra + R4)
from which I could be obtained if numerical values were given.
In practice the currents in the different branches may have
different values as shown in the a.c. circuit in Figure 2.6b. The method
of writing the equations is exactly the same for a .c., and the solution
will give the value of the unknown currents in the sense shown and
their phase with respect to the given a.c. generators. The positive
sense of IZ drops has been shown and the equation may be written
e1
+ R1(h i2) 
(R2
+ jwL2)i2
(wd2) (i2 ia) e2 = 0
Further examples of writing loop or mesh equations and junction
or nodal equations will be found when we see how Kirchhoff's
laws are applied to mesh and nodal analysis.
MESH ANALYSIS
For mesh analysis, all branches are shown as impedances and all
sources are voltage generators. Unknown currents are selected
(i.e. named h, i2, etc.) and their sense indicated. The loop or mesh
equations are written and solved giving all the branch currents in
terms of the source voltages and branch impedances. This technique
will be best understood by considering some examples.
Example 2.2. Using mesh analysis determine the current flowing
in the 2 0 branch in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7.
The first problern is to insert the unknown currents. Any notation
can be used provided Kirchhoff's current law is obeyed at the junctions. One possible set of unknowns can be inserted as follows.
Let the two batteries have currents h and /2 as shown and Iet the
52
KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS
required current in the 2 Q branch be lx. Now, following the current
law, the 4 Q branch must carry (h lx) and the 5 Q branch
(h + h  lx).
This is not the simplest method but we shall first obtain the
required solution using these unknown currents. There are six
I,
6V
lz
c
2ß
2V
Figure 2.7. Circuit for Example 2.2
possible loops for which equations can be written, but since there
are only three unknown currents only three equations are required.
The equations for meshes A, B and C are respective1y
+ 5(h + h  lx)
5(h + h  lx)  4(/2 
A
6 = 3h
B
0 = 
C
2
=
+ 2/x
2/x /2
Collecting terms
6 = 8h
0
lx)
=
+ 5h 
5h  9/2
2 = 2/x
5/x
(2.15)
+ 11/x
(2.16)
+h
(2.17)
One method of so1ving these equations is by substitution as
follows
From 2.17
(2.18)
substitute in 2.16
SI2
=
18
+ 18/x + 1llx
18
h=5+
or
29
5
(2.19)
Ix
substituting for h and h from 2.19 and 2.18 in equation 2.15
6
144
232
=  5 +5
lx
53
+ 10 
10lx  5lx
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS
Collecting terms, 6
+ 5144 
10
= lx (232
5 
15 )
24·8 = 31·4/x
simplifying,
24·8
lx = 31 .5 = 0·79 A
and
Maxwell's Circulating Currents
Now since any notation for the unknown currents may be used,
we should investigate the quiekest and most convenient method.
This is known as the Maxwell's circulating current rule. The circuit
for Examp1e 2.2 is redrawn as Figure 2.8.
6V
2V
Figure 2.8. Use of Maxwell's circulating currents
Maxwell's circulating currents (h, i2 and ia) are shown. lt is assumed
that each c1osed 1oop has a current associated only with that 1oop.
Where a branch is peculiar to a loop, the branch current is equal to
the loop current. If, however, a branch is common to two loops
(the 5 n branch for example), the branch current is equal to the
difference between the two loop currents.
Thus the 5 0 branch current is (h  i2) fiowing down or (i2  h)
fiowing up. Similarly the 2 0 branch current is (i2  ia) fiowing
down or (ia  i2) fiowing up.
So writing the equation for the h loop we find
6 = 3h + 5(it i2)
and for the i2 and ia loops respectively,
0
2
=
+ 4i2 + 2(iz 
S(i2  h)
= 2(i3 i2) + i3
Collecting terms and rearranging
6 = 8h 5i2
0
=
2=
5h
+ 11 i2  2i3
2i2 + 3i3
54
i3)
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
minus any adjacent loop current. A better method for the solution of a number of simultaneous equations is the applications of determinants. Thus for ßt ßt = 6 0 2 5 11 2 0 2 3 Similarly for i2 and ia we should require ß2 and ßa ß2 = 8 5 0 6 0 2 0 2 3 and Now ßa = ia = 55 8 5 5 11 0 2 ßa tl 6 0 2 .. For the theory behind this method the reader is referred fo any good mathematics textbook. Loop current x branch impedances = h(3 + 5).KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS These equations could have been obtained more simply by applying the following rule. in the direction of the loop current is +6 V. sum the e. Following this for the first loop: The e. In this case ß = 0 2 3 5 11 2 8 5 0 To obtain the value of one of the unknown currents.m.f.f. we shall apply the method in full detail so that the reader can regard this method as a useful aid to the solution of circuit problems. The determinant ß of the network is made up from the coefficients of the unknowns. This is replaced by the constants. h. For any loop.20 above.m. in the direction of the loop current and equate to the loop current times all the loop branches. Here. we write a second determinant ßt which is the same as ß except for the h column. Equation becomes 6 = 8h . Further application of this rule will appear in the next example.5i2 which is the same as equation 2. Adjacent current x shared branch = Si2. times the common branch sharing that current.
22 for Example 2.0) + 6(10.0) 2 = 66 58 i2 = 157 A. Unknown 66 and ia = 157 A h = i2 .ia = 58 124 = . %~ :: :: Cl C2 = Ca 01 I b2 ~ ba.0) + 5(10. This process is known as expanding the determinants. 2.75 = 157 0 8 6 5 0 2 = 8(0 ._ ~ bi I 02 ~ oa ~ I+ I Ci 02 ~ oa ~ I Note in each case if a horizontal and a vertical line are drawn through the principal coefficient. The expansion of a second order determinant is as follows: I %~ :: I = Oib2  bio2 Fora third order determinant the expression is as follows: o b 1i Ci b022 c2 obaa Ca = 02 I b2 C2 I I ba Ca  02 bi Ci ba Ca I+ oa I bt Ci b2 c2 I This is known as expansion on the first row. Alternatively.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now all we have to do is to find the numerical values of the determinants. we may expand on the first column.=0·79A 157 56 + 66 A 157 .0) + 0 0 2 3 =58 ßa= 8 5 5 11 0 2 6 0 = 8(22.6( 15 .2.20. ß= 8 5 0 5 11 2 0 2 3 =8(334)+5(150)+0 = 232.21 and 2. the remaining second order determinant or cofactor consists of the remaining terms. Now applying this to equations 2.4) .
i2(4 .1 A (4 . but with practice it is possible to write down the values for the determinant directly from the original equations. In addition it is the only convenient method if the coefficients of the unknowns are complex.f.KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS This method may appear longer.j3) Now collect terms and converting generator e. Circuit for Example 2. Figure 2. 6/0° = it(3 + j2 + 4 .j) {3j4) (7j4) = .j)i2 (2.j)h + (7 .j4)i2 Evaluating the e.f.9.j) + i2(4.j) .j4) 57 (2. expressing all impedances in the complex (a + jb) form.23) 5(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = (4 .9.j) = 5/53° h(4. as is the case in the next example. Determine the current supplied by the 6 V generator in the circuit shown in Figure 2. S(cos 53° + j sin 53°) = 5(0·6 + j0·8) V = 3.3.24. lt 3 I I (6 + jO) (4 .(7_+_j_)(4j). Example 2.m.24) .j4 V Now solving by determinants .s to (a + jb) form 6 + jO = (7 + j)h. for equation 2.j + 1 + 2.m.(4.3 First we insert the currents as before and then write the normal mesh equations.j) (7 .
jl3 Converting the numerator and denominator into the R/0 form: . This circuit has three nodes each of which will have a potential or voltage VA.j4) .j)(4.38.(3 + j4)(4 . We solve for unknown node voltages (as opposed to unknown mesh currents) in terms of current generators and the circuit admittances.10. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS expanding the determinants . VB.{19o)A 1484 0·686/36° A Thus the current is lagging the 6 V generator voltage by 36°.49 42.16 + 1 + j4 + j4 A +4  _ 26.4. Since it is a dual we shall expect to use this method on c Figure 2. l1 = y/{262 + 372) ctan1 H y/{382 + 132) /tan1 HA = J2048 = /550. The dual system known as nodal analysis is based on Kirchhoff's current law. In practice we usually express the voltage at a 58 .12. Vc.j) A .{4. NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis was developed by the use of Kirchhoff's voltage law.10.j24. Many other examples of mesh analysiswill occur in Iater chapters. 11 = (6 + j0)(7 . Circuit suitable for nodal analysis circuits consisting of current generators and admittances.jl6 + j3 j28 + j7 .j) {7 + j)(7 .j4).j37 A .
we can see that these nodal equations could be found in another way.VB)Yz and at node B [z =(VB. minus each adjacent node valtage times the connecting branch admittance. equate the currents entering the node to that node valtage times the sum of all admittances connected to the node.O)(Ya + Y4) +(VB.VBYz lz = . Circuit for Example 2.4Vc + VB(1 + 1 + 5) 59 1 Vc . Foreach node. i.2 For node B.YAYz + VB(Yz + Ya + Y4) From this. Determine the current flowing in the 5 mho branch of the circuit shown in Figure 2. 0 = = VA(l 1 VA + 2 + 4)  1 VB . This is of course the dual ofthe rule for formation of the mesh analysis equations on page 55.e.11. For node A. We shall now apply Kirchhoff's current law in the following manner.4 This circuit has four nodes. V c = 0. !1 + [z = VA(Yl + Yz).NODAL ANALYSIS circuit node with respect to earth or zero.O)Y1 +(VA. and we shall consider node D to be at zero potential. Thus at node A. h + [z =(VA. 3.VA)Yz Collecting up terms. In this case we shall Iet node C be at earth.4. Currents entering a node from current generators may be equated to currents leaving a node through admittance branches.11. Example 2. D Figure 2.
I= 5 X 0·17 = 0·85 A Other examples of nodal analysis will appear in later chapters. 7 1 4 1 0 1 4 3 8 V VB= 7 1 4 1 7 1 4 1 8 Expanding 7(0 + 3).1(8.1) + 1( 8 .0) VB = 7(56 . the other in terms of an admittance network. It may be necessary to convert valtage generators to current generators or vice versa.4(3.4Vc 0 = VA+ 7VB.VB. In general if a circuit has mainly parallel branches. If there are more series branches mesh analysis is best. In some instances.1VB+ Vc(3 + 1 + 4) Rewriting. THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM This may be stated in two forms.116 45 = 264 = 0 "17 V The current flowing in the 5 mho branch is given by VY. Such conversions may be accomplished by the use ofThevenin's theorem and Norton's theorem which will be discussed in the next section. Examples using each will also be given. one in terms of an impedance network.12.4(1 + 28) V 21 + 12 + 12 VB= 392.Vc 3 = 4VA. 2 + 1 = 4VA.VB+ 8Vc By determinants. nodal analysis will be quicker. Section 3 In this section a nurober of useful theorems will be stated and demonstrated without academic proof.4). use of the better method will result in reducing the number of unknowns. 60 .4) . and hence the nurober of equations. 1= 1VA.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS For node C.
Now applying the same rules. 2. 24 + 10 = 24 52 A Now taking the 6 V battery alone. By use of the superposition theorem calculate the current flowing in the 5 Q branch ofthe circuit shown in Figure 2. I= h +h = + 36 24 52 61 = 1155 A . 2.) = 42 Evaluating.THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In any linear network of impedances and generators.12 and 2.12. for the whole circuit. the current flowing in one brauch is equal to the sum of the currents flowing in that brauch due to each generator taken separately with all other generators replaced by their internal impedances.5. we remove the 12 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 6 Q.5 Taking the 12 V battery alone. 6. Check this answer by use of mesh analysis. we remove the 6 V battery leaving only its internal impedance of 2 Q. 6 l=h= 6 5x6x5+6A 2 +5+6 36 36 = 22 + 30 =52 A By the Superposition theorem. Circuit for Example 2. Example 2.12. Now for this circuit l=h= 12 2 2x5x2+5 6 +2+5 (Rules 2.13 on pages 45 and 47.(l 12V 6V Figure 2.0.7.
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Now checking this result by mesh analysis and using the unknown currents h and iz shown in Figure 2. Example 2.13. Figure 2.6 Check the answer by use of nodal analysis.30 = 77  iz = 25 54 = 52 A 66 + 60 52 6 =52 A But the required current I = h .12. 1 2 X 1 6 +2+1 1 = 20 V V due to h alone = V1 = = Vz = V due to /z alone 3 2 x 6 1 +2+6 18 Vz = . 12 = 11h.13.5iz 6 = 5h By determinants. Circuit for Example 2.6. The dual form of this theorem may be stated: In any network of admittances and current generators the potential across one branch is equal to the sum of the potentials across that branch due to each generator taken separately with all others replaced by their internal admittances.20 V 62 1 X 2 +IV X 2 +6V 6 . h + ?iz 84.iz = H A as was found by superposition. By the use of the Superposition theorem calculate the potential across the branch YL in the circuit in Figure 2.
14. 3 = 2V1 + 3V2 3+6 9 v1 = 244 = 20 and 24 + 2 26 V2==20 20 Now v = v1  926 17 v2 = .= v 20 20 which is the same result as that found using the Superposition theorem. Now v = v1 + v2 = 17 20 v Now checking by nodal analysis: at node I.14. Thevenin's theorem states that any twoterminal network of generators and impedances may be replaced by a single valtage generator in series with a single impedance.THEVENIN'S THEOREM Note V2 is negative following from the direction of h and the required sense of V. In Figure 2. Figure 2. Thevenin's theorem The twoterminal equivalent is shown on the right. The components of the equivalent are found as follows: Vofc is the valtage measured across the terminals of the network when no Ioad is connected. at node 2.. the network is shownasabox with two terminals. 63 .
Now 3 5 15 2 X5 10 X Votc =2+5=7 Zin = 2 + 5 = 7n V The equivalent circuit is now shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.15. Determine the value of RL that will carry a current of i A in the circuit shown in Figure 2.7. Example 2. 1l! 1 I= 3 = 1l.7 First break the circuit at points XX and apply Thevenin's theorem to the lefthand half of the circuit. 3V Figure 2.15b.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Z1n is the impedance measured between the terminals when all internal generators are suppressed or replaced by their internal impedances.15. The truth of this may be demonstrated by a simple example.+ RL = 10 + 7RL = RL 15 10 + 7RL A 15 1= = (45  7 10) 45 Q = 5n Checking by basic methods 1 I = 3= 1 2 3 5RL + 5 + RL 15 X 5 5 + RL A 3 = ::10~+:2::::R::L+::5:=R:L 64 . Now.
(4 Ztn + j2)(1 .J j5 + j) n To find Votc.c. and hence find the powerthat it could supply to a Ioad of (3 + j2) 0.j3)i .THEVENIN'S THEOREM + 10 = 45 Q RL = 5 n as before. example.4  + 6 + j2. write the mesh equation for the closed loop: 2 .8 Applying Thevenin's theorem.1 .j)(5 = (2·31 .j l=. Figure 2.j and Now = i(5  j) = i(5. i26 V= (0·77 + J·0·154) V 65 2~ V .16.j) V . 5 = 1 +J+ = 1+j J + (2 . Example 2.~i(5 + j) V = (26 + j26 = 20 26 10 +4 j2 .j3)(1 .5 .J Votc = \1'2/45° + (1 .8. (1 . . Circuit for Example 2.jt·54) n j12 r\ u . 7RL Now consider a more difficult a.0. Determine the equivalent generator for the circuit shown in Figure 2.16. . j 2.j20) + J.J j3) .v'2/45° 2.j) . 5. 5 + j) = ~~ (5 + 1  = ~~ (1 . 1.
Y1n is therefore the reciprocal of the Thevenin equivalent Ztn· Example 2. note that with a short circuit across XX in Figure 2. Norton's theorem equiva1ent circuit is shown on the right. i A Ytn = i + i. 1 0·77 + j0·154 = 3 + j2 + 2·31 . Repeat example 2.17.9. .17 the network is shown as a box and the Norton O:=IT ls/c Figure 2.15. the load current may be found. no current will flow in the 5 n resistor. To determine fstc. The components of this equiva1ent are found as follows: fstc is the current that would flow in a shortcircuit connected across the terminals. In Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS When the resulting Thevenin equivalent is connected to the load of (3 + j2) 0.7 using Norton's theorem.j1·54 A _ 0·77 + j0·154 A . the 1oad power is given by 0·772 + 0·1542 = 5·312 + 0·462 X 3 W 0·612 X 3 28·61 = 0·0645 w = or P= 65mW Norton's theorem is similar to Thevenin's theorem except the equiva1ent is expressed as a current generator in parallel with an admittance.5·31 + j0·46 Since power can be dissipated on1y in resistance. Ytn is the admittance measured between the terminals with all generators suppressed.= l!i mhos fstc = 66 .
j20 _ 4(3.j) 3 J·2 X lJ 5 J.j3) + (4 + j2) 4 + 6 .j) 4(3.NORTON'S THEOREM Since current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances ! 1 X YL 3 = YL + l0 !YL + :lö = tYL YL = 7 32ö ! _ ! = 45 _ 10 mhos 1 35 RL===5!2 and 7 YL Example 2. o.16 1 Yln = 4 + j2 + 1  1 j3 = (I .j) + j2 = + j2) A 4 10(1 .+ 10(1  A j) Multiplying numerator and denominator by 130(1 .j63 67 + 65  j13 A . 1 1 3. For the circuit shown in Figure 2.j)(3 .8 using Norton's theorem.j3 10(1 .j) +4  2 + j4 10(1 . Repeat Example 2.j2) .10.20 .j6  + 1 + j _ 2(1 .j2) + 13(5 .75.30 .4 2 .j30 .j 12 + j2 mhos 5.j2) 10(1 .j3) + (1 + j)(4 1 .j2) A .j).j2 Now YL = ZL = 3 + j2 = _1_3_ mhos 4 h = 3.j) A When the load is connected. current divides in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. h = 4(3.j = l0(1 _ j) mhos __ 2_ + j2 lsjc.j2 10(1.
In general we may write two equations (2.e. 1~/1 h2 f Y1 Network f V2 V ~ Figure 2. There are four variables V1. For any particular set ofparameters. Such networks have two pairs of terminals or two ports to which sources. Since any two may be taken as independent. A fourterminal network The currents and voltages at the two ports are conventionally taken in the directions shown. occurring frequently in electronic circuits. Terminals 1' and 2' are frequently. common. The diagrammatic form of this is shown in Figure 2. h. This approach is similar to the description of twoterminal networks by means of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. Ioads.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS lhl 2 RL 16(9 + 4) X 3 = 752 + 632 w Load power= = 65 mW (i.26) . One description of such networks is in terms of network parameters.18. two ofthese variables are considered as being independent while the other two are dependent. This allows for each porttobe taken as either input or output. there are six possible sets of parameters.25) V1 = hP + l2Q V2 = hR 68 + ]zS (2.18. but not always. is known as a fourterminal network. or other networks may be connected. the same result as that obtained using Thevenin's theorem) Section 4 FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS A common form of network. V2 and ]z associated with the network. Z Parameters Let h and /2 be the independent variables.
The equations may therefore be written V1 = hZu + /2Z12 (2.19.25 and 2.26 above. In each case the first number is given by the dependent and the second by the independent variable. Applying Kirchhoff's laws we can see that + Z2) + hZ2 V2 = hZ2 + hZ2 V1 = h(Z1 (2.30 must be true for all values of the independent variables.29) (2. Zu relates V1 to h. Since equations 2.27) (2.29 and 2. Suppose 12 is zero. Solution of a fourterminal network by mesh analysis Dimensionally the parameters of the network P.27 and 2. I. 69 . they must be true for either h or /2 equal to zero. Z12 relates V1 to h etc.30 above.28) which have the form of equations 2.28 with equations 2. lz Figure 2.2' are open circuit. i.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS To show that such equations are possible. Q. The parameters of a particular network may be found by writing the mesh equations and rearranging so that the parameters can be found by inspection. R and S must be impedances since in each case the parameter multiplied by current results in voltage. consider the simple circuit shown in Figure 2. we can see that the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.30) The double suffix notation indicates which pair of variables is related by the particular parameter. This can only occur if terminals 2.19.29 and 2.e. By comparing equations 2.19 are given by A more general method of determining the parameters for a network is as follows.
Applying the rules based on Ohm's law 3(1 + 2) v1 = h x 3 + 1 + 2 = 1!h v1 Zn=h Also Now Iet h V2 = ft =0 v2 = h Also V1 X 3 I 12=0 = 3 + 1+2 1! Q X 2 = ft + 22(1 + 1++3)3J= 3!/2 Z22 = 3tn x [2 =h X 2 2 + 3 + 1 X 3 = /2 z12 = 1n 70 . if we let terminals 1. Find the Z parameters of the circuit shown in Figure 2.30 now become From which Zn and Z21 may Zn = v11 h be defined. h Figure 2.11 Let /2 = 0.20. Circuit for Exarnple 2. .1' be open circuit making h zero.11. we obtain Z12 = v11 and /2 I!=O Z22 = v21 h I!=O Example 2.29 and 2.20.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Equations 2. and 12=0 Z21 = v21 h 12=0 Similarly.
A loaded fourterminal network 71 . Similarly Z22 can be shown as an impedance in the 'output circuit but Z21 must appear as a voltage generator of Z21h volts. The Z parameter equivalent circuit No additional information is given by this equivalent circuit but its use sometimes makes the formation of complete network equations much easier. A passive network is one containing no elements such as valves or transistors.29 V1 = hZn + hZ12 Since this represents the sum of two voltages.22. It is frequently convenient to show the Z parameter equations in the form of an equivalent circuit.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Note Z12 = Z21· This is always true for a passive network. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. so Z12 must be shown as a voltage generator of hZ12 volts.22.21. As h flows into this part of the circuit. Zn can be shown simply as an impedance. I. General Solutions in Terms of Z Parameters A common problern is to find the input impedance and voltage gain of a network when a load ZL is connected to one port as shown in Figure 2. /z does not flow in this part of the circuit. lz Figure 2. From equation 2.21. 1~ Figure 2. we can see that the input side of our equivalent circuit must contain two components.
34) Equations 2.33 are known as the general solutions for the network in terms of the Z parameters.30 now becomes hZL = ftZ21 + hZ22 (2.1 '.29 and rearranging equation 2.Z21Z12 Z22 + zL Ztn Z21Z12 Z22 + ZL = Zu  (2. the voltage gain Avis given by v2 zLz21 = Vt Zu(Z22 + ZL) .32) o.Z21V1 + ZL) .Z21Z12 lt=~~~~~~~= The input impedance given by Vt = Zu(Z22 + ZL) .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS From the sense of V2 and h we can say. The equations now become + Zs) + hZ12 V2 = ItZ21 + hZ22 0 = h(Zn 72 .0 Zu(Z22 + ZL) . V2 = hZL Equation 2.31) Rewriting equation 2.33) hZL.31. which are obtained by connecting an impedance Zs across termirrals 1.Z21Z12 (2.32 and 2. There are two further general solutions.Z21Z12 Also /2=~=~ Zu(Z22 From which the transfer admittance h Z21 Vt = Zu(Z22 Now since V2 = + ZL)  Z21Z12 (2. = ltZu + hZ12 0 = ftZ21 + h(Z22 + ZL) Vt Solving for h by determinants V1(Z22 + ZL).
36) Example 2. and the volt drop across the 5 resistor. Writing equations by inspection then leads to the required parameters. when loaded with 400 Q and (c) the output impedance (V2/I2) if the source impedance is 5 n. (b) the voltage gain (V2/Vl). h flows through the 20 n and 5 n resistances only. Circuit for Example 2.0.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS The reader should check that these are correct and solve for the output impedance V2/I2 and the reverse voltage gain V1/V2. 50 VI. and the load is disconnected. VI = h(20 + 5) V Zn = vh1 I 12=0 = 25 n There will be no potential difference across the 100 Q resistor (/2 = 0). 400. n v2 = 5ovl + 5h 73 . so V2 is the sum of the generated voltage. A certain electronic device is represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2. Since the output terminals are open circuit. first Ietting h = 0 and then h = 0.12. Figure 2.23.23.35) and (2. The results that should be obtained are (2.12 Determine the Z parameters for the device and hence find (a) the input impedance (V1/h) when the output is loaded with 400 Q. To find the Z parameters we apply the standard technique. Let h = 0.
35.z22 + ZL = 25 5 X 1 245 I45 = 49·4 n + 400 (b) Voltage gain V2 VI= Zn(Z22 ZLZ2I + ZL)  Z21Z12 400 X I 245 I45) + I 245 X 5 = 25(400 This last expression is conveniently simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by I 245. Z12 = 5 il.50 X 5h v2l =1450 h h=O Z22= Summarizing Zu = 25 il. 25h V2 =50 X 25h v2l h and Z21 =  12=0 + 5h = 1 245 n Now Iet h = 0.34 and 2. In this case Ia flows through the 100 Q and 5 Q resistors.32. 2. Thus and and V2 = 105/2 . but simply it is the impedance of the Thevenin 74 .FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS v1 = But . (a) Z12Z21 Zln =Zn. thus v2 = VI 400 251 ~4~55 +5 = 39·5 (c) The output impedance of a circuit will be discussed in detail in later chapters.5ov1 = 105/2 . and there is no potential difference across the 20 n resistor. For the remaining solutions we need only apply equations 2. Z21 = 1 245 Q and Z22 = 145 n...
relating [z to · V2. Our two equations must have the form + V2Q 1z = hR + v2s VI= hP Notice in this case our four parameters cannot have the same dimensions. is an admittance. .38) V:~ be zero. The other possible choices. Q relates VI to V2 and is simply a number. The use of the different types will then be illustrated in this and later chapters. Our equations thus become VI = hhu + V2hiz lz = hh2I + V2h22 To define our parameters we can now let either h or leading to the following relationships [zl fi h2I =  Ve=O 75 (2. VI and [z.Zu+ Zs Q = _ 145 + 5 x 1245 0 25 + 5 = 630 h Parameters So far in this section we have considered only the Z parameters of a fourterminal network.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent generator determined at the output termirrals of a circuit in the absence of a load. In this case . While P relates VI to h and is therefore an impedance. VI and Vz. they are known as a hybrid set of parameters and are given the symbol h. a current ratio. we shall step directly to the final result for the other sets. is a number and S. and noting that the results are very similar to those of the Z parameters. h and Vz. VI and h. and Vz and [z each lead to a separate set of parameters. We shall investigate one of these in detail. These were obtained by selecting h and lz as the independent variables.37) (2. Now let h and Vz be the independent variables. Sinillarly R. Output unpedance = Vz ZziZiz 12 = Zzz. When the parameters are mixed in this fashion.
24. In this case. First determine hin terms of Vz by finding the total conductance at the output terminals. first Iet Vz equal zero. Zu is not the same as hu since Zu is an open circuit parameter (/z = 0) while hu is a short circuit parameter (Vz = 0). Determine the h parameter equivalent circuit of the network shown in Figure 2. Thus /z = h X 2 2 1 + 6 = .13.13. Note /z is the current fiowing in the short circuit.24). For hu we must determine hin terms of V1 and since the 7 mho conductance is short circuited h hu = V1(6 = vll h + 2) A Vz=O =! n 8 For hz1 we must find h in terms of h. this is simple current division between parallel conductances. Following the same method as we used for Z parameter calculations. This implies a short circuit across the output terminals. Now hz1 = ~~ =!4 h Vz=O For h12 and hzz we must opencircuit the input to make h = 0.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Note that hzz is the reciprocal of Zzz since both are determined with the input open circuit (h = 0).4h A The minus is required since the parameter convention requires that lz fiows into the netw0rk (see Figure 2. hzz h I 2 X6 = 8! mho = Vz = 7 +II=O 2+6 76 .24. Example 2. Circuit for Example 2. Figure 2.
Since this part of our equivalent circuit will carry h. The current V2h22 will flow in an admittance of hz2 mho when Vz is applied across it. Rewriting the h parameter equations V1 = hhu + V2h12 /z = hh21 + Vzh22 We can see that the first equation is similar to the Z parameter equations in that it is the sum of two voltages. general solutions may be derived in terms of the h parameters.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Finally to find V1 in terms of Vz. In this case the second equation 77 . The other voltage Vzh12 must be produced by a voltage generator. the voltage huh will appear across an impedance hn Q.25. The second current h21h can be provided only by a current generator in parallel with the admittance h22· The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. it is often convenient to use an equivalent circuit. The h parameter equivalent circuit General Solutions in terms of h parameters If the four terminal network is loaded. Figure 2. we have potential division across series conductances so.25. V1 = Vz X 2 2 +6V hlz = Vz vll r =o =!4 1 Note once again the passive network leads to the same numerical value for h21 and h12 but the current convention results in h12 = hz1 As with Z parameters. The second equation is the sum of two currents so our equivalent must have two parallel components.
We have now derived two sets of parameters. = reverse current gam = h22(hn + Zs) _ h21 h12 (2.35 and 2. Bach set of equations has exactly the same form.43) and h . 2. 2.h21h12 From which (2.43 and 2.33.32. we can find. 2.. we obtain V1 v2 y L· Now re = hhn + V2h12 0 = hh21 (2.43 are important since they will be very useful for the solution of transistor circuits. The only difference is the result for which each equation is true.44 with equations 2. The reader should now compare equations 2.36.42 and 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS is for h. I = VI(h22 + h) hn(h22 + h) . h and h.40) Solving by determinants for h.42. 78 . . = output admlttance = h21h12 h22 .39) + V2(h22 + YL) (2. by taking h.41.hn + Zs (2. hl2 I. so the required Substitution is h = writing and rearranging the equations. V2 as our independent variables.41) Solving for V2 From which (2.44) Equations 2. 2.41.42) Similarly by putting V1 I~ V2 = hZs. Since the steps for developing the y and g parameters are precisely the same we shall summarize only the important results. 2. Z and h.
+Y21h Yu( Y22 + YL) .45) (2.FOUR·TERMINAL NETWORKS Y Parameters Independent variables V1. The y parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: .50) Y12Ys y 22(Yu + Ys) _ y 21 y 12 (2.= . (2.rrent gatn = . Equations: V2.26.46) Conditions for defining parametersshort circuit input or output.47) From which .Yu + Ys . h Input admtttance = Vt y = u  yl2y21 y 22 + YL (2. h Reverse current gatn h = (2 49) · (2.Y21 Y12 /2 yl2y21 Output admtttance = V2 = Y22 . h h Cu.51) 79 . Definitions: hl Yu = V1 hl Vz = O Y21 =V 1 V2 =0 mho mho Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.
27.L2 + ZL)  g12g21 = gz2.s .g21g12 (2.54) (2 55) · (2.53) Conditions for defining parametersshort circuit input or open circuit output. Definitions: · v21 . The g parameter equivalent circuit General solutions: . h = V1 = gu  /z h Current gatn = .g21 gu(g22 ~ .57) Before applying these results to some examples. h Equations: h = V1gu + hg12 V1g21 + hg22 v2 = (2. one further rule should be discussed.) r2 gzz gu s .= g12g21 +ZL g22 .52) (2. VI Reverse voltage gam = T7 = ( +g12 y. Input admtttance . It may be necessary to convert from one set of parameters to another.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS g Parameters Independent variables: V1. This is simply achieved by drawing the 80 . Output tmpedance =.56) (2. g21 = V 1 12=0 rat10 Equivalent circuit: Figure 2.gugn~2 + y.
5 = (0·25 2] 2:1A X r 0·2) mmho y21 = 0·45 mmho Now put V1 = 0. Converting to admittances we have 0·25 mmho in parallel with [0·5 mmho in series with (1 mmho in parallel with 1 mmho)] /1 I 0·5(1 r 1) = V1 v2 =o = 0 ' 25 r 0·5 r 1 r 1 yu = 0·65 mmho yu Also the current in the short circuit is . we must Iet either V1 or Vz be zero by assuming a short circuit across the required pair of terminals.28. Calcu1ating yz2 in the same way as yu. /2 Iv = 1(1 = v2 y22 = 0·85 mmho 1 0 r 0·5) = 0·25 r 1 r 1 r 0.5 mmho y22 81 . First Iet Vz = 0. Figure 2. Example 2. so h y21 and = 0·25Vl 1 I =h V1 v2=o 0·5 X V1 [ 2.28 determine (a) the y parameters and (b) by conversion the g parameters.14 each form calculate the current gain when the network is loaded with an impedance of 1 kQ.14. Using 4kn I. Circuit for Example 2. writing the equations for the required parameters and solving by conventional methods.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS equivalent circuit for the available parameters.Ia. For the network shown in Figure 2. To determine the y parameters.
0·45 X 103 X 0·53V1 = gu = (0·65. and write an equation for ft.ow in the admittance yzz. Now gz2 = Vzl [z Vl=O = 0·85 82 1 X 103 = 1·178 kQ .0·258) X 103 mho = 0·412mmho To obtain g12 and gzz. This eliminates the y21 generator.29. U oder these conditions the whole of the y21 generator current must fl. Let [z = 0. Thus Vz = (0·45 X I03Vl 0·85 X I03 v2 1 and V1 12=0 = g21 = 0·53 We can now express the y12 generator current in terms of V1. Solution for Example 2. 0·85 0 65 mmho mmho Figure 2. J.14 To find the g parameters we must Iet either V1 or ]z be zero by either short circuiting the input terminals or open circuiting the output terminals. ft = 0·65 and hl  Vt 12=0 X 1Q3Vl.29.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Also lt = 0·25V1 + y12 = 1v:12 I V1=0 vl X 1·5] 0·5 [ 11 + 1·5 X BA = 0·45 mmho The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. let V1 = 0.
85 X1 10_3 V!=O = = 0·53 To find the current gain using each set of parameters we can apply formulae from equations 2. Series input. 83 . the combined network parameters will be the sum of the separate network parameters. and Parallel input. series output. At= 0·65(1 yu(y22 y 21 YL YL) . At= Working in mmho. We shall see that if the individual networks are described by the appropriate parameters.0·45 X 0·45 === 0·45 Now using equation 2. input and output impedances or admittances may be found using whichever parameters are available. Parallel input and output.y21y12 + 0·45 X 1 + 0·85). parallel output. These configurations are Series input and output. First using y parameters Current gain.49 and 2.0·412 X I03(1 g21g12 + 0·53 1178) X 103 + 10·53 ~~~~~~~ X 0·53 === 0·45 Thus properties of fourterminal networks such as voltage and current gain.55 g21 + ZL)  At=~~~~ gu(g22 .FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS Since we have a short circuit on the input terminals all the y12 generator current flows as fi.55. Interconnection of Fourterminal Networks We shall now see how these parameters are of use when two or more fourtermina1 networks are interconnected in various configura· tions. g12 = hh I (0·45 X 103) X 0.
84 . and z21 = z12 2 n is connected in series with a 4 n resistor as shown in Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. 1 I1 V{~ v. Z22 3 Q. I. Two fourterminal networks connected in series Inspection of the circuit shows that = h' = h" 12 = 12' = 12" h and + V1" = hZn' + hZu' + hZn" + hZ12" V2 = V2' + V2" = hZ21' + hZ22' + hZ21" + hZ22" Also V1 = V1' and Collecting terms + Zn") + h(Zu' + Z12 ") V2 = h(Z21' + Z21 ") + h(Z22' + Z22 ") V1 = h(Zn' But these are the equations for the combined network.3la. 2 Network A tVz' Z parameters 12' I{' Network 8 V. and the overall Z parameters are given by the sum of the individual Z parameters.30. series output. A network having Z parameters Zn 5 n. I . Network A has Z' parameters and network B has Z" parameters. Determine the overall Z parameters and hence calculate the output impedance if the network is supplied from a source of internal impedance 3 n.30 shows two networks interconnected series input. Example 2.3lb.''f I2 Z parameters jvi' Figure 2.15. First we must find the Z parameters of the subnetwork shown in Figure 2.
31.Zn + Zs = 7 . + 4 = 60 3 +4 = 7o Zn= 5 90 Z12 = 2 Z21 = 60 z22 = To find the output impedance. Circuit for Example 2. parallel output. by inspection Zu= Z22 = 40 Z12 =Vtl  h h0 Z12 = 40 but and since the network is symmetrical Z21 Now the overall Z parameters are: +4 = 2+4 = = 4 0. Network A has y' parameters.15 Since these are open circuit parameters.32 shows two networks connected parallel input.FOURTERMINAL NETWORKS (b) (a) Figure 2. and network B has y" parameters. apply equation 2.9 + 3 0 =40 Parallel Parallel Figure 2. With this connection we can see that: Also I' and h = + h" = /2' + h" = = ft' + V2y12' + Vtyu" + V2y12" Vty21' + V2y22' + V1y21" + V2y22" Vtyn' 85 .35. Z21Z12 36 Zout = z22 .
FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Figure 2. and the overall y parameters are given by the sums of the individual y parameters. Two fourterminal networks connected series input.32. In this case fi =h' =hw 86 . Two fourterminal networks connected in parallel so collecting terms and h = V1(yu' h = V1(Y21' + yu") + V2(Y12' + Y12") + y21 ") + V2(y22' + y22 ") But these are the y parameter equations for the combined network. Series Parallel Figure 2. parallel output Network A has h' parameters and network B has h" parameters.33 shows two networks connected series input and parallel output. J Figure 2.33.
Repeat Exarnple 2. Ans.1 with the circuit rnodified by interchanging the 4 mho conductance with the 1 rnho conductance. The generat background frorn Section 4 is very useful and although problems rnay be solved directly with the derived general solutions we shall also work from first principles in rnany cases. EXAMPLES Example 2. The derivation of this is left to the reader as further practice. and provided the g parameters for the individual networks are used then the overall parameters for the cornbined network are given by the sums of the individual g parameters. Parallel Series This is exactly the reverse connection for the previous case.16. the reader should ensure that he is proficient in the use of the rnethods discussed in the first and second sections. The work on interconnected networks provides an alternative approach to the solution offeedback problems but is not essential for any ofthe work in later chapters. 87 . SUMMARY Summarizing the work of this chapter. particularly those of Thevenin and N orton. No further examples will be given at this stage since practical applications of this work will not becorne apparent until later chapters. v' i v. io Ht. These are the fundamentals without which he cannot proceed to the topics to be discussed throughout the book. are equally essential. The theorems in Section 3.SUMMARY Also and + vl" = hhu' + V2hl2' + hhu + V2h12 /2 = h' + h" = hh21' + V2h22' + hh21" + V2h22" vl = Vl' II 11 Collecting terrns + hu ") + V2(h12' + h12 ") !t(h21' + hz1 ") + Vz(hz2' + hz2 ") V1 = h(hu' h = Thus for the cornbined network the overall h parameters are given by the sum of the individual h parameters. using the parameters only to construct an equivalent circuit. mho. YT Y.
Ans. The admittance circuit shown in Figure 2.19.ß. Circuit for Example 2.34. determine v' 1.35.17 (a) the input impedance v/1. Figure 2. and (c) the valtage v' in terms af the inputvaltage v. Figure 2. (a) 39·6 mV. (b) the current io in terms af the input current i. (b) 0·526.36. (a) 1·63 Q. (c) 31·2 mA.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Using mesh analysis calculate the valtage v' acrass the 3 ahm resistar shown in Figure 2. (c) 0·727v.35 is 2mho Figure 2. (b) 0·445i. 0·756 V.34.19 88 . Example 2.36. Ans. Circuit for Example 2.18 supplied fram the current source i af 0·2 A.17. Calculate (a) the input valtage v. Circuit for Example 2. Far the circuit shawn in Figure 2. Example 2. and (c) the current i ' .18. (b) the valtage ratia v0 fv. Ans.
38. 2·2 V.37.21. voltage sources to current sources. (6+jO)Vt rv i2 Figure 2. calcu1ate the current i2 in the circuit shown in Figure 2.19 by converting impedances to admittances. Repeat Examp1e 2.20.37. If the circuit shown in Figure 2.!1.38.9 is modified by changing the centre brauch to (2 .EXAMPLES Example 2. Example 2. Example 2.!1. Example 2.25. 0·25. mA. and by reversing the connections to the 5 V generator.24. I.22 Example 2. Ans. Repeat Example 2. 8 + j26 Ans.20 using nodal analysis. Circuit for Example 2. Repeat Example 2. V Figure 2. 4 89 . calculate the resulting current from the 6 V generator. For the circuit shown in Figure 2. determine the potential at the node marked X using mesh analysis. Circuit for Example 2.21 using nodal ana1ysis. 37 j2k.22. Ans. 1 L 7o 18' A.23. and using nodal analysis.20 Example 2. Using mesh analysis.j2) n.
