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Geometry

Square

Perimeter = 4 x a
Area = a2
where a is the side length

Rectangle

Perimeter = 2(l+b)
Area = l x b
where l is the length and b is the width of the rectangle

Circle

Perimeter = 2 x pi x r
Area = pi x r2
where r is radius of circle

Triangle

Perimeter = Sum of all sides


Area = 1/2 x height x base

Cylinder

Curved area = 2 x pi x radius x height


Total area = top circle area + bottom circle area + curved area
Volume = pi x radius2 x height

Cuboid

Surface area = 2 x ( length x base + base x height + height x length)


Volume = length x base x height

Cone

Curved area = pi x radius x slant height


slant height2 = radius2+height2
Volume = 1/3 x pi x radius2 x height

Sphere

Surface area = 4 x pi x radius2


Volume = 4/3 x pi x radius3

Pythagoras Theorem

In a right triangle,
Longest side2 = base2 + height2

Interest
Simple Interest

Total Interest = Principal x Rate x Time/100


Accumulated sum = Principal + Interest

Compound

Accumulated sum = Principal x (Interest Rate/100 + 1)n

Interest

The rule of 72

Under compound interest, the time it takes to double your principal is roughly equivalent to 72
divided by the interest rate.

Probability
Probability of an event

P(E) = Number of favored outcomes for event/ Total number of outcomes

Negation Rule

Probability of event happening = 1 - Probability of event not happening

Conditional Probability

P(A given B happens) = P(A happens and B happens)/P(B)

Numeric Series Problem


Difference based series (Easy)
Example 1
37 41 49 61 77 ?
In this form, the difference between consecutive numbers increases or decreases in a relative
proportion. Here we see,
41 37 = 4
49 41 = 8
61 49 = 12
77 61 = 16

Example 2
12 14 20 32 52 82 ?
Here the consecutive differences are 2,6,12,20,30. These are part of the series
12,23,34,45,56.

Common Rule Series (Hard)


Q) 5 10 17 26 ?
Solution
Solution 37. Notice the series is related to the square of number as follows
5 = 22+1
10 = 32+1
17 = 42+1
26 = 52+1
Hence the next number is 37 = 62+1
Q) 343 119 49 70 ?
a] 111
b] 62
c] 52
d] 763
Solution
Solution d] 763. Immediately notice that all the numbers are divisible by 7.
Q) 3 11 85 1029 ?
Solution
Solution 15631. Notice the series is of the form
3 = 12+2

11 = 23+3
85 = 34+4
1029 = 45+5
Hence, the next number is 15631 (56+6)

Pairs based series (Medium)


Q) 1, 1, 2, 2, 11, 13, 6, 4, 10, 5, 2, ?
solution
A slightly more tricky example, here we see a triplet pairing which yields the clue to
solve the series.
(1,1,2), (2,11,13), (6,4,10) we observe that the third number in each triplet is the sum of
the first two numbers. Consequently, the next number in the series would be 5 + 2 = 7.

4, 3, 6, 2, 2, 8, 4, 4, 5, 6, 3, ?
solution
A more complicated example, not seeing any patterns by splitting into doubles or triples,
lets try splitting the series into quadruplets.
(4,3,6,2) (43 = 62)
(2,8,4,4) (28 = 44)

Interleaved Series (Medium)


Use the 1,2,3 rule
Q) 7, 6, 14, 12, 21, 18, ?
Solution
Breaking the series into subseries based on 1 term difference we observe7, 14, 21, ? (This is 71, 72, 73)

6, 12, 18 (This is 61, 62, 63)


It is seen that terms in each subseries are multiple of the first number in the subseries.
Hence the solution is 74 = 28
Q) 2, 3, 4, 4, 9, 16, 16, 81, ?
Solution
Breaking the series into three subseries with a 2 term (as 1 term does not yield any
solution) interleave difference we see.
2, 4, 16
3, 9, 81
4, 16, ?
We observe the next term in each subseries in the square of the previous term in the
same subseries.
Hence the solution is 1616 = 256
Q) 1, 2, 3, 4, 1.1, 3, 6, 4, 1.21, 4.5, 12, 4, 1.331, ?
Solution
Here is a more complex series, breaking the series into subseries with a 3 term
interleave difference we see
1, 1.1, 1.21, 1.331 ( each next term is formed by multiplying previous term by 1.1)
2, 3, 4.5, ? (each next term is formed by multiplying previous term by 1.5)
3, 6, 12 (each next term is formed by multiplying previous term by 2)
4, 4, 4 (each next term is formed by multiplying previous term by 1)
Consequently, the next term in the series is 4.51.5 = 6.75

Power based series


2, 9, 28, 65, 126 ?
The series comprises of the cube of ascending number plus 1(13+1, 23+1, 33+1, 43+1).

Exotic Series (no rule)


Q) 6, 24, 60, 120, ?
Solution
The series above is 1x2x3, 2x3x4, 3x4x5, 4x5x6..hence the next term is 5x6x7 = 210

Q) 1/2,1/4,1/7, 2/11, 2/16, 2/22, 3/29, ?


Solution
The numerators follow a triplet matching rule (1,1,1), (2,2,2)..
The
denominators
follow
a
2(+2),4(+3),7(+4),11(+5),16(+6),22(+7),29
(3)5,10,9,3,6,5,4,8,7,7,?
Solution-> 5*2=10 10-1=9
3*2=6 6-1=5
4*2=8 8-1=7
7*2=14
(2)48,24,35,7,16,8,75,15,80,?
Solution-> 48/2=24 35/5=7
16/2=8 75/5=15
80/2=40
(6)49,7,98,16,4,48,9,3,36,25,5,?
Solution-> 7^2,7,49*2
4^2,4,16*3
3^2,3,9*4
5^2,5,25*5=125

increasing

difference

rule: