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Distilasi Flash

(Fl h Distillation)
(Flash
Di till ti )

Flash Distillation

Flash distillation is the simplest method of separation.

A feed stream is flashed into a chamber or flash drum and the


liquid and vapor are allowed to separate under equilibrium.

It is flashed by throttling the feed stream through a nozzle or


valve into the chamber the pressure drops through the valve.

The more volatile component will be concentrated in the vapor


stream the less volatile in the liquid stream.

The system is very close to a single equilibrium


equilibrium stage.
stage .

Separation is usually not very high for a single equilibrium stage.

Lecture 7

Lecture 7

Flash Distillation Solution


Flash distillation problems can be solved
using three sets of equations:
Equilibrium relationship
Mass balance
Energy balance

Lecture 7

Flash Distillation
Equilibrium Parameters

Feed Composition z
Vapor-Phase Composition y
Liquid-Phase
Liquid
Phase Composition x
Upstream Feed Temperature T1
Feed Temperature TF
Drum Temperature Td
Upstream Feed Pressure P1
Feed
d Pressure PF
Drum Pressure Pd
Lecture 7

Flash Distillation
Mass Parameters

Feed
F
d Flow
Fl
Rate
R t F
Vapor Flow Rate V
Liquid Flow Rate L
Feed Composition z
Vapor-Phase Composition y
Liquid-Phase
Liquid
Phase Composition x

Lecture 7

Flash Distillation
Energy Parameters

Heater Input QH
Flash Drum Heat Input Qflash
Feed Enthalpy
Enthalpy hF
Vapor Enthalpy HV
Li id E
Liquid
Enthalpy
th l
hL
Upstream Feed Temperature T1
F d Temperature
Feed
T
t
TF
Drum Temperature Td
Lecture 7

Flash Distillation Equilibrium


The equilibrium relationships that we
h
have
been
b
using
i
can be
b applied
li d to
t
flash distillation problems.
Equilibrium data or a valid equilibrium
relationship must be available at the
flash drum pressure.
Lecture 7

Flash Distillation Mass Balances


Overall mass balance

F=V+L

(Eq. 3-3)

Component mass balance

Fz = Vy + Lx
Lecture 7

(Eq. 3-4)
9

Flash Distillation Operating Line


Solving the overall mass balance for y yields

L
F
y= x+ z
V
V

(Eq. 3-9)

which is termed the operating line.


line It relates
the composition of the streams leaving the
stage or drum.
Lecture 7

10

Common problem specifications.


Liquid to vapor ratio
L/V
Fraction of feed vaporized
f = V/F
Fraction of feed remaining as liquid
q = L/F
Lecture 7

11

Operating Line Form


Fraction Vaporized
From the overall mass balance
L F V 1 V/F 1 f
=
=
=
V
V
V/F
f

(Eq 3
(Eq.
3-10)
10)

then

1- f
1
x+ z
y=
f
f

Lecture 7

(Eq 3-11)
(Eq.
3 11)

12

Operating Line Form


Fraction Remaining as Liquid
or

L
L
L/F
q
=
=
=
V F - L 1 - L/F 1 - q

(Eq 3
(Eq.
3-11)
11)

1
q
y=
x +
z
1- q
1 q

(Eq 3-12)
(Eq.
3 12)

and

Lecture 7

13

Operating Lines Linear!


Slope

L
1 f
q
=
=
V
f
1 q

y Intercept
F
1
1
z= z=
z
V
f
1- q

x intercept
F
1
1
z=
z= z
L
1- f
q
Lecture 7

14

So How Do Solve?
We often know all of the system
parameters except the compositions of the
vapor and liquid leaving the stage or flash
drum two unknowns,
unknowns y and x.
x
We have two equations:

Equilibrium Relationship
Mass Balance (Operating Line)

With two equations and two unknowns we


can solve the problem!
Lecture 7

15

McCabe-Thiele Analysis

Lecture 7

16

Flash Distillation
Typical Problem

One will usually be given the feed stream, F, or it can be assumed.

One will usually be given the feed composition, z, in mole or


weight fraction.

One will also typically be given one of the following: x, y, Td, f =


V/F, q = L/F, L/V, or TF.

One will usually be given the pressure, Pd, in the flash drum, or it
will be chosen such that the feed is above its boiling point at Td, so
that some of it vaporizes.

What is given in the problem determines the type of problem and


the method of solution.

Lecture 7

17

Flash
as Distillation
s a o
Problem Type 1a: Sequential Solution

If one of the equilibrium


q
conditions x,, y, or Td in the drum is specified,
p
,
then the other two can be found from the equilibrium relationships using:
Equilibrium data and plots or
K values or
Relative volatility relationships

Once we have x and y, we can then solve for the streams F, V, and L
using:
Overall mass balance and
Component mass balance

We can then solve the energy balances to determine QH, TF, and T1 (Qflash =
0, since we typically assume an adiabatic drum) using enthalpies from:
Heat capacities and latent heats of vaporization or
Enthalpy-composition plots

This method of solution is known as a sequential solution method since the


energy balance is decoupled from the equilibrium and mass balances.
Lecture 7

18

Flash
as Distillation
s a o
Problem Type 1b: Sequential Solution

If the stream parameters are specified


specified, usually as fraction of
feed vaporized f = V/F or the fraction of feed remaining as
liquid q = L/F , then the problem can be solved for x, y, Td,
F, V, and L by a simultaneous solution using:

We can then solve the energy balances to determine QH, TF,


and T1 using enthalpies from:

Equilibrium relationships and


Mass balances

Heat capacities and latent heats of vaporization or


Enthalpy-composition plots

This method of solution is also known as a sequential solution


method since the energy balance is still decoupled from the
equilibrium and mass balances.
Lecture 7

19

Flash Distillation
Problem Type 2: Simultaneous Solution
If the temperature, TF, of the feed is given, then the
problem requires a simultaneous solution for all of the
other parameters using:
Equilibrium relationship and
Mass balance and
Energy balance

This method of solution is known as a simultaneous


solution method since the energy balance is not
decoupled from the equilibrium and mass balances.

