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Break down of simple sentences

Simple
Simple sentences are made up of a subject (who/what), verb (doing/being word) and an object
(adds more detail to subject & verb setting, state, etc)
SUBJECT

VERB

OBJECT

The picture book

is

about Rose

She

is

an elderly women

Her husband

has passed

away

Rose

lives

with her dog

His name

is

John Brown

Compound
Compound sentences are two simple sentences joined together by conjunction such as and, but,
so, or, yet, because, as if, before, since, like, then, therefore.
SENTENCE 1

CONJUNCTION

SENTENCE 2

The picture book is about


Rose

and

she is an elderly
woman

Her husband passed away

so

Rose lives with her


dog

John Brown is worried

because

Rose needs the cat

John Brown lets the cat in

therefore

Rose is happy

Complex
Complex sentences use the independent and dependant structure. They provide greater depth
and are more complicated than simple or compound sentences
Examples of complex sentences:
Her husband has passed away, so she lives with her dog, whose name is John Brown.
When supper time came, he still was thinking

Language Techniques/Figurative Language


Similes

When 2 things are compared & one is said to be another like an arrow ready
to strike, as pale as death

Metaphor

Comparison; one thing is said to be another that it wouldnt be usually


called: the wind was a torrent of darkness, sun is a golden coin

Oxymoron

2 opposing terms are used together to create a sharp emphasis on their


difference (I did all my roaring silently)

Onomatopoeia

The sound of the word is similar to its meaning. Clash! Boom! Roar!

Personification

Writer gives human qualities to objects/animals (the tree waved its arms)

Alliteration

Repetition of a sound/letter at the start of words (brisk, bleak, biting)

Hyperbole

Extreme exaggeration

Symbolism

One thing represents something else entirely (horse shoe luck, colour red
love, passion)

Exaggeration

Society has no other choice, it must.

Connotation

Idea that is suggested by a word (home = place of warmth, comfort &


affection)

Assonance

The same vowel sounds are repeated in nearby words (wheezed, sneezed)

Tone

An attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally


conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a
particular subject.

Motif

A recurring idea

Punctuation
: Colon

Establish a longer pause than a comma & indicates that a list, explanation or
idea follows

; Semi-colon

Separates 2 closely connected parts of a sentence that could be written as 2


sentences

, Comma

In longer sentences, they separate information into readable parts. A set of


commas separates items in a list.

-Hyphen

Links 2 or more words that would normally not be placed together to form one
idea

Apostrophe

Shortened version of a word (dont, shell), possession (Audreys pen)

()Brackets

Includes extra material

!Exclamation
Mark

Indicated surprise, anger, alarm

Ellipsis

Indicates material has been left out (to be continued)

Grammar
Gerunds

A word ending in ing used as a noun (to read) Reading is my favourite way to
spend the afternoon.

Normalisati Nouns formed from verbs (to participate) participation, analysis of the data ->
on
the analysation
Present
Participle

Verb ending in ing running, jumping, lifting

Suffix

Are word parts placed at the end to change the meaning wonderFUL, helpLESS,
relationSHIP

Prefix

Are placed before words to change the meaning SUPERnatural, UNstable,


REvisit, DISadvantage

Antonyms

Words of the opposite meanings (guilty = innocent)

Synonyms

Words of same/similar meaning.

Imperatives Gives commands & direct orders. Stand up straight!

Given & New


Given information usually comes first, followed by new info,
which is not already known.
Ideal & Real
The placement of elements in either the top or bottom half of
the frame can influence the meaning of an image.
Salience/Salient Image
Refers to the act of being prominent.
The salient image is the object most noticeable.

Visual Techniques used in Print Advertising


Vectors: The lines in a visual image that draw the eye to a particular object or person. Vectors
connect objects or people within an image. They show a relationship. Vectors are techniques
that composers of visual texts use to make viewers take specific reading paths.
Angles Vertical (Tilt of the camera): The angle or point of view used in an image suggest
particular POWER relationships between the viewer and the image. They include;
High
Angle

The reader looking down on an image suggests that the participant or object is in a
subservient position.

Straight
On

The viewer looking straight on suggests that the participant or object is in a position
of equality.

Low
Angle

The viewer looking up at an image suggests that the character or object is in a


dominant position.

Angles Horizontal: Also positions the viewer. It questions whether you (the viewer) are part of
the participants world. There are two types of horizontal angles; the FRONTAL and OBLIQUE.
Frontal
Angle

Suggests viewer involvement with the subject in the image. you are part of this
world

Oblique
Angle

Occurs when the image is seen from an indirect or obscure side. Tells the viewer is
detached from the subject in the image and that you are not part of this world.

Camera Shots (How big the frame is)


Extreme Long Shot Sets the scene. Camera is at its furthest distance from the subject.
Long Shot Shows most of the subject and give an overall picture of the subject in their setting.
Medium shots (social distance) Show the subject from waist up, shows facial expression and
body language.
Close up shots Focus on detailed aspects of the subject and the scenes. (Characters face,
which emphasised emotions or reactions.)

Extreme close up shots Focus on fine details (eye or an insect)


Wide shots Show the characters in full, other characters in the foreground and background and
create a sense of space.
Point of view shots Taken from the perspective of one of the characters and may be used when
the composer wants us to relate with their point of view.
The Influence of Colours:
Colours play a 60-70% role in consumers reaction.
Colours : Colours show moods and emotions
COLOUR:

SUGGESTS:

White

Purity, new life, heaven, innocence

Black

Death, Goth, hell

Yellow

Joy, sunshine, warmth, happiness

Red

Love, passion, devil, romance, evil, blood

Blue

Cold, sadness, depression

Green

Nature, new life aloof, envy

Purple

Royalty, loyalty

Enjambment (when a sentence is more than 10 syllables long and continues onto the
next line)

Features of Enjambment:
- Enjambment lines usually do not have a punctuation mark at the end.
- It is a running on of a thought from one line to another without final punctuation.
- It is used in poetry to trick a reader. Poets lead their readers to think of an idea then, on the
next line, give an idea that conflicts it.
- Multiple ideas can be expressed without using semi-colons, periods and commas.
- It helps reinforce the main idea that might seem to be confusing with pauses.