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Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol.

4, Issue 1, 2015
2014 by the authors Licensee IJASER- Under Creative Commons License 3.0
Research article

www.ijaser.com
editorial@ijaser.com
ISSN 2277 9442

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material


removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy
Aswathy V G1, Rajeev N2, Vijayan K3
1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, NSS College of Engineering, Palakkad, Kerala 678008, India
3- ISRO, Inertial system unit, Thiruvananthapuram
DOI: 10.6088/ijaser.04001
Abstract: Turning process is one of the most fundamental machining processes used in the manufacturing
industry. The process of turning is influenced by many factors such as cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of
cut, geometry of cutting tool, and cutting conditions etc., to name a few. In machining operations,
achieving the desired surface quality of the machined product is really a challenging job. This is due to the
fact that quality are highly influenced by process parameters directly or indirectly. However, the extent of
significant influence of the process parameters are different for different responses. The main objective of
this work is to investigate the effects of machining parameters, especially tool nose radius, on surface
finish, Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Roundness error during the wet turning of Ti-6Al-4V. The
selection of Ti-6Al-4V is due to the reason that it offers a unique combination of high strength, light weight
and corrosion resistance which have made it an important material in aerospace applications. Despite its
advantages the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V possesses many challenges such as its low thermal conductivity
and work hardening effect reduces the tool life and quality of the product. The proposed experimental
study focuses on the turning process of Ti-6Al-4V using Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) coated
carbide tools. Four different parameters are chosen as process variables: cutting speed, feed rate, depth of
cut and tool nose radius. In this study analysis is done based on Taguchi method of optimization and the
experimental design and further analysis carried out with the help of statistical software Minitab16.The
results obtained from the analysis is validated with mathematical software PYTHON.
Key words: Wet turning; Titanium alloy; S/N ratio analysis; PYTHON; minitab 16

1. Introduction
Machining is one of the manufacturing processes in which the dimensions, shape or surface properties of
machined parts are changed by removing the excess material. Therefore, machining is relatively an
expensive process that should be specified only when high accuracy and good surface finish are required.
The machining operation is also a chip formation process which is accomplished through the relative
motion of a tool and work piece. Among the many machining operations available, turning the most
fundamental machining operation that produces cylindrical parts. It is the removal of material from the
outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical work piece. The turning process is carried out on a lathe machine
and the automatic turning process is performed by Computer numerical control (CNC) lathe machine. The
three primary factors in any basic turning operation are cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. Other factors
which further influences the machining are type of material and tool geometry etc. Machining process of
titanium alloys are very difficult due to its low thermal conductivity, relatively low modulus of elasticity

*Corresponding author (e-mail: aswathyvg24@gmail.com)


Received on December , 2014; Published on February, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

and high chemical reactivity with tool materials .However, it offers unique combination of high strength,
light weight and corrosion resistance which have made it an important material in aerospace and
biomedical applications (Arularasan et al ,2014).
Nowadays manufacturing industries are concerned with dimensional accuracy and surface finish. In
todays highly competitive market, the quality of manufactured products must be assured in all
manufacturing stages. This has increased the demand for efficient manufacturing processes with optimum
manufacturing cost and high quality .Therefore, the proper selection of cutting tool and process parameters
is essential to achieve the desired quality of surface finish. Optimization leads to maximize the
performance of the system. Therefore, the present study aims at optimization in turning of Ti6Al4V alloy
using Taguchi method of analysis.