Repeat Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.. to be connected to these termirrals suchthat the current supplied to it is 1 A .. Ans. Repeat Example 2.39. Example 2.30. T . Repeat Example 2. determine the components of the equivalent Thevenin generator seen at the termirrals T.5~]R. 90 .28.39 to the Figure 2.29.3 using Thevenin's theorem.28 Hence calculate the value of R 1.40.40. and determine the node voltage V2 using nodal analysis.21 using the Superposition theorem. Example 2. 1·35 Q. Circuit for Example 2.. T' on the circuit shown in Figure 2..21 using Thevenin's theorem. Example 2. By repeated applications of Thevenin's theorem..27. Convert the circuit shown in Figure 2.26 admittancecurrent generator form.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. Example 2. 0·737 L 121 ° 26'.26. Ans. Figure 2.
1·29. If the circuit shown in Figure 2. zu i n. Ans. Ans. hu ~l n.EXAMPLES Example 2. 73 .umho.34.31.20 is modified by interchanging the 3 Q and the I Q branches.26 using Thevenin's theorem. Determine the h parameters of the network shown in Figure 2.42.41 is the equivalent circuit for part of an amplifier to be used at an angular frequency 1 OOOpF 4kfl. Z21 = Zl2 t n. Repeat Example 2.36. determine the new z parameters.32. Figure 2.43. Z22 3t n. Using Norton's theorem. Circuit for Example 2. The circuit shown in Figure 2.41. Ans. h22 H mho. hl2 = h21 = u.0. Figure 2. Determine the h parameters for the circuit in Figure 2. Example 2. Ans.36 Example 2.43. 91 . Circuit for Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.35. Hence find the input impedance V1/lr when the output is loaded with 4 n. 4.28 using Norton's theorem. Example 2. calculate the output current io in terms of the source current i. 14·3 Q.33. Example 2.33 of 106 rad/sec. 0·44 L 2° 30'i.42. 1·9 X I02.35 Figure 2. Zln lJ!l n. Repeat Example 2. Example 2.
y. g.umho.44 represents an active device.38 using g parameters. Z1n. is connected in series with a I 00 n resistor as in Figure 2 . 600. A 1 54. 23 . Example 2.40. If the combination is loaded with I 000 Q and supplied from a source of impedance 200 n. 45 X 10 3. 2 X }04. 125.31. Ans. h22 200 . 2 X 103.umho. Ans. Ans. Z21 92 . h21 50. Find also the overall output impedance of the circuit including the Ioad. 37 n.37. 1 944 Q. 5 000. Calculate the value of es if the Ioad voltage is to be 3 V.41. h12 103 .2· 3. determine the terminal input and output impedances and the voltage gain V2/ V1. (b) from the results of (a). (c) from the results of (b) the z parameters. 0·15. Repeat Example 2. Ans. Z22 500 n. Example 2. Determine (a) the y parameters. h12 103 . 5 000 n. z. A certain active device has the following h parameters: hn 500 Q. Example 2.39. Z1n 1·25 kQ. Checkthese results by finding the input impedance in each case when loaded with 2 kil. 375 X 103. 2 X 106. 393 Q. Circuit for Example 2. The T network shown in Figure 2. 2·39 kQ.38. 200 .38 hence calculate the input impedance v1/ h and current gain i2/ h when it is loaded with 2 kil.umho. 50 X 106. 5·7.FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORK ANALYSIS Example 2. A fourterminal network having Zn 100 n. the g parameters. is loaded with 4 kQ and driven by a source es of internal impedance 600 Q. Z12 10 n. 3 000. 8 X 103. h22 Example 2.44. . 5. 40 mV. A network having hu 1 000 !2. Determine the y parameters for the device and Figure 2. 0·04. h21 75.
Circuit for Example 2.46 shows two interconnected fourterminal ·. 1 2000 Jj 1 500fi I I I I I I I I  I il 50fi ~~ 10on I I I I L~ Figure 2. Example 2. The network shown in Figure 2.42. h21 250.46. 9·8 mV.45. 38. Ans.4 .43 networks. 93 . (Networks in parallel. Compare the current ratio lz/h with and without the 100 kO resistor connected as shown.42 hu 2 000 0.EXAMPLES Example 2.43. Circuit for Example 2.45 is known to have 100kfi 2kfi Figure 2. Figure 2. Calculate the appropriate parameters for each network and hence find the voltage Vo.mho. 157. hzz 300 p.) Ans. h12 I0.
1. circuit with forward biased diode In order that we may understand the idea of an equivalent circuit. Iet us first consider a diode having the characteristics shown in Figure 3.c. This approach is to replace the active device by an equivalent circuit and then to analyse the resulting arrangement using the network methods discussed in Chapter 2. the first 94 . SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR VALVES AND TRANSISTORS In Chapter 1 we found that the a. operation of valve and transistor circuits could be investigated by graphical methods. For more complex circuits these methods become exceedingly difficult and time consuming.2 . and an alternative approach is desirable. +J(mA) V (vol t s) 20 10 5  +V (mV) . If the switch is in position B.4 R 200 300 .lb.3 LOW FREQUENCY.e.C. First consider the circuit shown in Figure 3. (b) Diode circuit for forward and reverse bias. (c) A. the diode is forward biased.. (a) Junction diode characteristics.1a. i.$"·~:~ 6 I 200mV 1 (ft Al (c) (a) Figure 3.
2a. the load line will move between the two dotted lines shown. (b) Small signal a. for low frequencies and (c) for high frequencies for the opposite case. on the other hand. Here the diode resistance is given by V 20 ==20MQ R I06 Now this value is very much greater than R and will determine the circuit current.c. The approximate resistance of the diode is given by V 200 X 103 I = 20 X I03 = 10 Q If the resistance of R is much greater than this. Here suppose R is 10 Q and the d. (a) D. is approximately zero. By comparison with the first case when the circuit current was 20 mA. If the a. 0·3 ftA. lf. the switch is moved to A. giving an operating point of 110 mV.c.INTRODUCTION quadrant on the characteristics. Over the range of resulting operating points the characteristic is approximately a straight line. supp1y voltage is 200 mV. the diode is now reverse biased and operates in the third quadrant of the characteristics. 7·5 mA. this current. resistance which is 95 .c. Diode equivalent circuits. the Variation in total series resistance due to the nonlinearity ofthe characteristics will be negligible.C. say 300 n. Note the required condition for the use of such an equivalent circuit is that: Rr ~ R ~ Rr where Rr and Rr are the reverse and forward bias diode resistance respectively. Thus the a. open for an applied voltage of one polarity and closed + ·~ 7[1 ~ + (a) (b) l 7[1 0·01 JLH (c) Figure 3.2. as in Figure 3. generator has a peak value of 20 m V.c. Thus in this circuit our diode equivalent could be a switch. Also the diode resistance is negligible compared with R which therefore determines the circuit current. An alternative situation is shown in Figure 3. This circuit will impose a load line on the characteristics as shown.lc.
3. Note that theseadditional components are present at all frequencies but their effect may be neglected at frequencies where Xe~ 7 0 and XL~70.3 shows a set of linear hiVAK or anode characteristics and a corresponding hiVaK or mutual characteristic. the anode slope resistance. gm the mutual conductance or transconductance.1IRL is shown passing through the d . At very high frequency the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 3. operating point. provided the d. This is necessary since a diode by its construction will also have shunt capacitance and to a very small degree. operating point Q. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS given by Vacliac can be obtained from the slope of the characteristic at the d. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To find a small signal equivalent circuit for a valve we must consider the characteristics to be linear over the operating region. A further term in the chapter heading is low frequency. The relationships between the various electrode voltages and currents can now be specified in terms of valve 'constants'. Small signal for one condition may mean a few millivolts while another willlead to a reasonable approximation with signals of hundreds of volts amplitude.c.c.LOW FREQUENCY. voltage and current variations are sufficiently small so that over the operating region the characteristics can be assumed linear.2c. Figure 3. These are known as ra. and p the amplification factor. A Ioad line of slope . The inverse slope of the anode characteristics AC/ABis the first constant ra.c. The term small signal implies that the a. We can call the 7 0 resistor a small signal equivalent circuit for the diode. series inductance. equivalent circuit is a 7 0 resistor. In considering valve and transistor equivalents in this chapter we shall ignore the effects of shunt capacitance and series inductance which will be considered in a later chapter. signal is sufficiently small so that the characteristic may be assumed linear.c. First let us imagine we have a valve with linear characteristics as shown in Figure 3.c. At this point the value of the resistance is 105 X 103 15 x 103 = 7 0 Thus for this particular case the a. and provided the a. The slope of the mutual characteristic EO I DO is the 96 .c. bias current is 7 mA.
llVak~o m. The ratio of change in anode voltage to change in grid voltage for constant anode current FQ/ Vgk is !' the amplification factor.2) r _ a  g and ra. ~Ia = gm~ Vgk 97 ~Vak Ta...AB . is not constant.1) .4. a change of ~ Vgk on Ioad results in ~Ia = QA. But (3. equivalent circuits mutual conductance gm.. when Ia. 'Ideal' triode characteristics for development of a.4) ~Ia = QB.3) To find an equivalent circuit in terms of these constants and RL only we must find an expression for ~ Vak/ ~ Vgk on Ioad. X gm ~Ia.. From the graph. (Note this is not a geometrical relationship on Figure 3.V8k ~ o ~Vak =~Ia ~Ia.c. X ~Vgk ~Vak I = f1.~Vgk 6. =~Vgk Ma ~ O (3.~Ia I (3. i. ) h ( QB and ~ Vgk = gm mutual c aractenshc and AC AB= ra.3.Load line 0 0 Figure 3. .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 0 Anode characteristics _.3. = ~Vgk AB Rewriting equation 3.) These three constants are related since ~Vak I (3.e.
Vak gmÖ.1: ra gmraRLÖ.Vak Ö.:~~ ~ ~~v:k (b) (a) Figure 3.VgkRL R 1 + .5) + RL or (3.Vak ß/a on Ioad Now = RL RL ß/a = groß Vgk .RL ra (3.Vgk = "'71 + RL fal But = Ö. (a) Constant valtage equivalent. If direction is taken into account: Voltage gain Av = fl.Vgk Ö.Vgk Putting gmra Voltage gain = Ö. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Ö.r.4./aRL = Ö.6) Any equivalent circuit for a valve must. Small signal equivalent circuits for loaded triode valve. This is because magnitude of changes have been considered. r. fa + RL ttRL = ra + R L Note this equation does not show the expected phase reversal. (b) Constant current equivalent 98 ./a ( 1 A and u/a gmÖ. when loaded with a resistor RL. I a 1 I I I I I I Vs ___ j t. result in the voltage gain given by equation 3·5 or 3·6.Vgk = f1.LOW FREQUENCY._____.Ö./a ra So + ~:) = gmÖ...
c. By Figure 3. the valtage at the grid with respect to cathode is the same as the input signal voltage v8 • Applying mesh analysis to this circuit we obtain: = ia(ra . + RL ".5.gmraRL v. so Av Vo = Vs = gmva = and and Vo = Vo ':= (~ + ~J gmvara... Triode characteristics for application of Thevenin's and Norton's theorems examining the characteristics with reference to a. Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit for the valve.c. operating condition indicated by point 0. These two equivalent circuits satisfy the requirements and we shall consider an alternative approach for obtaining them. + RL which is identical to the expression in equation 3. operating point we can obtain an a.= A _ . fWsRL = laRL = '_. The section enclosed by the dashed line represents the valve.c.c.4b can be solved by nodal analysis.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3. changes at a d.RL ra. + RL Note that putting gmra = fl makes these two results the same.4a. The alternative circuit in Figure 3.5 are those of a valve having the d.. As before Vgk = v8. The characteristics shown in Figure 3. Vgk.=ra + RL (lRL ra.:. 99 .ra.5.fWs • Ia and Vo Thus the valtage gain = + RL) fWs ra + RL .
Vgk must be zero. i.6..6a and by comparison with Figure 3.!_ ra Vak Vgkt (a) (b) Figure 3. This means that the a. The voltage generator has a value equal to the open circuit output voltage. 100 .. (a) Thevenin equivalent and (b) Norton equivalent shown in Figure 3. condition.c..e. See equation 3.6a while the loaded circuit equivalent is shown in Figure 3. In this case we are concerned with a. The open circuit output voltage is Vak and given by Vak = . the operating point can only move along the line CD on our characteristics. voltage must be zero. our current generator is the current that would fiow in a short circuit.= ra Ia So our Thevenin equivalent is that shown in Figure 3.. any linear circuit may be represented by a voltage generator in series with an impedance. The minus sign arises since a positive change in VGK causes a negative change in VAK· The Thevenin series resistance is that measured with all generators suppressed. g Y= .c. Now from equation 3. so if the alternating current ia is zero.3.LOW FREQUENCY.c. the current is constant and the operating point can only move along the line AB. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS According to Thevenin's theorem. If a circuit is open then the current is zero./lVgk. Triode small signal equivalent circuits.4a. hence the resistance to be measured is that of the anode characteristic line passing through point 0.1 Vgk . Applying Norton's theorem in the same way. Thus to a.4a we can see that the valve equivalent is a gm Vgk . Vak g vgkl a .
101 . since it can be easily extended to the case of the transistor. input Vgk is (See equation 3. Alternative connections also used are common base and common collector. This approach is more useful than the graphical approach used first. h Parameter Equivalent Circuits For low frequencies the most popular equivalents are those based on the h parameter equations. For common base the voltages are measured at emitter and collector with respect to base and the currents are emitter and collector currents. it is 1/ra.4b we can see that Figure 3. With the common collector configuration the voltages are measured at the base and emitter with respect to collector and the currents are the base and emitter currents. when Vgk is zero. and the input and output currents are the base and collector currents. h. it may be treated as a fourterminal network.) The parallel admittance with generators suppressed is given by ia.fva.6b is the equivalent for the unloaded valve. gmVgk. by comparison with Figure 3. i.c. or y parameter equivalent circuits and other possibilities are known as T and 7T equivalents. TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The transistor is a threeterminal device. In practice the emitter is most frequently used as this common point and the transistor is then said to be in the common emitter configuration. The application of these valve equivalents to more complex circuits will be discussed in Chapter 4. resulting from an a.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now the current variation ia. Again.e. There are in fact many more possibilities. The resulting Norton equivalent is shown in Figure 3. Since the common emitter circuit is the most important we shall investigate this in full.6b. g. This is because these are the parameters that can most easily be measured.2. for each configuration we can obtain z. Thus we can expect to find at least three different equivalent circuits representing the transistor. Under these circumstances the applied voltages are measured at the base and collector with respect to the emitter. Separate measurements may be made for each configuration or one set can be measured and the other two found by network manipulation. but since one terminal is usually common to both input and output connections.
fand o for input. operating point. forward and output respectively. value.7.c.LOW FREQUENCY. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 3. 102 . Thus the statement Vce = 0 means that the collector voltage is fixed at its d. r. quantities measured about a particular d.7) Vbe = ibhte + Vcehre ic = ibhre + Vcehoe (3. Ievel.c.c.7 shows the transistor connected in the common emitter configuration as a fourterminal network. Similarly ib = 0 indicates that the base current is fixed at the required d. Now remembering the definitions for the parameters obtained in Chapter 2 we can write hte = v_be lb hre = ic 7 lb I ''ce=O I l!ce=O Remernher that all these voltages and currents are a. 'BlackBox' representation of transistor in the common emitter configuration Now replacing the variables by those specifically applicable to this transistor configuration Vbe ic = = + Vceh12 ibh21 + Vceh22 ibhll Finally since these parameters refer only to a common emitter connected transistor we can introduce a new notation for the parameters (3.c. First writing the general h parameter equations: V1 = /2 = + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhu Figure 3. For common base and collector these would become htb and htc etc.8) In each case the e stands for emitter and the i. reverse.
If ib is zero we can move only along the constant IB line on Figure 3. typically I03. we can see that is the direct ratio of ic and ib when Vce is maintained at a constant Ievel. Now considering each of our definitions in turn: hle = V~e lb I Vce=O If Vce is zero the operating point can move only along the input characteristic on Figure 3. i. Transistor characteristics for determination of h parameters. may frequently be neglected. and as we shall see in later chapters. The relative Vce and Vbe under these conditions is shown and hre is referred to as the reverse transfer parameter.c.8a.. (a) Input and (b) Output characteristics characteristic with the output short circuit to a. h1e is therefore the slope of the input la .8. hre ic = : I le Vce = O Referring to Figure 3. Typical values are of the order of 1 000 Q.8b.J Constant Vce (vce =0) Vce Constant la (ib = 0) ic Vbe t I 10 I Constant lib Constant Vce Vae Ia (ib=Ol Vce ( Vce= 0) (a) (b) Figure 3. the output characteristic. it is the short circuit input resistance.8.e. This parameter is very small.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Weshall now relate these parameters to the approximate characteristics as shown in Figure 3.8a. 103 hre .
These manipulations will be shown in Chapter 5.9. A typical value for hoe is 100 .umhos.9.10. using network methods from the available set of parameters to those required.LOW FREQUENCY. The ratio of the two. Looking at Figure 3. The T Equivalent Circuit Another equivalent circuit often encountered is the equivalent T. In either case the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit will have the same form as that shown in Figure 3 .8b we can see that this represents the slope of the output characteristic. hre. so changes in these directions are both negative when considering the fourterminal convention. 104 . In commercial transistors the value of hre will be in the range 10500 depending upon type and application. both lB and Ic flow out of the transistor (pnp). But it is usually more convenient to convert. To complete this section we should Iook at the resulting h parameter equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. b e Figure 3. This circuit is based on the common base configuration and is sometimes thought to represent the physical structure ofthe transistor. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This is the most important parameter and is known as the short circuit current gain. is therefore positive. It is shown in Figure 3. The hybrid parameter transistor equivalent circuit for common emitter connection Common collector and common base parameters may be obtained in the same way from the appropriate sets of characteristics if these are available. hoe is therefore an admittance and it is known as the open circuit output admittance. Using conventional currents.e. i.9 but with appropriate notation. an output resistance of 10 kQ.
ie may be expressed as sum of ic and ib (equation 1.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS c e .11. and oc0·99.11. Thus ocierc generator may be split into two components. rc I MQ. Tb I 000 Q. Figure 3. Conversion from common base T to common emitter T equivalent circuits (a) Shows the T circuit turned so that the emitter is common..10. ib b  otie rc 8 ic ib c b (a) (b) b c (e) Figure 3.10). 105 . (b) Thevenin's theorem has been applied to branch AB. Conversion to the common emitter form is achieved by the steps shown in Figure 3. The T equivalent for a transistor in the common base configuration Typical values for these parameters are re 50. (c) From fundamentals.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 3.. Also putting 1 oc = oc' and (1 . (b) Open circuit input By writing nodal equations we can solve for the voltage V in terms of ib and thus put: ib + oc'ib = V ( re1 + rcoc') (Since the sfc puts re and rc/oc' in parallel. (f) Since ib is the input current. 106 .oc). the ocicrc generator may be rep1aced by a resistor of ocrc n. the conversion is completed oc oc (equation 1. Circuits for determining h parameters from T parameters.f. the direction of the current generator. First for hte and hre we must let Vce be zero. (a) Short circuit output. ib je e (a) (b) Figure 3.m. An example of this use of the circuit will be given in Chapter 5. and the two resulting series resistors have been added to make rc(1 . it is convenient to reverse its direction.12a.) = ('c + oc're) rerc V ib rerc(l + oc') (rc + oc're) Now from the typical values we can see that rc ~ oc're. and with it. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS (d) Since ic fiows in brauch AB. Tc !'•• /rx' r. Conversion to the h parameter and vice versa may be achieved by applying the h parameter definitions to the T equivalent circuit. Knowledge of typical values allows valid approximations leading to simple conversion factors. The minus sign gives the correct polarity for this e.LOW FREQUENCY.17).oc) ~ !. (e) Norton's theorem applied tobrauch AB.12.
=== Te(1 lb + rx.9) + The current (1 rx.  rx. rx.TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CJRCUITS So neglecting oc'Te and cancelling the Tc terms we obtain: V .12. the short circuit ic must be the remainder. The resu1t is shown in FiguTe 3. 107 .')ib fiows in Te. (3.'re Tc (3..10. By inspection hoe =~ Vce Also _ h re Vbe Vce I ib=O 1 . The opposite conversions can be found using these results.11) (3.10.11.14) hreTc hrehre hre Te===rx.9..')ib fiows into Te and Tc/rx.' Tc I __T_e_~ ib=O  Tc Te+.16) From equation 3.' = hre (3.12) Equations 3.10) For hoe and hre the condition is open circuit input. = rx. 3.'.12b.11 and 3.13) From equation 3. hre Tc==hoe hoe (3. This makes ib zero and therefore eliminates the current generator from our T equivalent. Since ib + must comp1ete its circuit to the input terminals. But Tc/rx.12 give the conversion factors for the h parameters in terms of the T parameters. From equation 3. rx. rx.' hrehoe hoe (3.' }>Te and we can assume that (1 rx. h re and ic =: I lb Vce=O . hoe===oc' = Tc Te+ rx.') (3.' in parallel. 3.
125 X 10_6 (1 + 90) = 936n ~ Other transistorsmall signal equivalent circuits are used. but only for high frequency applications and these will be considered in a later chapter. the OC75. EXAMPLES Example 3. For each case.1. and hoe 125 . A triode valve has the characteristics given in the table below. y or g parameters will be more convenient. Vg 2 V or (b) RL 60 kO.LOW FREQUENCY. Using the equations above: (/.4 re = 125 X I06 = 4 Q Tb= 5 X 104 1 300. Where such devices are used under small signal conditions equivalent circuits will be used to represent them. In all such cases.4 .T.. the general methods outlined in this and subsequent chapters will be applicable. The applications of equivalent circuits to complete circuit arrangements will be discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 covering valve and transistor work respectively. hre 5 x I0. 1t is to be operated with an H.umhos. 1 = 90 90 rc = 125 5 X X I06 = 720 kQ I0. of 450 V and (a) RL 30 kO. If they are fundamentally fourterminal networks it may be convenient to measure the h parameters but it is quite possible that the z. hre 90. SMALL SIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS To compare these values we shall consider a common general purpose transistor. and further examples appear in the remaining chapters of the book. Vgk 12 V. At some time in the future devices other than valves or transistors may coine into general use. These will be obtained in the same way by reference to the characteristics. One such device is the field effect transistor for which manufacturers are quoting the y parameters. 108 . Manufacturer's published data quotes typical values for the h parameter as hte 1· 3 kO.
110). (With respect to hre these characteristics are not typica1 as they have been exaggerated to simplify graphical measurements. Av. In each case. 36. Example 3. 9·8 mA. VAK h (mA) for VGK 0 2 4 6 I 0 50 1100 150 1200 250 1300 350 1400 450 0 5·0 0 13·7 3·0 9·5 0 2·2 0 8 10 17·0 6·5 14·0 1·5 4·5 11·8 0 12 14 1·3 0 4·0 10·0 1·2 3·6 0 16 11 0 8·3 3·1 1·4 7·2 3·5 0·1 1·3 Ans. Av. Ic 8·8 mA. ra 31 kQ.29·5. The d. or (b) VBE 130 mV. ra 6·6 kf!. determine the small signal h parameters.) 109 . A transistor connected in the common emitter configuration has the input and output characteristics given in the tab1e (p. operating point is given by (a) VcE 4·5 V.15·8. (b) 361 V. /B 40 A. 24.c. the components of the small signal equivalent circuit and hence the voltage amplification. 1·5 mA. (a) 153 V.2.EXAMPLES determine the operating point.
97 . (a) 470 0.1 0 o 90 18 14 22 4 2 0 8 lO 100 50 250 235 214 200 190 200 345 135 117 105 98 150 200 60 50 43 38 Ans. 6·7 X I03 . 35. iB (pA) for .umho.umho. 5 X I03. 45.VcE 0 1·5 3·0 4·5 6·0 VBE(mV) 360 331 313 200 300 1 lc (mA) for lB (J1A) VcE (V) 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 I 0 0 0·2 1·2 24 3·6 4·8 6·0 76 0·2 0·2 1·4 2·8 4·1 56 6·9 84 0·4 6·0 0·2 0·2 1·85 1·5 39 29 5·7 4·3 5·85 7·6 7·25 9·45 8·65 11 ·5 1·0 . (b) 1 200 0. 450 .
umho.4. (b) htc 550 0. 12·5 kO. hoc 33 . (b) 6·25 0. (a) 6·25 0.EXAMPLES Example 3. Example 3. hrc + 1. h22 80 . 120. hob 1 .3. hu 1 000 0. Determine the h parameters for the transistor connected in (a) the common base configuration and (b) the common collector configuration. 244 0. hrb 0·97. 111 . 1·5 MO. rc 1 MO. The published data for a transistor connected in the common emitter configuration includes the following h parameters at the desired operating point. rb 500 0. 0·993. and oc0·97. hzt 120. 244 0.umho Determine the components of (a) the common base and (b) the common emitter equivalent T circuits. htz 5 x 104 . hrb 5 X 104 . Ans. Ans. (a) htb 30 0. The T parameters for a transistor are given as re 15 0.umho. hrc 33·3.
and p.0. Any change in operating point will modify the values of the constants ra. the steps being as follows: (1) For each valve in the complete circuit. equivalent circuits. Then.c. Triode valve and small signal equivalent circuits electrode potentials and are hence known as small signal a. we shall consider an exact method for solving any valve circuit operating within the limits of the equivalent circuits. This procedure is not only time consuming. draw the appropriate equivalent circuit. at the particular d. The problern is further complicated by the presence of reactive components which may affect the performance at certain operating frequencies. gm. operating point. The circuits developed were suitable for small changes of ~k 9m a Vgk . Either the constant voltage form Figure 4. we shall analyse a range of amplifier circuits commonly found in electronic systems. .c. using this method. These circuits represent the valve only. g g ~ fl Vgk k (c) (a) Figure 4. Chapter 3 showed that valves could be represented by equivalent circuits. but becomes exceedingly complex when more than one valve is used in the circuit. 1 r. The procedure for using the equivalent circuits is always the same. In this chapter.4 USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT In Chapter 1. simple valve circuits were solved by graphical means.0b 112 .
the equivalent circuit is again used.m. source of e.s and e. (4) In either type of circuit the generator is given in terms of Vgk· This means the a. but in some instances other current definitions lead to simpler equations. Remernher the potential across an impedance is positive if measured in the opposite sense to the direction of current flow.c. In general. but the different technique involved will be discussed later in the chapter. If the amplifier output impedance is required. The d. Vgk should now be expressed in terms of any applied voltages or signal sources together with any potentials existing across components placed between cathode and grid.d.m.f. indicate the sense of the unknown currents.c.c.T. but in the mesh form they will be in terms of the unknown currents as in iaRk or (h . In the nodal form such potentials will simply be Va or Va . and the input impedance.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT or the constant current form Figure 4. connect it to earth through any component. circuits having most elements in series are best solved by using the constant voltage form. (5) Write the mesh or nodal equations for the circuit and solve for the unknown currents or voltages using Substitution or determinant methods where necessary. add such p. or current source shown in the complete circuit.s algebraically. Examples showing both forms are given later in this and other chapters.0c may be used and experience will show which will Iead to the simplest solution. since the a. This 113 . The technique is to indicate the sense or direction of allsuch potential differences and applied e. the reader should insert values in the equations before solution. (2) Taking each electrode in turn.m. positive H. the frequency or phase response. the output voltage or power.f. (3) If the constant voltage circuit is being used. Ifthe constant current circuit is to be used.der should include all the details shown until he is familiar with the method. measured with respect to cathode. potential at the grid. The re<1. These results will normally lead to the solution of the problern for information concerning the voltage amplification. If a numerical solution only is required. the sense of the unknown node voltages must be chosen. while those having more parallel components are more suited to the use of the constant current equivalent. but the shortest path usually Ieads to the quiekest solution.f.Vb. These will normally be Maxwell's circulating currents in the clockwise direction.s and proceeding from cathode to grid.i2)Z1. Any path between cathode and grid willlead to the correct result. resistance of a battery or power pack is negligible and may be regarded as a short circuit. line is taken as earth.
The derivation of standard formulae may involve particular steps or even approximations which have to be memorized.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT will usually result in a simpler solution. c. and Vo flesRI.) Continuing with step 5: flVgk = iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.. Example 4.7) = and the valtage gain. this would have led to Vgk = iaRk +es and Vo = iaRL. The full circuit is given in Figure 4. Vo = iaRL. proceeding from cathode to grid we obtain: (4. ra + RL + Rk(1 + fl) (4. cathode and anode respectively to earth.6) Vo = ftRL es ra + RL + Rk(1 + fl) (4. iaRk..1. =''=.. Step 4 in the procedure is to obtain Vgk· From the diagram. The valve has amplification factor fl and anode resistance ra. and e.. 114 . f shows the unknown current ia and the positive sense of the potentials iara. Av = The minus sign indicates that the output valtage will be 180° out of phase with the input signal es..C. d and e show the connection of grid. c.3) Collecting terms in ia on the right hand side of the equation and fles = ia[ra + RL + Rk(l + ft)] (4.5) lf the output valtage is required..la and the steps in drawing the equivalent circuit in b.2) Substituting for Vgk ft(iaRk +es)= iara + iaRL + iaRk (4.:.4) (4. if ia had been chosen to circulate in an anticlockwise direction. Consider a single stage anode loaded amplifier with cathode bias and no decoupling capacitor. d..1) (Note. and iaRL due to a positive ia. Note that the output valtage v0 is measured at the anode with respect to earth and that this is given by +iaRL.
1. (d) (e) ( f) (g) Figure 4. (g) The constant current form of equivalent circuit for (a) 115 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT HT+ (c) (b) (a) a.__. (b) to (/) Steps in the drawing of the equivalent circuit for (a) using the constant voltage form. (a) Triode amplifier with undecoupled cathode resistor.
THE CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. Mesh analysis therefore resulted in the simplest solution. Figure 4. These are the simple cathode foliower or grounded anode amplifier and the grounded grid amplifier. ra rearrangement will lead to the result obtained using the constant voltage generator.s. 116 . (b) (a) Figure 4. A triode valve having f1 of 20 and ra 30 kO is to be used as a simple cathode follower with a cathode Ioad of 5 kO. The simple cathode follower. There are now two unknowns and Vgk is given by: Vgk = . the equivalent circuit obtained is that shown in Figure 4.m.2.2.1 g. Two other series forms will be given as examples.2a shows the full circuit and Figure 4. If the constant current form is used. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Calculate the voltage gain and the load power if the input signal is l volt r.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT This circuit is essentially a series circuit.8) Then by putting Ya 1 = .2b the required equivalent circuit.Vz +es The reader should solve this for practice and obtain Vo = vl = Ya( yk + gmesYk (4.
RL is measured with respect to cathode and v0 is measured with respect to earth.c. volts.9 is simpler.2b (4.c.13) Inserting values and working in mA. Vo = iaRL since +ia. Since this may be of the order of for example 5 mA resu1ting in 125 mW dissipation the load resistor should be rated at! W to allow a margin of safety. 117 . this is the best to use. power due to the direct anode current. Writing the circuit equation (4. but since result 4. power in the load. Vo = + 20 135 Ses = 0·74e8 V Av. flVgk  Vgk + es (4. the voltage gain = Vo = 0·74 es and the power dissipated in RL is found from 20 ia2RL= ( .THE CA THODE FOLLOWER Using Figure 4.10) iara = es.iara 1 + fl (4.9) or and Vgk Vgk(l =  + fl) = es  giving iara.135 X I03 )2 X 5 X 1Q3W = 0·11 mW This result gives only the a.11) Both forms are correct. and kQ 20es = ia[30 + 5(1 + 20)] Now.12) (4. In addition there will be d.
16) (4. g Vo vr (a) ( b) Figure 4. The grounded grid amplifier.17) .3b Vgk = (4.3. This may be used directly to determine the valtage amplfication v0 fes or the terminal valtage amplification v0 /v' and the terminal input impedance v' /ia.es writing mesh equation rearranging es.fl( +iaRs. Considering Figure 4. and the output impedance of a grounded grid amplifier driven by a source of open circuit valtage es.14) +iaRs. Derive expressions for the valtage gain.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT THE GROUNDED GRID AMPLIFIER Example 4.15) ß)] (4.3a. but a general method of calculation of output impedance will also be introduced. la = ia[ra + = ra + RL + es(l + fl) RL + Rs(l 118 + Rs R s(l + + fl) + ra) (4. The output impedance may be deduced from the first of these results. the terminal input impedance.es)= ia(RL es(l + fl) . The anode is loaded with resistance RL and the valve has amplification factor and anode resistance offland ra respectively. (a) Full circuit and (b) the small signal equivalent circuit Figure 4.3.3b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the grounded grid amplifier shown in Figure 4. and internal resistance Rs.
:. connected to a Ioad RL (Figure 4.) (4.20) (4.( 1 + p.) + RL 119 .iaRs R _ ra + RL + Rs(I {1 s  ra Ztn = ..)RL Vo = ::':~...4.21) CALCULATl ON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE The output impedance of an amplifier is the effective internal impedance of the equivalent voltage generator.4).CALCULA TJON OF OUTPUT IMPEDANCE and (4..19) Ia and since z _ ::: _ ln  ia v' =es.22) ra + Rs(1 + p. V This results in a value for the terminal voltage amplification Avt = (1 + p. and putting Vo Avt = .) _ R s + RL + p.20) If it is required the terminal voltage gain Avt may be obtained by calculating v' in terms of e8 using v' = iaZtn. Consider a simple Figure 4..) + p....) The terminal input impedance v' Ztn =: (4.:. The output voltage is given by vRL/(Z + RL).)RL ra + RL (4. Now consider the expression for the output voltage of the grounded grid amplifier.:::::(4.)RL =~~~ es ra + RL + Rs(l + p.18) giving the overall voltage amplification Vo (1 + p. Circuit for discussion on output impedance generator of v volts and internal \mpedance Z. es(l + p.
.23) The output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier is thus ra + Rs(l + fl)D.5. and to add it in parallel to the calculated result. Following this procedure for the grounded grid amplifier: Since the external generator has been suppressed Vgk = IRs and writing the mesh equation E + fl(.24) (4. sources suppressed (i.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT which would be the result for a generator of e8 (1 internal impedance ra + fl) volts and + Rs(l + fl) (4.f. (2) Connect a generator of E volts and zero internal impedance to the output terminals.m. This logical approach is not always so convenient and an alternative method may be adopted. Equivalent circuit for determining the output impedance of the grounded grid amplifier (3) Calculate the current I due to this generator and find E/1 = Zout· In practice it is often convenient to omit RL in the calculation. replaced by their internal impedances).26) .25) (4. The procedure for determining the output impedance is then as follows: (1) Redraw the equivalent circuit with any external generators or e.) I I I l ~Re g l I I I I Figure 4.e.5. (See Figure 4./Rs) rearranging and E = /[ra Zout = /(ra + Rs) + Rs(l + fl)] E =I= ra + Rs(l + fl) 120 (4.
THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER which is the same result (4.6a isthat of a cathode follower.u)] RL + ra.27) This method of calculating the output impedance of a circuit is completely generat and will be used in subsequent chapters. + Rs(l + . THE MODIFIED CATHODE FOLLOWER Example 4. signal of two volts is applied between grid and earth.c. The circuit shown in Figure 4. bias and the (a) (b) Figure 4. The equivalent circuit for the problern is shown in Figure 4.u 50 and ra 10 kQ. all 121 . R5 (1 .m. Full and equivalent circuits of the modified cathode foliower circuit in Example 4. Examples involving the solution of two mesh currents will now be considered. The valve has .6b.6.s.23) as was obtained using the logical approach.u) (4. Taking all resistors in kQ. and a two valve circuit known as a long tailed pair. Calculate the input impedance and the output voltage if an r.4 bypass capacitor may be assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. The direction of the unknown mesh currents are chosen to make the output voltage v0 = +(ia + i 8)Rk. These are a form of cathode follower.4. The 1 kQ resistor provides the correct d. The overall output impedance including the effect of RL will therefore be Zout = + + RL[ra. designed to give a high resistive input impedance.
7a is tobe used as a difference amplifier.3 . 5 000 .s in volts. The long tailed pair or cathode coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4.31.= /s + 5 ( 5 ~ i + i") = 8 834iR 8 8·834 MQ VI = 8 834 mA Substitute in equation 4.8505 834 = 0·189vi but ia ~ is. VI = 505is + 5ia (4.28) (4.32) substituting in equation 4. Vo = 1·886 volts THE LONG TAILED PAIR Example 4.f.) Using substitution methods. we have: Vgk = 500is [or 5(ia + is) + vt] writing the mesh equations: + 5(ia + is) 500ttis = 10ia + 5(ia + is) = 500is VI (4.ls = .15 . = .30 VI therefore • Ia = 5VI ( 505 = 8 834 Vt + 5ia ) 1 . 122 .ls Ia (4.30) 0 = (4.m. from equation 4. and all potential differences and e. +5is has been neglected.31 .USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT currents in mA.5.29) Rearranging and collecting terms. therefore Vo = 0·189vi X 5 = 0·943vl and since v1 is 2 volts.30 VI Zin Also • 18 = 500is VI = :.31) 25 OOOis + 15ia (in equation 4. Show that the voltage between the two anodes is proportional to the difference between the two input signals e 1 and e2 • Assurne that the two valves and their loads are identical. 25 000 .
11e1 .11e2 . we find (4. On 123 .Rk2(1 + /1)2 i 2 = 11e2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + ßeiRk(l + f1) [ra + RL + Rk(l + /1)] 2 .7b.Rk2(1 + /1)2 (4 .34) Vgk2 = (h + i2)Rk + e2 a1 (a) (b) Figure 4.7.33) Vgkl = (h + i2)Rk + e1 and (4.f1Rk(h + i2) = h(ra + RL + Rk) + i2Rk + i2) = hRk + i2(ra + RL + Rk) (4.37) (4.3 9) (4.f1Rk(h . Full and equivalent circuits for the long tailed pair amplifier discussed in Example 4.38) = hRk(l + ß) + i2[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] The solution requires an expression for the voltage between the two anodes.36) rearranging: 11e1 11e2 = h[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + i2Rk(l + ß) (4. h and = 11el[ra + RL + Rk(l + ß)] + 11e2Rk(l + ß) [ra + RL + Rk(l + f1)] 2 . By inspection this is given by Vo = i1RL  i2RL = RL(h  i2) Thus the equations above must be solved for h and i2. very unwieldy expressions would appear.35) (4. a term +Rk2(1 + 11)2 will appear. If substitution methods were used. the equivalent circuit. and if the first term of this is expanded.THE LONG TAILED PAIR Taking h and i2 in the directions shown in Figure 4.40) These two expressions have the same denominator. Solution is best achieved by the use of determinants.5 The mesh equations may then be written: .
Similarly. then at low frequencies shunt or parallel capacitors can be ignored. those for minimizing negative feedback.u) rearranging numerator and denominator Thus + RL + 2Rk(l + .uRk(e2. this.6.U (ra + RL)2 + 2(ra + RL)Rk(l + .e1) + . The first demonstrates the effect ofthe bias decoupling capacitor.ei)[ra (ra RL)[ra Vo = (h  + (4. and stray reactances due to wiring etc. The second example will give a detailed analysis of resistance capacity interstage coupling. at low frequencies. The question of whether a frequency is low. depends on the magnitude of the particular reactance relative to its series or parallel resistive component.41) From this result. and at high frequencies shunt inductors are ignored. Therefore .12 = . high or medium. and a Ioad RL. and at high frequencies series capacitors can be ignored. Usually the effect of these can be neglected over certain frequency ranges. The cathode bias circuit consists of a I kO resistor 124 . series inductors may be neglected. In practice most circuits contain those reactive components necessary for interstage coupling.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT collecting terms.e2) volts. The student should try this for hirnself using typical values for the components and valve constants.u)] + RL + 2Rk(l + . [ra + RL + Rk(l + .u(e1.12 = .ei)(l + .u(e2 . but over other ranges both gain and phase shift will be modified.u)](e2. This problern would have been much less cumbersome if it had been solved numerically. Effect of the Bias Decoupling Capacitor Example 4. Detailed working will show how the decoupling capacitor may be regarded as a shortcircuit at all frequencies above a certain Ievel. 11 .u 39 and ra 10 kO is loaded with RL 20 kO. Initially the full equivalent circuit should be drawn.u) 11 . A triode valve having . Two examples involving reactive components will be given. it can be seen that this circuit behaves as a single stage amplifier with an input of (e1 . .u)] .e2)RL i2)RL = + RL ra . and the second term in the denominator will cancel. . CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE All the circuits discussed so far in this chapter have been nonfrequencyconscious.
CIRCUITS CONTAINING REACTANCE in parallel with a 1 flF capacitor.j 1. equation 4.8b shows the bias circuit as Zk.6 Figure 4. Circuits for Example 4.j5·38 = y(l3·452 + 5·382)/tanlfJ:s in the third quadrant Av = 14·53 L 202° At I 590Hz Xe= 1000 125 .1.j) = 5 .8. Figure 4. 1 590Hz and 15·9 kHz.1 except Rk has been replaced by Zk. This circuit is identica1 to that obtained in Example 4.j 2 2 Therefore from equation 4.e. We can therefore use the result obtained in Example 4. connection between grid and earth. Sketch the gain and phase response over the frequency range 100 Hz to 20 kHz. flRL + RL + Zk(1 + p) Xe (4. working in kil: zk = j x 1 = j(1 + j) = 1. Av = ra At 159 Hz.42) 1 = wC = 1 kil So.j2 = 25 + 4 = 2·69(5 + j2) = 13·45 .7.c. i. Calcu1ate the voltage gain at 159Hz.42 39 X 20 39 X 2 78(5 + j2) Av = 10 + 20 + ~/(1 . where Zk is the parallel combination of 1 flF and 1 kil.8a shows the complete circuit. The equivalent circuit in (b) (a) Figure 4. Rg is necessary to provide a d.
 ~ 160 100 1 00010 000 100 1000 10 000 Hz Hz (a) ( b) Figure 4.:.:. In coupling circuits this does not necessarily apply and in practice a capacitor may be neglected when Xe > 5R for parallel combinations (Z === R). To sketch the required frequency response curves.) ~ ra + RL.9a and b. In generat the effect of the bias circuit may be neglected if Xe < Rk/10. the magnitude of Av and the phase shift are best displayed when plotted to a base of log frequency as shown in Figure 4. Derive generat expressions for the voltage gain of an audio frequency amplifier using resistance capacity coupling to 126 .7. Zk=1j0·1= 1·01 =::=:0·01JO·l 39 X 20 Av = 10 + 20 + 40(0·01 + j0·1) 78 3·04 . the reactive component is effectively multiplied by (1 + fl) due to the valve action.78(3·04 + j0·4) ..9. and to Xe < R/5 for series combinations (Z === R). and 39 X 20 0 A V = 20 + 10 = 26 L 180 Thus for this circuit. the voltage gain tends rapidly towards a value where Zk(l + p.j3·3 = 25·4 L 187° 36' It can be seen that as frequency increases.8 In this problem.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Therefore j0·1 j0·1(1 +j0·1) . Gain and phase responses for circuits in Figure 4. THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER Example 4. 9·25 + 0·16 = 8·3(3·04 + j0·4) = and = = 25·2 . 30 .j0·4 . low frequencies would be less than say 2 kHz and high frequencies those above 2 kHz.
The first step then. Full and equivalent circuits for valve amplifier with RC coupling network the a. is to simplify this circuit by examining the component values over certain frequency ranges. If the output voltage v0 is to be applied to the grid of a second valve. The full equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4.10a. =  10 10 then wC = 50000 1 106 w = 500 C = 50 000 = 20 rads/sec e andf = 3·18 Hz. 127 .T. Ce= 0·1 fkF. This is provided by Rg across which H. The second valve will normally have cathode bias and the grid must have a d. Ce the coupling capacitor is included for this purpose.c. but capacitance between connecting wires and earth is included in this component.10.c.10b could be solved by mesh analysis. connection to earth. given that: !' = 20. Sketch the gain and phase responses and calculate the 3 db frequencies. If Rk X. The complete circuit is shown in Figure 4. If the factor of 10 used in Example 4. certain components may be neglected as either opencircuit or shortcircuit. the high positive voltage at the anode of the first valve must be blocked or isolated. The effects of interelectrode capacitance will be considered in Chapter 9. ra = 10 kO. Rg =50 kO.5. and Cs = 100 pF. Cs represents the stray capacitance which is principally caused by the interelectrode capacitance of the second valve. is applied. (1) The cathode bias circuit. RL = 20 kO. output voltage will be developed. but the expressions obtained would be cumbersome and difficult to use.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER a second stage. (b) (a) Figure 4.
C8 can therefore be regarded as open circuit for all frequencies less than 3 180 Hz. This will be the high frequency range with a voltage gain of Avh· The range 3·18 Hz to 318Hz is the low frequency range with gain Avl· At these low frequencies only Ce need be considered. (3) The stray capacitance Cs is effectively in parallel with Rg. Therefore if Xce is less than one tenth of Rg it can be regarded as a shortcircuit. for all frequencies greater than this the cathode bias circuit has negligible effect on the a. 128 . If these results are examined.5. Rg wCe = lO 107 10 w== RgCe Therefore J= 50 X 1(}3 X 0.c. (2) The coupling capacitor Ce is effectively in series with Rg the grid resistor. This range will be known as the medium frequency range and the voltage gain in this range as Avm· At frequencies greater than 3 180Hz only Cs need be included.c. 1 = 2000radfsec 318Hz Now Xe is inversely proportional to frequency. at all frequencies above 3·18 Hz and since this is an audio frequency amplifier this applies to the whole range.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT As shown in Example 4. and high frequencies. it may be regarded as open circuit. The cathode bias circuit is an effective short circuit to a. so the coupling capacitor can be neglected at all frequencies above 318 Hz. If the reactance is greater than lORg. The coupling circuit is in parallel with the valve which suggests the parallel or constant current form of equivalent circuit. it can be seen that for frequencies in the range318Hz to 3 180Hz. low frequencies. If 1 CB = lORg W 1012 1 w== lORgCs And J= 5 X X 105 100 = 2 x 104 rad/sec 3180Hz But capacitive reactance increases as frequency is reduced. both capacitors and the bias circuit can be neglected. We can now draw equivalent circuits for medium frequencies. amplification.
1 1 I 1 (4.44) gmRe Inserting numerical values in equations 4.11.11.12.45) Re= 5·89 kQ ft 20 gm = . The three resistors in parallel may be combined to form one resistor Re.12. High frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier 129 .= .43 and 4.44: 1 Re giving Therefore = 1 10 1 1 + 20 + 50 = 10+5+2 100 (4.gmVgkRe = .gmesRe Rg Figure 4. Equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier at medium frequencies V0 • k Therefore medium frequency gain Avm = (4.43) =++Re ra RL Rg Vgk = es. If the parallel combination Figure 4. and Vo = . the high frequency equivalent circuit is shown with the three resistors combined as R e.= 2 mA/V ra 10 Avm = 2 X 5·89 = 11·78 In Figure 4.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER The required medium frequency equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4.
d at f rom 17 . 2. 4. 0·5. Iet Re/Xcs = I. thus Re I = Xcs = wCs and I w== ReCs 1012 IOO X 1()3 X 5·89 100 (equatton . then Avm Avh = I +j = Avm v 2 L 45 o = 11·78 L_180° v 2 L 45 o = 8·33 L I35 0 This is known as the upper 3 db point since a voltage reduction by a factor of I/v2 is a reduction of 3 db in the Iogarithmic scale. (See Appendix 1. The frequencies at which these values occur can then be found and the required frequency responses plotted. and 5. For example.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT of Re and Cs is denoted as Ze.) The upper 3 db frequency occurs then when Re/Xcs = I.jXcs Dividing numerator and denominator by jXc8 . This approach is somewhat laborious and it is much easier to select values for Re/ Xcs such as I. Therefore the frequency f is given by: f I012 X J03 X I7 I 700 = IOO X I03 X IOO X 211 = ~ kHz f= 27I kHz 130 . the high frequency gain given by: Avh = Avh is (4. 4) But 5·89 was arnve 5.47) lnserting values for Xcs at various frequencies would Iead to the gain and phase shift at these frequencies.46) gmZe _ gm(jXcsRe) Re. From these values I + jRe/Xcs can be readily calculated giving the modified gain and phase shift. (4. 0·2.
Low frequency equivalent circuit for RC coupled amplifier First an expression for v0 is obtained in terms of the a. This is shown in Figure 4.1. and y'(12 + 52). tan1 0·5. Table 4.13.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER This may be sufficient to complete the response curve.13. The voltage gains are obtained by dividing Avm by y'(1 2 + 0·22). where = JXcc wCc 131 Xcc (4. and tan1 5 from 180°.48) . tan1 2. The new phaseangle is obtained by subtracting tan1 0·2. anode voltage Va.1 Re f(kHz) Avh X es 0·2 11·53 L169° 0·5 10·5 L 153° 30' 1·0 8·33L135° 2·0 5·25 L 116° 30' 5·0 2·3 L 101 o 20' 54·2 135·5 271 542 1 355 To obtain these points. Cs becomes open circuit but Ce must be included. the value of Re/ Xcs was changed. Vo = 1 RgVa Rg  . The frequencies are obtained by using the value for the 3 db frequency calculated above and then multiplying or dividing by 2 and 5. y'(12 + 22). further values of Re/ Xcs may be taken. To obtain the low frequency equivalent circuit. y'(12 + 0·52). leading to the result shown in Table 4. k Figure 4. but if more accuracy is required.c.
RL. . + RL = Rg + Ta + RL Let and since .jXcc .e.52) = Avm.RL Ta. X ( TaRL ) + R _ g Ta +RL ·x.51) .. h 11 1 b' .jXcc) Rg Vo = Rg. and Rg.gmVgk ( Ta+ RL (Rg.gmRe Rg + Ta.Rg + RgRL we obtain A But vl = I _ gmRe jXcc(Ta. from equation 4. Values for Xcc/R' are chosen for simplicity of calcu1ation and the appropriate frequencies subsequently determined.jXcc(Ta.50 by (Ta A vl = TaRL + . + RL) TaRL Ta. T he expresswn Ta (4.RL Ta+ RL = R' (4.gmVgk and the total impedance presented by Ta. +RgTaRL R + R R 1s t e para e com matwn Ta g L g of Ta. is given by the product of the current .Rg + RLRg.Rg RLRg + + TaRL + TaRg + RLRg Ta.49) The term (Rg.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Now Va. Therefore TaRL ) .53) This resu1t can now be used in a simi1ar manner to that app1icab1e to the high frequency range. + RL) (4. and Vo Avl== es TaRL ) gmRg ( Ta+ RL ~~~~~ ( TaRL ) Ta+ RL +Rg jXcc Mu1tip1ying equation 4. i.jXcc) cancels and Vgk =es.44 Avl = Avm :~ I _ jXcc R' (4. 132 . J cc (4. RL. and Rg.50) R L + RL) gmRgTaRL Ta.RL + Ta. it is Re. So if we divide the numerator and the denominator by Ta.
the frequency must be divided by the same constant. The phase shift in this case must be greater than 180° since the imaginary term in the denominator is negative.THE RESISTANCE CAPACITANCE COUPLED AMPLIFIER As before Avm = 11·78 L 180°.1wCc = 2R' 1 and w = . This new phase is obtained by adding 180° to tan1 0·2. For example: put Xcc/(R') = 2.2RgCc 133 . first consider the point where Xcc R' =1 I 1 R =Xcc=wCc I w = CeR' rad/sec Therefore and giving 1 106 J= 2TTCcR' = 27T X 0·1 X 56·7 x }()3Hz = 28·1 Hz When the value for Xcc/R' is multiplied by a constant. and R' = = ra raRL + RL + Rg 200 30 +50= 56·7kQ Xcc R' Avl /(Hz) 0·2 0·5 1 2 5 11·53L191° 10·5L206° 30' 8·33L225° 5·25 L243° 30' 2·3 L258° 40' 140·5 56·2 28·1 14 5·6 The values for Xcc/ R' are the same as those chosen for Re/ Xcs in the high frequency case. now .1 0·5 etc. tan. The corresponding values for voltage gain will therefore be the same. To calculate the frequencies.
14 plotted in each case against frequency on a logarithmic scale. 33·3.8.s. is applied between grid and cathode of a triode valve whose parameters are 134 . EXAMPLES Example 4. A triode valve has 1140 and ra 20 kQ.14. 20. Calculate the valtage gain when it is connected as a simple common cathode amplifier and the anode load is (a) 10 kQ. (b) 20 kQ and (c) 100 kQ.9. An alternating voltage of 50 mV r. The gain and phase responses are given in Figure 4. the 3 db frequencies are those at which the voltage gain falls to l/v2 of the minimum value. Once the technique has been mastered. the reader will find that quite complicated circuits may quickly be reduced to a set of equations. 7 This chapter has shown how the valve equivalent circuits may be used to solve a variety of simple amplifier circuits. Gain and phase response curves for the RC coupled amplifier discussed in Example 4.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Thus the frequency must be divided by 2. Examples on more involved circuits will be found in later chapters. From the tables: Upper 3 db frequency =271kHz Lower 3 db frequency = 28·1 Hz These give a measure of the useful frequency range or bandwidth ofthe amplifier. 41 225" 180" 135° 2 10 f. By definition.m. Ans. 13·3. Example 4.Hz Figure 4.
Find also the voltage gain and output impedance assuming the source impedance tobe negligible. lf the input signal is 0·8 V. 1·25 V. A single stage amplifier is required to produce 20 V signal in a Ioad of 33 kQ or 15 V signal in a Ioad of20 kO. Example 4. A grounded grid amplifier (Figure 4.2a) operates with a cathode load of 2 kQ. A modified cathode foliower as shown in Figure 4. Hence find the voltage across a 500 Q resistor. 323 0. If the anode load is 20 kQ and the valve parameters Jl and ra are 85 and 12 kQ respectively. Determine the value of grid leak resistor which will result in an input impedance of 5 MO. A simple cathode follower (Figure 4.EXAMPLES gm 3 mA/V. Ans. Ans.11. 135 .m.14. h 2 mA. Example 4. Take Jl and ra as 100 and 8 kQ respectively. 34·3 kQ. Example 4. The capacitive reactance may be neglected and a signal of one volt is applied between the valve grid and earth. capacity coupled to the load.15. 10·5. Ans. calculate the voltage gain and the overall output impedance of the amplifier. Ans. 0·3 V having internal impedance 600 Q. Calculate the output impedance of the circuit described in Example 4. Calculate the anodecathode voltage when the anode is loaded with (a) 10 kQ and (b) 50 kQ. If the anode load is 27 kQ. ra. calculate the voltage gain and the output impedance of the circuit.10. Ans. 51·0. 455 kQ. 0·49 V. and VaK 3 V. 6·72 V.14 when the source impedance is 100 kQ.f. If Jl and ra are 25 and 10 kQ respectively. find the equivalent Thevenin generator 'seen' between anode and earth. Example 4. 0·808. Example 4. 10 kQ.13. Ans.12. 0·75 V. gm 6 mA/V and ra 10 kO. 17·5 kO. Ans.3a) is driven by a source of e.6a has a cathode load of 2 kO. 80 0. Example 4. 17·1 kO. A triode valve employs cathode bias without decoupling to provide the desired operating point of VAK 110 V. 0·95. determine the constants Jl and ra of a suitable valve. 97 0.
16 can be considered as a cathode follower and a grounded grid amplifier connected in cascade. The circuit shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.16 e1 e2 = I sin wt and e2 = 0·9 sin wt. Determine the voltage gain using this Vo Figure 4. calculate v0 (a) if Figure 4. e1 = 0·5 sin wt and Ans. 1·01 sin wt.17. 4·3 sin (wt + 41 o 48'). for each valve. Assuming that the valves are identical with ß40 and ra 10 kQ.c.16.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.17 approach and check the result by solving the complete equivalent circuit. Circuit for Example 4. Take fl and ra as 60 and 10 kQ respectively. 28·3.15.16. 136 . or (b) if = 0·4 sin (wt + TT/4).15 isthat of a long tailed pair connected as a difference amplifier. Example 4. Ans. amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. The d.
20. The valve has tt 40 and ra 15 kQ and is loaded with 47 kQ in series with the anode.Cl 50k.17 employs identical valves with tt 36 and ra 12 kQ. 50 Hz to 10kHz.18 Example 4. 9·62. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. 4·88 kQ.19 Example 4. Ans. Circuit for Example 4. H:T.Cl Figure 4. Estimate the frequency range over which the voltage gain is frequency conscious and calculate the gain above and below this range. Ans.18.18.19. The direct coupled amplifier shown in Figure 4. 35·6. If f1.18. 500.17. Draw the complete equivalent circuit and calculate the small signal voltage gain v0 fe 8 • Ans. A grounded cathode amplifier employs decoupled cathode bias using 2 kQ in parallel with 0·1 ttF for this purpose.+ Vo 1kfi 1 Figure 4. and ra are 50 and 10 kQ respectively. 13. 30·4. 137 .IlXAMPLES Example 4. Circuit for Example 4.
lF.. Ifpentodes having ra 1 MQ are used and the shunt capacitance per stage is 30 pF.lF. Example 4.+ Figure 4. Ce 0·25 f.19 if the signal frequency is 5kHz.USE OF THE VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 4.21 Example 4. 5·5 Hz. Taking gm as 5 mA/V and ra as 20 kQ calculate suitable values for RL and Ce and the resulting maximum gain. 138 . Example 4. The valve parameters are f. The reactance of the coupling capacitors can be neglected and the grid leak resistors will be much greater than the required RL. An RC coupled amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 4.. Circuit for Example 4.23. Ans. 12·1 L 241° 42'. The total shunt capacitance is 50 pF and the grid resistor for the next stage is 330 kQ. 0·37 mA/V. H. Take f.22..10a has the following components. An AF amplifier having three identical stages is required to have an overall gain of 1 000 and a 3 db bandwidth of 100kHz. 39·15. 9·6 kQ.21. Draw complete gain and phase frequency response curves and hence find the maximum gain and 3 db frequencies. 31·9. calculate the minimum gm for the valves and the common value of RL. Calculate the gain and phase shift of the amplifier shown in Figure 4. 37kHz.l and ra as 50 and 8 kQ respectively. 0·01 f..l90 and ra 30 kQ and it may be assumed that Rk is effectively decoupled at all signal frequencies. Cs 330 pF.19. Ans.24. Rg 100 kQ. Ans. 27 kQ.T. An RC coupled amplifier is required to have a useful frequency range from 60 Hz to 500 kHz. Ans. RL 30 kQ.
Calculate the frequency range over which the overall phase shift is less than ±100. Ans.F. Ce 0·1 p. Cs 100 pF and Rg 120 kO. 139 . 128Hz to 7·5 kHz. An RC coupled amplifier having two identical stages employs valves with ra 40 kQ. The coupling components are RL 50 kQ.EXAMPLES Example 4.25.
and mark clearly the points representing the ernitter. lt must be stressed that the component values for such circuits will only apply at a particular d. (2) Foreachtransistor in the full circuit. lt is appreciated that some readers will be principally interested in transistor circuits so the important ideas and techniques used for valve circuits in Chapter 4 will be repeated in this chapter where they apply. produce the correct solution in all cases. draw the chosen equivalent. for example. applied or generated. The equivalent circuit method to be outlined. Show all details. Both the hybrid or h parameter equivalent circuit and the equivalent Twere shown tobe suitable for representing the transistor. hrb.5 USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS In Chapter 3 small signal equivalent circuits were developed for valves and transistors. the available information includes the common emitter hybrid parameters. the general solutions discussed in Chapter 2 may often be used with considerable time saving.e.c. the components of the comrnon collector equivalent T. When the correct h parameters are available. i. if correctly applied. This will usually depend upon the available information. GENERAL METHODS (1) Select the form of equivalent circuit to be used. base and collector connections. particularly the sense or direction of all voltages and currents. or even. hrb. will. rc. 140 . the best hybrid parameters to use are h1b. rb and cx is suitable for this circuit. there is no need to convert to the required form. Experience will show whether conversion is worthwhile. If however. Any form of equivalent circuit rnay be used for any problem. if the transistor is to be used in the common base configuration. but the solution will be found more quickly if the appropriate circuit is used. operating point and that there may be considerable variation in these values for transistors of nominally the same type. and hob· Similarly the simple T equivalent involving only re.
Q. The circuit shown in Figure 5. having zero reactance. Note that the negative supply line is at earth potential to a. the transistor having h parameters hte 900 n. Assurne the reactance of the capacitor shown tobe zero at the signal frequency.c. using substitution methods or determinants. With hybrid parameters these unknowns will normally be h and V2. hre Vce.lb shows the h parameter equivalent circuit.lc. Example 5. power supplies are short circuit to a.3 must be used. d and e show the connections of the emitter. etc. (5) Express any equivalent generator currents or voltages directly in terms of the unknown currents and voltages. If the output impedance is required the method outlined in Example 4. Note that all details must be included if errors are to be avoided. These methods will normally Iead directly to the calculation of voltage and current gain. to earth. Note also that the hre generator is expressed in terms of the voltage at the collector 141 . connect it to earth through any components or generators shown in the complete circuit. Find the terminal voltage and current gain and the output voltage and current. or as iZ or v Y products together with external generators appearing in the complete circuit. To draw the correct equivalent circuit we must apply steps 1 to 3 in the general method. The output voltage is obtained across RL and the amplifier is driven by a source es of internal resistance 500 .GENERAL METHODS (3) Taking each electrode in turn.c. collector and base respectively. if an equivalent circuit generator is expressed in terms of a circuit variable. and that reactive components such as capacitors can sometimes be neglected at the applicable signal frequency. and the coupling capacitor.c.1. (6) Write the circuit mesh or nodal equations and solve. is shown as a short circuit. the two mesh currents are usually more convenient. (hre ib. hre 5 X 104.) the unknown mesh current or node voltage should correspond to the direction indicated on the equivalent circuit. When the h parameters are given. hre 90 and hoe 125 fliDho.la shows a single stage amplifier. In any case. We shall now consider a simple example showing the complete application of the generat method. the generat solution derived in Chapter 2 may be used. but with T equivalents. operating point as discussed in Chapter 1. (4) Indicate the sense of unknown mesh currents or node voltages.c. Figure 5. R2 and Ra provide the stabilized d. Remernher that batteries or other d. Figures 5. Components R1. and of the input impedance.
1..1. 1'" RE 1k. (b) to (f) Stages in the equivalent circuit solution for the circuit in Figure 5. (a) Circuit for Example 5.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS .O.Vcc c RL 4 k!l.la 142 . e (b) (a) c b c b (f) (e) Figure 5.
These may be found by proceeding from the emitter to the collector around the circuit by any route.s. This includes the bias components R1 and Rz (in parallel to a. we find the current in the emitter load is (ib + ic) and the current in the hoe branch is (ic . This is achieved by the application ofThevenin's theorem at points XX looking away from the transistor. Applying Kirchhoff's current law. = 0·445 kO and e' = esRB RB+ Rs = I X 4·5 4V = 0·89 V Figure 5. 143 .f.) and the signal source. The hre current generator is already expressed in terms of ib and the rule is satisfied. lf proceeding against the current arrow. it is convenient to simplify the input section of the circuit. The hre generator is expressed in terms of Vce: this may be expressed in terms of ib and ic in one of three alternative ways.m.90ib).lf shows the complete equivalent circuit including this simplification. For mesh analysis the hoe branch is expressed as an impedance from I z =y = I25 1 X J06 = 8 kQ For paragraph 5 of the general method. The hre generator is expressed in terms of ib flowing into the base.GENERAL METHODS with respect to emitter. Putting R1 and Rz in parallel we obtain: 20 X 5 + 5 = 4 kO RB = 20 Now applying Thevenin's theorem. take the product as negaitive. The unknown currents chosen for mesh analysis are ib and ic. not with respect to earth. we must examine the equivalent circuit generators and express them in terms of our unknown currents or voltages. and by adding any iZ products and generated e.c. Before continuing the solution.
1) 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOO(ic . indicating 180° phase shift. or (c) Vce = [5 X I04vce + 900ib + R'ib . but the shortest path is usually the most convenient.1 81 From 5. e' = 19·85 X 1·8lic (5.2) Rearranging these equations.9 X 104 lc . _ . or (b) Vce = [ 1 OOO(ic + ib) .3.90ib) V.71·9 X 104ib e' and .3) 1 OOOib (5. The three alternatives are: (a) Vce = 8 OOO(ic . _ 13 X 103 .ic = 1 040 A . collecting terms and inserting the value of R'.4 OOOic] V.71 . lb .5 X 104 X 8 OOO(ic. Inserting the va1ue found for e' and expressing the answer in !LA ic = = 0·89 X 106 1 040 fLA 856fLA (Note the minus.90ib) + 1 OOO(ic + ib) (5.owing towards earth.3) (5.) 144 .4) _2 • 10 lc X + 1 004ic e' ic = 1040 A and ib = 1·81 x I05e' 1. Taking (a) above and writing the mesh equations in the normal manner: e'.04 = 1·74 X 105e' A The output current is normally expressedas fl.4 Substituting in 5. = 4ic .4 OOOic] V. e' io = . In this case.e' .72 x 104ib + 1 OOOic + = 13 X 103ic.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCillTS and if proceeding with the current arrow.90ib) = (900 + R')ib + 1 OOO(ib + ic) (5.360ib + 1 345ib + 1 OOOib + 1 OOOic = 1 985ib + 1 004ic 0 = 4 OOOic + 8 OOOic . take the product as positive. Each of these results wou1d lead to the correct solution.
.0·00775 ~ 0·89 V Av = Vo.1040 X 1·74 = . will always Iead to the correct solution.::::=: At = 1·74 X 105e' ib 105 At=.1f App1ying Kirchhoff's voltage law: V'= e'. If however the common emitter parameters are given and the transistors are connected 145 . Thus with an amplifier having an unbypassed emitter resistor we can say the input impedance will be of the order of hreRE (since ie ~ hreib).55 "2 The output voltage v0 is now expressed with respect to earth. but must also produceieRE volts across the emitter resistor. correctly applied.. On the other hand this technique.1·74 X 105 X 445 = 0·89 . Any circuit involving transistors with known h parameters may be solved in this way.GENERAL METHODS The terminal input current is ib.ibR' = 0·89 . since the input voltage must not only drive ib into the transistor. V = 3·87 L180° Note that we could also obtain the terminal input impedance from: V' Ztn =:lb lQ3 = 1·74 X lQ5kQ = 57·5 k!l This high input impedance is to be expected. but techniques to be introduced in Chapter 7 will reduce the solution of this problern to a few lines. Vo = icRL = 856 X lQ5 = 3·44 L180° V X 4 X 1()3 V To obtain the terminal voltage gain we require the terminal input voltage V' shown in Figure 5. and substituting for terminal current gain e' 1 040 ic = :=::. This analysis may seem very long.
as have the Ioad resistors.2 The transistors are identical and have the following common emitter parameters. these components have been shown as short circuits. Determine the overall voltage gain.2.2b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the amplifier. (2) The bias resistors have been combined and expressed as admittances. (a) 1(b) Figure 5. Vo.2.. current gain and input impedance for the amplifier shown in Figure 5. (1) Since capacitive reactances are zero. Circuit for the two stage amplifier in Example 5. This also eliminates the emitter resistors.4.2a. Find also the output impedance assuming a source impedance of 500 n. and hoe 105 .umho.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIYALENT CIRCUITS so that the emitters are earthed to a. Assurne all capacitive reactances to be zero at the signal frequency. (3) The required input and output voltages and currents have been indicated Vtn. the h parameter general solutions may be used. The following points should be noted.c. The next example showing a two stage amplifier is particularly suitable for this approach. Figure 5. itn and io. 146 . hre 110. hte 1·3 kO. hre 2 X I0. Example 5.
= 47·6 + 212·7 ~ 260 .GENERAL METHODS (4) For convenience the terminal input voltage to Tr2 has been shown as v'.4·08 = 1 246 Q lb2 ~ 147 (5.6) . To obtain the adrnittance of a component in . lb2 + 2 X 104( 110ib2) 408 X lQb 220 v' = 1 300 . divide l 000 by the resistance in kilohms. (2) Calculate the resulting effective 1oad to Tr 1. The reverse conversion is: To obtain the impedance of a component in kilohms divide 1 000 by the number of .umhos. = YLl YBl = Yn2 = 1000 = 3T = 303 .umhos. Applying this rule.umho h2 1 ()()() 1 000 21. (3) Find the input admittance to Trl and hence the overall input impedance Z1n· (4) Using the effective Ioad found in 2 find the voltage gain v'/v1n for Trl. A simple rule for this conversion is as follows. I V = 1 Z1n2 = 300 . a more convenient method for multistage amplifiers is as follows: (1) Find the input admittance to Tr2.+ 4·7.5) (5. and io = Vo YL2 find the current gain i 0 Ji1n.umho Now writing a mesh equation for v'. Before applying these steps to the problern in hand. and a nodal equation at v0 • v' = 1 300ib2 + 2 110ib X 104 v0 = V0 (105 + 303)106 Substituting for v0 in 5·5. we must find the admittance values for the bias and Ioad components shown in our equivalent circuit. Alternatively taking current division between parallel admittances and using the input adrnittances found in 1 and 3 write a single expression for the current gain. (5) Deterrnine the voltage gain for Tr2 and hence the overall voltage gain vo/VIn· (6) From i1n = V1n/Z1n. This circuit could be solved by converting the hre voltage generators to current generators by Norton's theorem and using nodal analysis.
1·3 = X 1·471.7) (5.8) Substituting for ibl in 5.6 u 2 Ytn llO Y 2 + Voltage gain Avl = ~ Vtn = X 10_4 V 2 100 1 300(1 471)106 . = llOibl = Vtn + 2 X 104 V2 V2(I05 + 1 366)106 1 300ibl (5. using the general solution found in Chapter 2. Ytn2 = 1000 I· 246 = 803 .(303 + 105) 10_6 = I 246 0 Proceeding to step 2. we require a mesh equation for Vtn and a nodal equation at v2.0·022 58·2 or 58·2 L 180° 148 .umho Now from the general solution.hoe + YL 110 X 2 X I04 = I 300.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Note that this result could have been obtained directly.7 _ I 300(1471)10.( 1 366 Ytnl = 1000 1. YB2 and Ytn2· YL·1' = 303 + 260 + 803 = I 366 . and 110 X Ztnl = 1 300 . for step 3.umho The effective Ioad Yd for Trl is the parallel combination of YLl.285 2 X 104 + 105) 10_6 = 1 285 0 = 778 .100 X 2 X I04 110 . Ztn2 hrehte = hte.umho Including YBl for overall input impedance 1000 Ztn = 778 260 = 0·964 kO + For step 4.
~chte(hoe + YL) . hre Av = .hrehre 110 = 1 300(1 471)106 .GENERAL METHODS This result could also have been öbtained from the appropriate generat solution. refer to step 6.I 10 IIO X 2 X 104 = 2I6·5 or 2I6·5 L180° The overall voltage gain ~= Vtn Avr X Av2 = 2I6·5 X 58·2 = I2 600 L0° For the current gain. when voltage gain is not required is to find the input admittances as before and applying the current splitting rule write: itn Ytnl iin778 7·78 . . io Vo YL2 At=:== AvYL2Ztn ltn Vtn Ztn At = 12 600 X 303 X 106 X 0·964 X 1()3 = 12·6 X 30·3 X 9·64 = 3 680 L 0° The alternative procedure.6 .110 X 2 X 104 = .3:::0=3+:1=05~ 4·08 ib 2 io At = itn = = 7·78 10·38 X Ilx8·03 1·47I 3 680 L0° 149 X 1Ix30·3 4·08 . lbl = Ytnl + YBl = 778 + 260 = 10·38 ltn .58 ' 2 Using this generat solution for Av2 110 Av 2 = I 300(105 + 303)10. IR 2 io IlOibl X 803 11 X 8·03. 260 + 303 + 105 = I·471 lbl = 803 + 110ib2 X 303 110 X 3·03 = .
umho 1·53 kQ _6 Yo2 = 105 X 10 =   110 X 2 X I04 I 300 + I 530 . 3 . For Step I: Yst = (260 + 2 000) .umho I 000 .4 = + 260) .umho Ys2 = (92·4 + 303 = 655·4 .umho = 97·2 . hrehre Yo = hoe .28 .I 7 .umho = = 1 000 655 . (2) Find Yot and hence the equivalent Zs2· (3) Find Yo2 and including h2.42 .umho Zs2 Now 110 X 2 X 104 I 300 + 442 . 97·2 + 303 .umho Including YL2.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS For the output impedance calculations weshall rely simply on the general solution. Output tmpedance = 400 = 2·5 kQ Overall output admittance I 50 = .umho X 10 = 92·4 . the overall output admittance and impedance.hte + Zs In this case we proceed from the input end taking the following steps: (1) Find the equivalent Zst including the bias resistors.umho 220 I05 .umho 1000 Zst = 2 260 = 0·442 kQ For Step 2: Y01 _6 105 = 220 105 .umho ~400 .
and hoe is neglected. The first thing to notice. we shall reconsider Example 5. further components are added in parallel.. so the error in the effective load admittance or source impedance is very much less. . the neglecting of hre might cause 10 per cent error. the load and bias resistors will probably have a 20 per cent tolerance on the stated value. First note the effect upon the general solutions if hre is assumed to be zero.__ hJe(hoe + YL) 151 . To show the effect of these approximations. may be neglected or at least rounded off. Finally. . In any case. E.GENERAL METHODS Thus the complete amplifier can be reduced to the Thevenin equivalent generator shown in Figure 5.2 as far as the calculation of voltage gain. having an impedance much greater than h1e.3 where es is the source Figure 5. is that the effect of hre on the results is very small. The equivalent generator solution for Example 5.2 voltage. the bias components..3. the open circuit output voltage is the overall gain multiplied by Vtn· But esZtn es X 964 Vtn = Z1n + Zs = 500 X 964 V = 0·658es E = 0·648 X 12 600e8 = 8 300e 8 This solution for Example 5. Thus for a multistage amplifier we can neglect hoe for all transistors except the last. In the calculation of input impedance or output admittance for a stage. Av= hre hreZL . A further valid approximation is to note that the effect of hoe on Avt and Z1n1 is small and is in any case smaller than the effect of component tolerances.2 is accurate but not really practical. . In each case however.
Low frequency analysis could be achieved by using either common emitter parameters and normal equivalent circuit methods or by use of the general solution in terms of the common base parameters h1b. hrb and hob· The resulting properties are listed in Table 5. Properfies of Common Emitter Amplifiers Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change Medium Medium High High 180° 50002 kfl 5 kfl20 kQ up to 500 up to 250 Common base amplifiers are only used in practice at very high frequencies. 152 .1 300 Overall voltage gain = = 1 333 flmho 63·5 63·5 x 208 = 13 200 This result must be compared with the accurate result of 12 600 and may be expressed as a percentage error. Table 5. Having considered the common emitter amplifier. a summary of the performance would be useful for comparison with the other configurations.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these results to the problem.2. 600 12 600 X 100 per cent = 4·75 per cent This is much less than the probable error when component and parameter tolerances are allowed for. Avz Z1n2 = llO 1·300(105 + 303)106 = 208 = 1 300 = 770 flmho YL1 err = (770 + 303 + 260) flmho = Y1n2 and so and ZLl = 0·75 kO Avt = 750 90 X .1. hrb.
3. In the next example. Take hte 800 n. Analysis may be achieved either by use of the common emitter parameters. firstly. Proceeding with the general method we must first find Vce in terms of ic and ib our unknown currents. Since common collector parameters are not normally quoted we shall have to consider the best approach to solving common collector circuit.3 emitter parameters. hoe 250 . Circuits for the common collector amplifier in Example 5.4.GENERAL METHODS Table 5. by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. Example 5. these alternative methods will be compared. by direct use of common 250 t~ V' (a) (b) Figure 5. Since the collector is connected to earth we can see that Vce 6 = Vo = 2 OOO(ib 153 + ic) . Investigate the performance ofthe common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. and secondly.umho and hre 65. Properfies of Common Base Amplijiers Low Input impedance Output impedance Voltage gain Current gain Phase change 5300 0·52Mfl up to 500 up to 0·99 High High Low oo The common collector or emitter foliower is a very important circuit and it is used in many applications. Figure 5.2.4b shows the complete equivalent circuit using common emitter parameters.4a. or by determining the common collector parameters and using the general solutions. hre 103 .
VI = 2·8ib + 2 V' Z1n = . :ie Current gam lb = 44 To find the input impedance we need to know ib in terms of V'.umho = 60 . From Figure 5.umho Now for the overall current gain and input impedance we must include the effect of the bias components. so substituting for ic in the first equation.I03(ib 0 = 4(ic  65ib) + 2(ib + ic) Collecting terms. YBl is given by the two bias resistors in parallel.= lb Y1n = 2·8 X 6258 ib + 86 = 88·8 kQ 11·25 . = 6'b lc Now Output current = ib = + ic ib ( 1 + 2~ 8 ) = 44ib . = 2·8ib + 2ic 0 = 258ib + 6ic V' (neglecting the 2 x I03 terms) From the second equation. . 258. 16·7 kQ Overallinput admittance = YBI + and the overall input impedance = 14 kQ. 154 Y1n = 71·25 .4a.umho .umho ZBl = 60 = 1000 . and 1 000 1 000 YBI = 50"" + 25 . + ic)2 + 2(ib + ic) V' = 0·8ib .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now writing the mesh equations and working in mA and kQ.
suppressing any external generators. (a) I Figure 5.3 155 .5. as shown in Figure 5. the overall current gain is given by 44 X 11·25 Al= 11·25 But Input voltage and Output voltage Av + 60 = 6·95 LO o = hnZin = ioZL ioZL = :Z = A1ZL Y1n lln ln Voltage gain. and apply a generator of I amps to the output terminals.5a. Then by calculating the resultant output voltage V we find I Yo = V This equivalent circuit is more easily understood if the branches are shown in parallel between the emitter terminal and earth. Av = 6·95 X 2 X 1()3 X 71·25 X I06 = 0·99 L0° To find the output adrnittance we must redraw the equivalent circuit.GENERAL METHODS By current splitting. Equivalent circuit solution for the output admittance of the common collector amplifier in Example 5.
Applying Kirchhoff's current law: ib =I'.V. so the sense of the hre generator can be reversed and the value changed to I03 V.2.5b. 0·384 X 106.384 X I06 V and I y =( (This is effectively neglecting hre. care must be taken not to lose ib since this is required forthehre generator.VY' = 0·384 X I06V.6 Neglecting the first term.384 X I06V =:::= . Table 5.1 and 5. I= V(500 + 250 + 384 + 24 950)106 The output admittance Yo I =V= 26·1 mmho and the output impedance Zo = 38·4Q These results may now be summarized for comparison with Tab/es 5.) Now writing the nodal equation.3. First Vce = . IOav Now ]' = ( 16·7 X 2) = 0·384 X l06V 0"8 + 16·7 + 2 1000 h 16·7 X 2) flill 0 0 "8 + 16·7 + 2 = 384 ßmhos At this stage.65 X 384 X I06V +I= V(500 + 250 + 384)10.5a) is of mixed form and is best converted for nodal analysis by applying Norton's Theorem at XX.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This equivalent circuit (Figure 5. The result of this conversion is shown in Figure 5. Properfies of Common Collector Amplifiers Current gain Valtage gain Input impedance Output impedance Phase shift I Medium 520 (limited by bias components) Low 0·80·99 High Bias components Low 20100 il 156 .
