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Commutation

Circuits
Dr Abro

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Introduction
Commutation Process of turning off a conducting
thyristor.
Current Commutation

Voltage Commutation

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Methods of Commutation

Natural Commutation

Forced Commutation

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Natural Commutation
T
+

vs

vo

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Sinusoidal

Supply voltage vs

3
2

Gate Pulse

Load voltage vo
Turn off
occurs here

3
2

Voltage across SCR


tc
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Natural Commutation of Thyristors takes


place in

AC voltage controllers.
Phase controlled rectifiers.
Cyclo converters.

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Forced Commutation

Applied to dc circuits
Commutation achieved by reverse biasing the
SCR or by reducing the SCR current below
holding current value.
Commutating elements such as inductance
and capacitance are used for commutation
purpose.

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Methods of Forced Commutation

Self commutation.
Resonant pulse commutation.
Complementary commutation.
Impulse commutation.
External pulse commutation.
Load Commutation.
Line Commutation.

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Forced Commutation is applied to

Choppers.

Inverters.

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Self Commutation
Or
Load Commutation
Or
Class A Commutation

(Commutation By Resonating The Load)

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Circuit is underdamped by including suitable values


of L & C in series with load.
Oscillating current flows.
SCR is turned off when current is zero.

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Class B Commutation Or Resonant Pulse


Commutation or Current Commutation

Series LC circuit connected


across thyristor T.
Initially C is charged to V
volts with upper plate as
positive.
Current in LC oscillates
when SCR is ON.
T turns off when capacitor
discharges through thyristor
in a direction opposite to IL.

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Alternate Circuit For Resonant Pulse Commutation

Source voltage V charges capacitor C to voltage V with left hand


plate positive. T1, T2 & T3 are off.
Capacitor voltage is reversed by firing T 3 & T3 is self commutated.
T1 is conducting & IL is constant.
To turn off T1, T2 is fired.
iC(t) flows opposite to IL & T1 turns off at
iC(t) = IL

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Class C Commutation or Complementary Commutation


or Complementary Impulse Commutation

Two SCRs are used,


turning ON one SCR turns
off the other.
T1 is fired, IL flows
through R1.
At same time C charges
towards V through R2
with plate b positive.
To turn off T1, T2 is fired
resulting in capacitor
voltage reverse biasing
T1 and turning it off.

IL
R1

R2
ab

iC

V
C
T1

T2

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a b
T1

T2
V

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Class D Commutation or Impulse Commutation

T1
VC(O)

IT 1
T2
V

i
+
_

IL
RL

Initially C is charged to VC with


top plate positive.
T1 is fired, load current IL flows.
C discharges at the same time &
reverses its polarity.
D ensures bottom plate remains
positive.
To turn off T1, T2 is fired.

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An Alternative Circuit for Class D Commutation


or Impulse Commutation or Voltage Commutation
IL

T1
T3
V

VC(O)
L

C
T2
FWD

L
O
A
D

C charged to a voltage VC(O) with polarity as shown.


T1 is conducting and carries load current IL.
To turn off T1, T2 is fired.
Capacitor voltage reverse biases T1 and turns it off.
C Charges through load.
T2 self commutates.
To reverse capacitor voltage T3 is turned ON.
T1 is turned off by applying a negative voltage across its
terminals. Hence this is voltage commutation.
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Class E Commutation Or External


Pulse Commutation

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Alternative Circuit for Class E Commutation or


External Pulse Commutation
T1

VS

T2

RL

2VAUX

T3

VAUX

T1 is conducting & RL is connected across supply.


T3 is fired & C is charged to 2VAUX with upper plate

positive.
T3 is self commutated.
To turn off T1, T2 is fired.
T2 ON results in a reverse voltage VS 2VAUX appearing
across T1.

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Line Side Commutation

In this type of commutation the discharging and


recharging of capacitor takes place through the
supply.

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T1

IL
+

T3
VS

_C
FWD
Lr

L
O
A
D

T2

Thyristor T2 is fired to charge the capacitor C. When C


charges to a voltage of 2V, T2 is self commutated. To reverse
the voltage of capacitor to -2V, thyristor T3 is fired and T3
commutates by itself. Assuming that T1 is conducting and
carries a load current IL thyristor T2 is fired to turn off T1.
The turning ON of T2 will result in forward biasing the diode
(FWD) and applying a reverse voltage of 2V acrossT1. This
turns off T1, thus the discharging and recharging of capacitor
is done through the supply and the commutation circuit can
be tested without load.
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Alternative Circuit for Line Commutation

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THANKS
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