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11/1/2016

AnnonaSquamosa(atis)leavesasmolluscicideforGoldenapplesnailLawEssaysandPapers

Annona Squamosa (atis) leaves as molluscicide for Golden


apple snail
Introduction
Farmers, even before has so many issues in their farm and the most common problems of farmers in their farm lots are kuhols, speciFcally the Golden
Apple Snail, which pests their plants. Golden apple snail The Golden Apple Snail is amphibious. While there is a sucient level of dissolved oxygen in
the water, they will hardly leave the water and will breathe by their gills. If the level of dissolved oxygen gets to low, the snails will go up to the surface
and breathe with their lung (mostly by using its siphon, a tube that it extracts to the water surface). While Flling their lung with air, the snails extract
and contract their body, so that the pressure dierences cause their lung to deplete and reFll.
These snails have the ability to cruse away from the aquarium, so a cover glass is a necessity, as they wont survive longer than a couple of days in dry
conditions. These snails have a tendency to oat around the water surface, playing dead- but actually, they are not. The best way to tell these snails
are dead is if it doesnt contract when you touch it or if the operculum (shell cover) is missing (mostly at that time, the shell will also be empty). Due to
their liking of plant matter as food, most people recommend not to keep them implanted on aquariums.
Farmers of crops like palay who suer from the activities of these Golden apple Snails are very unfortunate for having these pests in their farm
because it was the perfect pest which can eventually damage your plant in a short period of time. Farmers goals whentreating this problem about
golden apple snail is controlling the mortality rate of the said snails not through putting ducks on their farm nor hand picking the golden apple snails,
but through the use of solution which can easily kill the snails.
Golden Apple Snails live in ponds, swamps, irrigated Felds, canals and water-logged areas, can even survive in polluted water with low oxygen levels,
bury themselves in moist soil during the dry season, lie dormant for 6 months and become active again when the soil is ooded. They stay submerged
during the day, usually hiding in dense vegetation near the edges or the surface. They are more active during the night, often leaving the water in
search of new feeding areas. They can live for 2 to 6 years.
Adults mate any time of the day, usually among crowded plants where there is continuous water supply throughout the year.
(http://www.kelabit.net/news/special_report_01.html). Molluscicide is a solution, chemical or organic which can kill mollusks. In this study the
researchers will use the organic molluscicide as killer for Golden Apple Snail, and the main ingredient will be Annonasquamosa (Atis) seed.
Annonasquamosa is a small (2-4), knobby fruit with soft, creamy white esh often having a minty or custardy avor. The sugar apple is extremely
popular throughout the tropics, especially in climates where the cherimoya can not be grown. (http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/sugar_apple.htm).
Sugar apple, believes to be native from the Caribbean region and the northern South America but is now cultivated in most of the tropical countries
throughout the world.
This fruit is known by its numerous vernacular names, mostly by the languages of the dierent countries. Some countries loosely apply the name,
custard apple to this fruit, which is misleading and technically incorrect. There is another fruit in the same family, which looks similar but not as
common, known by the actual name of custard apple (annonareticulata). So dont be confused by the same name as both fruits are dierent. Sugar
apple, as the name says it all, is sweet as sugar. The esh nearest to the rind, tastes like sugar crumbs too. It is usually conical in shape but sometimes,
it may be almost round. It is easy to tell when it is ready to eat.
The rind is thick with knobby segments but will turn soft and crack open, releasing a sweet aroma when it rips. (http://www.vegtalk.org/fruits/sugarapple-annona-squamosa-t3594.html#p9153). Since the researchers found out that Atis seed has its toxicity level
enough for being a component fro killing the Golden apple snail and since it is also organic, the researchers have decided to make atis seed extract as
molluscicide. Statement of the Problem
A study will be conducted to test the eectiveness of Annona squamosa as molluscicide for Golden Kuhol. SpeciFcally, it aims to answer the following
questions: 1. Is the Annona squamosa Molluscicide eective in terms of: a. Mortality rate
b. Duration of Potency
2. Is there a signiFcant dierence in the eectiveness of the Annona squamosa molluscides under dierent concentration (50%, 75%, and 100%) a.
Mortality rate
b. Duration of Potency
3. Is there a signiFcant dierence in the eectiveness between the Annona squamosa Molluscicide and the commercial molluscicide in terms of: a.
Mortality rate
b. Duration of Potency
SigniFcance of the Study
This research study will beneFt the following sector:
Plant Physiologists. Plant Physiologists are the people who study about the function of a certain plant. This study will help this group of people to have