Vec. Circuit for determining the common collector h parameters from the common emitter h parameters W orking with the required voltages and currents.. Vbc. The normal h parameter definitions may then be applied to find the hc parameters. the base terminal is open circuit and the hre generator disappears.I = V~c hrc lb Vec=O ie lb Vec=O First if Vec is zero we have a short circuit across the emitter collector terminals. Thus and + hreib) hrc = (hre + 1) and h1c ie = (ib = h1e Now for ib zero. The conversion from he parameters to hc parameters can be simply achieved by redrawing the common emitter equivalent circuit with the collector as the common terminal as shown in Figure 5. hre Vce Figure 5. Thus Vce is also zero and the hre generator disappears. This leaves hoc = hoe· Also since Vec = Vce. the hre generator becomes hreVec.6.GENERAL METHODS The alternative procedure is to find the common collector h parameters and to use the general solutions.hre . All the current from the hre generator. together with ib flow into the short circuit.6. There is no volt drop across h1e so: Vbc = Vec  hreVec and 157 hrc = 1 . ib and ie as shown hlc I = .
6 = 66 LOo 88·8 kQ For the output admittance.umho 1 . With slight modifications it can be used as a difference amplifier. The first circuit is known as the emitter coupled or long tailed pair amplifier.umho Now 1000 560 kQ Z8 = Y0 = 250 + 1 788 + 800 . amplifier. including Ioad. The properties of such a combination will become apparent from the example.umho = 1·788 kQ 66 X 106 = 250 + 25 500 . 158 .103 ::= 1 Applying the generat solutions Av = 800(250 + ~:)I06 + 66 = 0·99 Ztn = 800 + (250 + 500)I0. or super <X pair.umho = 38·2 0 This method is obviously very much quicker and is therefore preferable even if the necessary conversion factors have tobe found. a phase splitter or a d.3: htc = 8000 htc = 66 hrc = hoc = 250 . ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Two further examples of the application of equivalent circuit techniques to practical configurations will now be given. Y0 and Zo = 25 750 + 500 . we require the effective Zs. The second circuit isonein which two transistors are interconnected and used as one. This combination is sometimes known as a Darlington connected.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Now applying these to Example 5. but Ys is given by Ys = 500 + 40 + 20 .umho For overall Y0 .c.
4. operating points determined by the circuit. Determine the voltage gain and input impedance of the emitter coupled amplifier shown in Figure 5. hte 1 300 0. hoe 125 . so we shall draw the equivalent circuit neglecting hre and solve using nodal analysis. Thus if the hc and hb parameters are known. The output of the first stage is taken from the (b) Figure 5.7. the general solutions can be applied in the normal manner. One possible approach is to take Tr2 as a common base amplifier and Tr1 as a common collector amplifier.umho and hre 90. supply.c. Circuits for Example 5. The transistors have the following hybrid parameters at the d.4 emitter and the collector is earthed through the d. The base of Tr2 is also earthed to a.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Example 5. In this example only the he parameters are available. 7a. 159 . by the capacitor shown (assuming Xe~ 4 kO).c. The amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5.c.7a could be treated in a number of ways. hre 5 X 104.
mho. The ratio of va to VI will give the required terminal voltage gain and that of v1 to is the input impedance. For ib1.A. as have the combined bias components on Trl and the loads on both stages. since for nodal analysis the only permissible generators are current generators. Note also that ibl and ibz are clearly indicated as are the unknown node voltages v1.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The required equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5. vz and va in terms of is. vz. circuit admittances and external generators. The next step is to express any equivalent generators in terms of the unknown voltages. The input is shown as being supplied with a current i 8 • This is necessary.7b. Note the components representing h1e have been expressed as admittances.0·83vz 0 = 0= 75·5vl + 153vz . For node 2: 90(vl . which changes the units to volts. therefore if VI.0·125va 75vz + 0·625va 160 . and va. we may write and ibl = (v1  ibz = vz)830 pA vz 830 p.A Now for node I. vz and va are measured in volts the currents will be given in p. equating currents entering the node from generators to currents leaving the node as voltage admittance products: is = (VI  vz)830 + VI 250 The admittances are expressed in p. Now following the general method for writing nodal equations as stated in Chapter 2 on page 59. The solutions to the nodal equations will express v1. kil and mA: is = l·08v1 .vz)830 + 90( 830vz) = vl830 + vz(830 + 125 + 2 000 + 125 + 830)  125va and for node 3: 90( 830vz) = 125vz + 625va Now collecting terms and dividing by 1 000.
= ls 1 :ls is 0 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 1·08 75·5 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 1 Ztn =:. since each stage of a 161 .0) 87is = = 75·5 X 75 87 = 65 This expression for voltage gain is positive and there is therefore no phase reversal. the input impedance Ztn is given by Ztn Vl = .0·125 X 75) + 0·83 X 0 + 0 1·08(153 X 0·625. but the effective load on the stage is the input impedance to a common base stage which is also very low.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Using determinants.0·125 X 75) + 0·83(75·5 X 0·625) + 0 ~~~~~~~~~~==~~~~~~~~~ 87 = 54·8 = 1·59 kQ This answer might seem low for a common collector stage. For the voltage gain we require the ratio va/vl and in determinant form this is given by va Av=Vl = 1·08 75·5 0 0·83 +153 75 is 0 0 is 0 0 0·83 +153 75 0 0·125 +0·625 The denominator has already been found in the numerator of the expression for Ztn· Av 1·08(0) + 0·83(0) + is(75·5 X X75.X ls X is(153 X 0·625. This is to be expected.
8. Assurne the transistors to have h1e 2 0000... hre 120. An electronic circuit shows two transistors connected as a Darlington pair. Assuming Trl to have parameters h1e'..' irQ' "1 v2 ho•w h . hre' and Tr2 to have parameters h1e ". hoe" and hre ". Example 5. (d) (c) Figure 5.~· it.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQillVALENT CIRCUITS cascaded common base. and hence find the conditions leading to high current gain and high input impedance. conditions and for calculation it may be included in the h1e for Tr2. common collector amplifier has no phase reversal. 162 . A resistor R' is normally included to provide the required d.8a. Compound connected transistors and circuits for determining the overall h parameters The required Darlington connection is shown in Figure 5.c. hoe'. Determine the h parameters for the composite unit used in the common emitter configuration. hoe 150 pmho and negl\gible hre· Tr2 v.w 'h. the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.5. (b) (a) !2 ho.8b.
ib" in terms of the node voltage. Figure 5. the parameters for the overall circuit. hzz are + V2h12 hh21 + V2h22 hhn V1 = h = We can see that the required conditions for finding the parameters. across hte'.._h_"_ 1 ~ h.10) .. hz1. for h12 and h22. Under these conditions h and ib are zero.8c shows the modified equivalent circuit with the input open circuit. Thus the hre1 ib 1 generator is eliminated... oe II le (5.8c we can see that hoe and hte" form a potential divider across v2.d. but first we must find h22. hoe1 and /z and h = h re "V2 h le II + h oe _ fz _ 22  = V2  h " oe 1 + v2 ( hoe " h + le oe 1 h ") + .:. this can also be deleted. so h12 may be written: 1 h12 To find = hte"hoe 1 hte "hoe 1 + 1 hte" h 1 + h. + oe Now.1 + 1 + hoe 1hle " le 163 (5. oe 1 hre "hoe 1 hoe 1hte II 1+ + h 1 oe hoe ". where hn. + 1 h Oe + 1 + hte "hoe 1 hte II hre"hoe 1 + h. for h21 and hn. h12.9) we can write a nodal equation.:. and short circuit output. Here Vz ib"=11 1 hte h. where Y is the combination of hte ".ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Rewriting the h parameter equations. are open circuit input. and since there is no p. 1 Now h12 = vll v2 It=o From Figure 5.
h in terms of h.... The hre ib" generator can have no effect on h since the entire generator current flows in the short circuit.. oe + h le " 12 due to hre"ib" alone But from equation 5.. 11  + hoe ') le + hoe (I (5.I3) h I• I 1 + re lb hte 11 12 due to hre'ib' alone = _____.I5) (5. we must find the value of the current in the short circuit output.12) Once again. I .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When practical values are inserted. • I + h I• I lb re lb V' ( hte' 1 = V' I + hre' I h. h = ib'· Now applying the Superposition theorem. we shall see that the last term of this result is the predominant part. V' + hoe'hte 11 (5. 12 is given by the sum of the currents flowing in the short circuit due to the two current generators and ib' taken separately. the input impedance II V' +ib' V! h h I .8d.14) = hre "ib" = ib'(l 1 and +hre' ib' + hre')hte 11 + hte V' • II lb =" hte 164 hoe' 11 (5. numerical values will prove the last term to predominate...II.11) I + hre')hte 11 + I+ hte"hoe' (5..= 11 = le h Writing a nodal equation for V'. le h _ h . By inspection. The redrawn equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.I6) . In this case... Proceeding to hu and h21 we require the short circuit output condition. For h21.I h . (5..
the input impedance is given by: Ztn = _ Z1n  3 _ 188 X 10 hi2h21 hu .(I + hte "hoe')hte" hre "(I + hre')ib' I + hte"hoe' (5oi7) Now adding equations 5013.0o3 + 120 X 121 = = YL 1°3 o o Thus from the genera1 so1ut10ns. smce A1 11 200 h21 YL + h 22 a ho1gh current gain will be obtained if YL is of the same order as. h "0 "_ hre"(I + hre')hie"ib' re lb .83 kQ 165 . h _ h ib'  _ hre'. 1121 = 120.h22 + YL 11 200 X 0o231 _ (1 406 + 10) X 10_3 Q . this result is equiva1ent to an output impedance of 68o5 Qo From equation 5oi2.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METIIODS Substituting from equations 5oi5 and 5oi6.hoe'hte" + hre"(l 21 I + hte"hoe' + hre') (5018) In this case. and 5017. practica1 va1ues will approximate hz1 to hre"(1 + hre')o Taking the va1ues for the parameters given in the question: h 12 = I 2 000 X 150 X 106 X !50 X 106 + 2 000 _6 800 1 Oo 23 I 120 X 150 X 106 I 50 X 106 mho + 150)10 + 2 000 + I + 2 000 X h 22 = ( 150 = Oo 3 = J.3 = x 106 OoOI8 + """13 mho = Oo8 + 138 mmho = 14°6 mmho Note. hu = 2000 + 121 2000 1°3 = X 188kQ From equation 5018. or greater than h22o In this case a suitable value of Ioad would be 100 Q or lesso Using this value. 5o14.
At this point then. have been assumed to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. and the input impedance becomes 188 X 11 200 X 0·769 1()3 + 24 . Capacitors. The effect of capacitors used for decoupling emitter resistors is exactly the same as those used in the cathode circuit of valve amplifiers. By means of a general analysis. Example 5. This analysis is similar to that used for the RC coupled valve amplifier in Chapter 4. hre 110.umho. An even higher input impedance can be achieved.c. where shown. Investigate methods by which the gain and phase responses can most easily be recorded.6 X 10_3 = 538 H2 All the examples so far considered. The transistor he parameters are h1e 1 000 0. since at low frequencies their reactance is very much greater than shunt resistive components. (a) a suitable value for the coupling capacitor Ce. The total shunt capacitance is 1 200 pF. by using the composite transistor in the common collector configuration. as the large h21 permits a very low d.9b shows those parts of the equivalent circuit essential to the general analysis. independent of frequency. have not been shown. The audio voltage amplifier shown in Figure 5. have neglected the effect of reactances. The output section of the second transistor is not required since the absence of reactive components in the Ioad make the gain. without loss of current gain. These may have far higher values than are necessary for a single transistor. Tr1 bias components have no effect on the voltage gain of the stage and only modify 166 . and hre negligible. Av2 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS This of course will be modified by the bias components in parallel with the input. determine. hoe 100 . huc = 188 k. the coupling capacitor.9a is to be used at frequencies from 100Hz upwards.6.3. but the effect of an overall shunt capacitance Cs will be included in the next example. Detailed analysis of high frequency performance will be considered in a later chapter. base current for the first transistor. Stray capacitance due to wiring. and that due to transistor properties. (b) the high frequency above which the gain is more than 3 db below the maximum value.Q h12c = 1 h21c = 11200 h22c = 14·6 mmho 0·231 = 0·769 The current gain is unchanged. we shall investigate the effects of Cs and Ce. The conversion of parameters is obtained by using the results found in Example 5. except in phase. Figure 5.
the terminal input impedance to Tr2 becomes hte· Ym Ytn2 = 1 + YB2+hle (5.21) 1 Ztn2=y tn2 I RL 1 = hoe + 167 YL (5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS input impedance. certain components may be combined for the anaJysis.6 For simpJicity.22) . Y1n2 is the total input admittance to the second stage and will include the bias components Ym and YB2· Since hre is zero.9. The RC coupled amplifier for Example 5.19) Vcc 2kil Tr2 t t V. By definition. 0 I Xc=O (a) v' (b) Figure 5. Jet 1 Re = :=c=(5.20) hoe and let where and Jet + YL + R'= h 1 oe + YL Ytn2 + Ztn2 (5.
Av1 and Avh respectively. First.telb X . Ve shown in Figure 5. considering Figure 5.23) At high frequencies. as low frequencies. X ce and Ztn2 act as a potential divider circuit V . jXcsRe v = hrelb x R ·x e . X es is in parallel with Re. . h . Avh hre = hRe le = ( 1R 1 _ _e_ jXc Avm (5. .24) "R 1+~ X es At medium and high frequencies. .9b at medium frequencies: 1 Xce = C ~Z1n2 CO and c Xcs = 1 C '. The corresponding valtage gain for these frequency ranges will be referred to as Avm.J es J Dividing numerator and denominator by jXcs.9b is the same as v'.>Re v' = hreib X Re Thus CO s but v' hre Avm ==Re VI hte (5. those at which Cs only may be neglected. will be referred to as medium frequencies. ·x X (Z ·x ) Vc RL + Ztn2 168 J Ce ln2  J Ce . frequencies at which both Ce and Cs may be neglected.jXce) Ztn2 v = . and those at which Ce only may be neglected as high frequencies.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Also.   VcZ!n2 Ztn2 jXcc may be found in exactly the same way as v' was found at medium and high frequencies. RL'(Ztn2 . At low frequencies.
) Thus from equation 5. In this numerical example.20.25 provide a convenient means for plotting graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift of the amplifier as the frequency is changed. from equation 5.23. 106 Re = 100 + 250 + 1 000 + 500 Q = 540 Q and from equation 5.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS The terms in brackets cancel and ib is the same as that for medium frequencies. let Re/Xcs = 1. But (Equations 5.21. and 5.19. 5.23. it is more convenient to choose a simple numerical value for Xcc/R' or Re/Xcs and then to determine the complex gain and the frequency at which it applies.20. 5. Avm A vl = ':'::: (5.25) l _ jXcc R' Equations 5. This results in Avh = 59·3 1+j Wh = _ 59 _3 be the frequency at which 59·3 Ll80a = V 2 L 45 a = 42 Nowif L135 a (5. the value of X es or X cc could be calculated and used to determine the complex gainin the polar form AL8.23. 5. Forageneral investigation.24. Avm = 110 X 1 ()()() 540 Now considering equation 5.22.26) 169 . At any particular frequency.24 and 5.
this corresponds to the frequency at which X ce/R' = 1. 5.. y'IO and y'26 respectively with phase shifts changed from 180° by tan1 0·25.F = 0"63 p. . the problern requires that the amplifier should be suitable for use down to 100Hz. y'5. 3. These results are shown in Table 5. etc.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 1 1012 Then Wh = CsRe = 1 200 X 540 = 1·54 X 106 rad/sec Wh /h = 277 = 245 kHz Other values for the complex gain at particular frequencies may be obtained by putting Re/ X es as !. tan1 3 and tan1 5 respectively. 106 I06 + 100 + 200 + 50 + I 000 Q I 670 + 800 = 2 470 Q R' = 500 = Ce= 27T X 106 100 X 2 470 p. 2wh.26 shows that the corresponding angular frequencies will be given by wh/2. At low frequencies.F Thus in practice a 1 p. and 5wh respectively.2I. At these frequencies. 2. In practice. 3wh. the gain may be obtained by dividing Avm by y'l·25. I Avl I= antilog10 0·15 = y2 Avm IAvl I = IAvml V2 With reference to equation 5. I I 3 = 20 log10 Avm Avl Thus at 100Hz. 170 .F capacitor would be suitable.24..4 on page 171.I9 and 5. this implies that the gain shall not fall by more than 3 db (see Appendix 1).. Inspection of equation 5. tan..1 2. _1_=R' 27T/Ce I Ce = 277JR' Farad and From equations 5..
1so 88° 49' 50wh 12·2MHz 0·25 v'I·0625 y'S v'10 y'26 y'IOI v'401 IAvml = 1' 19 171 . Xcc Avt 7i.1 tan.1 5 78° 30' 10 IAvml = 5·93 tan110 84° 18' 20 IAvml = 2.1 20 87° 10' 20wh 4·9MHz so v' 2501 tan.4. 8 tan.1 3 71 ° 30' IAvml = ll6 tan.1 0·5 IAvml = 57·4 2·0 IAvml 3·0 IAvml 5·0 Ll80° !=~ where w is I I = R'Cc lOOHz 26° 30' 2w1 200Hz tan10·25 14° 4w1 400Hz = 26·5 tan.10·5 26° 30' T tan10·25 14° 4 61kHz tan12 63° 30' 2wh 490kHz y'2 v'l·25 IAvml 1 ReCs Wh= Wh Wh 245kHz 122kHz 2·0 = 57 "4 IAvml = 26 .5 3·0 IAvml = 18 .96 tan.6 tan1 5 78° 30' Swh 1·015 MHz 10 IAvml = 5 _93 tan11o 84° 18' IOwh 2·45 MHz 20 IAvml = 2.1 3 71° 30' 3wh 735kHz 5·0 IAvml = 11 .' Avm = 59·3 Phase shift = 180° 0 wherc tJis + 1·0 IAvml = 42·0 tan11 45° o5 IAvml = 53·1 tan.1 2 63° 30' = 18.96 tan120 87° 10' IAvml = 11 9 tan1 50 88° 49' 0·25 50 v'2 y'0·25 v'I ·0625 v'5 v'IO y'26 v'IOI v' 401 y'2501 Avh w1 W1 2 W1 T W1 5 W1 iO W1 2o Wt 5o 50Hz 33Hz 20Hz lOHz 5Hz 2Hz where 0 is 1·0 IAvml = 42.0 tan1 45° 0·5 IAvml = 53 .ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS Table 5.8 tan.
Av2 = hre YL) .4. Considering the single stage first. The scale for the phase shift graph would range from 90° (at the top) to +90°.4 multiplied by 184 and the phase shift may be found by adding 180° to the angle given in the same table. This is shown in Figure 5. of the two stage amplifier. while the gain scale would be multiplied by 184. 3. To calculate the overall gain v0fv~. at each frequency. The resulting gains will have the same values as those found at high frequencies but in this case. The gain and phase variations may be shown simultaneously by considering !Avl L if> as a vector and drawing the appropriate vectors for a number of frequencies. since we are puttmg R ' .10a where we can see that all detail is lost at frequencies below 1 MHz. An improved display is obtained by using logw of frequency as a base. This may be found by application of the generat solution in terms of the h parameters. 2. etc. must be multiplied by Av2.2 .hrehre + ::::. We must now consider the question of displaying the information obtained from the above analysis. t e corresponding frequencies will be found from 2w1.wCcR' . the additional phase shift will be added to 180° since the j term in the denominator is negative instead of positive. the gain of the first stage.10b shows both gain and phase shift plotted in this manner. .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Further points on the frequency response graphs may be obtained in the same way as that used for the high frequency range. 2. but since most of the change in gain occurs between 1 and 400 Hz and between 100 kHz and 10 MHz. i. ~\ ~1 respectively where w1 = c:R. the gain of the second stage. This is shown. 3.. These results arealso shown in Table 5. may be assigned to Xcc/R' and the corresponding complex gain and frequencies determined. we could plot graphs of !Avl and phase shift against frequency. Figure 5. values of !. a linear frequency scale hides much of the information at low frequencies. Xcc _ _1_ _ 1 h Also. etc. for the single 172 .=::::: hle(hoe 110 = 1 000(100 + 500)106 = 184 L 180o Thus the overall gain at any frequency is given by the result shown on Table 5. The same graphs are correct for the two stage amplifier under consideration if the vertical scales are changed.e.
MHz 8 10 12 (b) 50 240° 40 210° > 3. Both methods of presenting the information are useful and examples of their application will appear in later chapters. This locus is shown in Figure 5. 30 180° e 20 150° 10 120° 10 1·0 100 2·0 1000 3·0 10~ 4·0 105 5·0 f Hz log f Figure 5. plotted in the complex plane. If the ends of all these vectors are joined. the locus is a circle. In this case.ALTERNATIVE COUPLING METHODS (a) 60 . (a) Frequency on a linear scale and (b) frequency on a log scale stage. Graphs of the variation of gain and phase shift with frequency for Example 5.40 > 3. with the origin on the circumference. The locus for the two stage amplifier will be obtained by multiplying each vector by 184 and adding 180° to the phase shift. 173 .10. in Figure 5.llb.Jla. we obtain the locus of the gain vector.6. 4 6 f.
7. If the transistor employed 4k. Examples of the use of the y parameter circuit and the hybrid n circuit will appear in Chapter 9.O.11. we shall complete this chapter with a solution using the common emitter T equivalent circuit. Example 5.7 using the transistor T equivalent circuit 174 . An alternative form of bias circuit for a common emitter amplifier is shown in Figure 5 . Circuits for Example 5. R (a) L Vo (b) Figute 5.12a.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS 245kHz 0 (b) ~"'"''"' 100Hz 0 5kHz ) increasing 245kHz 59·3x184 100Hz Figure 5. but to show that the general method is applicable to all equivalent circuits. In Chapter 3 other possible circuits were mentioned.12. Gain vectors for the amplifier in Example 5.6 ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALE NT CIRCUITS The examples so far considered in this chapter have made use of the h parameter equivalent circuit.
V! V! ie = i e = 0 0 0 +0·7 +814 +4 810 +15 0·03 +0·7 0 14 +814 +4 +10 810 +15 mA Vt(814 X 15 + 810 X 4) mA 0·03(814x 15+810x4)0·7(14x 154x 10)+0 15 450vl . rb 800 kil and rx' 80. inserting values and working in kil and mA.0·7ib (5.lo R L 0 = lere V! (X Putting rc/rx' = 10 kil.ALTERNATIVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS has re 30 !1. + l.29) Rearranging and collecting terms.28) (5.12b shows the amp1ifier equivalent circuit drawn using the common emitter T equiva1ent for the transistor. Figure 5. the other circuit currents shown are given by: io i' = ir + ib  ie = ib . = 0·03ie + 0·7ib 0 = 14ie + 814ib + 4ir 0 = 10ie ..ie) 15ir.463 + 175 = 24·2vl mA 175 . . V! 0 0 = 0·7ib + 0·3ie = 0·03ie + 10(81ib  = ie) + 4(ir + ib .ie = ibrb + iere . The unknown currents have been se1ected as ib. and ir. substituting for i 0 and i'. In terms of these three.ie). determine the amp1ifier input impedance and voltage gain.ie + rx'ib Writing the three mesh equations. rc +. ie.27) (5. = ib(1 + rx') .10(8lib.810ib + 15ir So1ving by determinants for ie.
= 90 Vi Z. feedback methods should be used.7 X 24·2 = 0·392v1 mA Substituting in equation 5.0·03Vt 0. It should be stressed that the parameters quoted in each example are those for a particular transistor at a particular operating point. In fact. However.ie)4 V = 22·5 X 4Vt For the input impedance.ib. ib = Vi.814ib 4 = 3·5 X 24·2v. we have investigated the use of small signa1 equivalent circuits for the solution of a wide range of transistor amplifiers.59 kQ = 568 Q SUMMARY In this chapter.27. In the majority of the examples. . the h parameters have been used since these are the parameters that are usually available. the input current is ib + ir. This should be allowed for and if a tight specification is required.28.n Vt Vt = :lln = 0 ' 392Vt + 1' 3Vt = 590 Q But the overall input impedance must include the 15 kO bias resistor. circuits using devices other than transistors may be analysed in the same way provided the appropriate equivalent circuit parameters are available.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Substitutingin equation 5. The methods used. the typical values quoted in the manufacturers' published data should be used. it is therefore given by: Ztn = 15 X 0·59 15 . Vo Vo Av = . 176 . however. In the design of a practical amplifier. component tolerances and spread of transistor parameters willlead to a possibly large degree of error. mA = ioRL = (ir. ir = 14ie . These methods will be discussed in the next two chapters.203·5 x 0·392v1 = 1·3v. are equally applicable to any other form of equivalent circuit.
Repeat Example 5. 960 Q.8 taking Xe as being infinite. hoe 90 . Example 5. 6·83 kQ.10. Ans. v. 130. 862 Q. Av. Circuit for Example 5. 177 . Repeat the calculations performed in Example 5. Circuit for Example 5.11 Example 5. Ans. 960 Q. hre 75. 10 kQ.9.8..14. 36·2. 25·7 Q.13. Example 5.EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Example 5. 560. Ans. 0·68.umho.8. 100 n. 3 130. 65·6.14 emp1oys a transistor having the same parameters as that in Example 5. Figure 5. 1·97. Figure 5.8 using RLO. 65·6. 0. and At against RL. 258 n. Assurne Xe = 0. Hence sketch graphs showing the variation of Ztn. The common emitter amplifier shown in Figure 5. 8·83 mV. Calculate the output voltage and the output impedance. 645 n.11. 6·72.8 i/p If RL is 2 kQ calculate the amplifier input impedance and voltage and current gain. hre I03 . and oo. Ans.13 employs a transistor having hte 1 100 n. 0. The common collector amplifier shown in Figure 5. 56·5.
264 Q. calculate the voltage gain and the input impedance. hre 5 X 104. Ans.15. 2·22 kQ. 1100 Q.umho. 650 X 1()3.USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS Example 5. Assurne that the output is taken between Tr2 collector and earth and that Xe = 0.11 by finding the common collector h parameters and using the general h parameter solutions. If the transistor parameters are h1e 1 kQ. hre 90. 90 . A long tailed pair amplifier has the circuit shown in Figure 5.7a. The corresponding h parameters are hte 1·8 kQ. A two stage RC coupled amplifier has the following components.umho. Example 5. hoe 80 . 76. 1. Circuit for Example 5. hre 110. the emitter resistor is I kQ and the shunt bias components 47 kQ and 68 kQ. Figure 5.13. Ans.15 has h1e 1 300 0. A three stage common emitter amplifier has identical transistors for each stage. hoe 80 . 147. hoe 120 .16. The transistor shown in the amplifier circuit in Figure 5.13 Calculate the current gain and the amplifier input and output impedances. Ans.umho and negligible hre· Each stage has a collector Ioad of 2 kQ and the bias components effectively shunt the input of each stage with 10 kQ. Collector Ioads. Example 5. shunt bias resistors 8 kQ 178 .14. 25·7 Q. 8·83 mV. 656 Q. The Ioad on Tr2 is 3 kQ.umho. Example 5. Repeat Example 5. 496 X 1()3. Ans. Example 5. Calculate the overall voltage and current gain and the input impedance. 11·35. hre 150. hre 0. 3·3 kQ. 1 528 Q.12.15.
Yc 750 kQ. hre 103 . Ye Example 5. 5. 6 600. coupling capacitor 0·5 ftF. Calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at a frequency of 4kHz. 119 ftmho. 5 260. 1 123 Q.19.17. hre 125. 444 kHz. 105 Hz. Ans. 7 370. The bias components place 15 kQ in parallel with the input and the transistor parameters are h1e 1·3 kil. The equivalent T parameters of a transistor are 20 Q. Ans. Circuit for Example 5. lf the shunt bias components total 20 kil. per stage. calculate Avm and tbe 3 db frequencies. and hre 0. If the transistors have h1e 1·2 kQ. Yb 350 Q. Example 5. hre 80. 179 . hre 90. and hoe 130 ftmho. 1 130 L 3° 30'. Ans. calculate the voltage and current gain and the input impedance. Example 5. hre 5 X 104. 63·3. A singlestage common emitter amplifier is loaded with a 2 kQ resistor in parallel with a 0·01 ftF capacitor.16 employs a matched pair of transistors having h1e 1 300 Ü. lt is connected as a COffimon emitter amplifier and loaded with 1·5 kQ.18.16. 20·4 x tos.19 and hoe 125 ftmho.EXAMPLES effective. and IX 0·992. 2·10 kil. 63 kn. 89. Ans. 162 L 168°. 1 122 n. effective interstage shunt capacitance 500 pF. The amplifier shown in Figure 5. hoe 130 ftmho. Figure 5. Find the h parameters of the equivalent transistor (inside the broken 1ine) and hence determine Av and Z 1n with C considered as either short circuit or open circuit.
(b) 0·973. The transistor parameters are Trl (small signal).Q.umho. take the combined shunt bias components to be 100 k. 14·6 k. hoe 110 . 218. A Darlington pair of transistors is connected as shown in Figure 5.20. Ans.Q.umho. hoe 500 . the current gain and the input and output impedance if (a) a load of 400 . 1 270. 88 . hre 103 .USE OF TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 5.Q.Q.Q. Assurne Zs to be 10 k. hre 4 X 104.Q. 180 . hre 130 and Tr2 (power) h1e 200 .90 k. hte 70. In each case.8a. 4·0 . (a) 41·0. h1e 1· 5 k.Q. Calculate the voltage gain.Q.Q is connected in the combined collector or (b) if the same load is connected in the emitter load of Tr2.
the output impedance determines the suitability of a particular load. and a change of d. and if one is replaced by another of nominally the same value. In either case the gain will be a function of the passive amplifier components. Impedance Amplifiers also have both input and output impedance. supply voltage may result in a considerable change in gain. The device parameters may also vary with time and temperature. In addition the parameters may be very sensitive to d. a nurober of properties of electronic amplifiers have become apparent. If the source internal impedance is much greater than the amplifier input impedance.c. current gain or both. operating conditions. The output impedance is best compared with the internal resistance of a signal generator. manufacturing tolerances may result in a considerable change in exact value. THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS Amplification An amplifier will have voltage gain. Before defining and investigating feedback it will be useful to review these properties. Similarly. In this 181 . The input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. or that the alternating current in the Ioad will be greater in magnitude than the alternating current flowing into the input terminals.c. In this context we mean that the alternating voltage across the load will be greater in magnitude than the alternating voltage at the input terminals. the probability of obtaining identical parameters is most unlikely. and of the device parameters. The passive components may vary with temperature and time. The input impedance determines the suitability of the amplifier for use with a particular source. and in the event of a replacement. the terminal input voltage may be so small that the amplifier output is less than the original open circuit source voltage.6 THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In the preceding chapters.
particularly at high frequencies. Phase Shift Amplifiers introduce a phase shift between input and output current or voltage. In general the gain will be smaller at very low and very high frequencies. The impedance will usually increase at very low frequencies and be reduced at very high frequencies. At this stage it is convenient to work in general quantities or signals rather than in voltages or currents~ The basic feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 6. These will occur at frequencies which are multiples of the desired signal frequency. In general a feedback amplifier or system is one in which the terminal input signal is the sum of an external signal and a feedback signal proportional to the output signal.c. The large box represents the amplifier having a gain A. supply or due to electrical noise occurring in either active or passive circuit components. Distortion and Noise Since all active devices are basically nonlinear.1. FrequencyResponse All the properties discussed above may vary with frequency. These variations are principally due to changes in the reactance of capacitors in the amplifier circuits. some degree of distortion will always be introduced. The phase shift will rise with lower frequencies and be reduced at higher frequencies. At medium frequencies this will be either 180° or 360° depending upon the number of stages in the amplifier.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS context the Ioad may weH be the input impedance of another amplifier or electronic circuit. Other unwanted signals may also be introduced within the amplifier due to residual mains variation or hum in the d. but device parameters may also be frequency sensitive. where in general A = lAI L 0. These impedances will be sensitive to changes in both passive components and device parameters in the same way as the gain. This takes the form of additional alternating voltages known as harmonics in the output. Definition of Feedback In this chapter we shall see how all these amplifier properties may be modified by the use of feedback. 182 . and their configuration.
but not essentially. lßl is less than one. S is the input signal applied from an outside source. Block diagram for an amplifier with feedback From the diagram: S' But = S + ßSo (6.Thus I THE PROPERTIES OF AMPLIFIERS I~~ = lAI and So leads S' by a phase angle 0. s 8> s' So ß So I I ß I I F/gure 6. where cp. The small box represents a feedback network having an attenuation in general ß = lßl L cp. S' is the terminal input signal.1.2) . the complete expression for gain with feedback Ar= lAI L O 1lßAI LO +c/> 183 (6.ßA Finally and the overall gain with feedback So Ar=s = A 1.1) So= AS' = S + ßAS' S'(l.ßA) = S S' and I so S = s 1. Usually. Thus Iß~o I= lßl and ßSo leads So by a phase angle ß. and So is the output signal.ßA AS So= 1.ßA Remernhering that both ß and A will be complex.
184 . and in particular negative feedback.2 becomes !Ar\ lAI = l + \Aß\ (6. A two stage transistor amplifier is constructed using transistors with a nominal hre of 125 resulting in an overall current gain of 3 000. We shall now consider the effects of feedback.e. Now \Ar\ ~ A \ßA! = 1 Tßi But ß is normally a fraction resulting from a simple resistive network and will not be subject to changes resulting from device ageing or replacement.) Example 6. Thus equation 6. Feedback negative It is important to realise that the same feedback system may result in negative feedback at some frequencies and positive feedback at other frequencies. i. discussed above. (Since all resistors will change in approximately the same proportion. d.\ßA\ L (J cp) may be either greater than 1 or less than 1. Under these conditions the ß factor is usually provided by a simple resistive network. i.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS + The modulus of (1 . or temperature changes. Feedback positive \A\. the gain becomes less susceptible to the changes of parameters etc. the connection of which makes (J + cp = 180°.3) This condition will be referred to as simple negative feedback. the feedback is negative. on the properties of amplifiers discussed above. so application of feedback can either increase or reduce the overall gain.3 suppose ß is suchthat \ßAI ~ 1. so in general it is not correct to refer to a 'negative feedback amplifier'.e. \Arl \Ar\ > < \A\.1.c. With reference to equation 6. Simple negative feedback is applied using aß of 1/600. In this respect the feedback is said to be positive if the overall gain is increased and negative if it is reduced. Simple Negative Feedback When the term is used. These would normally be the 'medium frequencies' at which the amplifier phase shift is 180° or 360°. Amplijication with Feedback Application of simple negative feedback may be shown to improve the gain stability of an amplifier. supply changes. the implication is that over the normal operating frequency ranges.
SERIES AND PARALLEL FEEDBACK
If a change in the direct supply voltage reduces hre to 80, determine
the percentage change in overall gain with and without feedback.
Weshallfirst find the change in gain without feedback. Since gain
per stage is proportional to hre, we can say that the overall gain will
be proportional to hre2
3 000
=
K(l25)2
where K is a constant.
K
=
3 000
= 0·191
1252
the new gain A2 = 0·191(80)2 = 1 220.
Percentage change in terms of the original gain
30001220
3 000
X
Percentage change
100 per cent
= 59· 3 per cent
Now applying simple negative feedback to the original amplifier
Au
and
=
A 2r =
3 000
3 000 = 500
1 + 600
1 200
I 220 = 402
1 + 600
. gam
. wlt
. h fieedback = 500  402
Percentage change m
500
X
100 per cent
= 19·5 per cent
Thus the application of feedback has reduced the percentage change
in gain from approximately 60 per cent to approximately 20 per cent,
which is a considerable improvement.
Before we can consider in detail the values of ß and A and the
effects of feedback on gain, input and output impedance, we must
lookback at the definition of a feedback amplifier.
SERIESAND PARALLEL CONNECTED FEEDBACK
From the definition of a feedback system, the terminal input
signal is the sum of an input signal and a feedback signal. With
electronic amplifiers, the feedback signal may be added in series
7
185
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
or in parallel with the input signal. lf two electrical quantities are
to be added in series, the two quantities must be voltages.
Alternatively, if they are to be added in parallel, the quantities
must be currents. In general amplifiers will amplify both current
and voltage, but depending on the method of application of the
feedback signal they must be treated as either voltage amplifiers or
current amplifiers.
Thus if the feedback signal is added in series, the circuit will be
treated as a voltage amplifier and the terminal current gain will be
unchanged. The overall current gain however will be modified by
changes in input and output impedance due to the voltage feedback.
Similarly current feedback will not change the terminal voltage gain.
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
To investigate these effects, it is convenient to introduce a general
equivalent circuit for firstly, a voltage amplifier. This is shown in
Figure 6.2, the equivalent for the amplifier being that part of the
diagram within the box.
Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with voltage
derived feedback
Our equivalent voltage amplifier has three properties, an input
impedance Ztn, an open circuit output impedance Z 0 ' and an open
circuit voltage gain Av'· If this were to represent a multistage
transistor amplifier, these properties would be given approximately
by hte in parallel with the bias components for Ztn, hoe1 for Z 0 ',
and the terminal voltage gain with infinite finalload for Av'·
The feedback voltage may be obtained from the output in one
of two ways. Figure 6.2 shows the first of these; the feedback circuit,
R1, R2, is in parallel with the output and the feedback voltage is
said to be derived from the output voltage. The alternative will be
186
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
referred ta as current derived feedback and is abtained when the
feedback circuit is in series with the amplifier laad. This is shawn in
Figure 6.4.
Voltage Derived, Series Applied Feedback
Referring again ta Figure 6.2 we shall investigate the effects af
valtage derived series applied feedback upan the averaU valtage
gain Avr and input impedances Ztnr. ß is defined as that fraction
af the output valtage that is fed back and added ta the input signal
voltage. Inspectian af the circuit shaws:
=
Rt
ß=
Rt
ßVo
R2
+ R 2 Vo
R2
+ R2
(6 .4)
Naw the gain withaut feedback Avo is given by
(6.5)
where
(6.5a)
>
since in practice Rt + R2
RL. (This is not always the case and
shauld be checked.)
Naw summing valtages at the input,
V'= es+ ßVo =es+ AvoßV'
V'=
but
Vo
=
(6.6)
es
1 Avoß
,
Avoes
AvoV = 1Avo ß
Gain with feedback
=
Vo
es
=
1  Ap~ vo
(6.7)
Fram this result, since ß is positive (equatian 6.4) simple negative
feedbackwill accur if Avo is negative. If Avo is positive, an alternative
cannectian may be used ta make ß negative.
Input Impedance With Feedback
From equation 6.6
es = V'(l  ßAvo)
187
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
If this equation is divided by i the input current,
es
V'
:l = .
(1
l
 ßAvo)
But inspection of Figure 6.2 shows that V' fi is the amplifier input
impedance Ztn· Also e8 Ji must be the input impedance with feedback
Ztnr. The previous equation therefore becomes:
Ztnf
= Ztn{l
 ßAvo)
(6.8)
Thus with simple negative feedback the amplifier input impedance
is increased.
Output Impedance with Feedback
Todetermine the output impedance, we must redraw the equivalent
circuit with any external generators suppressed, and apply a generator
of E volts to the output terminals. By calculating the resulting current
I the output impedance is given by E/I. The redrawn equivalent
circuit is shown in Figure 6.3.
Figure 6.3. Circuit for determining the output impedance of a
voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback
We shall first determine the terminal output impedance with
feedbackZur as given by Efl'. The overall resulting output impedance
can then be found by adding RL and R1 + R2 in parallel with Zor.
If Zs + Ztn ~ R2 and if Zs ~ Ztn we can say
V' = ßVo = ßE
If not, R2' should be used in determining
R2
1
R2(Zs
+ Ztn)
(6.9)
ß'. Where
= ==='R2 + Zs + Ztn
188
VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK
V'= ß'E
and
Zs
Ztn
Ztn
+
Formost practical purposes equation 6.9 is satisfactory.
