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ABSTRACT

The development of UAVs is becoming increasingly popular because UAVs can perform a
variety of functions. These functions include surveillance among others. The purpose of this
project is to design a low weight, low cost, small size UAV for surveillance mission. The design
is carried out with the help of Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA) software which is based on
Roskam Aircraft Design algorithm for the conceptual design of aircrafts. The design process
starts with the design specifications which are based on the data from similar existing UAVs.
Then the weight, wing loading and power loading were estimated in the preliminary sizing. The
dimensions of the UAV were then obtained using the preliminary sizing values which were then
used to estimate the aerodynamics of our model. Lastly the performance and stability analysis
were done to ensure our UAV is stable and meets the desired performance. When a desired
performance was not achieved, the sizing had to be adjusted until the best final design was
obtained. The results of our final design fall within the range of similar existing UAVs which
convinces us that our UAV model should successfully fly to achieve the intended mission.
However, the structural analysis was not done in this Final Year Project I and will be done in
Final Year Project II. The aerodynamics part will also be revised using CFD analysis to verify the
results obtained in AAA. Generally, only few modifications should be expected when the UAV is
finally built.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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This report would not have been possible without the support of the people mentioned below.
Their help was invaluable to the completion of this project and deserves our sincerest thanks.
Firstly, this project would have not been possible without the experience and guidance of our
supervisor DR. Moumen Mohammed Mahmoud Idres. His motivation throughout the whole
semester and invaluable knowledge has been essential to the timely completion of this project.

Secondly, we thank Prof. DR. Ashraf Ali Omar and DR. Erwin Sulaeman, who provided
constructive suggestions and comments during our designing process and provided guidance and
improvement to the scope of our project. Your help was much appreciated.

Finally, to our parents and our families, thank you for the continual support throughout our
academic study.

CONTENTS
2

ABSTRACT .....i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..ii
LIST OF FIGURES....iv
LIST OF TABLES..iv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION....1
1.1 BACKGROUND....1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT....2
1.3 OBJECTIVES....2
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW...3
2.1 WHAT IS UAV? ...3
2.2 UAV CATEGORIES.3
2.3 REVIEW OF SIMILAR UAVS ..5
2.4 UAVS DESIGN METHODOLOGIES.8

CHAPTER 3 METHODLOGY10
3.1 DESIGN PROCESS OVERVIEW...10
3.2 FLOWCHART..11
3.3 AAA MODULE12
3.3.1 WEIGHT ESTIMATION12
3.3.2 PERFORMANCE SIZING..14
3.3.3 GEOMETRY16
3.3.4 AERODYNAMICS..20
3.3.5 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS23
3.3.6 STABILITY AND CONTROL24
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS...26
4.1 SPECIFICATIONS..26
3

4.2 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS..27


4.3 FINALDESIGN...45
4.4 COMPARISON WITH SIMILAR EXISTING UAVS...46
4.5 EQUIPMENT SELECTION46.
4.6 COST ESTIMATION..48

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION..49

REFERENCES......51

APPENDICES...52
APPENDIX A: INITIAL WEIGHT SIZING
APPENDIX B: PERFORMANCE SIZING
APPENDIX C: GEOMETRY
APPENDIX D: AERODYNAMICS
APPENDIX E: PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
APPENDIX F: STABILITY AND CONTROL ANALYSIS
APPENDIX G: METHODLOGY TABLES
APPENDIX H: FINAL DESIGN LAYOUT

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Petryx UAV...5
Figure 1.2 Aerohawk UAV.6
Figure 1.3 Aeroviromenter Pointer.7
4

Figure 2.1 Flowchart...8


Figure 2.2 Mission profile.12
Figure 2.3 Weight Module..............................12
Figure 2.4 Ratio of the Trust to that Take-off.............................16
Figure 4.1 Design Point.27
Figure 4.2 Matching Plot.............................32
Figure 4.3 Lift Distribution along Wingspan.37
Figure 4.4 Drag Polar Curves.38
Figure 4.5 Moment Distribution Curve..39
Figure 4.6 Power Speed Curve...41
Figure 4.7 CATIA 2D Model.....45
Figure 4.8 Receiver46
Figure 4.9 Transmitter....46
Figure 4.10 ESC.....47
Figure 4.11 Servo....47

LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Comparison with similar existing UAVS.46
Table 4.2 Cost Estimation..48