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more information about the other uses of Annonasquamosa, for example, as a molluscicide. Farmers. This study can help farmers in having aordable
and eective molluscicide against pests on their farm lots.
Department of Agriculture. Instead of letting Atis seed go to waste these can be made useful by making it into an eective molluscicide. They can use
Atis as one of their products in agriculture and make it known into other places. Growers of Atis. This study will help tose who are planting Atis to have
new source of income.
The Society. It will make them aware of the availability of the natural organic insecticide that is less expensive yet safe and eective. Future
Researchers. It will serve as a reference material for their future research. Scope and Delimitation
This study aims to control the mortality rate of Golden Apple Snail by using the extract of Annona squamosa(Atis) seed. The Golden apple snails which
were usually present on farms are involve in this study, because those snails would be the tester on the eectiveness of the Annona squamosa seed
extract Molluscicide.
This study will be conducted in Naga City Science High School for the school year 2012- 2013 and the researchers as the observers. The aspects
looked into where this research would be possible for control for the said pest, the problem and the said methods for treating them. The study on
Annona squamosa seed as molluscicide for Golden Apple Snail limits on the eectiveness of the extract of the seed. It does not include the
appearance of the mixture. DeFnition of Terms
Molluscicide. It is a solution that can kill molluscs.
Atis seeds. It will be the main ingredient of the AtisMolluscicide. It has toxic that can kill the Golden Apple Snail. Mortality. This refers to the death rate
of the Golden Apple Snail. Potency. It determines the eectiveness of the Atis Molluscicide. Research Paradigm
Figure1. Research Paradigm
Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND RELATED STUDIES
Related Literature
Golden Kuhols came from South America. It was introduced in Taiwan as a food. It became an aquarium pet and helps in cleaning tanks. It multiplied
rapidly until it reaches the waterways. (2008) (http://juanmagsasaka.blogspot.com/2008/08/protect-rice-seedlings-against-golden.html) It was Frst
introduced in Asia in the year 1980 with expectations that it can be a high-protein food source. However, it has invaded the rice Felds in Asia. The
young rice seedlings were eaten by these snails. (http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/4314515?uid=3738824&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21100870152841)
Annona squamosa or known as sugar apple is the most widely grown of all the species of Annona. When eating this fruit, the seeds are always left out
due to its toxicity. (http://www.ehow.com/facts_6947915_sugar-apple-fruit.html).
The powdered seeds as well as the pounded leaves are used as insecticide in India. The heat-extracted oil from the seeds can be used against
agricultural pests. (http://www.oocities.org/athens/academy/4059/atis.html). It can also be used as a lice remover; however, it must not reach the eyes
because
it
can
cause
blindness.
If
it
is
applied
to
the
uterus,
it
can
cause
abortion.
(http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/sugar_apple.html#Toxicity)
The seeds of A. squamosa contain annonaceous acetogenins which have cytotoxic activities. (http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=83499:annona-squamosa&catid=703:a). It is said in one study that the acetogenins from the seed are more
toxic than the synthetic pesticide. (http://www.stuartxchange.org/Atis.html)
Molluscicides are used to control slugs and snails. Slugs and snails belong to the mollusks group. Metaldehyde is one of the most commonly used
active ingredients in molluscicides. Molluscicides can be manufactured as a colored pellet or a spray. Since molluscicides are commonly chemicals,
there are other ways to control mollusks. This includes using traps or barriers. There are slug and snail baits that contain iron phosphate as the active
ingredient. Iron phosphate is less toxic than metaldehyde. (http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Biological+Properties+of+Molluscicides).
Copper Sulfate can be used as molluscicide. It has been used for about 40 years now. It is still used as molluscicide in some areas. Although it is
eective, it still has limitations; it is more eective in other habitats. (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/monograph/WHO_MONO_50_(part4).pdf) Currently, only
copper sulfate and copper chelate formulations have been utilized as a viable molluscicide treatment in open water systems with proper permitting.
Niclosamide

may

be

used

for

controlling

snail

(mollusks)

populations

in

aquaculture

ponds.

