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Multan city Profile

Location:
Multan Division lies between north latitude 29'-22' and 30'-45 and east longitude 71'-4' and 72'-4'55.
It is located in a bend created by five confluent rivers. The Sutlej separates it from Bahawalpur

District and the Chenab from Muzaffar Garh district. District Multan is spread over an area of 3,721
square Kilometers comprising of following four tehsils.
1. Multan Cantonment.
2. Multan Sadar
3. Shujabad
4. Jalalpur Pirwala
Area:
5,630 sq. miles (approximately) / 3,721 square Kilometers.
Population:
Mr. Mian Muhammad Faisal Mukhtar
How to get there in Multan
By air:
Multan has an airport about 10 Km from city P.I.A.. operates daily flightS between Karachi-Lahorels1amabad via Multan.
By rail:
Multan is connected by rail with all parts of the country and .lies on the main track between Karachi,
Peshawar, Lahore and Quetta.
By road:
Multan has connection with other cities by bus and coach. Tourism Development Corporation of
Punjab operate a regular deluxe coach service between Lahore and Multan.
Fairs and Festivals
Multan is famous for traditional and religious fairs and festivals. There were a .lot of saints whose
shrines are the asse' of Muslims. At every shrine annual. festivals are held Outskirts of Multan are
known for fairs and other gatherings.
What to Buy
Glazed pottery, camel skin products, cotton fabrics and hand woven carpets.

400-600AD
History is silent for more than six centuries that is until 454 A.D. when White Huns, the barbarous
nomads, stormed Multan under the banner of their leader Torman. After a fierce fight they conquered
but did not stay for long and Hindu rule continued once again for about two hundred years.
600-700AD
Subsequent history of Multan is well established and more than sufficient light has been thrown on
the cross section by world famous travelers, writers and historians who visited Multan including the
Chinese historian Hiuen Tsang in 641 A. D. The Chinese traveller found the circuit of the city about
30 li which is equal to five miles. He described, "the soil rich and fertile and mentioned about eight
Deva temples. He also mentioned that people do not believe in Buddha rule. The city is thickly
populated-the grand temple dedicated to the Sun is very magnificent and profusely decorated-The
image of Sun Deva also known as "Mitra" is cast in yellow gold and ornamented with rare gems. Its
divine insight mysteriously manifested and its spiritual powers made plain to all and so on".
Multan was first visited by the Muslim arms during the reign of the Khalifa Abu Bekr, in 44 Hijri (664
A.D.), when Mohalib, the Arab General, afterwards an eminent commander in Persia and Arabia,
penetrated to the ancient capital of the Maili. He returned with many prisoners of war. The
expedition, however, seems to have been directed towards exploration of the country as no attempt
was
apparently
made
to
retain
the
conquest.
Mohammad Bin Qasim, the great Muslim general invaded this subcontinent in 712 A. D., and
conquered Sind and Multan. The city was conquered after a fierce and long battle which lasted for
seven days. Many distinguished officers of the Muslim army sacrificed their lives in the battle, but the
Hindu
army
was
defeated.
The author of 'Jawahar-al-Bahoor' ( the famous Arabic History) writes in his book "that Multan at that
time was known as the House of Gold. There was a great Mandir which was also called as the Sun
Mandir. It was so big that six thousand resident worshippers were housed therein. Thousands of
people from every corner of the country used to visit this place to perform their Hajj (Pilgrimage).
They used to circle round it and get their beards and heads shaved off as a mark of respect.

800-900AD
In the periods, of Caliph Mansoor, and Mostasim Bilia, Multan was attacked by Arabs several times.

1000-1100AD
Mahmood Ghaznavi attacked Multan for the first time - conquered it and demolished many Hindu
temples. He demolished the famous 'Sun Mandir' also. Mahmood Ghaznavi attacked Multan for the
second time during 1010 A.D. and conquered it but did not stay for long.