Writing a mesh equation:
E  Av' V' = I'Zo'
From equation 6.9
E(l  ßAv') = I'Zo'
E
Zo'
Zor = ji = l  ßAv'
(6.10)
The overall output impedance can thus be found from
1
1
Z = Zor
1
1
+ RL + R1 + Rz
Alternatively the loaded output impedance without feedback, and
the loaded voltage gain Avo may be used in equation 6.10 and the
same result will be achieved. In practice however where simple
negative feedback has been used Zor ~ RL < R1 + Rz and the
shunting effect of RL and R1 + R2 is negligible.
Current Derived, Series Applied Feedback
We must now consider the effects of current derived feedback.
The required circuit is shown in Figure 6.4.
I
.;!, 1
I··
RL
l
Vo
I
I
c0 t
E
I
I
I
v,r.,       J
Figure 6.4. Equivalent circuit for a voltage amplifier with current
derived feedback
In this case the output current ftows in both the load and a resistor
RF. The resulting voltage ioRF is applied in series with the signal as
ßVo.
189
THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
Thus if RF ~ Zs
+ Ztn (as is usual)
ßVo
Vo
ioRF
ioRL
=
ß=
RF
RL
(6.11)
In addition, Avo is modified from equation 6.5 to,
Av'RL
Avo
= RL + RF + Zo'
(6.12)
With these new values for Avo and ßthe results for gain (equation 6.7)
and input impedance (equation 6.8) are unchanged.
Output lmpedance with Feedback
For the output impedance calculation the generator E (shown in
Figure 6.4) is applied and the source es suppressed. As with the
voltage derived case RL can be included afterwards if required.
Now since I is in the opposite direction to io,
V'
=
IRF (if Ztn
+ Zs ~ RF and Zs ~ Ztn)
and writing the mesh equation
E Av'( IRF)
= l(Zo' + RF)
arranging and collecting terms,
E
or
Zor
= IZo' + /RF(l
 Av')
= ~ = Zo' + RF(l Av')
(6.13)
With simple negative feedback this can result in a considerable
increase in terminal output impedance. However the shunting effect
of RL on the overall output impedance normally makes this effect
unimportant.
Example 6.2. An amplifier having input impedance 1 kQ and open
circuit output impedance 10 kO has a voltage gain of 800 when
loaded with a 4 kO resistor.
A feedback voltage is derived from (a) a potential divider chain
in parallel with the Ioad having Rt 9·9 kO and R2 100 n, or (b) a
100 n resistor in series with the Ioad. In each case the series connection at the input ensures simple negative feedback.
190
the overall terminal voltage gain.f. Since Rl + R2 = Avo Since R2 ~ (Zrn +Z 8).5 Av'4 800 = 4 + 10 Av I = 800 4X 14 = 2 800 Now consider case (a). so we must find RL' and Avo from equations 6.= 10000 0·01 As the feedback is negative. = 2 800 10 X 2·86 + 2. from equations 6. the voltage derived feedback. for both methods. Voltage gain = 800 Output voltage v0 = 800 O~tput X 0·5 mV = 0·4 V 0·4 current io = 4 000 A = 100 pA (6. and the change in output current if the amplifier is driven from a source of 1 mV e.A and V'= i1nZ1n = 0·5 p.86 = 623 from equation 6.7 and 6.Applying equation 6. the input current i 1n is given by: 1 mV i1n = 1 kQ + 1 kQ = 0·5 p.A X 1 kQ = 0·5 mV Since .5a. the modified input and output impedance. 10 X 4 RL = ~ = 2·86 I 10 kQ.14) To investigate the effects of the feedback circuits.m.5 and 6. The effect of R1 + R2 cannot be neglected.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Determine. For the amplifier without feedback. 623 Avr = 1 + 623 X 0·01 = 86 ' 2 and Zrn = 1(1 + 623 X 0·01) kQ = 7·23 kQ 191 .8.4. we must first find the open circuit voltage gain Av'· . 100 ß= . and internal impedance 1 kO.
A = AvrV!n 1 kQ{l X = 0·5 ftA X 1 kQ{l = + 6·23) 623 + 6·23) X l + 6. 1 795 = 192 . To return to the problem.10.24 In part (b) of the example we have current derived feedback.8 we find.7 and 6. the current gain is unchanged. Zor =I lOkQ + 6.A Note that although this current is considerably less than that found for the amplifier without feedback (equation 6.14. we must find the modified output impedance using equation 6. the overall input voltage is given by: V!n and Vo = 0·5 fJ.A x 7·23 mV = 0·88 mV = 0·88 X 86·2 mV = 75·8 mV = 75·8 mV 4 kO = 19 fJ. ß= Avo = RF 100 n RL = 4 kQ = 0·025 2 800 X 4 14. 6. and using equations 6. io 311 mV = 2·68 kQ = 109 fJ.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now and New input current = Overallinput voltage Vo New output current 8 ~2~:n = = 0·122 0·122 f1.11. and the reason is simply that the Ioad has been changed from an RL of 4 kQ to the RL' of 2·86 kQ.23 = 1·38 kQ The overall output impedance including the Ioad is found by shunting Zor with RL' 1·38 X 2·86 Overall Zo = kQ = 930 Q 4 .A With reference to equation 6. 6.12.14).23 311 mV The output current is given by vo/RL'. it would appear that the current gain has increased! This is in fact so. If the original input current 0·5 flA was applied.
as a result of the increase in input impedance. ltn = 21·8 kO Vtn = v0 itnZtnr = 38·1 X 20·8 = 21·8 mV 20·8 21 . From which Zor = 10 kO + 100 0(1 + 2 800) = 290k0 . This is given by 4 X 14 10 = 2·86k0 Summarizing these results : No feedback: Av 800.8 mV . Finally for the output impedance with current derived feedback. Ztn 1 000 0.13. as has the input current. Av 38·1 Ztn 20·8 kO Zo 3 9500 193 . the current gain has not been reduced. _ ~ _ 38·1 X 20·8 A _ 9. 1 A RL 4 X 21·8 f.1. Z 0 2 860 0 (a) Vo1tage derived feedback. lo  As before. Av 86·2 Ztn 7·23 kO Zo930 0 (b) Current derived feedback. we refer to equation 6.VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK 795 = 1 + 795 X Ztnr = 1(1 + 795 Avr and = 38 ' 1 0·025) kO = 20·8 kO 0·025 X For the output current calculation and 1mV . 290 X 4 Overall output tmpedance = 294 kO = 3·95 kO This resu1t shou1d be compared with the loaded output impedance of the original amplifier without feedback.1. f.
194 . the output impedance is reduced. these would be given by: I Y. With voltage derived feedback. Yo' =::= hoe for the final transistor.' === hre of the last stage multiplied by the current gain of all preceding stages. The equivalent circuit properties are an input admittance Y1n.2 the amplifier is represented by that part of the diagram enclosed in the box.5. and the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier. /li0 io YL Y. CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK If the feedback signal is applied in parallel with the input signal. Fora multistage transistor amplifier. Circuit for a current amplifier with current derived feedback As with the equivalent voltage amplifier shown in Figure 6.n  v' G2 Figure 6.n=:=h le in parallel with the bias components. but with current derived feedback the output impedance is increased.5. A.'. the two quantities to be added must be currents.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus in each case negative feedback reduces the voltage gain and increases the input impedance. and a short circuit current gain A. The equivalent circuit for a current amplifier is shown in Figure 6. I' is l•. a terminal output admittance (excluding final Ioad) of Y0 '.
= Ytnr Vt Vt the input admittance with feedback Ytnr = Ytn(l .= Ytn and . is I' . lo = (6.(1 .ßAto) (6. YL is the finalload. The feedback current G" ßio = Gl G2 io + ß= Gl G2' + G2' (6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Current Derived Current Feedback In Figure 6. Adding the currents at the input we obtain and But I'= is + ßio = is + ßAtol' is = /'(1 .ßAto .ßAto Current gain with feedback Au = 1 :ßAto (6.19) Atois 1. I = 1.18) YL' = h + G1 + G2 which in practice may often be approximated to YL.21) 195 .16) Next we require Ato the current gain without feedback.17) Ato = Yo' + YL' YL(G1 + G2) where (6.ßAto) Vt Vt I' is But .5. This is given by: At'YL' (6.= .19 by the terminal input valtage Vt.v1)G2 = v'G2 (6.ßAto) is . the valtage across G1 Bic = (v' .15) Note: The input admittance Ytn is negligible in the determination of ß since Vt is very much less than v'. and G1 and G2 form the current derived feedback network.20) To find the input admittance with feedback we divide equation 6.
G1 and Gz may be included afterwards to give the overall output admittance if required. and the input admittance is increased (i.e.n G2 Figure 6. the current gain is reduced. I' Y. The reader may have noticed by this stage. the current source must be replaced by its internal admittance. The effect of YL.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note from equations 6. that this derivation is proceeding along identical lines to that for the voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback.6. Since admittances and currents are being used Figure 6. with simple negative feedback. Calculation of the resulting output voltage V Ieads to the output admittance Yor being calculated from Yor = 1/ V. the input impedance is reduced). Circuit for determining the output admittance of a current amplifier with current derived feedback First we shall calculate the terminal output admittance given by 1"/V.24. This circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 6. Output Admittance with Feedback For the output admittance with feedback.2.6.22) ß" where ß" = ß'Yln Ys + Yln 196 . and a generator of I amps connected to the output terminals.20 and 6. First note that if Ys ~ Y1n where Ys is the source admittance Gz' if not use = Gz + Y1n + Ys G2(Y1n + Ys) (6.5 can be regarded as the dual of Figure 6.
CUR.24 will approximate to YL. resulting in voltage derived feedback.24) With typical values.7. is I' I ~Ys io y. Yor( G1 + Gz') Overalloutput admlttance = Yor + Gt + G2 ' + YL (6.ß"A'I" = = VYo' VYo' and the output admittance with feedback Yor is given by I" Yor = V = Yo' 1 .'RENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK Now writing a nodal equation for V: I"+ At'I' I". we must first define A 10 • Examination of the circuit shows that io and since ßio Vt = VoYL = VoGF ~ Vo. Voltage Derived Current Feedback The alternative connection for current amplifiers.23) The overall output admittance can then be obtained by adding G1 + Gz' in series with Yor and YL in parallel with the result. Y. Circuit for a current amplifier with voltage derived feedback As with the current derived feedback.7. YL will be the predominent term and equation 6. I i~ YL iV I I I Figure 6.ß"At' (6. is shown in Figure 6. . 197 ß and .n .
The two networks are (a) a 200 Q resistor (Gt) connected in series with the load and a 50 kQ resistor ( G2) connected in parallel with Gt to the input termirrals and (b) a 100 kQ resistor (GF) connected directly from the output terminal to the input terminal. 198 . Assuming Ys ~ Ytn determine in each case.21 respectively. suppressing the source generator. Ytn Ys + GF( Ytn + Ys) GF + Ytn + Ys and putting A ~ " = A. Under these conditions I' = VGF' X where GF' = Ytn.27) Once again the last term will usually predominate and which with negative feedback makes the output impedance very low. (6. and output admittance. In each case the connection of the feedback network ensures that simple negative feedback is applied.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Thus (6.1 Ytn Ytn + Ys Overalloutput admlttance =V= Yo' + h Writing a nodal equation and . the current gain and input admittance with feedback may be determined from equations 6. input admittance. the overall current gain.3. and calculating the resulting V.26) Using these values of ß and A10.At") (6.20 and 6. The amplifier described in Example 6. Example 6.25) Also.2 is to have feedback connected in shunt with the i/p by one of two alternative methods. Output Admittance The output admittance is calculated in the usual manner by connecting the generator of I amps to the output terminals. I + GF'(l.
. remembering that ßA 10 will be negative.100 .15.umho .= 250 .18 Gz 1 = SO kQ = 20 .17 and 6.CURRENT AMPLIFIERS WITH FEEDBACK We must first find the parameters of our equiva1ent current amplifier.= .umho 20 ß = 20 + 5 000 = and YL . 6. 197 A~t = 197 = 110 1 + 251 and Ytnr = 1 000 ( 1 197) . 6.21. Also 1 YL = .umho = + 251 (representing an input impedance of 560 Q).16. Ato = 250 (5 020) 250 + 5 020 280 X 238 G1 and 1 = 200 Q = 5 000 .umho = 238 + 100 = 197 Now app1ying equations 6. . 1 Ytn = 2 = 1 000 .umho 1 251 = 238 . and itn is the current flowing into the input terminals without feedback. 1 = Zo' = .umho ln Yo At . 199 1 786 .umh o 2 800v' 10 000 isc = ltn :.20 and 6.= 280 V I 000 where isc is the current that wou1d flow in a short circuit connected across the output terrnina1s.umho ZL For part (a) app1ying equations 6.
Au= 194 194 = 22·1 1 +25 Y1nr = 194) 1 000 ( 1 + 25 = 8 780 . The output admittance with feedback can now be determined from equation 6. ßand A10 are obtained from equations 6.umho 101\ 0 A.umho + 280) = 3 130 .26.22 and 6.' and GF' 100 + 250 + 9·9(1 (representing an output impedance of 320 Q).uV (representing an input impedance of 114 Q).25 and 6. For the voltage derived feedback in case (b).umho (representing an output impedance of 3·28 kQ). = Yor = At" = = 9·9 . 200 .27. applying equations 6.20 and 6.24: Yo = 56 X 5 020 5 020 + 56 + 250 = 305 .umho 1 25 280 X 250 250 + 100 + 10 = 194 from equations 6.umho 1 + 251 and the overall output admittance from equation 6.umho = 56 . GF' = 1001kQ 10 ß = 250 = and Alo = = 10 .umho. This should be compared with the original overall output admittance of 100 + 250 = 350 .21.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the terminal output admittance.23 19·6 ß'=5000+ 19·6::!:=251 100 Yor = 197 .
EFFECl'S OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIE!t IMPEl>ANCES Summarizing these results: No feedback 280 X 250 At = 250 100 = 200. Yo 305 .umho. but in this case the reduction is amplified by the active circuit. the current gain and input impedance are reduced. SUMMARY OF EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK ON AMPLIFIER IMPEDANCES In the previous section we have seen by mathematical analysis how negative feedbackmodifies the gain and input and output impedances of amplifiers.21. since a larger current change has been produced by the given reduction in terminal voltage. the change in feedback current is amplified 201 .umho.umho. and the parallel current by ßAtv Y 1n leading to the increase in input admittance shown by equation 6. Ytn 1 786 . A parallel addition would similarly be expected to reduce the input impedance. A parallel circuit would normally reduce an impedance. and the input impedance is increased.umho. Y1n 1 000 . the output impedance is reduced. the series voltage will be ßAviZin leading to the result given in equation 6. A series addition would be expected to increase the input impedance.8. This makes it appear to have a lower impedance. With a current amplifier. Now moving to the output terminals. when the feedback network is connected in parallel with the output (voltage derived). With negative feedback provided by a positive ßand negative Av. If however the feedback signal is added in parallel. We shall now review these results and see how the effects upon input and output impedance can be explained. Whenever the feedback signal is applied in series with the input. Phase inversion in the amplifier leads to an increase in Av'V' driving more current through Zo'. Yo 3 130 . Y1n 8 780 .umho. a reduction (say) in terminal output voltage causes a reduction in ßv0 and hence in V'. (b) Voltage derived feedback At22·1.umho. the voltage gain is reduced. + (a) Current derived feedback At 110. and since the input voltage V' is given by iZtn. Y0 350 . In this case the input current I' is given by v Y1n.
Then since V'= es+ ßvo es= V'. By means of sketched vector diagrams. and the angle 0 is expressed with V' as the reference vector.4. In this case the volt drop across the feedback network is effectively amplified in a similar way to the modification of the input impedance. v0 = A L 0 V'. This may be illustrated by an example. The effects of ßA > I with positive feedback will be discussed in the next section. the output vo1tage is five times the terminal input voltage V'. oo. (c) +45°. naturally increases the output impedance. There is a limit to the amount of simple positive feedback that can be applied. Example 6. An amplifier having a voltage gain of 5 L 0 employs a feedback circuit having aß of 1/10 L cp. and that the calculation of Af(l . since the gain is 5 L 0.ßA) shou1d be a vector calcu1ation. and the feedback signa1 ß L cp Vo. and that is that ßA must be less than one. Remernher first that both ßand A are vector quantities.10 and 6.THE fHEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS increasing the current in Yo' in the same way with a similar result. 90°. If however the feedback is positive all the effects are reversed. the values of 0 and cp are respectively (a) +135°. determine for each case whether the feedback can be said to be positive or negative. Thus for both current and voltage amplifiers current derived negative feedback increases the output impedance. These effects are shown in equations 6. ßvo is one tenth of Vo and the angle cp is expressed with v0 as the reference vector. First we must be clear about the information supplied.27. At three different frequencies. (b) 90°. 202 .ßvo and by vector subtraction the es vector may be determined. 135°. Positive Feedback All the effects discussed above have been the result of negative feedback. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS We now come to the question of frequency response of amplifiers with feedback. and in Chapter 8. A feedback network connected in series with the output (current derived). The procedure in each case is to draw respective1y vectors representing V'.
ß is usually constant having an angle cp of 0° or 180°. and by measurement of vectors or by calculation.8 shows the constructed vector diagrams from which the results are (a) negative. if or if I::1 < I~~~ I::1 > I ~~~ lvofV'I and that with the feedback is negative and IV'l < lesl the feedback is positive and IV'l > lesl Figure 6.4 could be repeated for a large number of frequencies.4 To investigate the frequency response of a multistage RC coupled amplifier. (b) negative. IJvo ~ ~vo t's (b) f5ro es Yo Yo ftvo Figure 6. An alternative procedure is to consider the locus of the gain vector as shown in Figure 5.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLlFIERS The gain without feedback is given by feedback by lv0 fesl. Forasinglestage amplifier. 203 . the gain and phase shift with feedback determined. Thus the procedure outlined in Example 6. Vector diagrams for the feedback amplifiers in Example 6. the gain and phase shift at each frequency could be determined by repeated use of the general solutions found in Chapters 4 or 5.6.11 for Example 5.8. and (c) positive.
9b iscorrect. the vector (I .ßA).9a.9.9b. The origin for this locus is 01 and note that the reversal results in /1 appearing at the top of the diagram instead of /h as in Figure 6.ßA). To obtain the response ofthe amplifier with feedback. and we require (1 . The resulting diagram becomes somewhat confusing. This is shown in Figure 6.andatjiandfhitis2·28 L +26·5° 204 . fm . 02P. Assuming that the values of ß and A are such that this unit vector is given by the line 01X. we must add the vector (1) to each vector ( ßA). and 02R are the (1 . origin 02 is the origin for the (1 . Locus of gain and feedback vectors for single stage amplifier with feedback also represents the locus of ßA provided of course that the scale is changed. the locus of the vector ßA will be another circle. The origin of the (1 . Thus Figure 6. and the same result may be achieved by shifting the origin by one unit to the left. Assuming ß to be a simple fraction having zero phase shift. we must find.9a.THE THEÖRY OF FEEDBACk AMPLIFIERS this is a circle with the origin on the circumference. Since this is the locus of (.ßA)is3 L 0°.9b.ßA) vector. In Figure 6. and /h respectively. 02Q. From this we shall deduce the locus of the gain vector for amplifiers with two or more stages. each vector must be reversed leading to yet another circle as shown in Figure 6. having its origin on the circumference. the scale of Figure 6. with the vectors corresponding to three frequencies shown. Now if Am were 100 L 180° and ßio L ()0. for each frequency.atfm.ßA) and divide it into the A vector for the same frequency. then the required addition will lead to yet another circle with its origin at X.ßA) vectors corresponding to f1. But first we will use this representation to investigate the frequency response of a single stage amplifier having simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.ßA) vector would remain at 01. For this.(l.9a ft (a) Figure 6. Next the locus of ßA is required.
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and 2·28 L 26·5° respectively. and hence find the 3 db bandwidth of the system.5. This may be constructed by drawing a circle of any convenient diameter. With reference to Table 6. At our medium frequency (5kHz) point ßA = (3 520 X 8·5 X I04) = +3 Since this is represented by 4 cm.ßA I can never be less than one.6. The scale must therefore be 1 cm = . Example 6. the medium frequency gain vector must represent 3 520 (59·3)2 or 3 520. A table may now be drawn up. say 2 cm and drawing the gain vectors for a single stage at I oo intervals. the connection of the ß network ensuring simple negative feedback at medium frequencies. In practice if feedback is used to improve frequency response. The same cardioid may be used to represent (. the locus of the gain vector for a two stage amplifier must be determined. This is shown in Figure 6.9b shows that 11 . the resultant vectors will be IAI2 L 20.10b is to apply to the problern in hand. it is applied over two or more stages.ßA) by changing the scale and shifting the origin. This will now be illustrated by an example. Since at each frequency. draw the overall gain and phase response.= 880. If the ß factor is 8·5 x I04 . Examination of Figure 6 . The length of these vectors may then be squared and the angles doub1ed to construct the cardioid which is the 1ocus of the gain vector for the two stage amplifier.ßA) and (1 . having transistors and components identical to stage one of the amplifier analysed in Example 5. A two stage amplifier.4. The origin must be shifted by one unit or by t cm to 02 shown on the diagram. the feedback is therefore negative for all frequencies. the scale must be one centimetre represents ! of one unit. employs negative feedback to improve the frequency response.ßA) Ar 100 L 180° 3 L oo 33·3 L 180° /h /I 70·7 L 135° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 161·5° 70·7 L 225° 2·28 L 26·5° 31 L 198·5° Thus changes in both gain and phase shift have been reduced by the application of feedback. 205 .1 the frequencies corresponding to points on the cardioid can be inserted.10a and b. Before we can apply the methods outlined above. showing the gain and phase shift with and without feedback /m A (1 . If Figure 6. the gain must be squared.
10. Locus of gain and feedback vectors for Example 6.1.24 Repeating this procedure for the remaining spot frequencies shown lead to the results shown in Table 6.ßA) may be found and the resulting gain and phase shift determined.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For any frequency the complex values of A and (1 .ßA). cp' = 38°. Table 6. Construction vectors (a) A scale= 880 200Hz L___j (1. For examp1e consider the 122kHz point: The angle of (1 lAI = 3·22 cm x 880 = 2 820 () = 53° 11.1 f(kHz) IArl Or 0·033 0·05 342 869 129° 87° 0·01 972 32° 0·02 870 15° 0·03 879 70 206 5 61 122 245 490 735 880 879 870 972 869 342 oo 70 15° 32° 87° 129° .6 A) scale = 0·75 (b) L___j Figure 6.5 Therefore at 122kHz gain with feedback 2 820 L 53o o L 38 o = 870 L 15 Ar= 3.ßAI = 4·18cm x! = 3·24 .
lfl ~ +250° 10 +150° 0·8 0·707 (3db) 0·6 +50° 00 50° 0·4 1500 250° Figure 6.I:.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS To compare these results with the gain without feedback.. 207 . phase shift. Graphs of gain. The increase in bandwidth is most evident from the comparison of relative gains with and without feedback. :. ~co (/) co· fU~ <llOl o. it is convenient to plot graphs of gain. lAI at any particular frequency is divided by lAI for the medium frequency.:c . and relative gain against log frequency. To obtain the relative gain in each case. Figure 6.. Lower 3 db frequency Upper 3 db frequency No FB FB 130Hz 38 Hz 150kHz 600 kHz Bandwidth ~150kHz ~600kHz From these results we can see that from a practical point of view the bandwidth of an RC coupled amplifier is given by the upper 3 db frequency.11. From these curves the following results may be obtained...11 shows graphs of gain.... relative gain and phase <ll <ll > . relative gain and phase shift for two stage amplifier with and without feedback shift plotted against log frequency with and without feedback.r:.
Figure 6. For the locus shown in Figure 6.12 shows the form of the locus of ßA and (1 . This is shown on the graphs of actual gain where Ar becomes greater than Ao. Oz.10b shows that a change in frequency reduces the gain Ao. we can expect the gain to be greater than that without feedback. Figure 6. then 11 . and if this distance is smaller.ßAol is also reduced. Consideration of Figure 6. 04 etc.ßA) vector is nearly tangential to its locus.11. Examination of Figure 6. ßA and hence ß must be 208 .ßA) locus depending upon the amount of feedback applied.ßA) scale.ßA) for three and four stage RC coupled amplifiers employing overall feedback. This can only occur if 02 is moved to 01 representing infinite feedback which is impossible. was cut by the locus. Over certain sections the reduction in negative feedback is morerapid than the reduction in gain since the (l . the components in the coupling networks vary from stage to stage. and since it is not symmetrical.ßA). Such a circle should be drawn about the 02 origin using the (l .10b shows that this will occur when 11 . If the origin for (1 . The origin 01 isthat applicable to the ßA locus. the 'amount' of negative feedback 11 . 02.12a is the locus for an amplifier having three identical stages and coupling networks. In general this is true for any two stage RC coupled amplifier with negative feedback at medium frequencies.ßA I would be zero and the gain would become infinite. are possible origins for the (1 . This is the point corresponding to infinite and zero frequency where in any·case the gain is zero. Thus at the highest and lowest frequency ranges. This gives rise to the two 'humps' shown in Figure 6. Remernhering the definitions of negative and positive feedback we can see that in this region the feedback changes from negative to positive.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS It is of interest to consider 'how' the application of feedback has increased the bandwidth. but it cannot rise to infinity. In this region the locus only touches the real axis at 01. In each case the medium frequency point occurs in the right hand plane since the feedback network ensures negative feedback at this frequency.12b the amplifier must have four stages. the origin for ßA. and a study of multistage feedback amplifiers will provide a useful introduction to the phenomena of oscillation.ßA) vector falls within a circle of unit radius. allowing the gain with feedback to be maintained. 03. In each case the distance to 01 must be unity. Iostability of Feedback Amplifiers If feedback is applied over more than two stages the above is not necessarily true.ßAI is less than one which obtains when the locus ofthe (l .
e. In other words the amplifier has become a generator of alternating voltaJ!eS at two frequencies simultaneously. 209 .ßA) for three and four stage feedback amplifiers For this particular case the minimum value of 11 0·75. If however ß is increased so that the origin 11 then the minimum value of li .ßAI cannot equal zero. With the origin at 02 li . oo Thus at frequencies /3 and / 4.ßAI is at 03.12.ßA) with more feedback than 02. giving positive feedback. Locus of (1 . no input is required for an output to be present. The unit circle drawn on 02 shows the frequency range over which this applies. 03 is the origin for (1 . since the gain is infinite.= 0 = 1ßA . Now Iet us consider what happens as the feedback is increased.ßAI is zero and Ar A A =.e. for those frequencies less than /1 and those greater than /2 the gain will be increased. i.. moving the origin from 02 to 03 with the three stage case. but it can be less than one. (a} fm (b} f reducing Figure 6.FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS larger.ßA I is about . i.
oscillation at /1 and /2 simultaneously. From the above discussion we can see that feedback may be safely applied over two stages of amplification. that is troublesome. oscillation at /1 only. An alternative form known as Nyquist's criterion of stability is given as: If the locus of ßA is drawn in the complex plane and it encloses or cuts the point 1 + jO. With most devices it is only the double frequency component. but also voltages at twice. positive FB at high and low frequencies. Origin Position 0203 Oa04 040s and beyond Result Negative FB over certain ranges. Criterion of Stability From the situation discussed above we can deduce the condition under which a feedback system is stable as follows: lf the locus of (1 . but if it is applied over three or more stages. U nstable. the amplifier will be unstable if the locus encloses or cuts the origin. but in some instances the third harmonic must also be allowed for. This aspect will be considered in more detail in Chapter 8.ßA) is drawn in the complex plane. the amplifier can no Ionger be used for amplification and is said to be unstable. This discussion will also loosely apply to the introduction of electrical noise and 'mains hum' within the amplifier.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Since these oscillations are present at all times. Unstable. the amplifier will be unstable. we might expect a stable condition again. lf the feedback is increased still further moving the origin to 04. or second harmonic. bandwidth increased. but in practice the amplifier gain adjusts itself until the oscillating condition is maintained. This means that the output voltage will contain not only a voltage at the signal frequency. REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The last property of amplifiers to be considered is the introduction of harmonic distortion by the amplifier. Such distortion is usually expressed as a 210 . care must be taken to ensure the stability of the amplifier. These remarks are all applicable to the four stage case as well and a summary of the results referring to Figure 6. In general the nonIinearity of the device characteristics result in harmonic distortion. three times and higher multiples of the signal frequency.12b is given below.
30 into equation 6.13. and O·I V at 3 kHz.13. Consider the system shown in Figure 6. In addition there will be a distortion signal D whose amplitude is proportional to the amplitude of So.30) 1. With a negative feedback system the gain is reduced. + ßD + ßD (6. So = AS' +D (6. Block diagram for demonstration of the effect of feedback on nonlinear distortion Since we have an amplifier. Si s' Distorting amplifier S 0 :AS'+ D ~So Figure 6.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK percentage. The overall distortion D is then given by: D = y(D22 + Da2) = v(100 + 4) = 10·2 per cent In Chapter I we found that appreciable distortion only occurred with large signals and that if the amplification at the output is reduced the distortion is also reduced.29) S'(l .ßA Substituting for S' from equation 6. So must contain a component AS'.28) Now writing the usual equation for the input junction: S' =Si+ ßSo = St + ßAS' = St + ßD S' = S. and the input signal amplitude must be increased to restore the output signal to the original Ievel.ßA) and (6. for example an amplifier having an input of IO mV at I kHz might have outputs of 5 V at 1kHz.28 So = AS' 1 . This would be expressed as 10 per cent second harmonic distortion and 2 per cent third harmonic distortion. Under these conditions the distortion D can be greatly reduced by feedback.ßA AßD ßA + 1211 +D . 0·5 V at 2kHz.
32 the output distortion is now only 1 : ßA' and has therefore been reduced by the use of feedback.ßA With simple negative feedback equation 6.32) lf St is increased to restore the output to the originallevel then D will also be restored to the originallevel.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Putting the last two terms over a common denominator ASt So = I .ßA D (6.6.ßA AßD + +D . But from equation 6. Example 6..14. Weshall now verify these feedback formulae by solving a problern graphically. Figure 6. A triode amplifier has the anode characteristics shown in Figure 6.14.31) + 1.AßD I . This will also Iead to an explanation of how negative feedback reduces harmonic distortion. using the methods described in Chapter 1.. Characteristics and graphical solution for Example 6.6 212 .ßA ASt = I .31 becomes: ASi So D = 1 + ßA + 1 + ßA (6. It is connected in series with a Ioad RL and a cathode bias resistor RK having values 38 kQ and 2 kQ respectively. 2 I• Feedback .
In Figure 6.15a shows the applied distortionless signal varying about zero. on Figure 6. No distortion (b) (a) Figure 6.15b Vao is the quiescent anode voltage in the absence of any signal.T. and es is 2·5 sin wtV. Input and output waveforms for distorting amplifier other. In Chapter 1 it was shown that the distortion introduced amplified one half cycle more than the Ä = Ä' A»tf :. Severe distortion :. Compare the results with those obtained by feedback theory. supply is 200 V and the signal es is sinusoidal. Calculate the voltage gain and harmonic distortion (a) when RK is decoupled by a suitable capacitor. Before this problern can be tackled two facts concerning second harmonic distortion must be stated. these lengths may be measured directly along the Ioad line. Now toreturn to the problem.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK The H. Figure 6. + ß') x 100 per cent Further. since the value of D depends only upon the ratio of ß to ß'.15.14 the following steps have been taken: 213 . and (b) when negative feedback is applied by the removal of the decoupling capacitor and e8 is increased to give the same output voltage.15 then the fundamental or required signal output is given by ß+ ß' 2 and the second harmonic distortion by ßß' 2(6. and ß and ß' are the two peak values when the signal is present. It may be shown that if the two half cycles are denoted ß and ß' as shown in Figure 6.
H.11. This form of circuit will be discussed in the next chapter. The change from 40 kQ to 38 kQ is small and has been neglected.c. = 2 x 4 . Trial values show that if ·es is increased to 5·5 V a satisfactory solution is obtained. 17 x 100 per cent ~ = 5·7 per cent Now when the capacitor is removed. The resulting d.c. VaK 3 V. load line.76 2 = = 57·5 V and therefore 57·5 Valtage gain Avo = 2 . The resulting construction lines are shown on the graph.c. Peak v0 = 194. bias line for 2 kQ. as has the d.5 = 23 Also along the load line = 2·32cm ~~ = 1·85 cm 047 S. h 1·5 mA. but ß may be obtained from equation 6. along a 38 kQ a. operating point is VAK 139 V.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (a) The d.c. es must be increased. Now the VAK excursion is from 78·5 V to 194 V.78·5 2 = 57·75 V which is approximately the same as in the first case.D. ß= ZF ZL = 2 38 = 1 19 (c) For the graphical solution we must plot two further lines of VaK = hRK t es and hRK es Since the resultant v0 must be unchanged. the operating point moves between VBK 0·5 V to VaK 5·5 V. has been drawn. But now Avt = 57·75 5:s = 214 10·4 . (b) Without feedback. load line for 40 kQ. current derived negative feedback is applied. From the graph the extremes of the VAK excursions are 76 V and 191 V. Peak Vo 191 .
H. The terminal input signal V' given by es + ßvo also contains a distortion component.D. ß = 2·24cm ß' = 2·0cm 0·24 S. In other words.19 + 23 1 = 10·4 Also working from the Ioad line. v0 with feedback is slightly distorted. The distortion in Vgk can actually be measured on the graph. In this chapter we have discussed the effect of feedback upon amplifiers. = 2 x 4 . In general the application of negative feedback appears to have considerable advantages provided the changes in impedance and gain are acceptable. with and without feedback and for ßvo and V' in the feedback case. negative feedback results in an input signal distortion such that the distorting amplifier produces an undistorted output. In the 215 .16 shows the actual waveforms for es and v0 . ß and ß' being 2·4 V and 2·8 V respectively. Caution must be taken if the feedback is applied over more than two stages or instability may result.24 x 100 per cent = 2·8 per cent But from feedback formulae Dt = 5·7% n 1 + 19 = 2·6 per cent The measured distortion is slightly larger. ßv0 is also slightly distorted.REDUCTION OF DISTORTION BY FEEDBACK If feedback formulae are used Avt 23 = . In practice this merely means the second harmonic component is 180° out of phase with that introduced by the valve itself. From this we can determine how feedback reduces distortion. since the output voltage is also slightly larger in the second case. When this signal is amplified and inverted it tends to cancel out the distortion produced by the amplifier. Figure 6. Notice that in this instance ß' is the larger implying a negative distortion.
216 .16. 80. V +5 ~Vo / (d istorted) es no feedback (undistorted) es feedback (undistorted) ~k=es+pvo 5 200 (distorted) . Calculate the required ß factor and the resulting maximum gain. and how the properties of such amplifiers may be determined.7. Waveforms for Example 6.v0 feedback V0 175 no feedback 150 125 100 75 Figure 6.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS next chapter we shall consider how negative feedback may be applied to practical amplifier circuits. 0·012. transistors having hre 100 produce an overall current gain of 2 500. A two stage amplifier is designed to use a matched pair of transistors having hre in the range 50 to 150. Feedback is to be used to minimize gain variation with spread of hre such that in no amplifier will the gain be more than I 0 per cent less than that with the highest gain. In a prototype.6 EXAMPLES Example 6. Ans.
Ans. 47·5 kO.17. The voltage across this component is added to the input to provide negative feedback as before. Ans. 24·5. A 5 kO resistor is connected from this 50 n resistor to the input terminal such that simple negative feedback occurs. Find also the amplifier outputimpedance when the driving source has an internal impedance of2000. 25·8 kO.11. 38·7. and 400kfi 10' i ' 2k. A current amplifier having an open circuit output admittance of 130 . 1 013 . 91·2.17. Find also the output admittance when the amplifier is used with a source having internal admittance 100 . Example 6. Voltage derived feedback is provided by a potential divider chain of 19·5 kO and 500 0.8 is modified by replacing the feedback system with a current derived system. determine the current ratio i0 /i8 . An amplifier having input impedance 800 Q has an open circuit voltage gain and output impedance of 5 000 and 12 kO respectively. Circuit for Example 6.umho achieves a current gain of 950 in to a load of 1 kO. Example 6.EXAMPLES Example 6.!l Figure 6. 4·96 kO. For the circuit shown in Figure 6. 169 0. This consists of a 200 n resistor placed in series with the equivalent output generator and load.9. If the load and source are unchanged.umho. 48·8 0. (a) by finding At and Ytn with feedback.8.umho. Ans. find the new voltage gain and input and output impedance.11 8 217 . The amplifier input admittance is 2 mmho and feedback is provided by a 50 n resistor in series with the load. The amplifier described in Example 6. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance if the amplifier is loaded with 5 kO. Example 6. This 500 Q resistor is connected in series with the amplifier input such that simple negative feedback is applied.10. Calculate the resulting overall current gain and input impedance.
(b) positive.4 . ß = 0·059 L 245° By means of vector diagrams. calculate (a) the frequency ranges over which feedback is positive if ß is 5 x 10. ß L 200°. 450 kHzoo. whether the feedback is positive or negative. Ans. Ans. Ans. (c) neither.Q. (b) the minimum value of ß for oscillation to occur and the frequency of oscillation.Q resistance in parallel with 200 pF capacitance. Assuming the coupling capacitor to have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies and using graphical methods. 060 Hz. I I 50. 161.12. 1/1 760. 218 . determine for each case. An amplifier has two identical stages each having a short circuit current gain of 95 and a resistive input impedance of 1 k. Example 6. Measurements on a three stage amplifier give the following figures for gain and phase shift: f(kHz) A/6 0·025 420L 45° 0·5 0·2 0·1 0·05 1 100L65° 2 100 L 90° 3 300 L 130° 4 400 L 155° f(kHz) A/6 10·0 5 000Ll80° 100 4 500 L l40° f(kHz) A L (} I 000 1 000L0° 250 3 450L90° 500 2100 L 45° 2000 420 L 45° If feedback is provided by a purely resistive network such that simple negative feedback occurs at medium frequencies. Example 6. 1 MHz. Amplifiers and their associated feedback systems have the following complex gain and feedback factors: (a) A (b) A = 35 L = 50 L (c) A = 24 = t L 20° 30°. The total loading per stage is 600 . Example 6. 10. Ans. phase shifting. calculate the maximum gain and 3 db bandwidth when simple negative feedback. 2·6 MHz.14.3 . (a) negative. Check your answer by calculations.THE THEORY OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS (b) by finding the equivalent Norton generator at the terminals marked XX. is applied. ß = 61ö L 90° I40°.13.
calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion when es = 1 sin wt. and RK 1·2 kO. Example 6. 2·12 MO.16. RL 13 kO.. N. Use graphical methods to calculate the output voltage and percentage distortion if the decoupling capacitor is removed and e8 is increased to 3 sin wt. The source impedance is 600 n. is to be used to reduce this figure to 4 per cent and is to be applied by connecting a resistor RF from the final stage collector to the first stage' base. 3·4 per cent (3 per cent calculated but Iarger output voltage increases distortion). lf RK is adequately decoupled.B.T. Determine also by how much the open circuit voltage of the driving generator must be increased to restore the required Output level. 43 V peak to peak.8 is connected in series with 250 V H. Ans. A triode valve having the characteristics given in Example 1.EXAMPLES Example 6. 219 . 32 per cent.15.F. If the gain and input impedance of the amplifier without feedback are 3 200 and 800 n respectively. A three stage amp1ifier having a fina1load of 500 Q introduces 7 per cent harmonic distortion in the output current. Ans. 8·9 per cent. calculate the value required for RF. Checkthese results using feedback theory. 47 V peak to peak.