(http://www.glmris.anl.gov/documents/docs/anscontrol/Molluscicides.pdf)
According to Dr. Eduardo Quisumbing, the seed area is considered a powerful irritant to the conjunctiva; the roots are considered a drastic purgative.
So considering the parts of the articles stated above it would be a great help in proving the researchers study.
(http://www.pinoyecofarmer.com/2010/10/21/atis-leaves-developed-antidengue-so
lution/) Related Studies
Study shows that Annona squamosa plant can be used as a molluscicide. Among the seeds, bark and the leaves of the plant, it was observed that the
highest molluscicidal activity of the Annona squamosa plant is in the seed extracts. The acetogenins extracted from the seeds of the plant were more
toxic than synthetic pesticicides.

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The combination of the powdered seed of A. squamosa, the oil from the cedar, Cedrus deodara Roxh., and from neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss.,
have more toxic than the separate constituents of the cited plants. (Singh & Singh , 2001) Another study was conducted about the eects of the A.
squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Henna) and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, and acetogenins extracted from the
seeds of A. squamosa Linn., on the reproduction of Lymnaea acuminata.
It was observed that the plant- derived molluscicides aected the mortality rate of the snails. However, when the snails were put back to the
freshwater, it regained its capability to reproduct. (Singh and Singh, 2004) A study was performed, by other proponents, to know the molluscicidal
properties of some species of Annona. There were six species used in this study and were observed if they have the capability to cause death of
Biomphalaria

glabrata.

Biomphalaria

glabrata

is

tropical

freshwater

snail

indigenous

to

ponds,

marshes

and

streams.

(http://biology.unm.edu/biology/esloker/pi/WhatIsBiomphalaria_glabrata.pdf)
The results of the experiments showed that the majority of the extracts of the Annona species have the properties to harm the Biomphlaria glabrata,
moreover, the Annona muricata L. (leaf) and Annona squamosa Veil. (root) was given emphasis on because of their additional toxicity towards the snail
eggs. (Dos Santos AF, SantAna AE., 2001) Other fruits were tested to know if they have a molluscicidal activity. A combination of jackfruit, durian and
breadnut peels was studied to control Golden Kuhol. The researcher used the rotten peels of the said fruits in making the alternative molluscicide. The
study has 5 treatments and each treatment composes of dierent masses of the dierent fruits.
The researcher added 45 g and 10 g to the fourth and Ffth trial respectively. It is stated in the study that the jackfruit peel have a foul smell that can kill
the Golden Kuhol. (Villa Agustin, 2012) (http://www.scribd.com/emmanuel_agustin_2/d/79325542-The-eect-of-jackfruit- durian-and-breadnut-peelscan-control-golden-apple-snail#) Barringtonia racemosa fruit and seed extracts were experimented to know if it has a molluscicidal, cercariacidal,
larvicidal, and antiplasmodial properties. The extracts of the stem bark is said to be toxic to mosquitoes, snails and brine- shrimp. The World Health
Organizations method for examining molluscicides was used in this study. Biomphalaria pfeieri snails were collected from a stream in Edun-Abon in
Nigeria.
The snails were separately exposed in the concentrations of the B. racemosa fruit and seed aqueous extracts. Niclosamide is a chemical molluscicide
that also used in this experiment as the control molluscicide. There were 10 snails used per extract or niclosamide dose and was exposed within 24
hours. It has three replicates. After that, the observations were recorded. The fruit extract of B. racemosa has stronger molluscicidal activity than the
sed extract of the plant. (http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/856/85630505.pdf) Chaper III
METHODOLOGY
Research Method
This study will use the experimental method of research. In this research method, the researchers will manipulate the variables involve in the study.
The purpose of this method is to determine the eectiveness of Annona squamosaas Molluscicide for Golden Kuhol. Set Up
There will be 4 set ups: for 50% concentration, 75% concentration, 100 % concentration of Annona squamosa (atis) molluscicide, and for commercial
molluscicide. In each set up, there will be 3 kuhols. Then, the researchers will conduct an observation about the eect of the product and its dierence
to the commercial molluscicide. Materials Needed
In making the Annona squamosa (atis) as molluscicide for golden kuhol the following materials are needed: Annonasquamosa (Atis)seeds
Distilled water
Spray bottles
Strainer/ Cloth\
Copper sulfate
Mortar and Pestle

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