1100-1200AD
Sultan Shahab-ud-din, who is also known as Mohammad Gbory, finally defeated Pirthvi Raj and
conquered India. After consolidating his position in Delhi, the capital of India, led an army attack,
against Multan and conquered it. As such, Multan, which had remained almost independent under
the
Arab
rulers
became
again.
1500-1600AD
In 1526 A.D. Shah Hussain Arghun, at that time the ruler of Sind, seized Muitan on behalf of Baber,
the Mughal emperor. He bestowed it on his son Mirza Askari. The Mirza, assisted by Langar Khan,
one of the powerful amirs of Sultan Mahmud Langa, held possession of Multan during the rest of the
Baber's reign. After the death of Baber, Humayun found himself compelled to surrender Multan, in
fact the whole of Punjab, to his eldest brother, Kamran Mirza. The prince established his court at
Lahore
and
deputed
one
of
his
arnirs
to
take
care
of
Multan.
During the confusion that followed the flight of Humayun to Persia the Kingdom of Multan was
captured by Baluchies under their chieftain Fatteh Khan who surrendered it to Hebat Khan, one of
the commanders of Sher Shah Suri. Pleased with his services, Sher Shah Suri bestowed the
Kigndom of Multan on Hebat Khan.
1600-1700
AD
When Humayun recaptured the Indian throne in 1555 A. D. Multan was also amalgamated in the
Mughal Empire, Abul Fazal mentions in "Ain-c- Akbari" that: "Multan was one of the largest provinces
of the empire, extending to the frontiers of Persia including within its limits the modern countries of
Baluchistan, Sindh, Shikarpore and Thatta, besides a portion of Doabas now attached to Lahore. A
royal mint for silver and copper coins was established at Multan along with the mi
(1900-2003AD)
Multan, however, lost its very important position as soon as the British stronghold over the subcontinent grew stronger and stronger. Although peace prevailed in the region but no real progress
was made. When independence was achieved in 1947 Multan was a forgotten region. There was no
industry; no higher and professional educational Institutions, no high standard hospitals; so much so
that there was not even a single recreation park in the whole of the city. It looked more like a town
though its population was nearly one lakh. The site of the Old Fort was in ruins. Thorny bushes and
ditches were in plenty whispering the awful tale of its ruination, Majority of the roads were
unmetalled and the sewerage system too defective to explain. The history of the district since
independence is mainly connected with the expansion of facilities except a few minor changes such
as one of its districts, that is, D.G. Khan has been declared as the Divisional Headquarter and some
of its Tehsils such as Vehari as the new District etc.

THE HISTORICAL TOMBS


The history of Multans Muslim architecture begins with the Muslim conquest. Little
is known about the architecture of Multan prior to the 11thcentury, though elsewhere in
Pakistan we can trace the genesis of Muslim architecture from the 8 th century A.D.
During the 13th and 14thcentury, a new style of architecture was introduced for
funerary memorials of the Muslims in and around Multan the style begin with the
tomb of Baha-ud-din Zakariya and culminated in the mausoleum of Shah Rukn al-Din
Rukn-I- Alam, which has been admired as "one the most splendid memorial ever
erected in the honour of the dead.
These two mausoleums served as perfect models for the future architecture. The
architects continued to imitate them for well over six hundred years. The popularity of
the style did not lessen even when the more refined and gorgeous Mughal style of
Rukn-e-Alam is the beautiful tomb of Sultan Ali Akbar at Suraji Miani near Multan,
which was erected in the Mughal period (992/1585).
Some of the common features of all mausolea in Multan are their tapering walls,
single dome and the glazed tile decoration on the exterior. Another widespread feature
is a wooden canopy, over the main grace. Decorated with carving and grills, the
ceiling of the canopy is always adorned with glazed tiles of different motifs.
Occasionally the grills are made of marble, ornamented with beautiful geometric
designs.
THE TOMB OF SAINT BAHAUDDIN ZAKARYA
Standing at the northeastern side of the old fort which is situated on the high mound,
is the tomb of Shikh-al-Kabir, Bahauddin Abu Mohammed Zakariya Al-Qurashi. The
tomb occupies the centre of a vast oblong open area measuring 260 feet N.S by 203
feet E.W and is enclosed by a perimeters brick wall. It has two main gates one on the
east and the other on the West Side. There is a vow of fourteen "Hujras" on the north
for the "Zaireen".
The tomb was almost completely ruined during the siege of Multan in1848 AD by the
British army but was repaired immediately by Makhdum Shah Mahmud. There is no
original inscription on the body of the tomb to show the date of its construction and