Various methods of analysis of the resulting complete circuits will also be examined. with feedback derived from a later stage.7 PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In Chapter 6 the application of feedback to amplifiers was found to be advantageous if it was in the form of simple negative feedback at medium frequencies.1 shows possible forms ofinput circuit for a common emitter stage. Figure 7. l is = I . The terminal input equation in this instance is given by v' =es + ßvo (I :I turns ratio) leading to v' .. we shall investigate the circuits and connections necessary to produce this form of feedback for various amplifier configurations. Figure 7.la shows a feedback path in parallel with the input. In this chapter.ßA 220 . the amplifier must be treated as a current amplifier.ßA so for simple negative feedback. Figure 7. In this situation. either A or ß must be negative. if it is added in series it must be a voltage signal. if the feedback signal is added in parallel it must be a current signal.I . The equation for terminal input current is given by: i' and since = is + ßio ßio = Aßi' .lb shows the feedback signal ßvo in series with the input indicating a voltage amplifier. INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The possible forms of input circuits are determined by the original feedback definitions.
1. (b) and (c) voltage amplifiers (c) be added in series ta give v' as befare. In this case hawever ßvo is shawn as being measured at earth with respect ta the emitter. (a) Current amplifier. and an alternative input circuit far valtage feedback is given in Figure 7. Connections for feedback amplifiers. A number af cases with examples will naw be cansidered.1 c.INPUT CIRCUITS FOR FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and ance again either ß ar A must be negative far simple negative feedback. 221 . In practice the use af transfarmers is incanvenient. If the feedback valtage is shawn as being measured at the emitter with respect ta earth then ß wauld be negative. The arraw natatian shaws that the twa quantities es and ßvo may (b) (a) Figure 7. The way in which the feedback signal is derived fram the autput depends upan the number af stages in the amplifier and whether it is ta be cansidered as a current ar valtage amplifier.
The formulae applicable to this circuit are given by equations 6. and the feedback resistor RF = 80 kO.25 {J GF 12·5 = h = 500 = 0·025 222 = 120 . . l . hoe 90 . The required circuit is shown in Figure 7. Figure 7.1. In the circuit shown in Figure 7.1 Since the feedback path is taken directly from the output terminal this is an example of voltage derived feedback. Neglecting the effect of the bias components and Ys determine the current gain and the input and output impedances of the amplifier. First the equivalent amplifier components are required. Since hre is zero.24 to 6.27 inclusive. Circuit for Example 7. Y1n Yo' 1 = hle = 1 250 .umho and negligible hre· RL is 2 kQ.2. hre 120.umho and A1' = hre The feedback admittance 1 GF .2..PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Single Stage Current Feedback Amplifier First let us consider a single stage current amplifier.umho = hoe = 90 . the transistor parameters are hle 800 n. With a . hre YL smg e stage common emltter amp11 er. t e current gam YL + hoe is phase inverting and therefore A is negative.2. SOkO = 12·5 . For negative feedback {J must be positive.fi h . Example 7.umho and from equation 6.
or by finding 1 ~pA.) Single Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifier lf a single stage vo1tage amplifier is required to have negative feedback. 6. A!o = Yo' A.SINGLE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Applying equation 6.7. In each case the voltage gain was reduced.13). part or all of the emitter or cathode resistor may be left unbypassed. This suggests that the vo1tage feedbackwas current derived (equations 6. Y1nr = Y.27: Yor = Yo' + YL + GF(l .12 and 6.26.n.umho + 99·6 X 0·025) . the input and output impedances were increased.o) = 1 250(1 = 4 336 .ßA1o Au= 28·6 Equation 6.umho The resu1ting output impedance ior = 476 n.o' Z1nr = 231 n Finally from equation 6.A.umho The input impedance with feedback is given by the reciproca1 of Y1nr.99 ' 6 The normal feedback equation now gives the current gain: 99·6 1 + 99·6 X 0·025 A1o Atr = I .umho = 2100 . and with the equivalent circuit problems.') = 90 + 500 + 12·5(1 + 120) . Figure 7. 6. Examp1es of this were shown in Chapters I and 6 using graphical methods and in Chapters 4 and 5 using equivalent circuit methods. 6.n(1 . .'YL YL + GF + 120 X 500 90 + 500 + 12·5 = .8.21 provides the va1ue of the input admittance.1 (Note the va1ue of A 1' wou1d have tobe modified for this calculation if Zs were not much greater than Z.3 shows how the 223 .ßA.11.
since V' is less than es.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS correct phase relationship arises. 224 . To verify the use of feedback methods weshall repeat Example 5. The feedback voltage in the sense shown is given by: But 1·· Figure 7. voltage feedback on singlestage ampliiier Now. Current derived.RE AvV' RL But Avis negative forasinglestage (hie(hoe es = V' ( 1 + and V' +. =V'.1 using the results obtained from Chapter 6.~) _ hrehrJ· ~: IAvl) es = 1 + lßAvl Thus. using the notation shown.3. the overall voltage gain is reduced indicating negative feedback.
the output voltage and current. and the output impedance. = 13·33 kil Yo Now from equations 6.2. we must first find the components of the appropriate equivalent amplifier.umho is used but Av' is the open circuit voltage gain with YL zero. find the terminal voltage 4k.33 = 225 283 .11 and 6. the circuit YL of 250 .12.025 + 250) 10_6 = 780 0· Av' = 900(125 + 0)106. hoe 125 .90 90 X 5 X 104 = 1300 Note.4. for Z1n.umho 900 =!.4 Z1n = 900.2 and current gain.SINGLE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Example 7. Yo' = 125 X 106  Zo' 90 X 5 X lQ4 = 75 . As with the last example. Using the standard h parameter formulae: 90 X 5 X 10. hre 5 X 104. A single stage amplifier having the circuit shown in Figure 7.umho and hre 90.7 Avo 1300x4 = 4 + 1 + 13 .n Figure 7.Cl 1k . 6.4 employs a transistor with h1e 900 0. Using feedback methods... Circuit for Example 7.
= 13·33 + 1(1 + 1 300) = 1 314 kQ Huttor the overall output impedance.umho Now using potential divider methods. the terminal input voltage is given by 1 X 3·74 = 0·883 V 3·74 + 0·5 The resulting output voltage is therefore 0·883 x 3·95 V.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and RE ß= Avr RL =t 283 283 = 3·95 = 1+4 Also from equation 6.13. the base input current ib is required. . RL must be included in parallel Zor z 0 = 1 314 X 4 ~ 4 kQ 1 318 Similarly. 1 Termma A1 880 = 15 . Working in admittances.7 =56 226 .uA To calculate the terminal current gain. and Vo = 3·48 V.56·2 m = 15·7 .uA . To obtain output current: io = VoYL = 3·48 X 250 X lQ6 A = 880 .8: Z1nr = 0·78 ( 1 + 283) 4 = 56·2 kQ and from equation 6. _ Terminal input voltage _ 0·88~ A lbZ1nr . = 17·8 + 200 Z1n = 3·74 kQ Y1n + 50 = 267·8 . the overall input impedance should include the bias components.
TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Note in generat terms At hreYL = =YL + hoe 90 X 200 = 200 + 125 = . 1. 1 X 3·8 T ermma mput vo1tage= 3. In practice the difference is negligible and if it is remernbered that all components and parameters are subject to wide tolerances. This is principally because the current in the emitter resistor is the sum of the output current i 0 and the input current ib. The results for Avr and Z 1nr are not identical to those obtained from the equivalent circuit which were 3·87 and 57·5 kO. The current gain in this case will be positive and direct 227 . an even simpler solution may be obtained as follows. which would slightly modify ß. Variations in components and parameters will cause a much larger margin of error than will the use of these or similar approximations.55 ' 5 Thus we can see that the terminal current gain is not modified by voltage feedback. but when the bias components are included.5 = 0·88 V Vo =4 X 0·88 = 3·52 V which is only about 1 per cent high.8 + 0. Since ßAv~ l Avo~ Ztnr hreZL hte = 90 X 4 000 900 = 400 = hte(l + ßAvo) = 90 kQ This may seem a large error. the overall input impedance becomes: Ztn = 90 X 4 ~ = 3·8 kQ . Two Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers Feedback is more commonly applied over two or more stages and the next problerntobe considered isthat of a two stage current amplifier.
The feedback current ir is considered as flowing in the opposite sense to ßA1A2i' hence the sign change as shown. it must split between the two parallel paths provided by G1 and G2. making approximations where valid. A1 and A2 are the magnitudes of the current gains of stages 1 and 2.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS connection between final collector and first base would result in positive feedback. will be.15 to 6. the steps in the solution will be: A12. although the terminal current gain will not be affected by their presence. An and Z1n1. Av2 and Ztn2· Ztn2r using ß for 1ocal feedback of RE/RL. Since all i' Tr2 io Figure 7. So. Yor.5. Current amplifier with current derived feedback the output current flows into the emitter of Tr2.signs. The required phase relationship can be obtained by connecting the feedback path to the final emitter.5. since. Au and Ztnr. These must be allowed for in the calculation of A 1'. The resulting equation at the input terminal is: i' = is + (ßA1A2i') which upon rearrangement leads to the correct relationships for negative feedback.23. A1' and ß1 for overall feedback of G2/(G1 + Gz). A further problern arises as a result of G1 and G2 in the emitter lead of Tr2. Here. 228 . thus ßis given by G2/(G1 + G2). The interstage bias components are included in YL 1 . The 180° phase change per stage is shown by the + and . Since we have current derived current feedback. Yo' (approximately hoe for Tr2). the solutions may be found from equations 6. Current splits in the direct ratio of parallel admittances. the input impedance to Tr2 and thus the overall current gain. as shown in the simplified circuit diagram in Figure 7.
6.f. and negligible hre· We must first determine the original current gain and hence the original source e.!1 Tr2 10k!l 200.TWO STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. so that the distortion may be reduced to 5 per cent.m. The transistor h parameters are hte 1· 5 kil. hoe 150 .!1 Gz Figure 7.f.m. Circuit for Example 7. hre 140. Since hre is negligible this current gain may be written directly by current splitting techniques. A Ytnl 1 = Ytnl + YBl X hre X hoe + YLl Y1n2 + YB2 X + hre Ytn2 X y L2 + hoe where YBI and YB2 are the combined bias components foreachstage and Ytnl = Ytn2 = l/hte· 667 + 25 + At= 100 667 X I 40 667 X 150 + 250 + 100 + 333 + 667 = 0·84 X 140 X 0·46 X 140 229 X X  0·943 140 X = 7 130 2 500 2 500 + 150 . must be changed if the 400.6. determine the value of the feedback resistor to be connected from the final emitter to the first base.m. of internal impedance 600 n.3 required output current is to be maintained. The output current in the amplifier. Determine also by how much the e. of a driving source. contains 20 per cent harmonic distortion at the required output signallevel of 5 mA r.umho. shown in Figure 7.s. If the final emitter resistor is unbypassed.3.
= itn(Ztn + Rs) = 0·7(I·26 = 1·3 mV + 0·6) mV The unbypassed emitter resistor for Tr2 will effect the current gain without overall feedback by modifying Y1n2. we require Av2· The effective load is 600 n making YL I 670 fliDho.m.f. 140 Av 2o = l 500(150 + I 670)10.!i:l') kQ =40kQ = 25 pmho Thus the interstage factor becomes I50 + 250 + 25 IOO + 333 + 25 = 0' 029 Substituting this value in the expression above: 0·029 AI = 7 130 X 0·46 = 450 Now applying equation 6.6 =51 200 ß = 400 But Ztn2f Ytn2 = 1·5(1 + . Since this component provides current derived voltage feedback for Tr2.ßA 20 per cent 1 + 450 ß 3 450ß = 4 and ß = 450 or 5 per cent = 1+ 230 150 . D Dr = I . and hence the interstage factor in the expression for A 1 above.32.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS The input current is given by: 5x1000 itn = 7 130 flA = 0·7 pA But the overall input impedance Ztn = Y 1 + lnl Y Bl = 1·26 kQ Source e.
THREE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
But
and
G2
I
and G1 = 200 = 5 mmho
G1 + G2
5 + G2 = G2 X I50
5
G2 = I 49 mmho = 33·5 ,umho
ß 
This represents the overall feedback admittance or its equivalent
resistance of 29·8 kO.
RF = 29·8 kO
In practice the nearest preferred value of 27 kO would be used.
With this feedback resistor in circuit, the current gain and input
impedance becomes:
Au
=
Ztnr =
450
450 = 112·5
I+ I50
1·26 kO
450 = 315 0
1 + 150
But the output current in the final Ioad is to be maintained at
5 000
5 mA, requiring an input current itn, of 112.5 ,uA. The required
source e.m.f. now becomes:
5 000
112.5 (0·6 + 0·315) mV
es= 40·6 mV
Thus to reduce the distortion to 5 per cent the source e.m.f. has
to be increased by a factor of approximately 30.
Three Stage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If negative feedback is to be applied over a three stage current
amplifier, the phase relationships are the same as for feedback over
a single stage. The procedure outline in Example 7.1 cou1d again
be applied. An alternative procedure is to regard the amplifier and
the feedback network as two separate fourterminal networks,
connected in parallel. In Chapter 2, we found that with this circuit
arrangement, the combined network y parameters were given by
the sums of the individual network y parameters. Thus if we can
231
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
find the y parameters for a three stage amplifier and then for a
feedback network, the general solution obtained in Chapter 2 may
be applied directly.
Example 7.4. A three stage current amplifier employs identical
transistors having hte 1 000 !1, hre 90, hoe 100 ,umho, and negligible
hre· Each stage has a Ioad of 1 kil and the effect of the bias components may be neglected. A 100 kil resistor is connected between
r ,
I
100kil.
I
I
I
I
I
I
L 
I
I
I
!
'
I
I
  



  
    __ J
lk.O.
L            Figure 7.7. Interconnected fourterminal network circuit for
Example 7.4
the final stage collector and the base of the first stage. Determine the
overall current gain and the input and output admittances for the
resulting circuit. Investigate the probable effect of the bias components and hre on these results.
Figure 7.7 shows the circuit represented as two fourterminal
networks in parallel.
lt is convenient to show the Ioad of the final transistor as the Ioad
for the combined network as shown. The y parameters for a network
may be redefined.
These parameters are all admittances and in each case a short
circuit is applied to the opposite end of the network for the purpose
of calculation.
232
TIIREE STAGE CURRENT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIEM
Taking the feedback network first, and connecting a short circuit
to make V2 zero then:
h
1
vl = yu = 100 kil =
10 ,umho
Also remembering the direction or sense required for h,
h
Y21
V1
= 100kil
h
= v1 =
10 ,umho
But the network is symmetrical, so
y22
=
y12 = 10 ,umho
10 ,umho,
Now proceeding to the amplifier, since hre is zero
yu
1
= hte =
1 000 ,umho
where hte is a parameter of the first stage transistor, and
y22
= hoe = 100 ,umho
where hoe is a parameter of the final stage transistor.
To find y21 we require the short circuit output current in terms of
the applied input voltage V1.
Using normal current splitting methods:
V1
hte
h = 
X 
h
re
X
Ytn2
====::
hoe + YLI + Ytn2
X
hre
X hoe
+
Ytn3
+ Ytn3
YL2
X
+hre
Note that the last hre term is positive since the normal convention
requires / 8 to flow into the output terminal.
Y21
=
h
V1
=
X
= 729
90
1000
1 000 X 100 + 1 000 + 1 000
1000
90 X 100 + 1 OOO + 1 OOO X +90mho
1
x 2. 1 x 2 . 1
=
233
165·5 mho
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
Finally since hre is zero a voltage V2 can cause no short circuit
current h.
y12
=0
The combined parameters may now be written,
yu
y21
=
=
1 010 ,umho
165·5 x 106 ,umho
y12
y22
=
=
10 ,umho
110 ,umho
The general solutions can now be applied taking YL as 1 000 ,umho.
From equation 2.47,
Ytn
10 X 165·5 X 106
= 1 OIO110 + 1 000
= I·01 x 10a + I·49 mho
= 1·49 mho
,umho
From equation 2.49 the current gain may be found:
~ = v2 YL =
y21 YL
h
h
yu(y22 + YL)  y21Y12
I65·5 X 106 X I 000
1 010(I10 + I 000)  ( IO X I65·5
1000
= 1..,..0_10__xII.,..,0
106)
~~~~~~~~~
165
=
X
1000
10·007
I06
=
X
+ 10
IOO
To determine the output admittance equation 2.50 must be used.
Y.o
Y21y12
Ys
= y22 yu +
Ys is not specified in the example so taking the limits of zero and
infinity.
10 X I65·5 X I06
Yo = 110 +
= I·64mho
1010
with Y8 zero or Y 0 = 110 ,umho with Ys infinite. Thus the output
admittance is very dependent upon the value of source admittance
but with a practical value of say I 000 ,umho, the output admittance
will be of the order of 800 mmho.
234
TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
The above results suggest that if feedback formulae are to be used,
the value of ß is not affected by Ys in the calculation of Ytn and At.
but when calculating Y0 , the current division between Ytn and Ys
should be allowed for.
To complete this example, the effect of the bias components,
and hre would be to reduce the current gain without feedback, and
under the same conditions to increase the input admittance (bias
components) and reduce the output admittance (hre). Since Au
is approximately given by 1/ß the current gain would still be 100.
Ytnr is given by Ytn(1 + lßAtl); the first term is increased and the
second reduced so there wou1d be little change in this result. Yot
is.given by Yo' + YF(1 + JAt'J); here both termswill be reduced.
Thus we can say that the stated approximations will have negligible
effect upon the input admittance and current gain but will cause the
output admittance to be a little smaller than that calculated.
Multistage Current Feedback Amplifiers
If a current amplifier having more than three stages is to employ
overall negative feedback, the connections obviously depend upon
the number of stages. In Examples 7.1 and 7.4, the amplifier had an
odd number of stages; the required phaserelationship was obtained
by the use of voltage derived feedback. This would equally app1y
to any higher odd number of stages. In Example 7.3 the amplifier
had two stages with current derived current feedback. Similar
circuitry would be required for four or any even number of stages.
Of course the usual care would be necessary to ensure that positive
feedback did not give rise to instability at the extremes of the frequency
range.
Two Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers
Example 7.2 was concerned with a single stage voltage amplifier
and the negative feedback was current derived. From the discussion
above, we should expect a two stage voltage amplifier to have voltage
derived feedback. This is correct, if the feedback is applied to the
emitter of the firststage as in Figure 7.lc. If an output transformer
were used, as in Figure 7.lb, then current derived feedback would
be essential to obtain the correct phase relationship. An example of
the first case will now be discussed.
Example 7.5. An ideal two stage transistor amplifier has Ioads of
1 kO per stage. Feedback is provided by a resistive potential divider
chain of 9·5 kQ and 0·5 kO in parallel with the output. The 0·5 kQ
235
PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
of this arrangement is connected between the emitter of the first
transistor and earth. The transistor parameters may be taken as
h1e 1 000 0, hre 100, hoe 100 ,umho and hre 0. By means of a general
analysis verify a solution based on feedback theory.
The circuit arrangement for this problern is shown in Figure 7.8.
V,
9·5k!l.
1
Figure 7.8. Voltage amplifier with voltage derived feedback for
Example 7.5
To confirm first of all that this arrangement does provide negative
feedback; the output voltage of the first Stage will be Al vl with
180° phase shift. V0 will therefore be A 1A2 V1 with a further 180°
phase shift giving a total zero phase shift between Vo and V1.
Initially neglecting Tri emitter current, Vr will be in phase with V1
and its value will be given by:
ßVo = ßA1A2V1
0·5
ß = 0·5 + 9·5 = 0·05
Vr
Where
=
Now writing the series equation around the input circuit,
Vs
or
=
V1(l
Vr = (1
+ ßA1A2)
Vs
+ ßA1A2)
Since V1 is less than Vs the overall gain is reduced and the feedback
is negative.
In the above discussion, we have neglected the effect of Trl
emitter current upon Vr. In practice this emitter resistor not only
236
6 = .umho 100 Avz = 1 000(1 100 = Ytn2 = YLI etr = Ztnz + 100)106  83 "4 1 kO 1 000 . (3) Av1 and Ztni without local feedback. overall gain and input impedance with feedback. This will reduce ßfor this calculation but unless the source impedance Z 8 is low the effect will be negligible. The proposed technique based on feedback theory will involve the following calculations: (1) Avz and Ztn2 using 1 kO in parallel with 10 kO as the Ioad. in certain cases this ß may be greater than one. resulting in a gain with local feedback of less than one. The output impedance can be determined in a similar manner.TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS provides a part of the overall feedback network.47' 6 Ztnl = 1 kO For Iocal feedback ß= 500 X 2 000 X 1Q6 47·6 Avu = 1 + 47 .umho 1 000 + 1 000 = 2 000 .8. (5) Overall gain without overall feedback from Avu X Avz. but strictly the overall ß should be modified by the output impedance measured at the emitter ofTrl. This does in fact occur and may be verified with measurement on practical circuits.6 = Ztnu = 1 k0(1 = 1 0·98 + 47·6) = 48·6 kO 237 .umho = 1100 . hz =(I 000 + 100) .umho 100 Avi = 1 000(100 + 2 000)10. (2) YL1 err including Ztnz and the 1 kO Ioad for Trl. We shall now follow the procedure for the circuit shown in Figure 7. (6) U sing ßof0·05. it also causes 'local' negative on the first stage. (4) Avu and Ztnr with local feedback taking ß as ZF Z Letr = 0·5 kO X YL1 etr Note.
1) and Overall input impedance = 48·6 kO(l + 82 X (7.9 and solve by nodal analysis.5 First.2) 0·05) = 248 kO To verify this procedure we shall use the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7. i1 the base current for Tri. is given by V1/hte· The output of Tri is loaded by h1 err in series with Y F2· Strictly Y Fl provides additionalloading on Tribut the effect is negligible since YF ~ YF2· This loading is given by YL1 h1 err YF2 + Y F2 eu lE = 2 000 2 000 = ~: X 2 000 + 2 000 ttmho = 1 000 ttmho [1 + hre C~o:o hoJJ Inserting values and writing lE in mA.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Overall gain without overall feedback = 0·98 x 83·4 = 82 Overall gain with overall feedback = 1 + 8 ~ 2x 0.05 = 16·1 (7.3) 238 . + 100 X lE = lE = 92VlmA V1 ( 1 !:) mA (7. Equivalent circuit for the verification of the feedback method used in Example 7. Ii• Figure 7.9.
Va = VI(24I + I)= 242Vl But from equation 7.7) .6.3 and 7. since currents are expressed in mA and voltage in volts.5. V2 = .0·105 X 0·105 10 010 = 2.524 v1 = 3 960V1 Vo = (7.0·105Vo 100(47·5)Vl ~ 0·105Vr + Vo(I + O·I + 0·105) Rearranging: 92V1 = 2·105Vr.4 above: 92Vl = Vr(2 + 0·105). and l2 hreV1 = IOOV1 hte(hoe + h1 eff) I 000(100 + 2 000)106 V V2 IOOV1 = hte2 = 2·I X 1 000 A (7.4) i2 = 47·5Vl mA To give the correct dimensions.5) 92V1 X 1·205 + 4 750Vl X 0·105 Vr = · 2·524 609Vl = 2. Vo = 3 960V1 Vo 3 960 .TWO STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Now. Substituting from equation 7.O·I05Vo 4 750Vl = 0·105Vr + 1·205Vo Solving by determinants. 2·105 X 4 750Vl + 0·105 X 92V1 2·105 X 1·205. admittance must be expressed in mmho.6) The signal vo1tage Vs = Vr + V1.524 = 241 v1 (7. Overall gam = Va = 242 = 16·3 239 (7. Thus YF2 = 2mmho YL2 = 1 mmho YF1 = O·I05 mmho hoe2 = 0·1 mmho Now writing nodal equations for the Vr and Vo nodes and using equations 7.
and the circuit for Example 7. Since components and parameters are unlike1y to be known to within 20 per cent this error is negligib1e and the method based upon feedback is adequately verified.7 and 7.8) Comparing results 7. an odd number of stages will require current derived feedback. Apart from this. suggesting the use of g parameters.. 240 . and the resulting solutions are extremely close to those obtained by feedback methods. The feedback network is connected in series with the input. h for the network.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS and · . ll = 242 kO 1 (7 . the overall h parameters would be obtained. Unfortunately this is not valid. This suggests that if the h parameters of the network and those of the amplifier were added. while the current flowing out of the common terminal.2 is series input and series output which is the correct configuration for summation of z parameters. Three Stage Voltage Feedback Amplifiers The one remaining simple configuration not yet considered is that of a voltage amplifier with an odd number of stages..1 and 7.1 and 7. The remaining procedure then follows normal fourterminal network practice.1 and 248 kO) the difference is only of the order of 2 per cent.3 has the feedback network in parallel with the input and in series with the output. d ance = :Vs = 242 V1 k" 0 vera11 mput 1mpe V :.2 respectively (16. and feedback applied to the first stage emitter (or cathode). since h for the amplifier is ib. we shall consider a valve amplifier. the A for the calculation is the normal loaded voltage gain. The circuits for Examples 7. Thus only feedback methods or circuit analysis can be used for this very common circuit. Forthis situation. Other situations however do permit the fourterminal network approach.4 are the parallel input and output form permitting the summation of y parameters. and in parallel with the output of the amplifier.~. Since voltage derivation led to negative feedback over an even number of stages. This may be done provided the effect of the final emitter resistor is included in the calculation of input impedance for Tr2 with local feedback. The reader may have wondered why a so1ution based upon fourterminal network theory was not used for this example. The current amplifier for Example 7. the calculation of g21 is made by neglecting the final emitter resistor and is given by Av1 X Av2 with YLZ zero.8 with results 7. is ib + ic.
10 determine the new medium frequency gain and the gain at the 3 db frequency calculated above. Figure 7. determine the overall voltage gain and the upper 3 db frequency. Overallmaximum voltage gain = (30)3 Re~RL Avm = 27 X X 104 = 30 103 Todetermine the 3 db frequency we need only consider the first two stages. If each stage is loaded with 10 kQ and grid leak resistors of 1 MQ.6.THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7. There is no coupling network to Ioad the final stage and so the gain may be assumed constant at 30.10. At the 3 db frequency IAh I = I= IAm y'2 241 27 X 103 y'2 (7. Foreachstage ra = Rg~ RL = lOkQ = gmRe = 3 X lQ. lf negative feedback is applied as shown in the simplified circuit in Figure 7.ll. 10k. A three valve amplifier employs pentodes having gm 3 mAJV. ra 1 MQ.6 When no feedback is applied. the results found in Chapter 4 may be used. Three stage feedback amplifier for Example 7. and input capacitance 5 pF on Ioad.3 :.9) .
1 5 X 1015 ± y(25 X lQ30 12·5 X 1Q3o X 1Q16w2 = 2 =0 + 2S. Stages one and three have local feedback due to the 200 (! cathode resistors.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS But allowing for the two interstage couplings: Am2 Ab 27 X 1()3 = ( 1 + j _e R )2 X Am X es from equation 7.I012 X 1 .2 X 25 X 1Ql6w2 X + 625 104 X =5 6·25 X 1Q30w4 +5 X X 1032w4 X or (7.10) + j2wC Re . X lQ30) w2=~~~~~~~ 5 = 12·5 ± y50 X lQ15 = 2·07 12·5 X lQ15 (since negative w 2 not permissible) w = and J(2·07) 1·25 w J=27T = X 107 2·04 MHz Thus at 2·04 MHz the overall gain without feedback is 27 X 1()3 v2 9 OO = 1 1 If the feedback circuit is now considered at medium frequencies.w2Cs2Re2) 2 + 4w2Cs2Re2 = 2 J1 (1 27 X 1()3 (1 jwCsRe)2 + jwCsRe)2j2 = J(1 and I = (1 + JW · Cs R e)2 lQ8 +4 25 1Q15w2 . and there is overall current derived feedback.9 27 X 1()3 y2 or = But + I 2 8 8 CsRe =5 .w2C 2Re2J2 = 2 . 242 .
..02 vr 200 where vr = 104 Vo 104 108 X = 3·92 X _4 10 .. 10 580 Overall voltage gam = 1 + 10 580 X 3.~o: 243 (7....12) .. At this frequency. in each case ß= 200 104 Avu = Avar = 30 30 X 200 = 1+ 104  (7. but the Ioad on the first valve is changed modifying the local ß for that stage.11) 18 "75 Overall gain without overall feedback = ( 18·75)2 = 10 580 X 30 Examination of the circuit shows that 200 ßvo = 200 + 104 X 4 X Overall ß = 1... the overall ßis unchanged.gmZL = 25·35/180°  But local ß for Avr = = 32° 36' RF ZL 0·2 8·45 L 32° 36' . 2·04 MHz + j27T X 2·04 x 104 mho = 118·5 L 32° 36' flmho h 1 = YL2 = 104 = (1 + j0·64) X 106 X 5 X 10~12 mho ZLl = ZL2 = 8·45 L 32° 36' kQ without local feedback Avl = Av2 = .92 = X 10_4 2060 At the upper 3 db frequency....THREE STAGE VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS For the local feedback.
ßAm = = Ah I 1 .7 350 x 3·92 X I04 L II4° 48' 7 350 L 114° 48' Avr = I .ßAh Am (1 _ 1 + jwC Re)2 6 ßAm (1 + jwCsRe)2 = I(l + jwC~)2 244 ßAm I .=3=5x::0:·2:=_ _ _ _ _ __ I  L I41° 24' 8·45 25·35 L I41° 24' I + 0 . lt is of interest to note this drop in gain due to feedback is identica1 to that shown in resu1t 7 . The 3 db frequency with feedback may be found by following a similar technique.1 + I·2I. Now the overall gain without overall feedback at 2·04 MHz Av = 15·5 L 141° 24' X 25·35 i._ 147° 24' X 18·75 L 180° = 7 350 L 414° 48' = 7 350 L 114° 48' The overall ß is unchanged Avr = 7 350 L 114° 48' 1 . Feedback over a singie stage does not improve the bandwidth since ß changes with the 1oad. Thus for the 3 db frequency I II Am 1 y2 1 . The local feedback effect on the first stage does not vary with frequency so this can be ignored.6  = + 32° 36' o 15·5 L 147 24 .11.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Avu 25·35 L I41° 24' = ::2=s.j2·62 7 350 L I14° 48' = 3·I2 L 49° 51' = 2 357 L I64° 39' This is greater than the medium frequency gain with negative feedback. but is considerably 1ess than the gain at this frequency without feedback.2·88(cos 114° 48' + j sin 1I4° 48') 7 350 L 114° 48' . This result is as would be expected from the general case discussed in Chapter 6.
Complex Feedback Factors So far in this chapter we have only considered ß factors with real values. ß for the local Figure 7.ßAml ßAm = 3·92 X 104 X 10 580 = v'2ll . In the last example.w 2Cs2Re2 + 4·21 5·2 = 1(1 X Taking the modulus and squaring: 2 X 27 = (5·2.10·4w2C 2Re2 + w4C 4Re4 + 4w2C 2Re2 8 8 8 8 8 w4Cs 4Re 4 .COMPLEX FEEDBACK FACTORS = 1(1 + jwCsRe)2 .27 = 0 But CsRe = 5 x 10s.6·4w2Cs2Re2 . 625 w2= and 1·6 X X 1Q32w4 .11.27 1014 ± y'(2·6 X 1Q28 + 1·69 12·5 X I030 =0 X 1028) ~~~~~ 3·66 w2 = .x 101 6 12·5 w = 5·31 x 107 rad/sec w f=:::: lOMHz 27T Thus since the low frequency 3 db frequency may be ignored.w2C 2Re2)2 + 4w2C 2Re2 = 27.ßAml But v'2 4·2 + jwCsRe)2 + 4·21 = li + j2wCsRe .1·6 X 1Q14w2 . Single stage amplifier with frequency compensation by negative feedback Ce 245 . negative feedback has increased the bandwidth from 2 MHz to 10 MHz while reducing the medium frequency gain from 27 000 to 2 060 which is in approximately the same ratio. at high frequency.
If the shunt capacitance CL is 0·01 ttF then CE must be 0·0025 pF. Av =GE+ ~WCE GL + JWCL This ratio will be constant if wCE wCL GE = GL or if RECE = RLCL This implies a flat frequency response so long as hreZE ~ 1 h1e Let hre be 100. Taking account of the components shown. a four and J= 2rr X 246 . hreZL . RL 4 kO and RE 1 kO.11.12). Consider the circuit shown in Figure 7. say. This resulted in no improvement in frequency response for that stage. hte 1 kO. 0·2 w = 2·5 X 108 20 I = 1·3 MHz 2·5 Another way in which a capacitor may be used in a feedback path. and if hreZE/hle ~ 1 the overall gain = ZL/ZE = YE/ YL.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS feedback on the first stage was comp1ex (7. is to prevent instability. Todetermine the approximate useful frequency range. If overall feedback is applied to. let hreZE = 5 or ~ = 5 hte h1e YE 5 = 11 000(103 ::25 X 1010) j102 + jw2·5 X 10Sj = 0·2 Since the real term can have little effect. The voltage gain for a single stage grounded emitter amplifier is approximately hreZL/hle and ß for the current derived feedback shown is ZE/ZL. The frequency response for a single stage may be improved if the cathode or emitter resistor is shunted by a small capacitance. h1e Overa11 gam = h Z Z 1+~2 h1e ZL The ZLs in the denominator cancel.
COMPOSITE FEEDBACK stage amplifier. This is sometimes referred to as composite feedback. and oscillation results at a particular high frequency. Examples of amplifiers using composite feedback (c) 247 . This will reduce the amount of positive feedback at these frequencies eliminating the instability and flattening the gain frequency response. (b) (a) Figure 7.12 shows some examples of composite feedback circuits. Many such combinations are possible and may be found in practical circuits. Similar modifications for low frequencies may be achieved with suitable capacitors or inductors. COMPOSITE FEEDBACK Other forms of feedback circuit may also be found when two types of feedback may be included on the same amplifier. a shunt capacitor may be used to reduce ß at the high frequencies in this range. Figure 7.12.
The circuit shown in Figure 7. based on this circuit. and the output voltage if the amplifier is driven from a source which may be represented by a current generator 248 . second to find Av1 and An including local feedback . will now be considered. Determine suitable values for R1 and Rz. Example 7.13 employs overall feedback through R1 to reduce the input impedance to 10 Q and to Rz Figure 7.12c includes voltage derived voltage and current feedback. third to calculate the overall gain and input impedance with voltage feedback. The voltage feedback is applied only over the last two stages. Avz and A1z accounting for the local feedback present.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS In each case only negative feedback at medium frequencies is employed.c.7 stabilize the circuit against changes in the d. A final example. supply voltage Vcc· Feedback through Rz is provided to reduce the second harmonic distortion in the output voltage by a factor of 5. The three stage amplifier in Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7.7. The procedure would be to determine first. Since the voltage feedback is applied to the first emitter.13.12b employs both voltage derived and current derived voltage feedback and a similar procedure should be used taking the voltage derived loop first. the current feedback loop is 'outside' the voltage feedback loop. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. finally to account for the effect of current feedback. In Figure 7.12a both current derived current feedback and voltage derived voltage feedback are present.
hre I40. hoe I20 .352 and and A 13 = 140 X 212 212 + 120 Y1na = 1 200 .umho 140 Avz = 1 200(120 + 1 395)106 = ?? 12000 140 X 834 A12 = I 395 + 120 = .89 For local feedback ß= ZFYL = 100 1 395 X X ]Q6 = 0·1395 77 = I + 77 X 0·1395 = 6·55 Z1n2r = 1 200(1 + 77 X 0·1395) 0 = Avzr 14·1 kQ Now for the voltage feedback loop A = Ava X = 2300 Avzr But distortion must be reduced by a factor of 5 1 + ßA = ß= ß = R2 + 100 Rz 9 ßA IOO But and 5 and 4 2 300 + 100 = 2 300 X 4 4 = 2 300 100 = Rz = 57·4k0 249 =4 57 500 Q .umho and hre negligible. 140 Ava = I 200(120 + 212)10.6 = . The transistor parameters are h1e I 200 0.77 ·5 YL2 Z1n2 1 = . All capacitors may be assumed to have negligible reactance at the signal frequency.mho = 834 and = ~ = ß34 pmho + 212 + 46 + 303 = I 395 .COMPOSITE FEEDBACK of I pA in parallel with an impedance of 50 Q.umho). Assuming that R1 and R2 will be much greater than 4·7 kQ (212 .
then the input current 50 itn =50+ 10.umho Now allowing for current splitting at the input to Tri.uA 250 .umho By current division 140 X 14·2 An = 120 + 14·2 + 212 + 12·2 + 45·5 = . Since the source impedance is 50 Q and the input impedance of the amplifier is 10 n. then Ytn = 105 .umho = 0·74 .389 = 72 71 ß = 20 300 = 3·5 and X 103 But for voltage derived current feedback ß = YF YL YF = 3·5 x 10a x 212 .umho = 1 + ßAt or 1 389(1 + ßAt) 102 = 1.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS This feedback path further modifies the input impedance to Ztn2r(l + ßA) = 14·1 X 5 kQ = 70·5 kQ Ytn2 = 14·2 .umho = 1 389 .4"9 Also Ytnl = 834 + 100 + 455 .umho The feedback resistor 1 Rl=yF=1·35MQ Now all that remains is to find the Ioad current for the complete amplifier. 834 Overall At= l 389 = 4·9 X X 77·5 X 89 20 300 But if the input impedance is to be I 0 0.
11 using feedback methods.13 using feedback methods. but the methods applied here may be simply extended in most cases. 4·88 kQ. the solution would have involved not less than five simultaneous equations. 525. For more general analysis. The transistors are identical and have hte 1 250 n. Example 7. In this chapter we have considered the practical circuits for providing negative feedback on a number of amplifier configurations. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. For convenience. Example 7. h fieedback = 1 + 20 300 . 17·5 kQ. Many other forms are used. 251 . 10·5. feedback formulae carefully used probably gives the best approach. Repeat Example 4. hoe 125 ftiDho.19 using feedback methods.10. wlt. including those with common base or common collector stages. in any particular situation. Ans.10 using feedback methods. 11·4. hre 90 and negligible hre· Calculate the amplifier input impedance and current gain. RL2 1 kQ. combined shunt bias resistors 10 kQ per stage. Example 7. Ans.20x 300 3. Repeat Example 4. 1·97. Ans.12. 9·62. EXAMPLES Example 7. 490 !2. 6·8 kQ. 6·72. Ans. 656 Q.5 x 10_3 = 20 300 = 282 72 = 282 X H ftA = 235 ftA Output voltage = ioZL = 0·235 mA X 4·7 kQ = 1·1 V Load current For comparison.9. Example 7.EXAMPLES But c urrent gam . Repeat Example 5. Feedback is provided by connecting a 100 Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Tr2 and a 100 kQ resistor between Tr2 emitter and Tri base. Repeat Example 5.8. Ans. the interconnected fourterminal network is probably better. 264 Q.11. RL1 4 kQ. if the problern had been attempted using the complete equivalent circuit.