2. Literature review
Many researchers around the globe have conducted studies on the optimization of various parameters and
their effects on different performance measures in turning process. Ersan Aslan et al (2006) conducted an
optimization study by machining a hardened AISI 4140 grade (63 HRC) steel on a lathe by using Al2O3 +
TiCN coated ceramic inserts. They found that Al2O3-based ceramics are required for cutting tools in
machining hard steels during wear resistance and high hardness. They ensured optimization in their
experimental studies by using the Taguchi method. The experimental parameters chosen were: three
different cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Flank wear and surface roughness were chosen as
criteria for performance measures. From the results obtained a regression model has been developed for
surface roughness and flank wear.They concluded that cutting speed is the only the significant factor
influencing the tool wear with the help of ANOVA.
Venkata Ramana et al (2012) investigated the performance evaluation and optimization of process
parameters in turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different coolant conditions using Taguchi design of
experiments methodology on surface roughness, by uncoated carbide tool. The results have been compared
among dry, flooded with servo cut oil and water and flooded with synthetic oil coolant conditions. From
the experimental investigations, the cutting performance on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with synthetic oil is found to
be better when compared to dry and servo cut oil and water in reducing surface roughness. Mahendra and
Neeraj (2012), conducted a turning experiment on EN 24 alloy steel using TiN coated tungsten carbide
inserts at three different cutting speeds, depth of cut, feed, Nose radius and cutting environment. The
optimum cutting condition was determined by using the statistical methods of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio
and the significance of cutting parameters on surface roughness and material removal rate in turning of En
24 alloy steel were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA).They found that nose radius and
cutting environment are the most significant factors for both surface roughness and MRR.
Taguchi Approach of optimization is also carried out by Prabhat kumar sinha (2013) in CNC Turning.
The machining was done with cermet inserts. He observed that the cutting velocity is the key factor to
reduce dimensional tolerances followed by feed rate and depth of cut. Kanase and Jadhav D B (2013) used
Taguchi method for optimizing the cutting parameters such as Cutting speed, Feed rate and Depth of cut
in turning operations. They carried out the experiment using different cutting tools like Carbide ,Ceramic
and CBN Tools for different grades of Steel materials. They found that spindle speed and tool grade are the
Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

significant factors for the surface roughness in turning and also their result showed that CBN tools gives
better surface finish compare to ceramic and carbide tools at all speeds, feeds and depth of cut.
Vikas Upadhyay et al. (2012) developed the prediction model for surface roughness in turning operation of
Ti6Al4V alloy with cemented carbide inserts. The regression model was developed by including cutting
parameters (cutting speed ,feed, depth of cut) and vibrations along three chosen axes for in-process surface
roughness prediction system.Virender and Tasmeem (2013),investigated the significance of cutting
parameters and insert type on surface roughness .Statistical methods of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and
analysis of variance (ANOVA)were performed in his study.
Rishu Gupta and Ashutosh Diwedi (2014) investigated the material removal rate and surface roughness in
the turning of Aluminium Alloy 6061 by carbide inserts was in terms of main cutting parameters such as
cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut in addition to tool nose radius, using a statistical approach. An
orthogonal array, Signal-to-Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance were employed to find out the effective
cutting parameters and nose radius on the surface roughness. The obtained results indicated that the Feed
and nose radius are the most significant factor for optimization of Surface roughness (Ra). Material
removal rate (MRR) is affected by the parameter depth of cut followed by the nose radius. M Anthony and
R Vinayagamoorthy (2014) addressed the fuzzy inference System for prediction during precision turning of
Ti-6al-4v using three different nose radius of PVD coated tools. Arumugam and Pillai Hariharan, 2014 also
conducted a similar experiment and observed similar results. However, they proposed grey relational
analysis for consolidating the results.
After a thorough literature survey, we found that a large number of research works have taken input
parameter as speed, feed and depth of cut individually or as a combination. Only few researchers have
included input parameters such as nose radius and cutting environment. Also from the above studies we
observed that, there is a dearth research work probing a impact of nose radius as an input parameter on
Surface roughness. But there are relatively few studies which included all the relevant factors influencing
the output parameters. Therefore the proposed work will fill this research gap by including additional input
parameter (Nose radius) and probing the effect of these parameters on Surface roughness, Material removal
rate and Roundness error of a Titanium alloy.