Lecture 7

20

Flash Distillation
Pressures

The pressure, Pd, in the flash drum is chosen such that the
feed is above its boiling point at Td, so that some of it
vaporizes.

The pressure,
pressure P1, is chosen such that the upstream feed is
below its boiling point and remains liquid at T1.

Likewise, the feed pressure, PF, must be chosen so that the


f d is
feed
i below
b l
its
it boiling
b ili
point
i t and
d remains
i
li
liquid.
id

The pump and heater assist in adjusting the required


pressures and temperatures
p
p
of the system.
y

If the feed is already hot enough, the heater may not be


needed, and if the pressure of the flash drum is low
enough the pump may not be needed.
enough,
needed
Lecture 7

21

Multi-Component Flash Distillation


One handles the solution of multi-component flash
distillation systems similarly to that of binary flash
distillation the methods for solving Type 1a, Type 1b,
and Type 2 problems will be the same based upon the
information that is given in the problem.
One difference is that one cannot typically solve multicomponentt systems
t
graphically
hi ll we will
ill need
d tto use
numerical methods.
Another difference is that we usually express the
equilibrium equation using K values.
A final difference is the number of equations involved
Lecture 8

22

Multi-Component
u Co po
Flash
as Distillation
s a o
How many unknowns?
Suppose we have 10 components:
For a 10 component problem, C = 10, assuming
g
that F, zis for C-1 components, Pd, and Td or one of
the xis or yis are specified (a Type 1a Problem), we
can solve the equilibrium
q
and mass balances first
and then the energy balance (a sequential solution)
However
However, we still need to determine 10 K
Ks
s, 10 x
xs
s,
10 ys, 1 L, and 1 V, or 32 variables!

Lecture 8

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Multi-Component
p
Flash Distillation
How many equations?
32 Equations:
Equilibrium Relationship:
yi = K i x i
K i = K i (Td , Pd , all x i )

10 equations

Eq. (3-18)

10 equations

Eq. (3-19)

Stoichiometric (mole fraction) Relationships:


C

x
i =1

= 1 .0

y = 1.0
i =1

Mass Balance Equations:


Fz i = Vyy i + Lx i

2 equations
i

E (3-20)
Eq.
(3 20)

10 equations
q

Eq.
q (3-21)
(
)

F=V+L

Eq. (3-22)

Energy Balance:
Fh F + Q flash = VH V + Lh L

Eq. (3-23)

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Multi-Component
u Co po
Flash
as Distillation
s a o
How do we readily handle?

We could define all 32 equations, and solve the 32


simultaneous equations simultaneously.

This may or may nott be


Thi
b possible
ibl we are dealing
d li
with
ith a
large number of simultaneous equations, and one may
experience convergence problems in a numerical solution.

How can we help the convergence? One method is to


partially solve the set of equations for a parameter which is
tightly bounded that is its values cannot vary widely.

A convenient choice is the fraction of feed vaporized, f =


V/F, which varies between 0 and 1.

Lecture 8

25

Multi Component Flash Distillation


Multi-Component
Combining Equilibrium Relationship and Mass Balances

Substituting the equilibrium relationship, Eq. (3-18), for yi, into the component mass balance, Eq.
(3-21), we obtain
F i = Lx
Fz
L i + VK i x i

i = 1,
1 2,
2 ..., C

E (3-21a)
Eq.
(3 21 )

Substituting the overall mass balance, Eq. (3-22), for L into Eq. (3-21a), solving for xi, and
dividing through by F/F yields
xi =

zi

yi =

Kizi

i = 1, 2, ..., C
V
1 + (K i 1)
F
Since yi = Kixi, from Eq. (3-25), we also obtain

V
1 + (K i 1)
F

i = 1, 2, ..., C

Lecture 8

Eq. (3-25)

Eq. (3-26)

26

Multi-Component
p
Flash Distillation
Rachford-Rice Equation
Substituting Eqs.
Eqs (3
(3-25)
25) and (3
(3-26)
26) into the respective mole fraction relationships,
relationships Eqs.(3
Eqs (320), yields:
C

i =1

i =1

zi
V
1 + (K i 1)
F
Ki zi
V
1 + (K i 1)
F

=1

Eq.(3-27)

=1

Eq. (3-28)

Subtracting Eq. (3-27) from Eq. (3-28) term by term yields


C

i =1

(K i 1)z i
V
1 + (K i 1)
F

=0

Eq. (3
(3-29)
29)

Eq. (3-29) is known as the Rachford-Rice equation. It has excellent conversion


pproperties
p
for use in numerical solutions of multi-component
p
flash distillations.
Lecture 8

27

Multi-Component
p
Flash Distillation
Energy Balances
Once one solves
l
the
h Rachford-Rice
h d i equation
i andd determines
d
i
all
ll of the
h
vapor and liquid mole fractions, the accompanying energy balances
can then solved.
C

H V = y i H Vi (Td , Pd )

Eq. (3-34)

i =1

h L = x i h Li (Td , Pd )

Eq. (3-35)

i =1
i=

Lecture 8

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