A three stage common emitter amplifier employs identical transistors having h1e I 000 n.f.Q feedback resistor.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.Q in parallel with 8 k. hre 75.Q.14. Feedback is provided by a 400 .Q and 100 . The three stage amplifier described in Example 7. hoe I25 .Q resistor between Tr2 collector and Trl emitter. Figure 7.Q and the shunt bias components total I2·5 k. Find also the output impedance if the source impedance is 50 . Ans. 200 k.Q per stage. combined shunt bias resistors 8 k.14 is converted into a current a mplifier by removing the emitter resistors on Trl and Tr3 and the 10 k. Example 7.13. hoe 100 . Ifthe amplifier is driven by a source of e.umho.umho. 0·004 .m. 0·1 m V and internal impedance 2 k.14. In the emitter Ieads of Tri and Tr3 are 50 . 3·98 k.17 252 . 250. Circuit for Example 7.Q. Ans. Ans. calculate the output voltage and the amplifier output impedance. Feedback is now provided by connecting a 1 MO resistor between Tr3 collector and TrI base.16.Q. and hre 0. 43·5.Q.Q.Q. 0·475 V. 0·224 . Calculate the overall voltage gain and input impedance.Q.15. Repeat Example 7. The transistor parameters are h1e 900 .15 using interconnected fourterminal network theory.Q resistor in the emitter Iead of Trl and a 20 k. Each stage has a collector Ioad of 4 k.Q resistor connected between them.Q.Q resistors respectively and the two emitters have a 10 k. RLl 2 k. Example 7.Q.Q per stage. A two stage common emitter amplifier is constructed with the following components. hre 60 and hre 0. RL2 4 k. Calculate the terminal current gain and the input impedance. Example 7.
calcu1ate the required value of Rp. Ztn and Zout for the configurations shown in Figure 7. (c) Figure 7.EXAMPLES Example 7.15. Ans. At. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. Example 7. (b) 18 4oo. Each stage of a multistage amplifier has Z 1n 1 kO. Zout 2 2MO. 1·65 kO in parallel with 1 kO. Ans. 253 .14 is required to have an output impedance of 1 0. 1 820. and an open circuit valtage gain of 150. 4·5 kO. and neg1igible hre. 1 310. hoe 80 .15.O. (c) 77·3. 287.17. Find also the resulting output voltage. 88·5 n. (a) 46·1. 10k!1 20k!1 (a) (b) 60k0. 95 n. 10k. 71·5 kO in parallel with 1 kO. kO. 6·23 kO.18 Assurne that the collector Ioad for each stage is 1 kO and that the driving source impedance is also l kO. 83 mV. If the transistor parameters are hte 1·5 kO. Calculate Av.18. hre 140. Circuits for Example 7. 17 kO.umho.
Determine the maximum gain and the 3 db bandwidth assuming that the coupling capacitors have negligible reactance at all signal frequencies. 0·99 MHz.O. 212.19 in parallel with each load is 500 pF.PRACTICAL FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Example 7.16 employs transistors with hie 1 000 n. 254 . The effect ofthe bias components may be neglected and the effective capacitance 20k. hoe 125 .umho and hre 0. The amplifier shown in Figure 7. Ans.16.19. Circuit for Example 7. hre 100. Figure 7.
or current is required and oscillators based on the positive feedback principle are suitable for this purpose. These feedback circuits may then be employed with one or two stage voltage or current amplifiers respectively. we found that under certain conditions positive feedback could result in an amplifier having infinite gain at certain frequencies.f. Then if A ?. RC OSCILLATORS A common class of oscillators employs feedback networks consisting of resistors and capacitors only. This resulted in self oscillation. but the basic principles for all frequencies are the same. 255 . cp must be 180° or 0° at that frequency only. or an output when no inputwas present. (1/ß) at that frequency. the system will oscillate.000 MHz. Consider once again the expression for the gain of an amplifier with feedback: Ar= 1 lAI LO lßAI LO + cp (8. We shall consider four cases. Ar.m. two conditions must be fulfilled. lßAI must equal 1 and (() + cp) must be zero.8 OSCILLATORS In Chapter 6. In generat () will be either 0° or 180° depending upon the number of amplifier stages. Electronic oscillators can be constructed to work at frequencies as low as one cycle in 10 minutes or Ionger and as high as 200. F or many electronic systems a source of alternating e. is to be infinite.1) If the gain. For oscillation at a particular frequency. For frequencies higher than a few 100 MHz special forms of valve and circuitry are required. voltage phase shift networks giving 0° or 180° and current phase shift networks giving ooor 180°.
R .jXc2R2 ß= and if (8.J C2 .X  The frequency at which this is true is given by w2 and = RIR21CIC2 (radfsec)2 1 /= 27ry(R1R2C1 C2) Hz 256 (8. Thus the whole expression must be real. the angle of the numerator is 90°.2.4) . This can only be true if the real part of the denominator equals zero. Wien bridge voltage phase shift network Multiplying by (R2.jXc2).jR2Xc1 .X 2..1.. V2 V1  jXc2R2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ R1R2 . we can write jXc2R2 V2 = R2 . R1R2  XCIXc2 =0 1 wC1 1 wC2 R1R2 = .jR1Xc2 . ß will have the required angle.e. Using normal potential division methods.1. having no imaginary component. In equation 8.3) (8. if the angle of the denominator can be ±90°. X Vl Amplifier output terminals tV 2 Amplifier input terminals Figure 8.2) v2 v1 The angle of this ß factor must be either 0° or 180°.OSCILLATORS Voltage Wien Bridge Oscillator Consider the voltage phase shift network shown in Figure 8.J X c1 .Xc1Xc2 .jXC2 jXc2R2 R1 . i.
identic:al capacitors and resistors are used: Av mln = 1 + 1 + 1 = +3 Since this result is positive. wC R. 1 (8.jR1Xcz. cancelling the j throughout and inverting XCI Rl 1 =++ Xc2 R2 putting Xe = (lfwC). Av mln c2 R1 = Cl + R 2 + 1 (8. the amplifier required must have no phase shift and a voltage gain of at least 3. Unfortunately these circuits are not suitable since the very low input impedance in each case must effectively become R2. This suggests either a single stage common base transistor amplifier or a grounded grid valve amplifier.6) If. the feedback factor V2 ß= h = ß is given by: jXc2R2 jR2Xc1. as before. C1 and C2 for the required frequency then make Av mtn more the amplifier can provide when loaded with the feedback network. So. and to ensure that the ß network has a negligible loading effect upon the final stage.5) f= 2TTCR Hz Now at this frequency. Suitable values of R1._J wC 257 . The practical solution is to use a two stage common emitter or grounded cathode amplifier. To find the order of the loading effect we will consider the case when R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C.jR2Xc2 The minimum amplifier gain Av must be equal to or greater than 1/ß. The impedance Z presented by the feedback network to the amplifier output terminals is given by: jR j wC Z=R.RC OSCILLATORS Note if R1 = R2 and C1 = C2.
and the amplifier input impedance excluding the Rg of 10 kQ which formspart of the ß network is infinite. and the minimum amplifier voltage gain 3.J) (8.2 shows valve and transistor circuits based upon these principles.7) But in practice R will be the value of the amplifier input impedance. jR2 C C jCR RC j] = 3 R (. jCR Z=RC =R [( .J) .2a shows a valve oscillator designed to operate at 1 kHz. The feedback network has equal capacitors. Thus a suitable amplifier will be one having an output impedance much less than its input impedance with a voltage gain greater than 3. Taking typical 1l and ra values of 30 and 10 kQ respectively. Figure 8. (1 .5.. Wien bridge oscillators the network impedance 15y2 L 45° kil. and resistors rnaking 0·0161!F 10kQ [b) [a) Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Substituting for w from equation 8.2. 2 1 .j) 1 . Figure 8... the second stage gain !Avzl = 30 X 1 10 + 1 258 = 2·7 . The finalload of 1 kQ makes the amplifier output irnpedance much less than the network impedance.
First consider an amplifier circuit with the d. R2 in this case is the amplifier input impedance which will ~e appraximately hte. Applying equatian 8. A stable canditian will be reached when ßA L () + cf> is exactly equal to 1 L oo. supplies switched aff.4 gives the camman value af the equal C1 and Cz fram Naw applying equatian 8. either because af change in parameters with large signals. During this time the gain will rise fram zera tawards the final steady value calculated far the circuit. and the amplitude of the oscillating sinusaidal signal tends ta rise·ta infinity. and hre Av~hZL le Then Av2 ~ 50 giving mare than sufficient valtage gain.6 ta find the minimumvaltage gain: Av mln 10 =l + 1+1= 12 If the transistars have hre 50. Amplitude Stability This raises the questian of the behaviaur af these circuits if the gain is mare than the minimum required. The circuit begins ta ascillate. Figure 8.c. But as this signal amplitude rises the gain will fall. When the supplies are switched an. The gain will be zera ar very much less than one. 259 .2a. It must pass thraugh the value which makes ßA L () + cf> equal ta 1 L oowhere the gain with feedback becames infinite. Making R1 10 kO ensures that the netwark impedance Z will be much greater than the final laad af 1 kO. This process is shawn in Figure 8. or because the devices run into cut aff and battaming.RC OSCILLATORS So pravided the gain af the first stage is greater than 1·1 the circuit will ascillate. Suppase the averaU signal gain of the amplifier is 6 withaut feedback and equal resistars and capacitars are used as in Figure 8. a finite time will elapse befare the direct currents build up ta their steady value.2b shows a transistar circuit designed ta ascillate at 5 kHz.3. say 1 kO.
This is amplified by 6 to give the output of 2·4 volts peak to peak shown in vo Bottoming Harmonics attenuated by f.3d). Figure 8.3e the resulting input is 1·6 V peak to peak but if it was multiplied by 6 the output would be 9·6 V which is greater than the d.c. supply and that the d.c. the new signal at the input is 0·8 V peak to peak resulting in an output of 4·8 V (Figure 8. The final transistor therefore cuts off and bottoms as shown in Figure 8. network 2 ~'tr'\r'trl4 Vo4= Vo3 VoJ f:JvoJ= (f) Vin4 (g) Stable condition (h) Cut off 6 8 Figure 8.OSCILLATORS Assurne our amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier working from an eight volt d.c.3/ The fundamental of the waveform is attenuated by one third but the harmonics are more severely attenuated thus 260 . Limitation of amplitude by d. operating point for the second transistor is given by VcE = 4 V.3b.c.3a shows the input signal shortly after oscillation has commenced.b. Since ß is one third. supply voltage. In Figure 8.3. conditions Figure 8.
c. Voltage negative feedback is provided by R1 and Rz with Ce to eliminate any d.. R1 Figure 8. The gain is now F_u_n_d_a"""'m.3g is nearly sinusoidal.2·67 The resulting distortion in the output is undesirable and additional techniques must be introduced to eliminate it.RC OSCILLATORS Vtn4 in Figure 8. 261 . Figure 8.4 shows a circuit employing this technique. The shunt R of the positive feedback network will therefore be given by RBI and RBz in parallel. change of parameters can be sufficient to reduce the gain to exactly n. Since negative feedback is employed.c... Firstly negative feedback can be included in the circuit to reduce the small signal gain to just greater than 1/ß. the input impedance for Trl will be large.. Unfortunately the amplitude of the resulting output signal will be extremely sensitive to any change in temperature or supply voltage..4.t. Then as the signal amplitude increases. This will again cause bottoming and cut off resulting in the same value of ßvo as before. Wien bridge oscillator employing negative feedback for amplitude stabilization 1/ß before excessive distortion occurs.en_t_al_o'/~p __8__ 3 i/p . This fault may in turn be eliminated by making the amount of negative feedback proportional to the signal amplitude.
f 1 = 27TCR as before 262 (8. Following the same reasoning. jwC2G2 Gt + JWCI + G + . Figure 8. R1 is a thermistor which is a resistor having a very high temperature coefficient of resistance.. the phase shift network is required to give zero phase shift between input and ou~put currents.w2C1C2 + jwC1G2 + jwC2G1 + jwC2G2 (8. it is more convenient to work with admittances as shown. An alternative form of Wien bridge oscillator is based on a current amplifier. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 8.10) . A stable condition is now reached without distortion of the output signal.5.5.t.9) If Rt = R2 = R and Ct = C2 = C.2. we may deduce that for zero phase shift w j(G1G2) _  C1C2 1 .. Current Wien Bridge Oscillator The oscillator circuits discussed so far are known as Wien bridge oscillators.OSCILLATORS path. . at the required frequency. The negative feedback ß is given by R2/(R1 + R2) making the gain greater than 3 for small signals. The resistance of Rt falls increasing ß and thus reducing the gain. In this case. When the output voltage approaches the desired maximum value the dissipation V2fRt in Rt rises and with it the temperature of Rt. jwC2G2 hY2 h G2 + jwC2 h= Y1+ v2= . Wien bridge current phase shift network Since we are concerned with current division.8) This expression has exactly the sameform as equation 8.).c. C 2 JW 2 Multiplying numerator and denominator by G2 /2 h= + jwC2 jwC2G2 G1G2. in this case negative (n.y(RtR2C1C2) ( 8.
This may be verified from an expression for current gain: (8. The amplifier shown in Figure 8.11) which.= 1 + Gz + Cz = 1 + Rl + Cz (8. and the input impedance must either be less than R1 or become R1. Since the Ioad is reactive (8. and the phase shift will be zero even if YL is complex.dmittance may also be determined for equal components and referring to equation 8. The correct modifications will be achieved by using current derived. and 12V Figure 8. If YL ~ Yo.RC OSCILLATORS At this frequency. A thermistor can be used to Iimit the amplitude in the same way as for the voltage amplifier. ifthe short circuit current gain has zero phase shift. The input a. and to reduce the output admittance as required. Example 8. Such an amplifier will have a current gain far greater than that required to sustain oscillation. the minimum current gain Atmln is given by Atmln 1 h G1 C1 Rz C1 = ß = h. Amplifier circuit for Example 8.12) The amplifier requirements can now be considered.1. therefore negative feedback may be used to reduce the input impedance. Yo may be neglected.6. the same phase shift will be obtained on load when the amplifier has a low output admittance.12).6 is tobe converted into an oscillator by (a) using a voltage phase shift network. for equal components = 3. 7 the reader can show this to be Ytn = jG(1 + j) (8. it must have zero phase shift.1 263 .13) If the amplifier is a two stage transistor amplifier the shortcircuit current gain Atstc will have zero phase shift. current feedback.
the load can be taken as 1 kO in parallel with (2 + 1) kO. 3 and 47·6 = 1 + 47·6ß ß= 47·6 1 500 (9o + 1 0: ) 106 667 + 37 + 100 + 213 .1 47·6 = 0·313 264 . The negativefeedbackwill also make the output impedance very much less than the 1 kO finalload. the emitter resistor of Tr1 may be unbypassed and used for the R2 of the feedback network.e.umho.umho 100 1 500(1 100)106 = 60"5 ß =REh=== 1 But local 60·5 Avlt = 1 + 60·5 =::= 1 but Ztnr = 1·5(1 + 60·5) kO = 92 kO Overall gain without feedback = 47·6. Consider first the voltage phase shift circuit: voltage derived. But feedback must reduce this to 3.umho (47·6/3) . But ß will be approximately 1/3 so R1 will be of the order of 2 kO. conditions and stability. All the resistors shown are required to provide the correct d. This will make the input impedance at the base of Tr1 very large and R for the network can be taken as the 6·8 kO and 22 kO bias resistors in parallel. Working on the assumption that the final gain will be approximately 1/ß. Thus for the calculation of Avo. series applied feedback will be employed to reduce the gain to the required value of 3 for equal capacitors and resistors in the phase shift network. 750 n. i. removing any possibility of loading by the network. hre 100 and hre 0.c. hoe 90 . Design suitable positive and negative feedback circuits for each case if the required oscillator frequency is 5 kHz.OSCILLATORS (b) a current phase shift network. Now to determine Avo: Av2 = Yu = = Avlo =  = 100 1 017 . Assurne transistor h parameters of hte 5 kO.
Q.313 .'VI t 0006J.RC OSCILLATOkS But ß = R 1 ~ Rz = 1 : R 1 (since Rz = 1 kO) 1 R1 = 0 . f 21r~R (equation 8.5) = 5kHz = C= 106 27T X 5 000 X 5 200 . = 92(1 + 0·313 = 1·5MQ Z1nr X 47·6) kil Thus R for the phase shift network is given by the bias components alone.1 = 2·2kil which compares favourablywith the estimated 2 kil.1F 0·006 fLF n.8 kil = 5·2 kil The required frequency. Solution for Example 8.7. by making R1 a negative temperature coefficient thermistor of say 2·7 kil cold. 2·7k. and the resulting change in Avz will have a negligible effect upon the calculation.U F = 0·006 p.F 5·2k.t .I(a) In practice ß would be adjusted so that the small signal gain was greater than 3. Figure 8. 6·8 X 22 R = 22 + 6. 265 .c.Q . The completed arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8. Now.7.
j) kO which will cause a negligible change to the gain and phase shift of the feedback amplifier. the voltage gain is required. Forthis calculation. to confirm that the required output'impedance condition is satisfied. The Ioad admittance is given by fG(l + j) (equation 8. h = 1·5 + jl·5 mmho === 2 L 45° mmho This is very much greater than hoe (0·09 mmho).ßvAvo) = 1+ hreZe YL h y !e = 1 + 100 L X 1 000 1 500 :::= 68 The input impedance and admittance are therefore given by. Turning now to the alternative solution with a current phase shift network. taking Zo without feedbacktobe approximately 750 Q 750 Zor = 1 + 0·313 X 47·6 Q = 47 Q But the Ioad provided hy the phase shift network is JR(1 . Neglecting hoe. the current gain of Tr2 is therefore approximately hre· Tr2 input impedance will be increased by the 1ocal voltage feedback provided by Tr 2 emitter resistor. Current derived current feedback can be obtained by unbypassing the emitter resistor of Tr2 and connecting an additional resistor from Tr2 emitter to TrI base.j) = 7·8(1 . 1 kO.umho . the R will be the Ioad of Tr2. hre Avo=hY !e L and (1 . Z 1n = 1·5(1 + 67) kO and 266 Ytn = 9·7 .OSCILLATORS Finally.12) and putting G as 1 mmho.
ßAt 1·16 kO X 0·33 ~ 18 O = 1 + 188 267 .33 mmho ~ 0·5 mmho This would be provided by a 2 kO resistor but the input impedance without feedback must be included in this vaiue.ßAt 188 3 = 1 + I88ß 188 T1 ß= and But ß is given by Y2/( Y1 + 188 = 0·33 Y2) when Y1 is the 1 kO emitter resistor.0·33) Y2 = 0·33 1 _ 0 .umho Ttn = 1·16 kO The required feedback resistor is therefore just Iess than 1 kO. The overall input impedance will now be given by Ztnt = Ztn 1 .RC OSCILLATORS The current gain. In practice a thermistor having a cold resistance of I kO would be satisfactory. 0·33 Y1 = Y2(I . Now and Ytn = 667 + 45·5 + 147 = 859·5 . including current splitting for both sets of bias components is given by: 667 At = 667 + 45·5 + 14·7 X i/p bias = 0·918 X 100 9·7 X 9·7 + 90 + 212 + 37 + 100 X interstage bias hte 100 X 100 hre 2·05 = 188 But the required gain of 3 must be given by At Au= I .
ßA = 1 + 188 x 0·33 = 1"5 .O. 1k Q Figure 8. 268 .uF = 0·03 .10. but a single stage amplifier can be constructed to give sufficient gain for the combined circuit to oscillate. 0 03 f!F n.t.OSCILLATO:RS This is very much less than the series R for the phase shift network which must therefore be included externally. 1k. All that remains is to determine the value of C for the network. The output admittance with feedback is given by Yo hoe 1.c. From equation 8. Solution for Example 8.umho satisfying the required condition that Y 0 ~ YL.8. to give 180° phase shift. at a particular frequency.8. The attenuation is greater than that found for the Wien bridge networks. 1 f= 2TTCR I C = 106 2TT X 5 000 X 1 000 .uF The complete arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.I(b) Single Stage RC Oscillators An alternative RC network may be used.
9b.RC OSCILLATORS As with the Wien bridge circuits. the ampiifier input impedance should be very much lower than that of the final 269 . Figure 8. the input impedance should be very much greater than Xe at the oscillatory frequency.9. ß.9c and d show current phase shifting networks having 180° phase shift at v6 I 2TTCR Hz and 2TTCRy6 Hz respectively. the attenuation may be as low as I/8th but the frequency is of course modified. Voltage and current phase shifting networks Figures 8. The four basic configurations are shown in Figure 8. With these circuits. For the same conditions the voltage attentuation.9a. The current attenuation will once again be I/29th for equal capacitors and resistors.9.9a and b are both voltage shifting and the frequency for 180° phase shift is given by 1 v6 2TTCRy6 Hz and 2TTCR Hz respectively for equal capacitors and resistors. but forthat in Figure 8. With the circuit in Figure 8. or current. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure 8. the final R will be the amplifier input impedance. such networks may be either voltage. In each case the network input impedance should not Ioad the amplifier. With suitable ratios between the C and R values. phase shifting. is I/29th.
The analysis of the voltage networks is by mesh analysis. From first principles.GVa GVz + Va(2G + jwC) Node 1: ltn V1(G Node 2: 0 GV1 Node 3: 270 (8.OSCILLATORS network component.10.10. 20 X 5 gx Ztn = 20 X 1 5 g+1 k!l = 800 Q Thus the phase shift network has identical components and may be analysed by nodal analysis as follows: = = 0= + jwC) . hte and hoe may be taken as 1 k!l and 100 . while that of the current networks is more conveniently achieved by nodal analysis.2 The amplifier input impedance is given by hte in parallel with the bias components.GVz } + Vz(2G + jwC) . determine the frequency of oscillation and minimum value for hre for the circuit shown in Figure 8. Example 8. but the other forms may be analysed by similar methods.2. and the network input impedance should be much less than the amplifier output impedance. Figure 8.umho respectively and hre can be neglected.14) . Only one example will be considered here. Oscillator circuit for Example 8.
15) + j3wCG2  4w2C2G .0] + 0 and ß= lo ltn = (G + = 3G3 G3 2 jwC)(3G + j4wCG ..jwCG2 (8 . and or w = Gy'6 c rad/sec v'6.. 16) If ß is to be real..G2] + G[ G(2G + jwC). the imaginary terms in the denominator must be zero ..2Ga ....14 may be solved for Va and hence / 0 may be determined.jwaca .18) At this frequency..0) + jwC)[(2G + jwC)2.5w2C2G Dividing through by G and substituting from equation 8. equation 8.= f= 271'CR 12·2kHz (8..19) ..G G+jwC 0 G 2G + jwC G 0 G 2G + jwC Io = (G 0 + 0 + Gltn(G2. G G+jwC G 2G 0 ltn + jwC G 0 0 lo = VaG= G X ..RC OSCILLATORS Now using determinants..w2C 2) . ß= Ga Ga .2G3 + j4wCG2  w2C2G  jwCG2 (8.17) (8.18 ß= G2 1 G2 _ 30G2 = 29 271 (8....
jwCG2 Ga w2C2G' + j3wCG2 . first note that the reactance of one shunt capacitor is 1/wC.15 G3 = (G' + jwC)(3G2 + j4wCG = 3G2G' + j4wCGG'  w2C2) .4w2C2G .jwaca .jwCG2 Equating the imaginary term to zero as before: + 2wCG2 = 4GG2 + 2G2 = 4wCGG' w= 272 waca w2C2 y(4GG' + 2G2) C . Minimum hre = 29 X !~~ = 36 In practice both the frequency and the minimum hre would be modified by the Ioad and hoe and this could be allowed for in the first term in equation 8. and since RL is parallel with hoe is much greater than this.14 by replacing (G + jwC) by (G Putting G' lo ltn = G + YL + jwC + YL + hoe) + hoe and rewriting equation 8. · from equation 8.2Ga .2G3 .17 1 R Xe= GCy6 = V 6 = 3270 c Since the total network impedance must be less than this.OSCILLATORS To determine the approximate minimum hre. the current gain may be taken as At = hre X y tn = Ytn + Yi blas 1000 hre X 1 000 + 250 For oscillation At must be 29.
the combined effect is to change both the frequency and minimum hre by about 10 per cent. the anode Ioad impedance is purely resistive and is given by (Lt/Cr) n. first. the oscillating frequency is approximately the resonant frequency of the LC circuit involved. signal at this frequency is applied as Vgk. if an a. LC OSCILLATORS Wien bridge oscillators are widely used for audio frequency signal generators. Consider first the tuned anode oscillator shown in Figure 8. With these. Single stage RC oscillators are not often used in practice for two reasons. Neglecting the effect of r. frequency adjustment requires the simultaneous switching of three components. and the feedback circuit can be either capacitive or through mutual inductance. The useful range of up to 1 MHz is limited by stray capacitance and amplifier input impedance. Radio frequency oscillators are usually ofthe LC type.11. Thus. the anode voltage ( [IZ)/(ra + Z) will be 180° out of phase with this signal. the current iL 273 .4w2 C2G .2·5 .c. . second. y[(4 X 1·938 X 106) + (2 X 1·56 X lQ6)] Hz 27T X 4 X 108 = 131kHz ! = and fo ltn = 3G2G'  Ga . the single stage amplifier is not as suitable for stabilization by means of negative feedback. The simplest form employs a parallel tuned circuit as the load of a single stage amplifier and inductive coupling between input and output for the feedback network.  1·25 10·7 .34·5 .2Ga w2 C 2 G' G =w2C2G' 4w2C2 3G'  = 4·65  G2  c.LC OSCILLATORS But G = 1·25 mmho and G' = 1·55 mmho. At the resonant frequency of the anode circuit. h re = 34·5 M tmmum X 2G 1 34·5 1250 = 43 1 000 lt is interesting to note that although the Ioad admittance and hoe are much less than the network admittance.
This current may be analysed using normal equivalent circuit H. Determine from first principles which of the two coils should be used in the anode circuit and the correct value of tuning capacitor C.OSCILLATORS through L1 willlag the anode voltage by a further 90°. Now if M and the valve gain are sufficiently large.11. If this is such that Vgk is given by jwMiL then the total phase shift is zero. The available coil assembly has two windings of 5 mH and 0·2 mH with a maximum coupling factor K of 0·1 . A tuned anode oscillator is to be constructed using a triode valve having f1 40 and ra 20 kil.T. This problern is best solved by finding a general solution for the frequency of oscillation and the maintenance condition using symbols. Figure 8. l = ±jwMi = r +VaJWLa . the system will oscillate. Vgk is given by: Vgk nd . 274 .12. A tuned anode oscillator methods. taking either the constant current or the constant voltage form. As a result of the mutual inductance M. a current i in one induces a voltage of ±jwMi V in the other. If two coils have mutual inductance between them.+ Figure 8. At the required frequency of 159 kHz the Q factor of each coil is 20. The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.3. The sign here depends only upon the sense of winding of the two coils.
20) (8. + ~) ra J( + ia) 1 ±wMgmra = wLa Hz (8. The equivalent circuit for a tuned anode oscillator lf both sides of the equation are now multiplied by ra(r we obtain ±jwMgmra = (r + jwLa)(l + jwCra) + ra = r + ra  w 2LaCra + jwLa) + jwLa + jwCrra Now.LC OSCILLATORS Writing a nodal equation: . + w2 = r ra = _1_ ( 1 LaCra LaC The frequency of oscillation f = 27Ty~LaC) Imaginary parts. ±JwMgm Va . but if the circuit is oscillating Va ~ 0.22) . therefore Va may be cancelled.12. L a = ra + J VawC + r + jOJ . and taking the negative M we obtain: Mf1 =La+ Crra which is known as the maintenance condition. Real parts. dividing by w. 275 (8. the required results can be obtained.21) + wCrra Putting grnra = f1. La r One solution of this equation would be given by Va = 0. Figure 8. Va Va + JW . by equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation.
La Crra (8. equation 8. and putting 4rr2. = 5 X I03 10_4 + 200 X 1012 X 250 X 2 X 104 = 60 10 _4 But the available valve has a !' of only 40.23) fJ. 276 .f2La Substituting values. 1 C=47T2. from equation 8. and for each coil C and r can be found from equation 8.=+ M M First. Let the 5 mH coil be L1 and the associated resistance be r1.21. 1 f =:::= 27Ty(LaC) Hz and rearranging.20. Similarly Iet L2 and r2 be the inductance and resistance of the 0·2 mH coil.23: fJ. we can see that if !' is sufficiently large. so this arrangement would not oscillate.22 can be rearranged to. Thus for each set of values. for each coil we can find r.f2 C1 and = 1012 C2 = 1012 Also X = 1012 1012 5 X 10_3 pF X 1012 2 X 104 = 200 pF = 5 000 pF M = Ky'(L1L2) M = O·ly(1·0) = 0·1 mH If L1 is used in the anode circuit. (r/ra) ~ 1 for both r1 and rz. Now from wL Q r= and rl = 106 X 5 X 103 = 250 Q 20 106 X 2 X 104 20 = 10 n r2 = Referring to equation 8.OSCILLATO:RS In the problern M and !' are known.
The circuit and the h parameter equivalent are shown in Figure 8. (b) h parameter equivalent circuit. The mechanism of the operation is identical to that of the valve circuit.13. (a) e (b) Figure 8.LC OSCILLATORS If L2 is used in the anode circuit. the same equation yields: I'= 0·2 X 103 104 + 5 000 X 1012 X 104 X 10 X 2 to4 = 12 Thus if the smaller coil is used in the anode circuit. the p. but the analysis is a little more involved as alternating currents flow in both coils. (a) Full circuit. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit 277 . The Tuned Collector Oscillator The transistor equivalent to the tuned anode oscillator is the tuned collector oscillator. A tuned collector oscillator. of 40 will be more than sufficient to ensure oscillation.13.
The dot notation on the coils Lc and Lb indicates the sense of the mutually induced e. Re and Ce provide the correct d. zc = (hle 1 + jwLb)ib .28) Without expansion.27 by jw2 MC Ieads to: wMhre = (h!e + jwLb)(wCrc + jw2Lc C.m.26.13c is obtained as follows: hre is neglected and rb is added to h1e to make the new component h1e hoe is combined with rc and Lc modifying them to rc and Lc This operation will be shown in an example.13a shows the complete circuit.25) Rearranging equation 8.: since both currents shown enter the coil at the end indicated. both jwMi terms will be positive.c. 278 .13b. The simplified equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8.26) Substituting for ic in 8. (h!e +OJ MjwLb)ib ( rc + JW c OJ jhreib 1 1 1 ~ (8. L c + jwC = lc. C2 has a very low reactance at the oscillatory frequency.OSCILLATORS Figure 8.f. effectively earthing one end of coil Lb.j) + w3M2C 1 1 1 (8. R1. By mesh analysis: 1 (8. The full equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8. (h!e 1 = +J + jwLb)ib OJ M (8. R2.24) and 1 ) . Thevenin·s theorem is applied to the remainder of the collector circuit resulting in the voltage generator of: 1 1 • = ftlb ft hreib x 1 • 1 ~C JW jhre = wC The impedance in series with the generator is given by 1/jwC and is represented by C. ( rc + JW jhreib 1 wC 1 .25 from 8. lb · M"lb + JW (8. operating point.27) If the circuit is to oscillate ib =F 0 and can be cancelled. L c + :c JW lb = J.24 . the real and imaginary components may be selected and equated. M JW . Thus multiplying equation 8. 1 ) + . M" .
4. 1 Lc'C w2=::= (8.h1e' h1e' = LbCrc' + Lc' Ch1e' Dividing by h1e' and rearranging. A tuned collector oscillator employs a collector coil of inductance 1·6 mH and resistance 100 Q tuned to a nominal frequency of 106f27T Hz by a shunt capacitor.30) and the frequency of oscillation (8.30 Ieads to Therefore the minimum hre necessary to maintain oscillation is given by Lb Lb M hre = h1e'rc'C M .32) Example 8. The base coil has inductance 0·1 mH and 10 Q resistance with coupling factor K ofO·Ol..29) In practice Lbrc'fLc' h1e' will usually be much less than one.w3Lc'LbC Dividing through by w and substituting for w 2 from equation 8.LC OSCILLATORS Imaginary terms: 0 2 W = w2LbCrc' + w2Lc'Ch1e'.+L c ' M+M h1e'rc'C M =~+Lc' (8. Ifthe transistor h1e is 1 000 Q and the effect of hoe is neglected. w2 = Lc'C ( 1 + fc~~~J (8.31) Real terms: wMhre = wCh1e'rc' + w3 M 2C + wLb. determine the actual frequency of oscillation and the minimum value 279 .
1·6mH 100fi 2k. First the values of C and M are required.OSCILLATORS of hre. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8. First YL and hoe may be 1umped together: = (125 + 500) . and an external shunt Ioad of 2 kil are included.14.14.O.32.6 I03 I03 Minimum hre = 15·8 If hoe and YL are included we must find the modified values of Lc' and rc'. hre = = 1 010 1·01 X X 4 100 X 625 4 x I06 62·5 + 2·5 X X 1012 4 X + 1·6 X 10.29 w2 = LcC (1 + 1 0·1 X 100 ) 1·6 X 1 000 ! 1012 = 1 + 6·25 X I03 === 1012 106 =Hz 27T Also from 8.umho.4 At the nominal frequency of w = 106 radfsec the circuit will have an impedance which may be represented by rc' and Lc' in series. Find also how these va1ues are modified ifthe hoe of 125 . C = w2Lc = 1012 X 1·6 X I03 = 625 pF and M = Ky(LbLc) = 0·01y(1·6 x 0·1) mH = 0·004 mH From 8. Figure 8.umho = 625 . Since 1 1012 w = 106.umho Rerr = 1·6 kil Yerr 280 . Circuit for the solution of Example 8.
LC OSCILLATORS Also at w = 106 rad/sec XL= 106 X 1·6 X 103 = 1 600 Q Overall Z = = (100 + j1 600)1 600 1 700 + j 1 600 Q 1·6(100 + j1 600)(1·7. h _ 1 010 tmmum re  = 808 X X 0·1) = 2·74 800 2·74 X 62·5 2·74 X X + X 106 H 625 X 1012 2·74 101 + 7·53 O· 6 3 X X X 106 104. since this va1ue of w shou1d have been used in the calculation of Lc' and r 0 ' . the tuning capacitor will have to be increased by a factor of approximately 2. The new value of M = O·Oly(0·753 M' .j1·6) Q 1·72 + 1·62 = 0·294(170 = 800 + 2 560 + j2 720. 10_2 = 184 These results show that if the design frequency is to be maintained.j160) Q + j753 Q rc' = 800Q Lc' = 0·753 mH 1 2 Now w  0·753 X 103 X 625 X 1012 (1 + __Qi_ X 0·753 800 ) 1000 1012 .0·47(1 + 0·106) w = 106 . 10 281 . Also the available hre is unlikely to be as high as 184 suggesting a maximum shunt loading of say 5 kQ.y5 and 103 f = 27TV 5 kHz = 71 kHz This is an approximation.
16c is obtained by combining h0 e. h1e 1 300 0. and h1e together as h1e'.15. Hartley and Colpitts oscillators have negligible reactance. The simplified version in Figure 8.umho and negligible hre. and the bias resistors may be neglected or included in the transistor hte and hre parameters. Example 8. and by combining Rm. and RB2. One further example will be considered. hoe 125 . and the maximum loading for which the frequency will be changed by less than 5 per cent.16a employs a transistor having hre 40. Analysis in each case may be accomplished using normal equivalent circuit methods. YLl and YL2. Find also the maximum loading beyond which oscillation will cease.16b shows the complete equivalent circuit for the given information. by expressing the current generator in terms of h instead of ib.5.15. Figure 8. For both circuits the transistor employs the normal bias circuit with the emitter capacitor having negligible reactance at the oscillatory frequency. 282 .OSCILLATORS Hartley and Colpitts Oscillators There are many other forms of LC oscillator two of which are shown in Figure 8. The feedback capacitor C' will also M c L IXc=O (b) (a) Figure 8. The Colpitts oscillator shown in Figure 8. Determine the unloaded frequency of oscillation.
34) .5.umho (8. (c) Simplified equivalent circuit Also by expressing ib in terms of h.34) L 200f. (b) Figure 8.LC OSCILLATORS The values of these components are obtained as follows: YL' = 125 + 200 + YL2 = (325 + YL2) .16. (a) Colpitts oscillator for Example 8. (b) Equivalent circuit.1H (c) (a) L c. 1 1 hre = 40 X 1 2 700 1 300 1 1 + 10 100 + 1 300 283 ~ 25 (8.33) and 1 hte' 1 1 1 = 2 700 + 10 000 + 1 300 mho hte' = 800 n (8.
38) ll=1 hte and from equation 8.w3LC1C2 + wC1 hte wL 1 1 Rearranging and dividing by w.oC1 + JW :L h Node 1: .+ wC2 .OSCILLATORS Our equivalent circuit is now in the correct form for nodal analysis..:L JW I c 1 ) + JW 2 + jwL • v1 (8.. V1 cannot be zero and may therefore be cancelled.38 into 8.36 (8... LYL1 w2LC1C2 = .39) Substituting for V2 from 8. But (h I (8.h + Cl + c2 le 2 w = I 1 YLI L ( C1C2 ) + C1C2hte' c1 + c2 (8.40) Following the usual technique..37) (8.' + (1 1 1) ( w2LCI) wC2 .hre ii I =  vl jwL + V2 . hre Vl jV1 (jwL )( 2 htel = wL + htel .37. 1 ) o = v1 ( h + y..41) c1c2 C1 + C2 = Cett Putting 2 1 w = L_C_e_rr (1 LYL + (:C:::1+C:::2:)h:t:el 1 284 ) (8.39 and h from 8.wL wLh 1 .42) . Now equating the imaginary components: 1 0 = wL + 0 1 = wL + wLh . Node 2: v2 1 .36) .w LC1 + 1 h 1 1 1 ) + JWC2 + jwL V1 • (8.
. the term 1·036 must change to 1·036 x 1·05 = 1·09.35 x 1·036 rad/sec and the frequency J= 10 X 1·036 27T X 1.325 = 468 .umho YL2 = 793.42becomes 1·092 = 1·18. hte hte coL Minimum hre' = hte' h'(co2LC1) + co2LC2  1 (8. hre' = ( I .umho which represents a shunt 1oad of 2·1 kO.200 X I06 X 91 1 100 X I012 X 800 1014 = 1·82 (1 + 0..43) But from equation 8. Cerr = 91 pF and taking YL' when YL2 is zero.44) 285 .umho = 793 .CO2LCl)h.::::::::::::.40.35 MHz = 1·22 MHz If this frequency changes by 5 per cent.41 1 (8.. jcoL ( JCOC2· j ) .074) 107 co = 1. whichinequation8.LC OSCILLATORS From the information supplied. 200 X t06YL' 1100 X 1012 X 800 and YL' = 0"18 = 0·18 X 4 X 1100 . + . For the second part of the problern we must equate the real parts of equation 8. 101 2 ( 200 X I06 X 325 X I06) co 2 1 + ::::::.
21·25. The choice of oscillatory circuit for any particular application is beyond the scope of this book. and an example of this will be discussed in Chapter 9. EXAMPLES Example 8. but some of the factors involved are as follows: Frequency stability with change of load.6. The valves have fL 80 and ra 20 kQ and the effects of RG. Find also the frequency of oscillation. Determine the minimum gain required from the amplifier and hence design a suitable negative feedback network so that the oscillatory output will be undistorted. P. Ans.7. A two stage valve amplifier has loads of 20 kQ and the first stage has an undecoupled cathode resistor of 1 kQ. this is no Ionger true. Tuningrange for available variable capacitor. Example 8. and an accurate analysis should include these components. network 22·2 kQ. 3·5 kHz. Effects of valve or transistor capacitances. This last effect may be utilized in the design of other forms of oscillator circuits. The final stage collector Ioad is 500 Q 286 . A Wien bridge feedback network is connected to convert the circuit into an oscillator. A two stage transistor amplifier has a first stage voltage gain of 1 L 180°. It has a series arm of 5 kQ and 0·001 fLF and the parallel arms are 20 kQ and 0·02 f. The resistance of the coil has been ignored in the analysis since the loading effects of YL' and hte' would make this negligible compared with Ioads greater than 1 kQ.J.OSCILLATORS Once again inserting values: 25 150 800 = 800h' + 10 10 = YL' = 187 mmho This represents a shunt Ioad of approximately 5 Q.c. supplies. In practice a Ioad of this magnitude would certainly stop oscillation.D.F. Frequency stability with change of d. In the extreme case shown above. Ce and Cs may be neglected. 1 kQ.
1k l"25J. hte 1·3 kO. Ans./p Tr2 collector 5k . R' is included to reduce the current gain to the required Ievel. Example 8. 65.18. 287 .0. In the absence of a negative feedback network. calculate the values of C1 and Figure 8. If it is required to oscillate at 2kHz.17 is connected between output and input.uF.umho. Calculate the value of R' .7 and the frequency of oscillation. The transistor oscillator shown in Figure 8.EXAMPLES and the transistors have h1e 1 000 Q and hoe 100 . hoe 125 .18 employs transistors with hre 90. Circuit for Example 8. 0·56 0.8 C2.umho and hre 0. 1·43 kHz. Assurne that the input impedance of the first stage is much greater than 1 kQ. If the Wien bridge network shown in Figure 8. Assurne all other capacitors to have negligible reactance at 2kHz.17. 0·074 . Circuit for Example 8. determine the minimum hre for the second transistor 1 t_rr.1F Figure 8. Ans.8.