3. Objectives and scope


The primary objective of the study is to investigate the influence of various cutting parameters on output
parameters such as surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error in the wet turning process
of Ti-6Al-4V and to evaluate the optimum level of selected parameters for minimum surface roughness,
Roundness error and Maximum Material Removal Rate using Taguchi method. The study also aims at
validating the results using mathematical software PYTHON. The scope the study lies in the fact that
different process parameters affect differently in each performance measures. In this advanced
manufacturing world looks for good surface finish with low manufacturing cost and high productivity.
Ti-6Al-4V is the most important alloy used in many special applications.
.

4. Experimental procedure

Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

The work material used for the experimentation is Ti-6Al-4V. Schaublin 130-CNC lathe is used for the
experiment. Experimental setup is shown in the Figure 1. Multi layer CVD coated carbide inserts (Ti (C, N)
+Al2O3) of 0.1mm; 0.4mm and 0.5mm nose radius are used for this study. Surface roughness measured
with the help of Taylor/Hobson Precision Form Talysurf. Digital micrometer is used for the measurement
of diameter for calculating the Material removal rate. Taylor/Hobson Precision Form Talyrond 265L is
used for the measurement of Roundness error. Taguchis OA of L27 is chosen for this work. MINITAB 16
and PYTHON software are used for analysis and calculations.

Figure 1: Image showing the experimental Setup

4.1 Range of cutting conditions investigated


Using the tool insert manufacturers guidelines and experienced personals knowledge, a cutting range was
selected .The cutting parameters levels were selected based on tool material and work-piece material and
by studying different research papers. Wet turning is carried out because the work material Ti-6Al-4V have
low thermal conductivity. Cutting conditions employed in the machining trials are listed in Table 1.
Table 1: Table showing the cutting parameter levels
Levels

Velocity (m/min)

Feed (mm/rev)

DOC (mm)

Nose radius (mm)

Level 1

50

0.010

0.02

0.1

Level 2

60

0.020

0.035

0.4

Level 3

70

0.030

0.05

0.5

4.2 Data collection


Cylindrical work piece of Ti6Al4V having 37.9 mm diameter and length of 125 mm is initially prepared. It
is fixed on the chuck of the CNC Lathe. Programme is entered and machining carried out. After the
machining process, Surface roughness, Diameter (for Material Removal Rate) and Roundness error are
measured. Observations are given in the Table 2.
Table 2: Table showing the experimental observations
Nose
radius
Mm

Ra

Final
Diameter
Mm

MRR

Roundness
Error

Trial
No.