the subsequent repairs. However, from the fact that here lies the great Shaikh
Bahauddin Zakariya who had erected it himself during his prime time, it can be said
that it belongs to the early decades of the 13 th century. The Shaikh died on the 7th of
Safar (661/21 December 1262).
THE TOMB OF SHAH RUKN-E-ALAM
The mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is also situated on the fort mound. The Shaikh
was the son of Pir Sadar-Al-Din Arif born at Multan on the 9 th of Friday Ramazan
649/26 November 1251. He was the grandson and successor of Shaikh Baha-Al-Din
Zakariya.
Shaikh Rukn-i-Alam (Rukn-al-Din) died on the 7th of Friday (735/3 Jamadial-Awwal,
January 1335). He was buried in the mausoleum of his grandfather, according to his
own will. After sometime, however, his coffin was transferred to the present
mausoleum. It was constructed, according to a popular belief, by Ghiyas-al-Din
Tughluq (1340-1350) during the days of his governorship of Depalpur, but was given
by Feruz Shah Tughluq to the descendents of Shah Rukn-I-Alam for the latters burial.
The mausoleum of Rukn-I-Alam has been admired by not only the travelers and
chroniclers but also by the art-historians and archaeologist who wrote the architectural
history of the subcontinent.
The tomb was built on octagon plan, 90 ft in diameter with walls which are 414 ft
high and 13.3 ft thick. The mausoleum was constructed with burnt bricks and
supported by timber framing, and decorated with tile faced bricks and wood beams.
The whole structure is divided into three stories. Over the second story is a smaller
Octagon, leaving a narrow3 passage all around the place, above which stands a
hemispherical dome. As the tomb is standing on a high artificial mound, it is visible
from about 45 kilometers. Most of its patterns are geometric-created by arranging the
glazed tiles-and a living testimony to creative genius of their designers. The building
is also decorated with some floral as well as calligraphic patterns. In the 1970s the
mausoleum was thoroughly repaired and renovated by the Auqaf Department of the
Punjab Government. The entire glittering glazed interior is the result of new tiles and
brickwork done by the Kashigars of Multan. This clearly demonstrates the talents and
dexterity of the local craftsmen.
THE TOMB OF SHAH SABZWARI
The tomb of Shah Shamas Sabzwari is situated near the Aam Khas Bagh, about a
quarter of a mile on the east of the ancient port on the high bank of the old bed of the
Ravi which is now filled with a multitude of modern buildings. Shah shams Sabzwari
was a celebrated "Ismaili Dai". Very little is known about Shams Sabzaris life.
According to a popular legend, he arrived in Multan at the time of Shaikh Baha-al-Din
Zakariya. He breathed his last at the age of 111 years in 675/1276 and was buried in
Multan.

The main features of the tomb are similar to those of the citys other major tombs. It
has a square hall in an Octagon shape topped by a high dome. There is a verandah allround the grave-chamber, with fine arches in every side and a single entrance to the
hall. In the courtyard, which is at a lower level than that of the verandah, there is small
mosque. Like other decorated tombs of Multan, this tomb is also ornamented with
Kaashi tile work and Naqashi work. But recently a fire damaged its entrance seriously.
THE TOMB OF SHAH YOUSUF GARDEZI
This famous tomb is situated near the Bohar Gate. Its building is quite different from
the citys other tombs, with a rectangular hall and a flat, dome-less roof. The hall,
which has a small door towards the end of one of its longer sides, is constructed in a
big compound. On one side of the compound stands the large hall of an imambargah.
The tombs present building is a completely renovated one. The rectangular building
is thoroughly covered with the blue Multani tiles, decorated with countless floral and
geometric patterns arranged in large rectangles, square and border. The skyline is a
miniature replica of a forts battlement and has a row of arches with borders raised in
relief. Below the parapet wall runs a continuous calligraphic border on all four sides.
The standard of this calligraphy, however, is not very high. Only blue and while have
been used, the motifs include a rich variety of floral patterns.
THE MAUSOLEUM OF SULTAN ALI AKBAR
This tomb is situated in Suraj Miani, a locality in the northwest of the ancient city.
Sultan Ali Akbar was a saint of Islamic order, and was the great grandson of ShamsSabzwari. This is the only epigraphical evidence available about the saint on the
faade of the mausoleum, however, the tomb is a very important contribution towards
the adoption assimilation and spread of Multani architecture where almost every
characteristic of the Rukn-I-Alams tomb including the octagonal plan, tapering
turrets, the three storied well balanced and harmonious elevation, embellished with
colourful tiles revetment, and screened window opening, his some horizontal as well
oblique so also noticeable. It is because of this that the monument has been
nicknamed the "Little Rukn-i-Alam". It has glazed style design used according to the
available space. The mausoleum stands on a six feet high square platform.
Tomb of Hafiz Muhammad Jamal
This tomb is situated near Aamkhas Bagh surrounded with thick heavy wall of small
bricks. The main square building includes a large hall, surrounding veranda and a
Majlis Khana.
The tomb was built in 19th century during the reign of Ranjit Singh ( 1810). The land
for the tomb was given by Sawanmal, the governor of Multan in those days. The main
building was constructed under the supervision of Khawaja Khuda Bakhsh "Tami
Waly" and Khawaja Muhammad Isa of Khanpur. With passage of time the building
and its decoration were badly damaged, although necessary repair work was carried

out on the original pattern in 1972-74. With the exception of the main entrance, the
exterior of the tomb is very simple. However, the interior is profusely decorated with
Kashi work and glass mosaics Shisha MinaKari, While the tomb itself is
exceptionally fine example of mosaic work. All the motifs and pattern are floral, with
different colours.