The oscillator shown in Figure 8.umho. 35. 1·3 kHz.19.) Example 8. 61·5 V. The transistor h parameters are h1e 1·5 kQ. output voltage if RL is exactly 3·5 kQ and the pentodemutual characteristic is given by: h (mA) 65 52·3 40 27·5 17·5 9·5 Vax (V) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5·0 6 (Construct a graph of gm against peak to peak Ans. Ans.20 employs a transistor with h1e 900 Q and hoe 100 .uF. If the oscillator frequency is to be 3 kHz. Ans. hoe 150 . 2·5 7 1·0 8 0·3 9 0 10 Vgk.9 frequency? Determine the r. The feedback network is to be a three stage voltage phase shift network having eqtial resistors and capacitors. 0·0066 . bias voltage of 4 V.9.19 shows a phase shift oscillator employing a pentode having gm 9 mA/V and ra 380 kQ at the d. Determine the value of the capacitors and the minimum value for RL if the frequency is to be 175 Hz.OSCILLATORS Example 8. What effect will the capacitive loading have on this H. hre 0 and the shunt bias resistors are 47 kQ and 12 kQ. Ca1cu1ate the minimum value of RL and the frequency of oscillation.s.umho. hre 120.11. lower it. Figure 8.T.m.10. 383 Q. 0·286 .c. A single stage common emitter amplifier is to be used as a low frequency oscillator. Example 8. + R=10k n C=0005JlF Figure 8. 288 . 3·23 kQ.uF. calculate the value of C and the minimum va1ue of hre. Circuit for Example 8.
I 160 pF. find the values of c and hre for the same frequency of oscillation. Neglect the effect of hoe. Circuit for Example 8. 46.14. Figure 8. Ans. Determine (a) the tuning capacitor.I3 was replaced by a transistor having hte 500 n.13. 970 pF. Example 8.11 Example 8. Determine the required current gain and the frequency of oscillation. 1 380 pF.21. 0·785. I! 289 . ra 5 kQ. hre and the bias components.12 Example 8. (b) the minimum coupling between the coils.EXAMPLES ________~ ~~1c Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. is tobe used as an oscillator. How would these results be modified if a Ioad of I 000 Q was capacitively coupled to the collector and the coupling factor K between the coils was reduced to 0·005? Ans. If the frequency of oscillation is to be 250 kHz and the valve parameters are p 60.20. A tuned anode oscillator employs anode and grid coils of Q factor 10 and inductance 0·3 mH and 0·7 mH respectively. 0·02.21. A current amplifier. 16. 8·2 kHz. together with the phase shift network shown in Figure 8. Ans. If the valve in Example 8.12.
Estimate the minimum value of the load Figure 8. 1 080 pF. Circuit for Example 8.22. Example 8. bias components and coil resistance. 290 .15. Calculate the value of C1 which will result in an oscillatory frequency of 600kHz in the absence of the load. 28 Q.OSCILLATORS Example 8. Figure 8.15 if the transistor hre of 30 is to maintairi oscillations. 840kHz. Show that the approximate frequency and maintenance conditions for a Hartley transistor oscillator are given by: w = y[C(Lb Lb hte = Lc 1 + Lc ± lM)] rad/sec M ±Lc Neglect hoe. Find also the frequency when this minimum value is connected.16. Ans.umho. hre.22 shows a Colpitts oscillator employing a transistor with hte 1 500 Q and hoe 125 .
1.. and the transit time for which the electrons or holes are crossing the active region of the device.. a .1a.___.._____ } ____.. Triode valve and equivalent circuit for high frequencies 291 RL . Cgk and Cak and they can be shown diagrammatically as in Figure 9. In this chapter. p.. we shall consider how the small signal equivalent circuits must be modified for use at high frequencies and we shall examine the necessary techniques for the solution of various circuit configurations with such modified circuits. If the transit time is of the same order as a single period of the signal. These are the effects of the various reactances associated with the construction of valves and transistors. The reactances are due to capacitance between the various electrodes and to lead inductance..9 MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION The use of the equivalent circuits discussed in the preceding chapters becomes inaccurate at higher frequencies for a number of reasons.5 k (a) Figure 9. VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES We shall first consider in detail the effect of the interelectrode capacitance ofa triode valve._ca~. The resulting capacitances are denoted Cag. for a valve and cx for a transistor will be considerably reduced. The electrodes ofa valve are conductors separated by an insulating medium.
and with reference to Figure 9.2. including ra. Typical values are Cag 1·5 pF. 9.2. Equivalent circuit for the derivation of valve input admittance tance further modifying the gain of the preceding stages.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Figure 9.6) .4) (9. Cgk 2·5 pF and Cak 1 pF.1b shows the constant current equivalent circuit with the interelectrode capacitances included.') 292 (9.1) Yln= Vgk (9. we shall assume initially that Cag provides a negligible Ioad on the output. 9.3.4 and 9. The reactance of Cag is much greater than RL at normal operating frequencies. From equations 9. By inspection.5. i = jwCgkVgk + jwCagVgk(l + gmZI. To analyse this situation. In addition it may result in a shunt conduc Figure 9.5) But where ZL' is the total effective Ioad. i2 = jwCag(Vgk  Vo) (9.2.3) A pplying the sense of i2 shown. calculate the input admittance of the amplifier shown. i (9. but together with Cgk it produces a shunt capacitance across the input. This capacitance provides the principal component of C8 for the previous stage.2) and h = jwCgJcVgk and (9. Cak and any externalload present. Cak formspart of Cs and may be allowed for in the normal calculation of high frequency gain.
The input circuit obtained is shown in Figure 9. Ytn = _!__ = jwCgk + Vgk jwCag(1 + gmZL') (9. In general ZL' = R' + jX' where X may be positive or negative.33° 42' 293 . Equation 9.11) If ZL' is capacitive. X' will be negative and the input admittance includes a positive conductance. gmZL' will be a real number and the input circuit appears as the parallel combination of two capacitors. Determine the overall voltage gain and input impedance at an angular frequency w of lOB rad/sec. G=wCaggmX' Figure 9. X' is positive and the resulting input conductance is negative. If ZL' is inductive.1.VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES Now applying equation 9. Cak 1 pF. Thus since gmZL' may be quite large the input capacitance may be as high as 100 pF.wCaggmX' (9. Cag 1·5 pF. Cgk 2·5 pF.j3·08 kQ 55·5 L 180 . ra 10 kQ.10 becomes Ytn = jwCgk + = jwCgk + jwCag(1 + gmR' + jgmX') jwCag(l + gmR').3. and the 20 kQ load. = 5·~5 L YL 33° 42' = 4·6 . Effective input circuit for valve at high frequencies Example 9.umho = 150 + jlOO ZL' = Av2 = !.umho = 100v(3·25) L 33° 42' . YL' = 100 +50+ jlOB X IQ12 X 106 . A two stage amplifier emp1oys triodes having gm 10 mA/V. Each stage bas a resistive Ioad of 20 kQ and a grid resistor of 100 kQ.3.10) If ZL' is approximately resistive. Interstage wiring capacitance totals 10 pF. Since the gain of a stage is given by .. This will be composed of the valve ra and Cak.gmZL' we must first find ZL' for the second valve.1. Cgk and Cag(1 + gmZL').
the resulting negative input conductance may be used to neutralize the Iosses in a parallel tuned 294 .j8•25 = Yu' = 4.11 : Y1n1 = [(j108 X 2·5 X + 1012) + (j108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 0·525) (108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 0·91)) X 1()3 mmho = j0·25 + j0·079 + 0·137 mmho Including the Rg for the first valve.11.252 kO = 0·0525 = 10Zu' = + j7·15 mmho • J0·091 kO (0·525 . ra. the remainder being provided by RL. If the anode 1oad is inductive.umho + j7·3 mmho But this forms a part of Yu'. this becomes. the addition of extra stages produces 1itt1e increase in gain and a very low capacitive input impedance.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Applying equation 9. Y1n = [(j108 = 4·62 X 2·5 X + 1012) + (j 108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 47) (108 X 1·5 X 1012 X 30·8)) X 106 . Cs and Cak1: Yu' = (4·62 + 0·1 + 0·05 + 0·01) + (j108 x 11 x 1012 x 103) = 4·78 + j8·25 mmho But Zu I Av1 1 4·78 . in the RC coupled common cathode configuration. Rg.782 + 8.j0·91) = 1·1 L 120° Thus the overall gain Av1 X Av2 = 55·5 X 1·1 L 93° 42' F or Y1n1 we again refer to equation 9. Y1n = 0·147 + j0·33 mmho = 0·361 L 66° mrnho Z1n = 2·77 L 66° kO Thus at the upper figure limits of a triode. and this may be utilized to design an oscillator circuit. The changes in input admittance discussed above are the result of internal feedback.
Valve input capacitance = 100. A lossless tuned circuit can maintain a nondecaying sinusoidal signal at the resonant frequency. This anode Ioad is tuned to a frequency above that of the oscillator and is thus inductive at the required oscillator frequency...2. determine the values of X' and R' for an oscillatory frequency of 107 rad/sec. A suitable circuit is shown in Figure 9. In practice. First we must find the value of the total shunt capacitance to give the required frequency.1. . Taking the simple circuit of Figure 9. Q 50 in parallel with a capacitor of 50 pF.. 1 I I I .4a. The parallel tuned circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0·1 mH. But valve input capacitance = Cgk + Cag(l + gmR').4.J.4b.. Rg .VALVE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AT HIGH FREQUENCIES grid circuit. This method is preferable since it eliminates the effect of coil self capacitance.1.. the parallel tuned circuit is provided by a quartz crystal and the inductive Ioad is a parallel LCR circuit as shown in Figure 9. 295 . Oscillator incorporating Miller feedback Example 9. I I 1 I (b) (a) Figure 9.. 1 w2=:= LC C 1012 I04 pF = 1014 x = lOOpF :.4a and the valve used in Example 9..50= 50 pF.
Detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this book.uH 107 10X' G~. X'= 0·133 kQ from which L' = 133 = 133 . and the collector base junctions. and there is the 296 . The resulting parallel resistance may be of the order of a few 1 ooo n.L But R = Go= WoL Q 20 107 X 104 = X 50 I010 10_4 ll = 20 ~>' mho For oscillation. These properties both have the effect of introducing a shunt conductance in the input circuit. 20 X I010 10_4 = W Cag X 1·5 X 1012 X Inserting values. similar modifications must be made to the equivalent circuits. (X' in kO) Pentode Valves The effect of Cag is considerably reduced by the use of pentode valves where this parameter may be ofthe order of0·005pF. Pentodes also have the advantage of very high . An exact model suitable for all frequencies is exceedingly complex. HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS When working with transistors at high frequencies.uH) and the electron transit time. the negative input conductance to the valve.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS + 1·5(1 + IOR') pF Inserting values. must equal Go.u and ra. values being typically 2 000 and 500 kO respectively. At very high frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. and its form depends upon the way in which the transistor was manufactured. the conductance of a parallel tuned circuit is given by G _ CR o. 50= 2 R'=3·1k0 from·which At resonance. two further effects must be considered. In generat there will be capacitances associated with the emitter base. but these are the cathode Iead inductance (0·005 .
Typical values for the components shown are: rw 50 . The hybrid TT is accurate b Figure 9.40 mA/V gm is related to IX' by the equationgm = IX'/rb·e· The upper frequency to which this circuit is valid would lie in the range 10 kHz to 100 MHz depending on transistor type.3 000 Q. but becomes increasingly less accurate as fa.250 Q. rb·e 250 . The y parameters are frequently quoted in manufacturers' published data.5 000 pF rce 20 .HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS resistance of the base material between the active region and the external connection. but they are usually quoted for a specified frequency only. In addition the current gain IX or IX'. /T is the calculated frequency at which IX' will fall to unity if the rate of fall at the upper frequency end of the pass band is maintained at 6 db per octave. to approximately 0·7. Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit for transistor in the common emitter configuration from low frequencies upwards. cb'C 5 . In certain cases variation of y parameters with frequency are shown graphically permitting calculation at any desired frequency. 'b'C 2 .30 pF. For any particular transistor type. i.40 kQ Cb'e gm 20 . /1 is the frequency at which IX' or hre has fallen to unity. is approached. 297 . is reduced with increase in frequency. In this section we shall consider the analysis of circuits using both hybrid TT and y parameter equivalent circuits. manufacturers quote the upper frequency limit in one of three ways: h is the frequency at which IX has fallen by 3 db.e.5 shows the hybrid TT equivalent circuit for common emitter connection. In generat either the hybrid TT equivalent circuit or a y parameter circuit is used for high frequency work. Figure 9. depending on configuration. 300 .5. We shall first examine a complete analysis at a particular frequency and then see if this suggests any approximation to simplify calculation.5 Mn.
Xe = 15 X 27T X 106 = 10·6 kQ = Xbe and Bbc = 0·094 mmho Since the input impedance is less than fbb' jXbefb•e .j94) + j9 494)(28·6 + j94) + (38 000  j94)(0·39 104 X 9·55 L 82° 24' X 9·83 L 73° 6' 3 800 L 9' = 24·8 L 155° 39' + 0·39 + j94 = 22·6 + j10·2 + 0·39 + j94 = 22·2 + j104 = 106 L 102° 298 + + j94) 0·39 '94 +J . Fora frequency of 1 MHz the reactances ofthe various capacitors may be determined. rb•e 2·6 MQ. Working in flA. Repeat with suitable approximations where the 1oad is on1y 2 kQ. gce = 8·2 11mho. and · Vb•e(1 265 + j9 494) .12) (9.JXbe the input current may be taken as 1 flA. Cb'e 15 pF.Vce(0·39 + j94) Vb•e(38 000 . fb•e. We can therefore solve by nodal analysis using nodes Vb•e and Vce only. rb·e 790 Q.~.Vce(O· 39 + j94) 38 OOOVb•e = .j94) + Vce(28·6 + j()4) (9. Xe= 1 500 X 27T X 106 = 106 Q = Xbe and Bbe = 9·4 mmho 1012 For Cb·c. The transistor hybrid 7T parameters are: rbb' 100 Q.Vb•e(0·39 + j94) + Vce(8·2 + 20 + 0·39 + j94) where gb•e = 1 265 11mho. Cb·e 150 pF. Collecting terms: 1 0 = = Vce = (1 265 1 Vce = = 0·39 11mho.13) (38 000 . If the collector load is a parallel tuned circuit of dynamic resistance 50 kQ at the resonant frequency of 1 MHz determine the output voltage. volts.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS Example 9. A common emitter amplifier is supplied from a high impedance source having short circuit current of 1 11A at a frequency of 1 MHz. and 11mho: 1 = Vb•e(1265 + 0· 39 + j9 400 + j94) . gb·c gL = 2011mho. 1012 For Cb•e. ree 122 kQ and gm 38 mA/V.
gmZL'Vb.13.14) If the overall voltage gain is required. where Ztnb' = _yl = 60 lnb' 299 L 85° 42' Q . output voltage 1 = Vce 106 L 102 o = 9·4 L o 102 mV This calculation could ha ve been simplified if Yb•c had been neglected and with it the j94 in the first term ofthe right hand side of equation 9.c. the additional loading due to Cb'c may be neglected and the circuit may be treated in a similar manner to that for the triode input admittance calculation. In this case ZL' is given by rce in parallel with the gmZL' Ytnb' = 1·265 = 38 X 2 2 X RL of 2 kO. the effect of rw must be included.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The a. the input admittance at Vb'e is given by where ZL' is the effective collector Ioad. lf the collector Ioad is sufficiently small. Neglecting rb·c. This approach will be used for the second part of the question.e Vce = 38 X 2 X 0·06 L 85° 42' mV = 4·5 L +94° mV Vce (9. 122 + 122 =:= 76 + j9·4 + j0·094(1 + 76) mmho = 1·265 + jl6·6 =:= 16·6 L 85° 42' Now i vb'e = Ytn I06 X 103 = 16·6 X I03 L 85° 42' mV = 0·06 L 85° 42' mV The output voltage is given by = .
conditions. graphs showing how the y parameters vary with frequency and operating point. Neglecting Yb'c is making a similar approximation to that made by neglecting hre when using the h parameter equivalent circuit. 300 . the y parameters are usually quoted for a specific frequency and d. =1+ 1·66 L +85°42' = 1·25 + j1·66 = 2·075 L +48° 24' (9. and if rb'c is neglected calculation is extremely simple. At these high frequencies.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS V1n Ybb' Vb·e Zlnb' =1+ = 1+ 100 60 L _ 85 o 42.14 and 9.15) Overall vo1tage gain. arealso supplied. In some cases.c. the four parameters are all comp1ex. In the published data. for transistors intended for high frequency applications. Use of y Parameter Equivalent Circuit A1though the hybrid 7T circuit discussed above may be used for calcu1ation up to the high frequency Iimit of any particular transistor. app1ying equations 9. At low and medium frequencies the effects ofthe capacitance become negligible. most manufacturers do not quote the hybrid 7T parameters.15 A V = 76L 180° 2·075 L +480 24 = 36 3 0 ·7 L + 1 1 36 I The input impedance may be found from V1n Zin = ~· 103 x 4·5 L +94° = 106 x 36·7 L +131° 36' Q = 123 L 37° 36' This examp1e shows how the hybrid 7T equivalent circuit may be used forahigh frequency calculation.
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
and the resulting common emitter equivalent circuit is given in
Figure 9.6.
Amplifier calculations in terms of known y parameters may be
made by use of the general solution obtained in Chapter 2. If feedback
is included in the circuit, either feedback theory, or interconnected
fourterminal network theory, will provide the correct solution.
Two examples will now be considered; first a single stage amplifier
b
c
I~
ib
(,~
Yoe
=_!;be+jwCoe
'"1
Figure 9.6. y parameter equivalent circuit for transistor in the
common emitter configuration
with a resistive load, and secondly a multistage amplifier with feedback.
Example 9.4. An r.f. transistor is to be used as a single stage
amplifier with a resistive load of 2 kQ. At the signal frequency of
200 MHz and at the d.c. conditions applicable to the circuit, the
y parameters are specified as:
Yle(0·028
+ jl3w
X 1012) mho
Yre 500 X I0 6 L 250° mho
yre 0·034 L 292° mho
Yoe(220 X 106
+ j2w
X 1012)
mho
If the amplifier is driven by a source of short circuit current 10 flA
and internal admittance (0·01 + j0·005) mho, determine the output
voltage.
Rewriting the general solutions obtained in Chapter 2,
Yln
and
v2
h
y1zy21
= yu yzz +
YL
 yz1
= yu(y22 + YL) y21Y12
(9.16)
(9.17)
We can first find the input admittance, and hence the input
current. Then, using 9.17 we can find the output voltage directly.
301
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
At 200MHz,
J!e = 0·028 + j200 X 106 X 27T X 13
= 0·028 + j0·016 mho
and Joe = 220 X 106 + j200 X 106 X 27T
= (220 + j2 500) x 106 mho
X
1012 mho
X
2
X
1012 mho
Now working in millimhos:
.
0·5 L 250° X 34 L 292°
Ytn = 28 + jl60·22 + j2·5 + 0·5
= 28
.
+ Jl6
17 L 182°
2·6 L 74o
= 28 + j16 6·5 cos 108° = 28 + jl6 + 2·02 j6·2
= 30 + j10 mmho
j6·5 sin 108°
Note that the term due to Yre is by no means negligible.
The short circuit source current of 10 tJA must divide between the
source admittance and Ytn·
_
10(30 + j10)
A
ltn (30 + jlO) + (10 + j5) fl
_ 10(3 + j)(4  j1·5) A
16 + 2·25
fl
= 0·548(12
+ 1·5 + j4 
j4·5) flA
= 7·4  j0·274 flA
But for the output voltage calculation, only the magnitude of hn
is required.
lltnl = y(7·42 + 0·2742) =::= 7·4 flA
Applying equation 9.17 and working in mA, mmho and volts.
7·4
V2
X
103
X
34 L 292°
= (28 + j16)(0·72 + j2·5) 34 L 292°
=
0·252 L 292°
x 0·5 L 250° V
20·2 40 + j11·5 + j70 17(cos 182°
0·252 L 292°
 19·8 + j81·5 + 17 + j0·6 V
252
IV21= y(36·82 + 81·52) mV
= 2·8mV
302
+ j sin 182°)
V
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
If required, the voltage gain may be obtained from
!Vtnl
=
jltnl
I Ytnl
=
7·4 X I06
v(32 + 12) X 102 V
= 0·232 mV
2·8
!Avl = 0·232 = 12
For our final example weshall consider a two stage amplifier with
overall current feedback.
Example 9.5. An amplifier is required for signals at 450kHz.
The available transistor has a suitable d.c. operating point of
VcE 6 V, Ic 1 mA. The averagehre is quotedas 150, but to allow
for spread and temperature variations a d.c. stability factor of
K = 0·05 is to be used. The required current gain of 100, into a
resistive load of 1 kO is to be obtained using two stages with overall
feedback to improve stability. Using the published data quoted
below, design a suitable amplifier using a 10 V supply.
Ico 2 pA, VBE 300 mV,
hre 150
g1e 0·25 mmho, Cte 70 pF, IYrel 37 mA/V, ~re oo
goe 1 ,umho, Coe 4 pF, IYrel 4 ,umho, ~re 270°
The proposed circuit is shown in Figure 9.7.
RF 2
Figure 9.7. Circuit for Example 9.5
The first consideration must be to obtain the correct d.c. operating
conditions. This was discussed in Chapter 1, and the results obtained
will be used here.
303
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
In each case the required operating point is VcE 6 V and Ic
1 mA. Consider first Tr2:
VcE = 6 = 10
Taking lE === Ic
RE2
+ /cRL2 + /E(RE2 +
Rpt)
+ RFl + RL2 = {kQ
RE2 + RFI = 3 kQ
(9.18)
The stability factor
+(X')+ RB= 0·05
K = RE(l
where
RaR4
RB= Ra+ R 4 and
.
Insertmg values 0·05
453
Also V'
where
But
and
=
+ RFI) = 3 kQ
(9.19)
3 +RB
= 3( 1 + 150) +RB
+ RB =
RB
and
RE= (RE2
=
60 + 20RB
397
19 = 20·9 kQ
IBRB IERE
+ VBE
V'
(9.20)
(using conventional polarities)
= =V_c_,c_R_4_
(9.21)
Ra+ R4
fc
f co'
 rJ.IIB=
(/.1
fco'
7
===Ico
lB =
1 000
.sü 
2 ttA
= 4·7 ttA
V' = 20·9 X 0·0047  3  0·3
= 3·4 V
(9.22)
Applying equations 9.19 and 9.21
10R4
Ra+ R4
(9.23)
RaR4
20' 9 =Ra+ R4
(9.24)
3·4 =
and
304
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
From equation 9.23
(9.25)
Substituting in equation 9.24,
20 .9
=
RaR4
2·94R4
Ra= 61·5 kQ
Substitutingin equation 9.25
Ra
R4 = 1.94 = 31·7 kQ
In practice the nearest preferred va1ues would be used, i.e.
Ra
= 68 kQ
= 33 kQ
and R4
Ca must have a reactance that is negligible compared with RE2
at the signal frequency.
Let
Xe= 30 Q
= 2n450
1
X
1Q3C
From which a 0·01 J.tF capacitor will be found to be satisfactory.
A similar procedure may now be conducted for Trl. In this case
RL is not given, but since a high current gain is required RLI should
be large.
By comparison with equation 9.18
Let
RLl + RE1 = 4 kQ
RLl = 3 kQ and RE1 = 1 kQ
From stability considerations:
1 +RB
0"05 = 151 +RB
151
+ RB =
and
20
+ 20RB
RB= 6·9kQ
R1R2
RB= R1 + R2
where
(9.26)
Now applying equations 9.21 and 9.22
V'= 0·0047
where
X
6·9 1 0·3
V'= 10R2
R1 + R2
305
= 1·33 V
(9.27)
MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
From 9.27
R1
+ R2 =
R2
10
1.33 = 7·5R2
X
(9.28)
Substitutingin 9.26,
6.9 = R1R2
7·5R2
R1 = 51·7 kQ
and
So, from 9.28,
R2
=
51·7
6.5
= 8 kQ
In this case the preferred values would be R147 kQ and R 2 8·2 kQ.
By comparison with Ca, C1 should be 0·025 JlF.
The first step in determining the current gain is to decide upon a
suitable value for RF1 so that the input impedance to Tr2 with local
voltage feedback may be found. Since RE2 + RF1 must be 3 kQ.
suitable preferred values would be RE2 2·7 kQ and RF1 330 Q.
This will give a ßv of 330/1 000 === t. Next the app1icable y parameters must be found.
Yte
= 0·25 + j27T450 X 103
= 0·25 + j0·05 mmho
X
X
lQ12
X 1Q3
mmho
4
X
1012
X 1Q3
mmho
=
37 L Ommho
= 0·004 L 270° mmho
Yoe = 0·001 + j27T450 X 103
=== 0·001 + j0·001 mmho
yre
Yre
70
X
From the general solutions in terms of the y parameters,
Ytn2
.
37
X
0·004 L 270°
= 0·25 + j0·05 0.001 + j0·00 1 + 1 mmho
Neglecting the yoe term,
Ytn = 0·25
= 0·25
= 0·25
+ j0·05 0·15 L 270° mmho
+ j0·05 0 + j0·15 mmho
+ j0·2 mmho
(9.29)
To find Av, consider the original so1utions, in terms of the y
parameters.
h(yoe + YL)  0
(9.30)
v1 =
ß.
and
v2 =
0 hyre
ß.
306
(9.31)
32) 37 Now allowing for the effect of local feedback with aß oft + + Ytn 0·25 j0·2 Ytn2 = Ytnf = 1 _ ßA = 1 12 .33) The current gain.29. but this will only give the current gain in terms of Trl collector and base currents. · First we must find the effective load on Trl.3 mmho = 0·019 + j0·015 mmho (9. which is unaffected by the local feedback.33) To calculate Au we can again use result 9.yre vl . YLI err.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CfRCUITS dividing 9. Ytnl and Ytn2 must be included.31 by 9. 37 L 180° L 38° 42' 37 A12 and A12 = 0·25 + j0·2 = 0·32 = 115 L 141° 18' (9. current splitting factors due to bias components.31.30 A vSubstituting values v2. To find the overall current gain. Multiplying by YL and dividing by /: Ar= !j . + YLI + Yna + Yn4 = 0·019 + j0·015 + 0·333 + 0·015 + 0·03 mmho = 0·5 + j0·015 mmho YLI eff = Yrn2 307 .32) YL) .YteYL = V2YL = h h Jte(Joe + ( 9. may be obtained from equation 9.32.Yoe + YL 37 L oo = 1 + 0·001 + j0·001 =  Av (9.JreJte Substituting values and neglecting Yoe At 2 = (0·25 + j0·05)1  37 L oo 37 L 0° X 0·004 L 270° Comparison with the input admittance calculation shows that this denominator has the same value as result 9. YL1.
= 0·25 + j0·05 + 0·009 + j0·3 :.5 L 1o 42 .0·001 + jO·OOl + 0·5 + j0·015 .35 and 9.5 L 1o 42 . 9.34) The interstage current splitting factor = = 0·019 + j0·015 ==:7::::0·5 + j0·015 " 0·0232 L 78° 18' 4 At = 0 . Ytnl = 0·26 + j0·35 = 0·435 L 53° 30' . At = At' X An X At" X A12 = 0·82 L 12° 18' X 85 L 126° 26' X 0·0464 L. 0·15 L 270° = 0·25 + J0·05 . 9. 37(0·5 + j0·015) An= (0·25 + j0·05)(0·5 + j0·15) + j0·15 37(0·5 + j0·015) 37 L 180° X 0·5 L 1° 42' An= 0·125 + j0·18 = 0·218 L 55° 18' Au = 85 L 126° 26' (9. 37 X 0·004 L 270° Ytnl = 0 "25 + J0·0 5 .35) To determine the input current splitting factor we require Ytnl which may be obtained from the genera1 so1utions.0 .34.36) I The overall current·gain may now be obtained from equations 9.32 neg1ecting Yoe. .MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS From equation 9. = 0·0 64 L 36 36 0 I (9.' At' = Ytnl = _ 0·435 L 53° 30 YBl + YB2 + Ytnl 0·021 + 0·122 + 0·26 + j0·35 0·435 L 53° 30' 0·435 L 53° 30' 0 = 0·4+j0·35 = 0·53L41°12' =O·S 2 L 12 18 (9.37) 308 .36. 36° 36' X 115 L 141° 18' = 374 L 316° 18' (9.33.
38) So remembering that Ar::!:: 1/ß result 9. 374 L 316° 18' 374ß L 316° 18' l I + 374ß L 316° 18'! = 3·74 !I + 270ß.13 ß= 540 ± 540 ± = 0 yi(5402 + 52 X 14 X 104) 28 X 104 + V[(29 728) X 104] 28 X 104 540 ± 27·5 X 102 28 X 104  Taking the positive sign.Q Since this is a preferred value no modification to this result is necessary.j258ßl = 3·74 (1 + 270ß) 2 + (258ß)2 = 3·742 X 104ß 2 + 6·7 X 104ß2 = 14 !I l + 540ß + 7·3 Rearranging and 14 X 10 4ß 2 + 540ß.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSISTOR EQUIV ALENT CIRCUITS Finally we come to the design of the overall feedback circuit: the connection shown in Figure 9. ß= 2·21 2 . But ß= GF2 GFl + GF2 an d 0·79 X I02(GF2 GF2 RF2 GFI = 3mmh o + 3) = GF2 0·79 X 1()2 X 3 = l _ 0 . 309 .79 X 10_2 mmho = 2· 37 x 102 mmho = 43 k.7 provides simple negative feedback if ßA has zero phase angle.8 X 1()2 = 0·79 X 102 (9.38 is obviously correct. At Au= 1 + ßAt In this case the required gain is 100. and 100 = I+ ß will be real.
.8. In general.F capacitor wou1d be satisfactory.8. EXAMPLES Example 9.6. Figure 9. 587 L 277° 42'. 0·01 uF 47 k. The reader should appreciate that in practice many approximations could be 10 V ::f'"~ 1k. Should other devices such as field effect transistors come into general use the methods will be equally useful provided suitable equivalent circuit parameters are known.O. 310 . They are not applicable to circuits involving large a. Circuit for the solution to Example 9.O. The completed circuit design is shown in Figure 9. In each case a 0·01 p. Ans. signals or switching circuits.MODIFICATIONS TO EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS The remaining components to be selected are C2 and C4 which must have negligible reactances compared with the terminal input impedance to Tr2 and to RF2 respectively.5 made in the above calculations. 6·86 L 27° kQ.1 for an angular frequency of 107 radfsec.c. Full details have been given to demonstrate the various principles that have been discussed in this book. Repeat Example 9. the equivalent circuit methods discussed in these chapters provide a very useful tool for the solution of a wide range of electronic circuits.
4·5. 2 pF. Av 155 L 164° 30'. Use the exact method at 100 kHz. At the required frequency of 1 MHz the crystal requires an additional 30 pF to produce resonance and the loss component is equivalent to 10 kQ in parallel with the terminals. 311 .7. Example 9. A valve oscillator employs Miller feedback and a crystal resonator in the grid circuit. An r.EXAMPLES Example 9. yre0·02 L 320° mho. Z1n 102 L 8° n.8.uH and Q factor 25. Z1n 390 L 49° n. having a coil of inductance 2 . If Cag is 3 pF and gm 8 mA/V determine the value of tuning capacitor and the Q factor for an anode coil of inductance 0·05 mH. Calculate the tuning capacitor required to tune it to 80 MHz and the voltage gain if the transistor y parameters at this frequency are Yle (0·4 + j20co X 1012) mho.9. and use valid approximations at 2 MHz. Av 34 L 100°. Yre 350 X 106 L 300° mho. If the collector load is purely resistive of value 5 kil. 420 pF.f. calculate the voltage gain and input impedance at these frequency extremes.3 is used as a wide band amplifier over the frequency range 100 kHz to 2 MHz. Example 9. Yoe(150 x 1()6 + jco x 1()12) mho. Ans. transistor is loaded with a parallel tuned circuit. A transistor having the hybrid 7T parameters given in Example 9. Ans. 37·5 L 70° 48'. Ans.
The Bel is an inconveniently !arge unit and the Decibel (db) is roore convenient.3) lf the circuit in question is an aroplifier. If P1 is the input power. and P2 the output power.APPENDIX 1 USE OF LOGARITHMIC UNITS In roany electronic systeros. P1 will be greater than Pz and expression Al. then by definition: p2 Nurober of Nepers = Ioge p 1 {ALl) and p2 Nurober of Bels = log10 p 1 {Al. It is simpler under these circurostances to write: Number of db of attenuation = 10 log10 ~: (A1. each roultiplying or dividing the signal by a factor. Two sets of logarithroic units are in cororoon use. In both cases the units are based upon power ratios. Pz will be greater than P1 and the result will be a positive nurober. where a nurober of circuits are cascaded.3 will involve the deterroination of a negative logarithro. Also.2) The Neper is mainly used in transroission line probleros and will not be discussed further in this book. the corresponding logarithmic units roay be siroply added or subtracted. one using log to the base 10 and the other using log to the base e.4) In practice. lf it is an attenuator. voltage or current ratios are coromonly used and under 312 . This roay be defined as: Nurober of Decibels = 10 Iog1o ~: (A 1. the signallevel roay vary froro kilowatts to microwatts in different locations. It is convenient to express such a range of Ievels in logarithroic units.
Avm Avh = 1 + j IAvl Number of db = ~. expression Al. the frequency response of amplifiers is frequently quoted in db units. 313 . are referred to as the 3 db frequencies and are quoted simply as they are most convenient to calculate. wh and WL. Thus at Wh and WL for the RC coupled amplifiers discussed in Chapters 4 and 5.APPENDIX 1 certain conditions the db scale can be applied. In practice. If the input resistance is equal to the Ioad resistance. Avm = 20 log10 Avmv2 = 20 logwv2 = 10 log102 = 3·010 db Thus these frequencies.5) Strictly the definition in equation Al.3 may be rewritten as: Number of db = h 2R 10 log10 h 2R = 10 log1o = 1o1ogw (*Y = 101og10 /z = 20 log10 h = 20 log10 /R V22 v12/R (~:r Vz h (A1. even where the condition is not maintained.5 should only be used with equalload and input resistance.
Burford and H. London. Field Effect Transistors. New York. Transistor Electronics. Verner. Hakim. 1957. L. Pitman Technical Books. 1050. Edward Arnold Technical Books.. Ryder. 1964. W.. McGrawHill Book Co. Inc. 1966. McGrawHill Book Co. lliffe Books Ltd. D. P. 315 .. S. D.. Electronics. De Witt and A. J. 3rd edn. 1966. S. G. 1964. New Jersey.. Sevin. Parker. Feedback Circuit Analysis. McGrawHill Book Co. L. New York. 1965. 1962. K. Transistors: Theory and Circuitry.WORKS FOR FURTHER READING Electronic Fundamentals and Applications. New York. Rossoff.. J. Transistors. McGrawHill Book Co. London. Englewood Cliffs. J. New York. Le Croissette. Dean. London. D. PrenticeHall. B.. Semiconductor Junctions and Devices.
transistor approximate solutions. 291 Feedback composite. 159 feedback. 25. 3. 55 Diode characteristics. 170. 241 graphical analysis. 2. 12 Amplification. 118 long tailed pair. 122. 33 Cathode follower. 141. 17 Emitter follower. 134. 127. voltage feedback. 152 difference. 231 three stage. 194 current derived. voltage feedback. 146 two stage. 2. 296 valve.C. 222 single stage. 100 transistor. 221 single stage. 14. 99. 306 definition. 134. 103 diode. 195. 6. 220 frequency response. 11.C. 126. 158. 247 current amplifiers. current feedback. 34 reactive Ioads. 126. 151 cathode coupled. 245 Cut off. 158 emitter coupled. Ioad lines. 182 317 . 212 grounded grid. 18. transistor. 181 RC coupled. 235 properties. 189 current derived. 32. voltage feedback. 5.INDEX A. 96. 8 characteristics. 10. 181. 34 Darlington connection. 229 Amplifier. 158 multistage. 19 Decibel. 94 Dynamic input characteristics. 121 Collector feedback. 1 Ioad lines. 15. 15. 114 single stage. 124 Bias stabilization. 166 common emitter. 94 Thevenin and Norton. transistor. 156 Equivalent circuits determination by network theorems. series applied. 223 three stage. 10. 30 triode. 14. 4. 240 transistor multistage. 235 Anode characteristics. 152 common collector. 5. bias line. 25. 19. 202. current feedback. emitter resistor stabilization. 153. current feedback. nonlinear. 153. current feedback. 122. 291 small signal. 24. 21. 11. 122 common base. 101. 24. 162 D. 21. shunt applied. 19 operating point. 116 modified. 227. 3. 303 Biasing transistor. 131. 210. 303 two stage. 94 for high frequency. application to network analysis. 212 Bias decoupling. 31. 7 Bottoming. 166 single stage. 21. 312 Determinants. 14. 194. 30 Complex feedback factors. 140. 27. valve. 173.
77 Hybrid 1r equivalent circuit. 68 interconnections. 293 Network analysis fundamentals. 60 318 . 273 Miller. 143. 101 equivalent circuits. series applied. 231. 101 general solutions. 184 positive. 42 applications. 268 tuned anode. 119. 277 voltage Wien bridge. 83. 75. 198 effect on input impedance. 45 Oscillators. 187. 197 Feedback amplifiers input circuits. 141. 52 ' Miller feedback. 303 Simple negative feedback.INDEX Feedback(Contd. 152. 58. 295 phase shift. 198 effect on output impedance. 159. 256 Output impedance. 295 current Wien bridge. 255 amplitude stability. 159 common emitter. 212 ' ' Norton's theorem. 248 input connections. 255 single stage RC. 201 vector diagrams. 42 notation. 295 Negative feedback for amplitude stabilization. 184 Stability factors. 184. 202. shunt applied. 87 h parameters. 273 tuned collector. 187 voltage derived. 80. 303 Superposition theorem. 220 instability. 188. 74. 248 effect on output admittance. transistor. 27. 186.163 238 284 Noise. 43 Nodalanalysis. 190. 208 Four terminal networks. 241 effect on gain. 18 Interelectrode capacitances. 190 gain stability. 282 LC. 28. 195. 81. 50. 261 Negative input conductance. 220 summary of effects on impedances. 210 effect on frequency response. 185. 291 Kirchhoff's laws. transistor biasing.) effect on distortion. 150. 203 voltage amplifiers. 155 Potential divider. 86 common base. 241 voltage derived. 210 248 ' Ohm's Iaw. 106 Nyquist's criterion of stability. 99. 268 RC. 184. 196. 157. 159 common collector. 66. 185 negative. 245 g parameters. calculation. 255 practical amplifier circuits. 297 Input resistance. 262 Hartley and Colpitts. 198 effect on input admittance. 187. 190. 202. 145 Maxwell's circulating currents 54 Mesh analysis. 259 crystal. 240 Frequency compensation. 195. emitter resistor bias.
24 simple bias circuit. 79. 15 Two port networks. 21 leakage currents. graphical analysis. 15 output Ioad line. 140 fundamental current relationships. 79. 68 Voltage amplification. 105 Transistor black box representation. 174 Thevenin's theorem. 84 z parameters. 27. 14. 68. 300 z parameters. 303 temperature effects. 71 319 . 63. 24 Transistor circuits graphical analysis. 23 equivalent circuit. 292 Valve equivalent circuit. generat solutions. 99. input admittance at high frequencies. 232. 112 y parameters. 5 Valve. 21. general method. 14 Transistor biasing design considerations. 300 y parameter equivalent circuit. 104. 103 disadvantages of simple biasing. 102 characteristics. 3.INDEX T equivalent circuits. 81. general method. 29. 36. 14 input Ioad line. 85.
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