Velocity
m/min

Feed
mm/rev

Depth
of cut
mm

50

0.010

0.02

0.1

0.2501

37.866

8.4961

1.54

50

0.010

0.02

0.1

0.2486

37.865

8.7460

1.56

50

0.010

0.02

0.1

0.2600

37.866

8.4961

1.60

Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

50

0.020

0.035

0.4

0.3377

37.835

32.4721

3.29

50

0.020

0.035

0.4

0.3218

37.836

31.9730

3.31

50

0.020

0.035

0.4

0.3196

37.834

32.9713

3.28

50

0.030

0.05

0.5

0.4306

37.813

65.1751

2.30

50

0.030

0.05

0.5

0.4438

37.813

65.1751

2.28

50

0.030

0.05

0.5

0.4282

37.812

65.9234

2.29

10

60

0.010

0.035

0.5

0.1856

37.839

18.4304

1.73

11

60

0.010

0.035

0.5

0.1898

37.840

17.9857

1.76

12

60

0.010

0.035

0.5

0.1782

37.840

17.9857

1.74

13

60

0.020

0.05

0.1

0.4001

37.810

53.9358

2.14

14

60

0.020

0.05

0.1

0.4120

37.808

55.1330

2.19

15

60

0.020

0.05

0.1

0.4134

37.807

55.7315

2.16

16

60

0.030

0.02

0.4

0.4923

37.868

28.7878

2.93

17

60

0.030

0.02

0.4

0.4989

37.869

27.8886

2.98

18

60

0.030

0.02

0.4

0.5001

37.869

27.8886

2.95

19

70

0.010

0.05

0.4

0.2000

37.800

34.9538

2.77

20

70

0.010

0.05

0.4

0.2006

37.801

34.6047

2.79

21

70

0.010

0.05

0.4

0.2112

37.800

34.9538

2.73

22

70

0.020

0.02

0.5

0.2699

37.862

25.8874

1.42

23

70

0.020

0.02

0.5

0.2769

37.864

25.1880

1.45

24

70

0.020

0.02

0.5

0.2961

37.864

25.1880

1.39

25

70

0.030

0.035

0.1

0.5790

37.833

70.2878

2.37

26

70

0.030

0.035

0.1

0.5901

37.832

71.3360

2.33

27

70

0.030

0.035

0.1

0.5961

37.833

70.2878

2.41

4.3 Data analysis


In this work, surface roughness inspection is carried out using the Taylor/Hobson Precision Form Talysurf.
It is a stylus based instrument. Material Removal Rate (MRR) has been calcuted from the difference in
diameter of workpiece before and after the experiment. Also the roundness error measurement is carried
out using the Taylor/Hobson Precision Form Talyrond 265 L. The study used Taguchi method of
analysis .Based on the experimental data S/N Ratios are found for each response. For all surface roughness
and roundness error parameters Lower the better criterion and for material removal rate Higher the
better criterion has been selected. S/N Ratio of responses are given in the Table 3 below. The S/N ratio for
each parameter level is calculated by averaging the S/N ratios obtained when the parameter is maintained
at that level. S/N Ratios were calculated using the equations.

for Lower the better and Higher the better respectively. The optimal
combinations levels of machining parameters are shown in Tables 4, 5, 6 and Mean S/N Ratio vs
Performance measures graphs respectively.

Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

Table 3: Table showing the S/N Ratios of performance measures


Trial
No.

S/N Ratio of
Surface Roughness

S/N Ratio of
MRR

S/N Ratio of
Roundness error

12.0377

18.5843

-3.7504

12.0899

18.8361

-3.8625

11.7005

18.5843

-4.0824

9.4294

30.2302

-10.3439

9.8483

30.0957

-10.3966

9.9079

30.3627

-10.3175

7.3185

36.2816

-7.2346

7.0563

36.2816

-7.1587

7.3671

36.3808

-7.1967

10

14.6284

25.3106

-4.7609

11

14.4341

25.0985

-4.9103

12

14.9818

25.0985

-4.8109

13

7.9566

34.6375

-6.6083

14

7.7020

34.8282

-6.8089

15

7.6726

34.9220

-6.6891

16

6.1554

29.1841

-9.3374

17

6.0398

28.9085

-9.4843

18

6.0206

28.9085

-9.3964

19

13.9794

30.8699

-8.8496

20

13.9534

30.7827

-8.9121

Combinations

Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

21

13.5061

30.8699

-8.7233

22

11.3759

28.2618

-3.0458

23

11.1755

28.0239

-3.2274

24

10.5712

28.0239

-2.8603

25

4.7464

36.9376

-7.4950

26

4.5815

37.0662

-7.3471

27

4.4936

36.9376

-7.6403

Table 4: Table showing the Data mean of S/N Ratio of Surface Roughness
Factors

Levels

Velocity

Feed

DOC

Nose Radius

9.6395

13.4790

9.6852

8.1090

9.5101

9.5155

9.6724

9.8711

9.8203

5.9755

9.6124

10.9899

Optimum Level

Variation

0.3102

7.5035

0.0728

2.8809

Rank

Main Effects Plot for SN ratios


Data Means
V elocit y

14

Feed

12

Mean of SN ratios

10
8
6
1

DOC

14

Nose Radius

12
10
8
6
1

Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

Figure 2: Image showing the main effect plot for S/N Ratios of Surface Roughness vs Performance
measures
Table 4 and Figure 2 shows the optimum level of process parameters to achieve high surface finish or low
surface roughness. Therefore, the optimal combination to get low value of surface roughness (Ra) is Level
3-Level 1-Level 1- Level 3 within the tested range.
Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

Table 5: Table showing the data means of S/N Ratio of Material removal rate
Factors

Levels

Velocity

Feed

DOC

Nose Radius

28.4041

24.8928

25.2573

30.1482

29.6552

31.0429

30.7931

30.0236

31.9748

34.0985

33.9838

29.8624

Optimum
Level

Variation

3.5707

9.2057

8.7265

0.2858

Rank

M a in Effe cts P lot for S N r a tios


Da ta M e a ns
Ve lo city

3 5. 0

Feed

3 2. 5

Mean of SN ratios

3 0. 0
2 7. 5
2 5. 0
1

DO C

3 5. 0

Nose R a d ius

3 2. 5
3 0. 0
2 7. 5
2 5. 0
1

S igna l-to -no ise : La rge r is be tte r

Figure 3: Image showing the main effect plot for S/N Ratios of MRR vs Performance
Measures
Table 5 shows the optimum level of process parameters to achieve high material removal rate. Therefore,
the optimal combination to get maximum value of material removal rate is Level 3- Level 3- Level 3Level 1 within the tested range.
Table 6: Table showing the data means of S/N Ratio of Roundness error
Levels

Factors
Velocity

Feed

DOC

Nose Radius

-7.1493

-5.8514

-5.4497

-6.0316

-6.9785

-6.6998

-7.5581

-9.5290

-6.4557

-8.0323

-7.5757

-5.0228

Optimum
Level

Variation

0.6936

2.1809

2.1260

4.5062

Rank

Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy
M a i n E f f e c ts P l o t f o r S N r a t i o s
D a ta M e a n s
V e lo c it y

Fe e d

-5
-6

Mean of SN ratios

-7
-8
-9
1

2
DO C

2
N o se R a d iu s

-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

S ig n a l- to - n o is e : S m a lle r is b e tte r

Figure 4: Image showing the main effect Plot for S/N Ratios of Roundness error vs Performance measures
Table 6 shows the optimum level of process parameters to achieve low Roundness error. Therefore, the
optimal combination to get low value of Roundness error is Level 3- Level 1-Level 1- Level 3 within the
tested range. All the above calculations are validated by the software PYTHON. A confirmatory test may
be conducted to choose the optimum parametric combinations and to predict the enhancement of quality
characteristics.
The experiment
may be conducted again
in
the optimal level
for minimum surface roughness, maximum material removal rate and
minimum roundness error respectively in Ti-6Al-4V turning process. Thus any improvement in
performance characteristics will be investigated by conducting confirmatory test.

5. Conclusions
This paper presents research work of various cutting parameters affecting the surface roughness, Material
Removal Rate and Roundness error in wet turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using CVD coated carbide tools .The
findings of this study indicate that
1. For maximum surface finish the optimal parametric combination is cutting velocity = 70m/min.,
feed =0.010mm/rev,Depth of cut =0.02 and Nose radius =0.5.
2. For maximum Material Removal Rate the optimal parametric combination is cutting velocity =
70m/min., feed =0.030mm/rev ,Depth of cut =0.05 and Nose radius =0.1.
3. For minimum Roundness error the optimal parametric combination is cutting velocity =
70m/min., feed =0.010mm/rev , Depth of cut =0.02 and Nose radius =0.5.
An orthogonal array with taguchi analysis was used to optimize the performance characteristics in the
turning operation of Ti6Al4V.The results revealed the effect of nose radius, feed, velocity and depth of cut
seems to influence the output parameters. Future research should be aimed at exploring the combined
effect of the selected output parameters employing Grey relational analysis.

6. References
1. Ersan Aslant ,Necip Causcu,Burak Birgoren. 2006. Design Optimization Of Cutting Parameters
When Turning Hardened AISI 4140 Steel (63 HRC) With
Mixed Ceramic Tool,
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Aswathy V G et al.,
Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, material removal rate and roundness error during the wet turning of
Ti-6Al-4V alloy

2. M.Venkata Ramana, A Venkata Vishnu, G Krishna Rao ,D Hanumantha Rao ,2012.


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Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015

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